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Fuzzy Logic & Approximate

Reasoning
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Fuzzy Logic &
Approximate Reasoning
Fuzzy Logic & Approximate
Reasoning
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Fuzzy Sets
Fuzzy Logic & Approximate
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References
Journal:
IEEE Trans. on Fuzzy Systems.
Fuzzy Sets and Systems.
Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems
International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems
...
Conferences:
IEEE Conference on Fuzzy Systems.
IFSA World Congress.
...
Books and Papers:
Z.Chi et al, Fuzzy Algorithms with applications to Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, World
Scientific, 1996.
S. N. Sivanandam, Introduction to Fuzzy Logic using MATLAB, Springer, 2007.
J.M. Mendel, Fuzzy Logic Systems for Engineering: A toturial, IEEE, 1995.
W. Siler, FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEMS AND FUZZY REASONING, John Wiley Sons, 2005
G. Klir, Uncertainty and Informations, John Wiley Sons, 2006.
L.A. Zadeh, Fuzzy sets, Information and control, 8, 338-365, 1965.
L.A. Zadeh, The Concept of a Linguistic Variable and its Application to Approximate Reasoning-I, II, III,
Information Science 8, 1975
L.A. Zadeh, Toward a theory of fuzzy information granulation and its centrality in human reasoning and fuzzy
logic, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 90(1997), 111-127.
......
http://www.type2fuzzylogic.org/
IEEE Computational Intelligence Society http://ieee-cis.org/
International Fuzzy Systems Association http://www.isc.meiji.ac.jp/~ifsatkym/
J.M. Mendel http://sipi.usc.edu/~mendel


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Contents
Fuzzy sets.
Fuzzy Relations and Fuzzy reasoning
Fuzzy Inference Systems
Fuzzy Clustering
Fuzzy Expert Systems
Applications: Image Processing, Robotics,
Control...
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Fuzzy Sets: Outline
Introduction: History, Current Level and Further Development of
Fuzzy Logic Technologies in the U.S., Japan, and Europe
Basic definitions and terminology
Set-theoretic operations
MF formulation and parameterization
MFs of one and two dimensions
Derivatives of parameterized MFs
More on fuzzy union, intersection, and complement
Fuzzy complement
Fuzzy intersection and union
Parameterized T-norm and T-conorm
Fuzzy Number
Fuzzy Relations
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History, State of the Art, and
Future Development
1965 Seminal Paper Fuzzy Logic by Prof. Lotfi Zadeh, Faculty in
Electrical Engineering, U.C. Berkeley, Sets the Foundation of
the Fuzzy Set Theory
1970 First Application of Fuzzy Logic in Control Engineering
(Europe)
1975 Introduction of Fuzzy Logic in Japan
1980 Empirical Verification of Fuzzy Logic in Europe
1985 Broad Application of Fuzzy Logic in Japan
1990 Broad Application of Fuzzy Logic in Europe
1995 Broad Application of Fuzzy Logic in the U.S.
1998 Type-2 Fuzzy Systems
2000 Fuzzy Logic Becomes a Standard Technology and Is Also
Applied in Data and Sensor Signal Analysis. Application of
Fuzzy Logic in Business and Finance.
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Types of Uncertainty and the
Modeling of Uncertainty
Stochastic Uncertainty:
The Probability of Hitting the Target Is 0.8

Lexical Uncertainty:
"Tall Men", "Hot Days", or "Stable Currencies"
We Will Probably Have a Successful Business Year.
The Experience of Expert A Shows That B Is Likely to
Occur. However, Expert C Is Convinced This Is Not True.
Most Words and Evaluations We Use in Our Daily Reasoning Are
Not Clearly Defined in a Mathematical Manner. This Allows
Humans to Reason on an Abstract Level!
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Possible Sources of Uncertainty
and Imprecision
There are many sources of uncertainty facing
any control system in dynamic real world
unstructured environments and real world
applications; some sources of these
uncertainties are as follows:
Uncertainties in the inputs of the system due
to:
The sensors measurements being affected by high noise
levels from various sources such a electromagnetic and radio
frequency interference, vibration, etc.
The input sensors being affected by the conditions of
observation (i.e. their characteristics can be changed by the
environmental conditions such as wind, sunshine, humidity,
rain, etc.).
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Possible Sources of Uncertainty
and Imprecision
Other sources of Uncertainties include:
Uncertainties in control outputs which can
result from the change of the actuators
characteristics due to wear and tear or due to
environmental changes.
Linguistic uncertainties as words mean
different things to different people.
Uncertainties associated with the change in
the operation conditions due to varying load and
environment conditions.
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Fuzzy Set Theory
Conventional (Boolean) Set Theory:

