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Design of UAV Systems

Lesson objective - to discuss

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability, and Safety

Expectations - You will understand the issues (benefits and penalties) associated with UAV supportability and safety.

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-1

Design of UAV Systems

Why Consider Supportability?

Operations & Support and Safety are Key Cost Drivers for the Overall UAV System - Operations & Support (O&S) Represent the Largest Percentage of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) - Reliability & Maintainability Attributes of the Air Vehicle Drive Support Manpower - Affordability Issues Due to High Attrition Rates Constrain UAV Market Penetration (Military and Civilian) O&S and Safety Issues Need to be Seriously Addressed During Pre-Concept Design - It is Not Something That Can be Delayed - You Get What You Pay For

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-2

Design of UAV Systems


Reliability

Definitions

The probability that an item can perform its intended function for a specified interval under stated conditions. Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) (ususally in terms of flight hours) Failure Rate (failures per unit time) Probability (expressed as a decimal or percentage) Tasks and Responsibilities During Pre-Conceptual Design* Allocations Predictions Functional Failure Modes & Effects Analysis Design Reviews Trade Studies * For purposes of this course, a discussion of the reliability issues and your proposed approach will suffice
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-3

Design of UAV Systems


Maintainability

Definitions

The measure of the ability of an item to be retained or restored to a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair. Mean Time to Repair average of repair times Maintenance Manhours Per Flight Hour Crew Size Average number of individuals required to accomplish the maintenance action Tasks and Responsibilities During Pre-Conceptual Design* Allocations Predictions Time Line Analyses (Combat Turns, etc.) Design Reviews Trade Studies * For purposes of this course, a discussion of maintainability issues and your proposed approach will suffice
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-4

Design of UAV Systems

Definitions

Supportability The degree to which system design characteristics and planned logistics resources, including manpower, meet system requirements.
Direct Maintenance Manpower per Aircraft Logistics Footprint (# transport aircraft sorties to deploy squadrons support equipment, manpower and spares) Mission Capable Rate Not Mission Capable Supply (NMCS) Rate

Tasks and Responsibilities During Pre-Conceptual Design*


Define Support (Maintenance & Supply) Concept Estimate Manpower; Sortie Generation Rates Define Deployment Concept & Predict Logistics Footprint Trade Studies * Requirements for this course underlined
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-5

Design of UAV Systems

Support Locations

Main Base

Forward Base

Emergency Base
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-6

Design of UAV Systems

Support Concept
Contractor

Organic
http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/row/cl-327.htm

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/predator.htm

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-7

Design of UAV Systems What Kinds of R&M Analyses Are Expected in Pre-Conceptual Design?
Acquisition & Life Cycle Phases
Concept & Technology Development System Development & Demonstration OT&E IOC Production & Deployment Operations & Support

Parametric Estimates
Weight Parts Count Surface Area Duty Cycle Sortie Length

R&M Data Sources & Techniques

Supplier Predictions Component Tests


Part Stress Integration Environ Mod & Sim Tests Thermal Surveys FMEA/FMECA Durability Tests Flight Test PHM Mod & Sim Virtual Human M&S Growth Tests Qual Tests M Demos Surges Environmental Extremes Military Maintainers

Field Data
End Users & Maintainers Production Configuration

Predictions

Assessments

R&M Predictions Fidelity Increase with Design Fidelity

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-8

Design of UAV Systems

What Is It About UAVs That Affects Supportability?

Size

Micro, Mini, or Larger? Proximity to Ground Interface with Loading Equipment Access to Daily Servicing Points Engine Removal Transportation / Deployment Considerations Hangar Space Refueling Times / Turnaround Times

CONOPS

Storage vs. Flying Deployment Timelines Optempo Crew Sizes Weapons

Basing
2002 LM Corporation

Self-Sufficiency Contractor Logistics Support Considerations Infrastructure


Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-9

Design of UAV Systems

What Is It About UAVs That Affects Supportability?


