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A presentation based on Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement by John Hattie


In this presentation you will find information on the contributions of a student. The information covered will focus on how these different contributions affect a students achievement and learning.

The factors that will be covered are: * background * attitudes and dispositions * physical attributes * preschool influences

When the time is added together with weekend and vacation time, students spend about 15,000 hours in school over a lifetime: or about 30 percent of their waking time is spent in the hands of those legislated to teach them. (Hattie, 2009, p. 39)


Background Influences
o Prior Achievement

* The effect size of prior achievement on student achievement is 0.67, which is within the zone of desired effects. * Prior achievement and prior school grades is the best individual predictor for academic success for students.
(Schuler, Funke, Baron-Boldt , 1990)

Self- Reported Grades

* The effect size of prior achievement on student achievement is 1.44, which is very high and reaches out of the zone of desired effects. *Self- reported grades for a student is how a student estimates of how they are performing and how they performed within the context of prior learning.

Background Influences
o Piagetian Programs

* The effect size for Piagetian Programs on student achievement is 1.28, which is high and reaches out of the zone of desired effects. * This is an important influence because during this stage, understanding how the children think and how they are solving tasks affects what kind of materials we choose and the curriculum we choose.
(Naglieri & Das, 1997) (Sweller, 2008)


Attitude and Dispositions Influence

o Self- Concept
*The effect size for self-concept on student achievement is 0.43, which is right above the zone of desired effects. * Self concept is are about self-estimates of their ability and achievement, than an actual concept of the achievement and ability.

o Motivation
* The effect size for motivation is 0.48, which is in the zone of desired effects. * When talking about motivation, we need to communicate to our students the goals, learning intentions, success criteria, and the purpose for the learning.

Attitudes and Dispositions Influences

o Reducing Anxiety
* The effect size for reducing anxiety is 0.40, which is right at the zone of desired effects. * When we reduce anxiety for our students, then this can improve other areas for them, such as taking classes that they were avoiding and showing them that they can achieve in the subject that they are struggling in. * If we use strategies to reduce anxiety, then it can tear down a barrier that could keep our students from achieving the goal that is set before them.


Physical Attributes Influences

o Birth Weight
* Birth weight has an effect size of 0.54, which is in the zone of desired effects. * When children are born early their cognitive development is lower than a student that is born at full term.

o Exercise and Relaxation

* The effect size for exercise and relaxation is 0.28, this effect size is in the teacher effects. * Even though, the effect size is small, there is a small correlation between exercise and relaxation to improving student achievement.

Physical Attributes Influences

o Drugs
* The effect size of drugs on student achievement is 0.33, which is in the teacher effects zone. * Different kind of drugs that students take for different health diagnosis, may effect the behavior or other attributes, but there is a small change in student achievement with the use of drugs.

* The effect size of having a positive view of your ethnicity is 0.32, which is in the teacher effects. * When students have a positive view of their ethnicity, then we are encouraging the students to be who they are in our classroom and it will encourage their achievement if they feel comfortable


Preschool Influences
o Early Interventions * Early interventions had an effect size of 0.47, overall, it had an effect size of 0.50, which is in the zone of desired effects. * When a student is struggling in certain areas, then providing an early intervention, then the student has a chance of succeeding, but the intervention needs to be maintained after the early stages.

Preschool Programs
* Preschool programs had an effect size of 0.45, overall it had an effect size of 0.52. * Different preschool programs had different effects on the students achievement and it depends on the type of program.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning, a synthesis of over 800 metaanalyses relating to achievement. (1st ed., Vol. 1). New York: Routledge. Naglieri, J.A., & Das, J.P. (1997). Das- Naglieri cognitive assessment system. Itasca, IL: Houghton Mifflin Schuler, H., Funke, U., & Bareon-Boldt, J. (1990). Predictive validity of school grades: A meta-analysis. Applied Psychology: An International Review 39 (1), 89-103. Sweller, J. (2006). Discussion of Emerging topics in cognitive load research: Using learning and information characteristics in the design of powerful learning environments. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20(3), 353-357.