Strong Fever

40.1C
42C
41.4C
39.3C
38.7C
37.2C
38C
Fuzzy Set Theory:

40.1C
42C
41.4C
39.3C
38.7C
37.2C
38C
More-or-Less Rather Than Either-Or !
Strong Fever

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Fuzzy Sets
Sets with fuzzy
boundaries
A = Set of tall people
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Membership Functions (MFs)
Characteristics of MFs:
Subjective measures
Not probability functions
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Fuzzy Sets
A fuzzy set A is characterized by a member set
function (MF),
A
, mapping the elements of A to
the unit interval [0, 1].
Formal definition:
A fuzzy set A in X is expressed as a set of ordered
pairs:


Membership
function
(MF)
A x x x X
A
= e {( , ( ))| }
Universe or
universe of discourse Fuzzy set
Universe or
universe of discourse
Universe or
universe of discourse
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Fuzzy Sets with Discrete Universes
Fuzzy set C = desirable city to live in
X = {SF, Boston, LA} (discrete and non-ordered)
C = {(SF, 0.9), (Boston, 0.8), (LA, 0.6)}
Fuzzy set A = sensible number of children
X = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} (discrete universe)
A = {(0, .1), (1, .3), (2, .7), (3, 1), (4, .6), (5, .2),(6, .1)}
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Fuzzy Sets with Cont. Universes
Fuzzy set C = desirable city to live in
X = {SF, Boston, LA} (discrete and non-ordered)
C = {(SF, 0.9), (Boston, 0.8), (LA, 0.6)}
Fuzzy set A = sensible number of children
X = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} (discrete universe)
A = {(0, .1), (1, .3), (2, .7), (3, 1), (4, .6), (5, .2),(6, .1)}
2 B
10
50 x
1
1
) x (
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
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Alternative Notation
A fuzzy set A can be alternatively denoted as
follows:
A x x
A
x X
i i
i
=
e

( ) /
A x x
A
X
=
}
( ) /
X is discrete
X is continuous
Note that E and integral signs stand for the
union of membership grades; / stands for a
marker and does not imply division.
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Fuzzy Partition
Fuzzy partitions formed by the linguistic
values young, middle aged, and old:
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Linguistic Variables
A linguistic variable is a variable whose values are not numbers but words
or sentences in a natural or artificial language (Zadeh, 1975a, p. 201)
Linguistic variable is characterized by [_ , T(_), U], in which _ : name of the
variable, T(_) : the term set of _ , universe of discourse U
A Linguistic Variable
Defines a Concept of Our
Everyday Language!
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Fuzzy Hedges
Suppose you had already defined a fuzzy set to describe
a hot temperature.
Fuzzy set should be modified to represent the hedges
"Very" and "Fairly: very hot or fairly hot.
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MF Terminology

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Convexity of Fuzzy Sets

A A A
x x x x ( ( ) ) min( ( ), ( ))
1 2 1 2
1 + >
Alternatively, A is convex if all its o-cuts are
convex.
A fuzzy set A is convex if for any l in [0, 1],

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Set-Theoretic Operations
A B
A B
_ s
C A B x x x x x
c A B A B
= = = v ( ) max( ( ), ( )) ( ) ( )
C A B x x x x x
c A B A B
= = = . ( ) min( ( ), ( )) ( ) ( )
A X A x x
A
A
= = ( ) ( ) 1
Subset:

Complement:

Union:

Intersection:
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Set-Theoretic Operations
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MF Formulation
Triangular MF:
trimf x a b c
x a
b a
c x
c b
( ; , , ) max min , , =

|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
| 0
Trapezoidal MF:
Generalized bell MF:
gbellmf x a b c
x c
b
b
( ; , , ) =
+

1
1
2
Gaussian MF: gaussmf x a b c e
x c
( ; , , ) =

|
\

|
.
|
1
2
2
o
trapmf x a b c d
x a
b a
d x
d c
( ; , , , ) max min , , , =

|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
| 1 0
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MF Formulation

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MF Formulation

Sigmoidal MF:
sigmf x a b c
e
a x c
( ; , , )
( )
=
+

1
1
Extensions:
Abs. difference
of two sig. MF
Product
of two sig. MF
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Fuzzy Complement
General requirements:
Boundary: N(0)=1 and N(1) = 0
Monotonicity: N(a) > N(b) if a < b
Involution: N(N(a) = a
Two types of fuzzy complements:
Sugenos complement:


