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Training Session on Energy Equipment

Steam Distribution and Utilization


Presentation from the Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia www.energyefficiencyasia.org

1 UNEP 2006

Training Agenda: Steam

Introduction
Steam distribution system Assessment of steam distribution system Energy efficiency opportunities

2 UNEP 2006

Introduction

Why do we use steam?


Transport and provision of energy

Benefits
Efficient and economic to generate Easy to distribute Easy to control Easily transferred to the process Steam plant easy to manage Flexible
3 UNEP 2006

Alternatives are hot water and oils

Introduction What is steam?


Molecule: smallest of any compound Water = H2O
two hydrogen atoms (H) one oxygen atom (O)

Three physical states


solid: ice liquid: water vapour: steam
4 UNEP 2006

Introduction What is steam?


Triple point: ice, water and steam in equilibrium Ice: molecules can only vibrate Water: molecules are free to move but close together

Steam: molecules are furthest apart


5 UNEP 2006

Introduction What is steam?


Steam saturation curve
Superheated steam Sub-saturated water

Steam Saturation Curve (Spirax Sarco)


6 UNEP 2006

Introduction What is steam - Enthalpy


Enthalpy of water (hf)
Heat required to raise temperature from 0oC to current temperature

Enthalpy of evaporation (hfg)


Heat required to change water into steam at boiling point

Enthalpy of saturated steam (hg)


Total energy in saturated steam

hg = hf + hfg

7 UNEP 2006

Introduction What is steam Dryness fraction


Dry saturated steam: T = boiling point Steam: mixture of water droplets and steam Dryness fraction (x) is 0.95 if water content of steam = 5% Actual enthalpy of evaporation = dryness fraction X specific enthalpy hfg
8 UNEP 2006

Introduction

What is steam?

Temperature Enthalpy Phase Diagram (Spirax Sarco)

9 UNEP 2006

Introduction Steam quality


Steam should be available In correct quantity At correct temperature Free from air and incondensable gases

Clean (no scale / dirt)


Dry
10 UNEP 2006

Training Agenda: Steam

Introduction
Steam distribution system Assessment of steam distribution system Energy efficiency opportunities

11 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System What is the steam distribution system?


Link between steam generator and point of use
Steam generator
Boiler Discharge from co-generation plant

Boilers use
primary fuel exhaust gases
12 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System Typical steam circuit

(Spirax Sarco)

13 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System

Pressure and steam


Steam pressure influenced by many factors Steam loses pressure in distribution pipework Advantages of high pressure steam
Increased thermal storage capacity of boiler Smaller bore steam mains required Less insulation of smaller bore steam mains

Reduce steam pressure at point of use

14 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System Most important components


1. Pipes 2. Drain points 3. Branch lines 4. Strainers 5. Filters 6. Separators
15 UNEP 2006

7. Steam traps 8. Air vents

9. Condensate recovery system


10. Insulation

Steam Distribution System

1. Pipes
Pipe material: carbon steel or copper Correct pipeline sizing is important Oversized pipework:
Higher material and installation costs Increased condensate formation

Undersized pipework:
Lower pressure at point of use Risk of steam starvation Risk of erosion, water hammer and noise

Size calculation: pressure drop or velocity

16 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 1. Pipes


Pipeline layout: 1 m fall for every 100 m

(Spirax Sarco)

17 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 2. Drain points


Ensures that condensate can reach steam trap Consideration must be give to
Design Location Distance between drain points Condensate in steam main at shutdown Diameter of drain pipe
18 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 2. Drain points

Trap Pocket too small (Spirax Sarco)


19 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 2. Drain points

Properly Sized Trap Pocket (Spirax Sarco)


20 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 3. Branch lines


Take steam away from steam main Shorter than steam mains Pressure drop no problem if branch line < 10 m

A Branch Line (Spirax Sarco)


21 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 3. Branch lines


Branch line connections
Top: driest steam Side or bottom: accept condensate and debris

(Spirax Sarco)

22 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 3. Branch lines


Drop leg: low point in branch line

Drop Leg Supplying Steam fo a Heater (Spirax Sarco)

23 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 3. Branch lines


Sometime steam runs across rising ground
Condensate should run against steam flow

Reverse Gradient on Steam Main (Spirax Sarco)

24 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 4. Strainers


Purpose
Stop scale, dirt and other solids Protect equipment Reduce downtime and maintenance

