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il 0 wa WH rocorronrenrene—e—— TTT TT | international journal | | of amateur and prefessional electronics 04(206)/2008 Wanaercs c sneaps 1991 Fr. Yupegnrens 1 naqaTens XypHana: WYYN “PAQUONMTA” Kypran 3saperncrpyposan Muwictepcreom nndopmaynn Pecny6nnke Benapyce (per. yaocr. N° 2290 or 14.11.2007 r.). Inasheli pegaxrop KYLUEPA E.C. Penoxunonnplia comet: ABPALL P.B. BEH3APb B.K. FYJISEB B.T. KALUKAPOB A.M. KOBASIbUYK C.B. HAMOBHY B.M, YEPHOMBIPQUH A.B. CTOAMEHKO C.B. Anpexrop xyprana KYLIEPA E.C. Aapec ans nicem: Benapyce, 220015, r. Munck-15, a/a2- Address for carrespondence: p/o box 2, Minsk-15, 220015, Belarus E-mail: ri@radialiga.com http://www.radioliga.com/ Aapec pegoxunn: r. Mnnck, yn. Macnnxoea, 27-36 Ten./ banc (+375-17) 251-70-86 Nognncaro « neyarn 05.04.2008 r. @opmar 60x84/8 8 ycn. new. n. Bymara rasetHaa, Neuare ofcetnaa. Orneuarano B TanorpadpHn O00 “IOCTMAK", fF. Manic, yn. Knopana, 50. Jlnyensua 02330/01316B1 of 30.04.2004 r. 3axas N2 381 Tupax 2330 Lena caoGognan. | Betmpasa saxpennets. MioGas wacre aanatoro wanciits He Momer Geir BocnponszEpeHa 8 KaKON Gut TO HH GuirO | dopme 6e3 nncamentore paspeuleHin penoKUNn Kyp- | | Hane: Npn wereponcinan — course wo mypHan oBmac- | TesbHa. | Pyxonnicn He peyeH3npyrorcs M He BosBpauyaiorca. Flo- | | IMLS PeRERAYIN MOMET He COBNOAOTS C MHEHMEM ABTO- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Onopmnenne ! | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | pos . | Pencaayss weer npaso ncnann3z0saTe ONyENMMKOSGHHbIE | | BokypHane MaTepHansi ans nepev3qoHnns moGom Bune | — NEYGTHOM h SNEKTPOHHOM, ¢ YKa3GHHEM aBTOpaB, | SKAIONOR CTOTBH, NPHCROHHEIC B KY PHAN H ZOLUMUEHHEIE Penaxus He HECeT OTRETCTBGHHOCTH 34 CoRep»xKaHHe M | GBTOpadit OcbopmiTenbcKHiA CTHNb PEKAGMHDIX MmyGnH- | | Kay 1 OGnaanennin, Penaxuna ocrasnser 3a co60A npaso ecrynam 8 nepe- | NMCKY ¢ OBTOPOMA 4 MNTOTeNaMM NO YCMOTPEHHIO. | © Paguonw6utont | B HOMepe oon 10 12 15 18 19 22 26 26 27 28 30 33 35 40 40 46 49 50 53 56 56 60 62 63 FOPH3OHTbI TEXHKKK Boe nv a3poHsatopb! MO>KHO HasBaTb “Mioctpow 4wkescKoro” Hosoctu ot Cisco Systems Hosoctu ot C-NEWS ABTOMATMKA Angpedi Kauixapos. Peyex3ua Ha AOMOGOH a Bnaguunp Konosanos. 3auvta oT KoMapoB nporpaMMMpyeMbIM McnapvTenem E. 1. Akoanes, Mpocran MogepHv3auna KBapTHPHOrO 3BOHKA Yropb Kpencxni, YunBepcanbHoe YCTPOACTBO ABTOMATHYECKOrO ynpaBneHHA Flasen Herpo6os, Hvxona Kapaveanos. Buracbou Axngperi KaiwKapos, KowKke — cton Crannenas Jleayenko. Inextponnurka Ha Waye ABTONIOGUTENMO Anb6epr Anexcees, Butannii Anexcees. SnexTpoHHoe pene Ha THPUACTOPHO-TpaH3hCTOpHoOM Knlo4e AYQMOTEXHMKA Bnagnenas Kpeimep. Cartan npocrota : unu BectpalccbopmaTopHbin naMnoBo - TPaH3MCTOPHbI yCUNUTeNb MOLUKOCTH MCTOYUHMKM NATAHKA Angped Kauxapos. Snextpnyeckan KapTouiKa Muxaun Perigenxoa. Mpoctoe aapagHoe yCTPOMCTBO OT ABTOMOGHNIbHOM GopToBOn ceTH AA