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Limitations of Historical Research

@Difficulty of obtaining dependable data @Evidence is inadequate @Existing gaps in primary sources @Difficulty of evaluation in terms of authenticity and validity @Tendency of being subjective in interpretation of the significance of events

Descriptive Method
-it is primarily concerned with the determination of prevailing conditions. It is essentially a method of quantitative description of general characteristics of a group under investigation. It involves the gathering of data regarding current conditions and ascertaining what is typical or normal under specific conditions. It is also called status survey.

Major Reasons for Ascertaining Prevailing Conditions:


Comparisons can be made Direction of change noted and evaluated Inferences can be based on general characteristics of data Practices or conditions may be revealed with reference to the average Current trends may be discovered and subsequent evaluation may be made.

Steps in Descriptive Survey


Select and define clearly the problem Spell out the hypothesis Prepare the pretest data gathering instruments such as the questionnaires or interview guide Conduct baseline surveys to provide sampling frames Verify, tabulate, analyze data Report writing

Survey Research
It is a strategy geared towards ascertaining the current conditions of existing problems The researcher collects, on comprehensive level, those data which directly relate to the problem under investigation

Cost route-multiple visits


It can overcome problems of recall in face of changing situations. It implies volatility and rapid changes which may render data gathered pase, hence, there is an immediate need to update data Participant Observation it is a strategy where the researcher, in his efforts to gather truly authentic data, must be a member of the group and be an active participant of the major activity being observed.

Panel Technique
It is where a sample of respondents is selected and interviewed to determine factual information about the respondents. Telephone Survey It is another technique for data gathering. This is used when the researcher is unknown to the respondent so that there is a possibility for nonresponses and uncooperativeness. This technique results in the difficulty of obtaining detailed information.

Mailed Questionnaire
It is another technique used in the survey which is commonly used by researchers. However, the possibility of lack of responses given in this type of data collection can be provided with alternative procedures. Non-participant observation This is the most common strategy for data collection. It is a descriptive method where the researcher notes down what he observes. Today, the five senses of the researcher are reinforced by technological devices such as tape recorder, video cameras, and the like.

Survey Testing
This is a strategy used in descriptive method which is done by way of direct measurement. Instruments used for direct measurements are teacher-made tests, psychological tests, questionnaire, and interview schedule. Validation-this is usually done through pre-testing of procedures.

Group Interview
It is a way of data collection and perhaps the most practical type of gathering data, where the subjects of the study are gathered and an interview is conducted. Considerations in the Use of Data Collection Strategies: The survey strategy is used when time and cost constraints are serious or when sensitive data are sought on which it is difficult to engage people in frequent discussion. It also used when data deal with phenomena which change slowly and the event under study represents a single occurrence so that the totality of phenomena is observable at a single time. The cost-route strategy is used when perishable information, ex. Income expenditure, is sought and accuracy and reliability are needed by the researcher, or perhaps, in changes which take place overtime.

Factors Influencing Data Collection


Discipline and orientation of the researcher Level of literacy Financial resources available Time available Kind of interdisciplinary cooperation required Competence of enumerators Type of data required based on (a) single point to continuous activities (b) registered continuum of events which occurrences leave a written record as against one less like to be recorded.

Case Study
It is a method that utilizes intensive examination of a particular unit represented. It is a careful and thorough examination of the life and behavior of an individual or organization Case Work-it refers to the development, adjustment, remedial, or corrective procedures that are appropriately follow diagnosis; while case method is a plan of organizing and presenting instructional materials in law, medicine, social work, education, and psychology.

General Set of Purposes of Case Study:


Development of potentialities of the individual for growth. To reduce environmental pressure in the client. To prevent social breakdown, creating opportunities for growth and development Increasing the capacity of self-direction and social contribution To aid the client determine the course of his own life, to make choices in adjusting to social order and to employ self-diagnosis and treatment to the maximum degree possible. A satisfactory case study must have completeness of data; validity of data; confidential recording, and scientific synthesis.

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