Fitted upstream of steam trap, flow meter, control valve Two types: Y-type and basket type
25 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 4. Strainers


Y-Type strainers Handles high pressures Lower dirt holding capacity: more
cleaning needed
(Spirax Sarco)
26 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 4. Strainers


Y-Type strainers

(Spirax Sarco)

27 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 4. Strainers


Basket type strainers Less pressure drop Larger dirt holding capacity Only for horizontal pipelines Drain plug to remove condensate
(Spirax Sarco)
28 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 4. Strainers


Strainer screens Perforated screens
Holes punched in flat sheet Large holes Removes large debris

Mesh screens:

Example of a 3-mesh Screen (Spirax Sarco)

Fine wire into mesh arrangement Small holes Removes small solids

29 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 4. Strainers


Other strainer options Magnetic inserts: remove iron/steel debris Self cleaning strainers
Mechanical: scraper or brush Backwashing: reverse flow direction

Temporary strainers: equipment protection during start-ups

30 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 5. Filters


Consists of sintered stainless steel filter element Remove smallest particles
Direct steam injection e.g. food industry Dirty stream may cause product rejection e.g. paper machines Minimal particle emission required from steam humidifiers Reduction of steam water content

31 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 5. Filters


Choose correct size due to large pressure drop

Do not exceed flow rate limits


For steam applications
Fit separator upstream to remove condensate Fit Y-type strainer upstream to remove large particles

Identify when cleaning needed


Pressure gauges Pressure switch
32 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 6. Separators


Separators remove suspended water droplets from steam

Water in steam causes problems


Water is barrier to heat transfer Erosion of valve seals and fittings and corrosion Scaling of pipework and heating surfaces from impurities Erratic operation and failure of valves and flow meters

Three types of separators

33 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 6. Separators Baffle type


Baffle plates change direction of flow collect water droplets

Cross-sectional area reduces fluid speed water droplets fall out of suspension
Condensate in bottom drained away through steam trap

(Spirax Sarco) 34 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 6. Separators Cyclonic type


Fins generate cyclonic flow Steam spins around separator body Water thrown to wall Drainage through steam trap
(Spirax Sarco) 35 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 6. Separators Coalescence type


Wire mesh pad obstructs water molecules
Molecules coalesce into droplets Large droplets fall to bottom

Drainage through steam trap

(Spirax Sarco) 36 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 7. Steam traps


What is a steam trap?
Purges condensate out of the steam system Allows steam to reach destination as dry as possible

Steam traps must handle variations in


Quantity of condensate Condensate temperature Pressure (vacuum to > 100 bar)
37 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 7. Steam traps


Selection depends on steam traps ability to Vent air at start-up Remove condensate but not steam

Maximize plant performance: dry steam


38 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 7. Steam traps


Three groups of steam traps
Operated by changes in fluid temperature Operated by changes in fluid Steam Traps density Operated by changes in fluid dynamics

Thermostatic
1. 2. 3. Liquid expansion Balance pressure Bimetallic 1. 2.

Mechanical
Ball floating Inverted bucket

Thermodynamic
1. 2. 3. Impulse Labyrinth Fixed orifice
39 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System

7. Steam traps
Application Feature Suitable trap

Steam mains

Open to atmosphere, small capacity Frequent change in pressure Low pressure - high pressure

Thermodynamic, Mechanical: Float


Mechanical: Float Bucket Inverted bucket

Equipment Large capacity Reboiler Variation in pressure and Heater temperature is undesirable Dryer Efficiency of the equipment is Heat exchanger a problem etc. Reliability with no over heating

Tracer line Instrumentation


(BEE India, 2004)

Thermodynamic, Thermostatic: Bimetallic


40 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 7. Steam traps Ball float type


Condensate in trap causes ball float to rise condensate is released
Modern traps use thermostatic air vent to allow initial air to pass

Float trap with air cock


(Spirax Sarco)

Float trap with thermostatic air vent

41 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 7. Steam traps Ball float type


Advantages
Continuous condensate discharge Can handle light or heavy condensate loads Can discharge air freely Large capacity for its size Has steam lock release valve Resistance to water hammer

Disadvantages
Can be damaged by severe freezing Different internals needed for varying pressures
42 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 7. Steam traps Inverted bucket type


Bucket hangs down Lever pulls off seat Condensate flows under bucket and flows away

Steam in bucket condenses or bubbles through vent hole Main valve opens Condensate is released