aKKyMyNATOpHOrO PoHapnka Anartonuy Monaxos. Dayxnonaprbii npeo6pasosatenb HaNpAKeHMA M3MEPEHMA Anexcangp Pomnn. Ouebb BakHaA Copmyna Hyxonavi Vsauinn. Pemont kopnyca SVN nw mopepHu3zaunnr tectepa 120 “py? - HANMHAIOUIAM Poman A6pau. MK ana HaYnHarOLUunx Prxart Ma3vros. lytka nporpammucta! MACTEP KMT tOpua Caguxos. SnexTpoHnbii TaiMep Ha MAKPOKOHTponnepe PAQMONPKEM Bagum Menorux. Wectunamnosaa pagvona “MincK-58” Bacunui Tynses. Pacnucanve pa6otbl pagvocTaHli, BELUArOLUMX Ha PYCCKOM R3bIKeE PARMOCBASL Bnaguenas Aprémenko, UTSUDJ. Oco6eHHOCTH NpOeKTMpOBaHMA ATTeHWOATOPOB KB annapatypp! Angpe Kawxapos, RATAGS. Nomexn Tenesn3opam, oTkyaa? Magen Kuaixo. Canab KoMnbIOTepos 6e3 nposopos MW JIMKBYgauA MoHOnOnMM ATC Esrenua Anydpues, USSIBS. Kak Hy>KHO HenaTb PEMOHT TENE®OHMA Axgpet Byros. TpomKorosopaan TenedouHan npucTasKa MBMbIM TOKOM RoTpeSnenna PA TEXHONOrMK Hykonaii Veauinn. Nceagoespo-annka Angper Kaukapos. Manetbkie xutpoctu CNPABOUHbIA MATEPMAN TALEMA — cunosple TopoupanbHbie TpacchopmarTopb! O6luero NpAMeHeHA KHVOKHARA JIABKA PHTB npepnaraert HoBbie n3QaHna Snextpo6esonacHocTb Tenecbouua Anaped Kauxapos. O6 yuntene w Moux KHirax KYMJ1t0, NPOZAM, OBMEHSIO PH - WHO ee 4 Oco6an 6naropapHocte 3a dato — Eropy Manenxerkoay. 4 DTS SSS SST SST SS TSS ee Nognucko Ho xypHon npemnaraerca BCeMK OTAENEHHAMH CBASK. | Nognucnod unpexc no katonory BEMNMNOUYTA 74996 Noanncnoi maaexc no xatonory BENCOIO3NEYATb 74996 | Noanucuod wHaexc no xatanory POCNEYATb 74996 | NoanucHod wypexc no catanory NMOYTA POCCUM 60225 | NoanncHot wugekc no xatanory MHTEPIIOUTA 3800 4 I) | FOPA30HTbITEXHMKM [/_--—- Bce nu adpoHM3aroppi MOKHO HA3BaTb “SUOCTPOK YAKEBCKOFO” B pamkax npoekta “Benopycckne umeHa B MUpPOBOK HayKe 4 TexHuKe”'B PHTB 6pi0 npopefeHo Hay4yHoe Kathe, nocea- weHHoe 110-netH0 A.JI. YwkescKoro, yueHoro, ypoxerya Be- napycnv, BHEClWero 3Ha4uTeNbHbIM BKNaA B pasBnTue renno6u- onoruu. Meponpuatne 6bino opraHn3soBaHo Pecny6nukaHckon Hay4HO-TeXHMYeCKOK 6UGNuOTeKON NPM yyactTun Hay4Ho-npocBe- TuTenbcKoro O6wectTBa “Afamant”. B pa6ote Hay4Horo katbe npuHann yyactne Nepsbili 3amec- TuTeNb MpeAcegatena FKHT B.U. Hegunpxo, Aupexrop Unctu- TyTa Npo6nem ncnonb3soBaHUA NPMpoOAHbIXx Pecypcos uv akono- run HAH Benapycn (AMUMPS) B.®. NoruHos, Aupextop Pec- ny6nukarcKoro Llentpa npo6nem Yenoseka Bry .U.Caraipax, AeACTBUTeNbHbI 4neH BenopyccKoro Feorpamuyeckoro o6.we- crea B.H. Kucenes, Apyrue yyeHbie 4 uccnefoBatenn TBOpYe- cTBa A.J1.4wkeBcKOrO, CTYeHTbI CTONMYHbIX BY3op, *ypHann- CTbI pecny6nukaHcKnx CMI. YuacTHnkam Hay4Horo Kade 6binn NpeActaBneubi sKcno3n- UMA penpoAYKYHA KapTuM A.4wxkeBCKOrO, Hay4HO-nonyNApHIi Bugeodunbm 06 yyeHom, BbICTaBKa KH 43 douAa PHTB no renuosvepreTnke, KOCMKYeCcKON Guonorun u npobmemam 6KoO- cqeppi. YuacTHukam Hay4Horo Kate 6bina Npoflemonctpuposana namna 4“wkeBcKoro, KOTOpan padotana B Te4eHMe Bcero 3ace- Alanua. Takum 06pa30m, yyacTHHKK HaydHoro Kage nonyyunn YHUKaIbHY!O BOSMOXKHOCTb KCNbITaTb Ha Ce6e ScpcbeKT aspono- HMsaquu. 