Airframe Life Inspection Criteria Consumables Redunancy / Mission Reliability Autonomous Refueling vs. Sizing for Range

Endurance

Ground Segment

Deployment of Ground Stations LOS vs. BLOS Comms Mission Planning for Satellite Coverage Coordination with ATC Coordination with Ground Crews

Cost / Fleet Size

Design for Testability How Much Redundancy Can You Afford? How Much Safety Analysis Can You Afford? Approach to Support
12-10

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

Design of UAV Systems

Air Vehicle Eliminates Man-Rated Systems

Man-Rated Systems Are Eliminated Crew Station Instruments Cockpit Structure / Boarding Ladders Canopy O&S Cost Reduction of 8% Ejection Seat / Escape Provisions in Personnel Alone! Throttle/Control Stick/Rudder Pedal Control Panels No Egress Shop Crew Station Environmental Controls Eliminate Survival Skill Heating/Cooling Smaller, Less Costly ECS Pressurization No LOX Consumables Defog Less Support Equipment Oxygen System LOX or OBOGS Regulator Emergency/Survival Equipment
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-11

Design of UAV Systems


Equipment Moved Into Ground Control Station Flight Instruments / Information Displays Data Recording Reduced Environmental Qualification Testing No High g Testing Required Reduced Vibration Requirement (Maybe) No High Altitude Testing Increased Reliability Some Equipment 2-5 Times More Reliable Less Manpower Required for Maintenance Cheaper to Implement Redundancy

Crew Station Benefits

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-12

Design of UAV Systems

Weapons Loading / Engine Removal

Proximity to Ground For Most UCAVs Complicates Weapons Loading Innovative Loading Schemes Can Mitigate Restricted Access Consider Hoists; Alternate Lifting Devices X-45 Demo Uses Weapons Dolly and Ejectors Mounted on Weapon Robotic Loading May Help Considered By Navy for Ships Engine Removal Also Challenging Drop Down or Lift Out? Existing SE Sufficient?

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-13

Design of UAV Systems

Deployment and Transportation

Storable UAVs Can Be Airlifted in Individual Storage Containers USAF UCAV Concept is to Deploy via C-17 (See Demo Below) Autonomous Aerial Refueling and/or Rearming May Allow Self-Ferry

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-14

Design of UAV Systems

Endurance Benefits

Pilot Physical Limitations Limit Effective Sortie Length Endurance UAV Sortie Durations May Approach 48-60 Hours! Ground Operators Can Work in Shifts UAVs Have Potential to Remain Aloft Indefinitely
Requires Autonomous Refueling Technology 4 to 5 UCAVs Can Displace 24 Manned Fighters in 24-Hour CAP

Longer Sorties Mean Less Wear and Tear Cycle-Related Fatigue and Duty Cycles Reduced
80% of Fighter Failures are Constant on a Per-Sortie Basis

Maintenance Manhours Per Flight Hour Reduction


Knee in Curve at Approximately 24 Hour Sortie Length

This Study Assumed A Similar Level of Maintainability


2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-15

Design of UAV Systems

Long Endurance Means Fewer Sorties Per Flight Hour


Assumes 80% of Failures are Constant on a Per Sortie Basis Manpower Eventually Reduces to a Constant to Retain a Minimum Number of Personnel of Each Specialty for All Shifts

14.00 12.00
MFTBM1

10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00


0 24 48 72 96 120 144 MFTBM1 MMH/FH

Average Sortie Length, Hrs


MFTBM1 - Mean Flight Time Between Maintenance (Inherent) MMH/FH - Maintenance Manhours Per Flight Hour

This Study Assumed A Similar Level of Maintainability


2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-16

Design of UAV Systems

Endurance Benefits

Pilot Physical Limitations Limit Effective Sortie Length Endurance UAV Sortie Durations May Approach 48-60 Hours! Ground Operators Can Work in Shifts UAVs Have Potential to Remain Aloft Indefinitely
Requires Autonomous Refueling Technology