Steam arrives Bucket rises and shuts outlet


(Spirax Sarco) 43 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 7. Steam traps Inverted bucket type


Advantages
Can withstand high pressures Tolerates waterhammer Suited for superheated steam lines Safer because failure mode is open

Disadvantages
Slow air discharge Trap body must always have enough water Check valve needed if pressure fluctuations Water seal loss by T superheated steam Can be damaged by freezing

44 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 7. Steam traps considerations


Waterhammer
Condensate picked up by moving steam Can damage steam trap Continuous slope in flow direction reduces this

Dirt
Affects steam trap performance

Strainers
Help remove dirt and cheaper than maintaining steam traps
45 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 7. Steam traps considerations


Steam locking
Can occur in rotating machinery Only float trap has steam lock release valve

Diffusers
Installed to end of the pipe Reduces sound and ferocity of flash steam discharge

Pipe sizing
Correct pipe size - traps affected by resistance to flow Avoid pipe fittings close to trap back pressure risk

Air venting
Important for system warm up and operation
46 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 7. Steam traps considerations


Group trapping

(Spirax Sarco) 47 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 7. Steam traps considerations


Drain pocket dimensions

(Spirax Sarco)

48 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 8. Air vents


Effect of air on heat transfer

(Spirax Sarco)

49 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 8. Air vents


Air in the system
During start-up Condensing steam draws air in pipes In solution in the feedwater

Signs of air
Gradual fall of output of steam-heated equipment Air bubbles in the condensate Corrosion
50 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 8. Air vents


Automatic air vent on jacketed pan (vessel)

Automatic air vent on end of main

(Spirax Sarco)

51 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 8. Air vent - location


Within low lying steam trap opposite high level steam inlet Opposite low level steam inlet Opposite end of steam inlet
52 UNEP 2006

(Spirax Sarco)

Steam Distribution System 9. Condensate recovery system


What is condensate
Distilled water with heat content Discharged from steam plant and equipment through steam traps

Condensate recovery for


Reuse in boiler feed tank, deaerator or as hot process water Heat recovery through heat exchanger

53 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 9. Condensate recovery system


Reasons for condensate recovery Financial reasons Water charges Effluent restrictions Maximizing boiler output

54 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 9. Condensate recovery system


Typical steam and condensate circuit with condensate recovery

(Spirax Sarco)

55 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 9. Condensate recovery system


Four types of condensate lines

(Spirax Sarco)

56 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System

10. Insulation
Insulator: low thermal conductor that keeps heat confined within or outside a system

Benefits
Reduced fuel consumption Better process control Corrosion prevention Fire protection of equipment Absorbing of vibration Protects staff: hot surfaces, radiant heat

57 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System

10. Insulation
Classification of insulators
Temperature Low (<90 oC) Application Materials Refrigerators, cold / hot Cork, wood, 85% water systems, storage magnesia, mineral fibers, tanks polyurethane, expanded polystyrene Low-temperature heating and steam generating equipment, steam lines, flue ducts, 85% magnesia, asbestos, calcium silicate, mineral fibers Asbestos, calcium silicate, mineral fibre, mica, vermiculite, fireclay, silica, ceramic fibre

Medium (90 325 oC)

High (>325 oC) Boilers, super-heated steam systems, oven, driers and furnaces

58 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System

10. Insulation
Selection criteria

Operating temperature of the system


Type of fuel being fired Material:
Resistance to heat, weather, fire/flames Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity Ability to withstand various conditions, Permeability

Total cost: material purchase, installing and maintenance


59 UNEP 2006

Steam Distribution System 10. Insulation


Insulation of steam and condensate lines
Major source of heat loss
Suitable materials: cork, glass wool, rock wool, asbestos Also insulate flanges!
60 UNEP 2006

Training Agenda: Steam

Introduction
Steam distribution system Assessment of steam distribution system Energy efficiency opportunities

61 UNEP 2006

Assessment of Steam Distribution System


Three main areas of assessment
Stream traps Heat loss from uninsulated surfaces Condensate recovery

62 UNEP 2006

Training Agenda: Steam

Introduction
Steam distribution system Assessment of steam distribution system Energy efficiency opportunities

63 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities


1. 2. 3. Manage steam traps Avoid steam leaks Provide dry steam for process

4.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Utilize steam at lowest acceptable pressure


