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DATA DICTIONARY

BY OMER KHAN

WHY DATABASE CAME INTO EXISTENCE?


Because.. When We Use Architecture R1,Mainframe Manufacture By IBM And Programming Language Used Cobol. In This Data Was Stored In FILES Not In DB. Drawback Is Writing & Reading A FILE. In R2 ,DB2 Came To Existence And We Are Following Same DB2(R3).

WHAT IS SAP/R3?
SAP Is System Applications And Products In Data Processing Developed By German Company In 1972 In Walldorf.RStands For Real Time Data Processing And 3 Stands For Three-Tier Architecture. ADVANTAGES Functionality. Flexible Structure. Real Time Integration. Enterprise Wide Integration.

SAP R/3 ARCHITECTURE


PRESENTATION SERVER

APPLICATION SERVER

This Is Location of DB
DATA BASE SERVER

DATA BASE

DATA BASE

DATA BASE

DATA DICTIONARY
The ABAP Dictionary Centrally Describes And Manages. All The Data Definitions Used In The System.(TXN SE11) It Is completely integrated in the ABAP Workbench. It supports The Definition Of User-Defined Types (data elements, structures and table types). You can also define the structure of database objects (tables, indexes and views) in the ABAP Dictionary.

TYPES OF DICTIONARY OBJECTS.

TABLES
Tables Are The Entities Whose Information Is Stored In a Data Base. Information Stored In Tables In The Form Of Rows & Columns. Tables Are Client Independent or Dependent Based Upon The Client.

TYPES OF TABLES: 1)Transparent Table. 2)Pooled Table. 3) Cluster Table.

TYPES OF TABLES
Transparent Table: Transparent Table do exits with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in the database. In this both transaction and master data are stored.This is one to one relationship. Pool table: Pooled tables can be used to store control data (e.g. screen sequences, program parameters or temporary data). Several pooled tables can be combined to form a table pool. The table pool corresponds to a physical table on the database in which all the records of the allocated pooled tables are stored. Cluster table:Cluster tables contain continuous text, for example, documentation. Several cluster tables can be combined to form a table cluster.

Pool or cluster tables are special tables that are used to store the data from different tables. This is many to one relationship.

EXAMPLE:Transparent tables stores individually in data base.


Tables

Pooled or Cluster Tables


Assigning Different tables in one pooled is called pooled table or cluster table.

Pooled (or) Cluster Table

Tables

FOREIGN KEY
Foreign key: It is relationship between two tables.Join two tables with the help of key fields. Example:

Foreign key

TECHNICAL SETTINGS
The technical settings are used to individually optimize the storage requirements and accessing behavior of database tables. 1. Data Class
2. Size Category 3. Buffering 4. Log Data Changes

DATA CLASS
The data class defines the physical area of the database in which your table is logically stored. If you choose a data class correctly, your table will automatically be assigned to the correct area when it is created on the database. APPL0 : - Master data, Transparent Tables
APPL1 : - Transaction Data, Transparent Tables APPL2 : - Organization & Customizing

SIZE CATEGORY
The size category determines the probable space requirement for a table in the database. You can select the categories 0 to 4 for your table. Each category is assigned a specific fixed storage area value in the database. When you create a table, initial space is saved for it in the database. If more space is required later as a result of data that has been entered, the storage space is increased in accordance with the category selected. Value Ranges Like: 0 ->0 To 16,000,1->16,001 To 30,000 etc.

BUFFERING
Table buffering increases the performance when the records of the table are read. The records of a buffered table are read directly from the local buffer of the application server on which the accessing transaction is running when the table is accessed. This eliminates time-consuming database accesses. Buffering therefore can greatly increase the system performance. Entering $TAB in the command field resets the table buffers on the corresponding application server.

BUFFERING TYPES
Single Record Buffering:Individual records of tables with single-record buffering are managed in the single-record table buffer TABLP. Generic And Full table Buffers:Generic table areas or full tables are managed in the generic/full table buffer TABL.

EXAMPLE
F1 A A A F2 01 F3 F4 Single buffer Fully buffer 03

02

01

Generic buffer

LOG DATA CHANGES


Modifications to the entries of a table can be recorded and stored using logging.
To activate logging, the corresponding field must be selected in the technical settings. Logging, however, only will take place if the R/3 System was started with a profile containing parameter 'rec/client'. Only selecting the flag in the ABAP Dictionary is not sufficient to trigger logging. Log data Changes are saved in CDPOS & CDHDR tables.