Longer Sorties Mean Less Wear and Tear Cycle-Related Fatigue and Duty Cycles Reduced
80% of Fighter Failures are Constant on a Per-Sortie Basis

Maintenance Manhours Per Flight Hour Reduction


Knee in Curve at Approximately 24 Hour Sortie Length

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-17

Design of UAV Systems

Ground Handling Options

Preprogrammed Routes Using dGPS Accurate, Hands-Off Requires Site Survey, Detailed Mission Planning Likely Requires Deconflicted Ops with Other Aircraft

Remote Control By Ground Crew Good Ground Situational Awareness Adds Complexity to Air Vehicle Design
Remote Control By Ground Operator Good Ground Situational Awareness Minimal Impact on Manpower Hardware Intensive
Needs On-Board Camera
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-18

Design of UAV Systems


Redundancy Exists for 3 Reasons: Safety Survivability Mission Reliability

Redundancy Considerations

Consider Life Cycle Cost Sensitivities Maintenance Savings vs. Increased Loss of Aircraft Consider Mission Reliability Requirements
For Flight Critical Systems (failure = crash): Generally required to fail operational/fail safe (at a minimum) Triplex Redundancy is Most Cost-Effective on $/Flight Hour Basis Extremely High Reliability (>10,000 hrs MTBF) or Extremely Low Cost (<$1000/Channel) Are Required for Dual Redundancy to Be Cost Effective For Mission Critical Systems (mission fails or degraded) Generally required to fail operational (albeit degraded) Typically back-up most mission critical systems (radios, GPS, etc)
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-19

Design of UAV Systems


Redundancy vs. Cost
1000000.00

Redundancy Cost Trades

Cost per Flight Hour

100000.00 10000.00 1000.00 100.00 10.00 1.00 1 2 3 4 Level of Redundancy MTBF = 2000 MTBF = 3000 MTBF = 5000 MTBF = 8000 MTBF = 10000

Module Cost/Channel: $18,400 Average Repair Cost: $6000 Average Sortie Duration: 4 .5 Hours UAV Unit Cost: $10 Million Critical Failure Rate: 1/3 of MTBF

Trade Studies Will Determine Level of Redundancy


2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-20

Design of UAV Systems

Training Concept

Manned Aircraft Pilots Maintain Proficiency By Flying Require Minimum of 30 Flight Hours/Month Most Flight Hours In Lifetime are for Training UAV/UCAV Operator Interface Is Unique Actual vs. Simulated Flight Similar Keep UCAV In Storage Until War
Reduced Spares/Consumables

Reduced O&S Costs Note this ConOps is changing as we speak

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-21

Design of UAV Systems


Review of RM&S Functions

Next Subject

UAV & UCAV RM&S Considerations Supportability Attributes Subsystem Considerations Manpower O&S Cost
UAV Safety Lessons Learned

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-22

Design of UAV Systems


Mishaps Per 100,000 Flight Hours

UAV and Drone Experience

Fighter*
Manned QF-106 Drones* Unmanned QF-106 Drones* Pioneer UAV** Hunter UAV** Predator UAV**
*Class A Cumulative Mishap Rate, 1997 **Loss Rate (non-combat)

4.5
130 70 167 140 27

Primary Cause of Drone Mishaps is Old Age and Structural Integrity


Primary Causes of UAV Mishaps: Non-Aviation Qualified Parts (Pioneer & Hunter) Inadequate Emergency Procedures Training / Lack of Concurrency Lack of Redundancy in Flight Critical Systems Inadequate Testing & Configuration Control
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-23

Design of UAV Systems

Attrition Cost Comparison

Lower Unit Cost Does Not Necessarily Mean Lower Life Cycle Cost! and theres a reason!