Proper utilization of directly injected steam Minimize heat transfer barriers Proper air venting Minimize waterhammer Insulate pipelines and equipment

10. Improve condensate recovery

11. Recover flash steam


12. Reuse low pressure steam
64 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities 1. Manage steam traps


Testing of steam traps
Visual: flow and flow variations Sound: check sound created by flow Temperature: discharge temperature on outlet Integrated: measures conductivity

Routine maintenance
Replacement of internal parts Replacement of traps
65 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities 2. Avoid steam leaks


Repair leaks Regular leak detection program Replace flanged joints by welded joints

Leakage estimate
Plume length 1400 mm Steam loss 40 kg/hr
66 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities 3. Provide dry steam for process


Dry saturated steam is best steam
Wet steam reduces total heat in steam and prevents heat transfer Superheated steam gives up heat at slower rate

Achieve dry steam by


Proper boiler treatment Boiler operation Pipeline insulation Separators on steam pipelines
67 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities 4. Utilize steam at lowest acceptable pressure


Steam should be
Generated & distributed at highest pressure Utilized at lowest pressure: latent heat highest

Select lowest steam pressure without sacrificing


Production time Steam consumption
68 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities 5. Proper utilization of directly injected steam


Benefits
Equipment simple, cheap and easy to maintain No condensate recovery system needed Heating quick and process thermally efficient

Only in processes were dilution is not a problem


69 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities 6. Minimize heat transfer barriers


Temperature gradient across heat transfer barriers

(Spirax Sarco)

70 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities 6. Minimize heat transfer barriers


Possible solutions Stagnant film: product agitation Scale
Regular product cleaning Regular surface cleaning on steam side Correct operation of boiler Removal of water droplets with impurities

Condensation: coat that inhibits wetting Air: air venting


71 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities 8. Minimize waterhammer


Banging noise caused by colliding condensate in distribution system

Sources: low points in the pipework


Solutions
Steam lines with gradual fall in flow direction Drain points at regular intervals Check valves after all steam traps Opening isolation valves slowly to drain condensate
72 UNEP 2006

Assessment of Steam Distribution System


9. Insulation
Economic Thickness of Insulation (ETI)
Cost

I+H

Costs of insulation

Insulation Thickness

Heat loss 73 savings 2006 UNEP

Assessment of Steam Distribution System


10. Improved condensate recovery
Annual condensate recovered (kg/yr) Heat recovered (kcal/yr) Heat saved (kcal/yr) Fuel saved (litres or m3 /yr) $ saved ($ /yr)
74 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities 10. Improved condensate recovery


Energy in condensate lower than energy in steam but worth recovering:

Every 6oC rise in the feed water temperature = 1% fuel savings in the boiler

(Spirax Sarco)

75 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities 11. Recover flash steam


Flash steam released from hot condensate when pressure reduced Amount available: calculation or tables/charts Applications: heating Boiler blowdown can also be recovered as flash steam
76 UNEP 2006

Energy Efficiency Opportunities 12. Reuse low pressure steam


Reuse as water Compress with high pressure steam for reuse as medium pressure steam
DISCHARGE STEAM M.P.

MOTIVE STEAM H.P.

SUCTION STEAM L.P.

Thermo-compressor
77 UNEP 2006

Training Session on Energy Equipment

Steam Distribution and Utilization


THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

78 UNEP 2006

Disclaimers and References


This PowerPoint training session was prepared as part of the project Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction from Industry in Asia and the Pacific (GERIAP). While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of this publication are factually correct and properly referenced, UNEP does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the contents, and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the contents of this publication. UNEP, 2006. The GERIAP project was funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) Many sections of this chapter were taken from, based on or are a summary of modules featured in Spirax Sarcos web-based Learning Centre with the kind permission of Spirax Sarco. For more detailed information please refer to www.spiraxsarco.com/learn. Full references are included in the textbook chapter that is available on www.energyefficiencyasia.org Spirax Sarco copyright and disclaimer: Spirax Sarco cannot be held responsible for any mishap, or misinterpretation of this technical material, or out-of-date technical material, or any claim by any person or persons or organisations as a result of this information as printed in this document, either expressed or implied, and whether in hard copy or electronic copy. The Spirax Sarco technical material used in this document is copyright of Spirax Sarco and remains the full and 79 exclusive intellectual property of Spirax Sarco at all times.
UNEP 2006