The data modifications are logged independently of the update. The logs information can be displayed with the Transaction Table History (SCU3).

TABLE ATTRIBUTE
Delivery class:The delivery class attribute allows the transporting of table data.when installing or upgrading,in a client copy. It is also used to transporting data between customer systems. It provides extended table maintenance also. Without table maintenance the end user cannot access table.TXN (SM30).

CREATING TABLE FOLLOW THIS STEPS.

DOUBLE CLICK DATA ELEMENT TO CREATE

DOUBLE CLICK DOMAIN TO CREATE

TECHNICAL SETTINGS

VIEWS
Views: Bringing the data from different tables and display in one table at the runtime. TYPES OF VIEWS: 1)Data base view. 2)Projection view.

3)Help view.
4)Maintenance view.

1) Data base view: A database view is automatically created in the underlying database when it is activated. Application programs can access the data of a database view using the database interface. It uses inner join. 2) Projection view: Projection views are used to hide fields of a table. This can minimize interfaces; for example when you access the database, you only read and write the field contents actually needed. A projection view contains exactly one table.

3) Help view: It can be used as selection method in search helps. creating online help. 4) Maintenance views: Maintenance views provide you with a business oriented view of the data. which allows you to maintain data in a view and at the database tables at the same time using transaction SM30.

DATA TYPES
Define any user-defined types in the ABAP Dictionary. These can be used in the ABAP program to define data objects and types that are predefined in the ABAP program or types that are defined locally in ABAP programs. 1) Data Element: Description of the field is provided by the data element.it is also called semantic domain because it provides semantic definition of the field.it is provides meaningful information to end user(F1help).

2) Structure Type:
Structured types describe the structure and functions of any structured data objects, that is of data structures with components of any type. A component can be a field with an elementary type or can itself be a structure. A table can also be used as a component in a structure. A database table always has a structure and is therefore implicitly a structured type. However, the fields of a database table can only have an elementary type.

A Structure is similar to a Table that do not have any contents. It is like Table or View without any records.

The basic difference between Structure and the Table is that the Structure does not exist at the underlying data base level. Structure exists as Definition in the Dictionary.

3)Table types:

Table types describe the structure and functions of internal tables in the ABAP program. Their rows can have any row type. Table types with elementary row type therefore can be defined just the same as multi-dimensional table types (table types with a table type as row type) or table types using structures with table-like components.

TYPE GROUPS
It is a collection of types at the dictionary level. Type groups are used for creating customerdefined data types. These type groups are created in the ABAP Dictionary and are available for use in all ABAP programs. Type groups are referenced in programs by using the TYPE-POOLS statement(eg:SLIS).

DOMAIN
A domain describes the technical attributes of a field, such as the data type or the number of positions in a field

SEARCH HELPS
Search help is input help (F4 help) which is a standard function of the R/3 System.
A search help exit is a function module that has a predefined interface. Each search help exit must have the same interface as function module F4IF_SHLP_EXIT_EXAMPLE. All the interface parameters defined here are mandatory.

TYPES OF A SEARCH HELPS.


Elementary search helps - Describe a search path. The elementary search help must define where the data of the hit list should be read from.
Collective search helps - Combine several elementary search helps. A collective search help thus can offer several alternative search paths.

LOCK OBJECTS
These types of objects are used for locking the access to database records in table. This mechanism is used to enforce data integrity that is two users cannot update the same data at the same time.with lock object you can lock tablefields or whole table. Two function modules are used for locking (ENQUEUE) and unlocking (DEQUEUE).

TYPES OF LOCKS
1)Exclusive lock:Exclusive lock do not allow other user to change or modify the data while it is being locked by one user. Only one user at a time can read or process the locked data. Further request for exclusive lock or shared lock is not accepted.

2)Shared lock: In this more than one user can read the same data at the same time. when the user changes the data then another user can no longer access this data other user cannot set exclusive lock when shared lock in progress.
3)Exclusive but not cumulative:It can be allowed only once in the same transaction. It cannot be allowed more than once like exclusive lock on the same transaction. Request for this lock cannot be accepted if the exclusive lock is already set on the transaction.