Cost Per Vehicle Typical Fighter General Aviation Low Cost UAV High Cost UAV $25-50M $200K $1.0M

Losses Per 100K Flt. Hrs. 5.0 7.0 167

$3.0M

27

Global Hawk Goal is 10 per 100K Flight Hours 2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-24

Design of UAV Systems

UAV Lessons Learned

Carefully Weigh Risk When Considering Redundancy Establish Acceptable Mission Reliability Goals Trade Cost of Redundancy vs. Reduced Attrition Affordability is Usually Achieved at Higher Risk Recognize UAV/UCAV Mishap Rates Will Probably Exceed Manned Tactical Aircraft Mishap Rates As a Minimum, Consider Redundancy for: Data Links Flight Controls Propulsion System Controls

m of n

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Utilize Mil-Spec or Commercial Aviation-Grade Parts Already Qualified for Operating Environment (Temperature, Altitude, Vibration, EMI, etc.) Better Reliability May Obviate Need for Expensive Qualification Testing Expensive for a Reason
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-25

Design of UAV Systems

UAV Lessons Learned

Use Qualified Test Pilot During Testing Understands Aerodynamics & Engineering First Responsibility is to Save Aircraft Trained to React to Unexpected Events Place Increased Emphasis on Operator-Vehicle Interface Provide Adequate Fault Annunciation to Operator Must Be Immediately Recognized Should Indicate Appropriate Operator Response Consider Operator Workload In Emergency Conditions Consider Operator Skill Level (Pilot, Novice, etc.) Segregate Houskeeping & Maintenance Functions from Flight Ops Functions Train Emergency Procedures! (Especially for Flight Test) Adequately Test Hardware Prior to First Flight End-to-End Comms Loop (Including AV Antenna Multipath) Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing is Critical
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-26

Design of UAV Systems

UAV Lessons Learned

Software Configuration Control Hazard Analysis Should Include Software Hazards A Software Change is a Configuration Change! Utilize Software-In-The-Loop Testing Automate Repetitive Functions to Alleviate Operator Fatigue and Improve Safety Plan Adequate Schedule for Software Test
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-27

Design of UAV Systems

How to Achieve Reliability

Simplification Fewer parts means less things to fail Standardization Quality and tolerances all match Stress/Strength Derating Particularly for avionics Function Isolation Improved mission reliability Packaging Design Hermeticity, vibration isolation, etc. Redundancy Judicious use! Producibility and Tolerance Evaluation Quality issue Local Environment Evaluation Avoid hot spots Sensitivities Trade studies Drift and Degradation Design for it or test for it Development Test, test, test Reliability Design Checklists Lessons learned

2002 LM Corporation

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-28

Design of UAV Systems

Empirical Analysis of Reliability Trends


Historical Trend

10.0

7-9

5.0

MFHBF (Inherent )

3.0

1.0

TREND: Reliability Doubles Every 15 Years


Newer Technologies Improved Manufacturing Processes (Quality) Increased Emphasis on Design for RM&S 0.1 1955

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2000

2005

2010

Year of Initial Production Delivery


2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-29

Design of UAV Systems

UAV maintenance personnel

Parametric Data Shows Manpower Requirements are a Function of Aircraft Speed, Weight (EW + Wpay) and Type

UAV Comparison - Global Hawk fits overall manpower parametric - Predator falls well outside other aircraft norms Use this parametric to estimate maintenance manpower required for your design projects
2002 LM Corporation

Predator

Global Hawk

Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety

12-30

Design of UAV Systems

Homework

Assess RMSS for your project (1) What redundancy levels do you think are appropriate the following subsystems - Flight control computer - Air vehicle up link - Payload down link (2) From the internet, Janes or other sources pick a UAV that you think is closest to your project UAV - What are the maximum speed and empty and payload weights? (3) Estimate the number of personnel required to maintain it Submit your homework via Email to Egbert by COB next Thursday. Document all calculations
2002 LM Corporation Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability & Safety 12-31