Yagers complement:

N a
a
sa
s
( ) =

+
1
1
N a a
w
w w
( ) ( )
/
= 1
1
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Fuzzy Complement
N a
a
sa
s
( ) =

+
1
1
N a a
w
w w
( ) ( )
/
= 1
1
Sugenos complement:
Yagers complement:
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Fuzzy Intersection: T-norm
Basic requirements:
Boundary: T(0, 0) = 0, T(a, 1) = T(1, a) = a
Monotonicity: T(a, b) < T(c, d) if a < c and b < d
Commutativity: T(a, b) = T(b, a)
Associativity: T(a, T(b, c)) = T(T(a, b), c)
Four examples:
Minimum: Tm(a, b) = min{a, b}.
Algebraic product: Ta(a, b) = a.b
Bounded product: Tb(a, b) = max{0, a+b-1}
Drastic product: Td(a, b)
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T-norm Operator
Minimum:
Tm(a, b)
Algebraic
product:
Ta(a, b)
Bounded
product:
Tb(a, b)
Drastic
product:
Td(a, b)
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Fuzzy Union: T-conorm or S-norm
Basic requirements:
Boundary: S(1, 1) = 1, S(a, 0) = S(0, a) = a
Monotonicity: S(a, b) < S(c, d) if a < c and b < d
Commutativity: S(a, b) = S(b, a)
Associativity: S(a, S(b, c)) = S(S(a, b), c)
Four examples:
Maximum: Sm(a, b) = max{a, b}
Algebraic sum: Sa(a, b) = a+b-a.b
Bounded sum: Sb(a, b) = min{a+b, 1}.
Drastic sum: Sd(a, b) =
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T-conorm or S-norm
Maximum:
Sm(a, b)
Algebraic
sum:
Sa(a, b)
Bounded
sum:
Sb(a, b)
Drastic
sum:
Sd(a, b)
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Fuzzy Number
A fuzzy number A must possess the
following three properties:
1. A must must be a normal fuzzy set,
2. The alpha levels must be closed for
every ,
3. The support of A, , must be
bounded.
) (o A
] 1 , 0 ( e o
) 0 (
+
A
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Fuzzy Number
1
M
e
m
b
e
r
s
h
i
p

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
is the suport of

z
1
is the modal value
is an o-level of , o (0,1]
o
'
< ' [ ] [ ] z z
o o
o o c
( )
, z z
+
z
+ 1
z
z
o

z
o
+
z

, [ ] z z z
+ (

( o

o

o
z
o
z e
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Fuzzy Relations
A fuzzy relation 9 is a 2 D MF:
9 :{ ((x, y),
9
(x, y)) | (x, y) e X Y}

Examples:
x is close to y (x & y are real numbers)
x depends on y (x & y are events)
x and y look alike (x & y are persons or objects)
Let X = Y = IR
+
and R(x,y) = y is much greater than x
The MF of this fuzzy relation can be subjectively defined as:




if X = {3,4,5} & Y = {3,4,5,6,7}

s
>
+ +

=
x y if , 0
x y if ,
2 y x
x y
) y , x (
R
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Extension Principle
The image of a fuzzy set A on X
n n A 2 2 A 1 1 A
x / ) x ( x / ) x ( x / ) x ( A + + + =
under f(.) is a fuzzy set B:
n n B 2 2 B 1 1 B
y / ) x ( y / ) x ( y / ) x ( B + + + =
where y
i
= f(x
i
), i = 1 to n
If f(.) is a many-to-one mapping, then
) x ( max ) y (
A
) y ( f x
B
1
=
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Example
Application of the extension principle to fuzzy sets
with discrete universes

Let A = 0.1 / -2+0.4 / -1+0.8 / 0+0.9 / 1+0.3 / 2
and f(x) = x
2
3
Applying the extension principle, we obtain:
B = 0.1 / 1+0.4 / -2+0.8 / -3+0.9 / -2+0.3 /1
= 0.8 / -3+(0.4V0.9) / -2+(0.1V0.3) / 1
= 0.8 / -3+0.9 / -2+0.3 / 1
where V represents the max operator, Same
reasoning for continuous universes
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Transition From Type-1 to
Type-2 Fuzzy Sets
Blur the boundaries of a T1
FS
Possibility assignedcould
be non-uniform
Clean things up
Choose uniform
possibilitiesinterval type-2
FS
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Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets:
Terminology-1

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Questions