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HaaBanne “Slioctpa Yn- »eBCKOrO” eH AaNnK nocnegoBatenu AnexcaHapa Jleonnfosn- 4a, NpofomkuBluKe NponaraHpy ero yHuKanbHOro us06peTeHHA ‘Tpoekr “Benopycckne uMeHa 8 M¥poBON Hayke W TexHiiKe” Pecny6nvxanc- KOM HAYYHO-TEXHM4eCKON GYENMOTeKU OCyLIeCTBAeTCA Npy NopAepKKe Tocynap- CTREHHOTO KOMMTETA NO HayKe MW TEXHONOTMAM Pecny6niiKn Benapyct u nocarujen YWeHbIM-SenopycaM, BHECLUMM 3HaYMTenbHblii BKNag B PasBMTMe YenoBeuecTaa, nocne CmMepTu Benukoro yuexoro. HbiHe mioctpa YwxKeBcKoro WMpoKO UcnonbayeTCA B OTEYECTBEHHOM M MUPOBOM MegNuMHe. Ywxeackuit AoKa3zan, YTO HeQOCTAaTOK asponHos B nomeuje- HAK MOKET BbISBaTb TDOMOoreMOpparM4eckn CHHApoOM, cno- COGHbIA NpKBOAMTS kK MHcbapKTam, WHCyNbTaM, TpOMO6o3aM Ku Apyrum cocyAkcTbIM sa6oneBaHnaM 9-34 HapyweHna npoyec- - COB CBepTbiBannA KpoBM. Cekxper HeNUTeNbHOrO Scpqhexta nio- CTpbi YwkeBcKoro COCTOMT B TOM, 4TO OMa BbIPAadaTbIBaeT ner- KM OTPKYATeNbHbIe MOHbI, KOTOpbie NepefaloT CBO 3apAg Bo3- Ayxy. 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B faHHoe Bpema UCcnonb3soBaTb TaKOe HANpAKeHKeE NO BCeM CaHWTapHbIM HOpMaM B NOMeLIGHMHM 3aNnpeLyeHd, 4 NOSTOMy MbIT- NMBbIA M HACTOMMMBbIN NOTPe6uTeNb HurAe He HageT NpoTOTHN TOM CaMOM miocTpbI YwKeBCKOFO, a YCTPOMICTBa C M@HbLUMM Ha- NpKeHVeM, M MeHbLUMM KOMYECTBOM Urn He MMelOT HUYeroO 06- uuero c MlocTpol YwKeBCKOrO. Tak Ha3abIBaTb MOXKHO TONbKO BON- He KOHKp@THY!0 KOHCTPYKUMIO, KOTOpaA 6bINa NOAPOGHO OnucaHa B cbyHAaMeHTaNbHON MOHOrpadun yueHoro “AspovoHnduKayna 8 HapOgHom xoaAiicTee” (Mocksa: Tocnnannagar, 1960). AmMex- HO ONMCaHHAaA TaM KOHCTPYKUMA Npegnaranach ANA WApOKOrO BHegpeHna. KeTatv, B Tom xe 1960 r. Mpesma~vym BLICIIC npu- HAN ChelNanbHOe NOCTAHOBNEHNE 06 UCKYCCTBEHHOM MOHM3ayNU BosAyxa ann ynyYwenva ycnoBnii Tpyaa Ha NponaBogcrBe. ViMeHHO K 3TOW KOHKPeTHOM KOHCTPYKUMM OTHOCATCA BCE TEX- HMYeCcKHe XapakTepucTHKH 4 pexuMbi akcnnyaTaynn. UMeHHO pv ee NPuMeHeHNN GbINIM JOCTHTHYTbI U3BECTHBIC NONOXUTENIb- HbIe BCPexThI. 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Nostomy, npexAe Yem pewmTb Ana ce6a — nokynaTb MlocT- py Wmxesckoro nn HeT, HEO6XOAUMO pasoOpaTeca, YTO xe OHA ns ce6a npeactaenaer. ae otftatfte cisco lronPort npeanaraet Web-cbunetpp! c 3alyHTon OT GOT-ceToH MH ONaCHLIX CaitTos Hosi.te cbyHKLn BE30NACHOCTH NOMIbSYIOTCA NIYYLUAM OTPaGhesbr- Mi PENYTAL|AOHHbIMY J@HHbIMM 1 NOBbILUaIOT BEPOATHOCTS Nepe- XBATA BPEAHbIX NPOTPAaMM, MPOHUKAIOLYX B KOMMbIOTep Hepes Uxteprer Komnauva lIronPort® Systems, HeqaBHO BOWeAWAA B COCTaB Cisco® u nocraBnalouyaa Ha PbIHOK LUO3bI ANA 3aLuMTbI KOpNopa- TMBHOM SNI@KTPOHHOM NOTH! MHTepHeT-gocTyna, OObABMNA O SHa- 4ITeNbHOM YCOBEPLUCHCTBOBAHMN CbuneTpoB IronPort Web Reputation Filters. XoTA cbunbTpb! IronPort n 6e3 37x yCOBePWJEHCTBOBAHMH Ny4- we BceX B OTpacn cnpaBnannen C NepeXBaTOM BpeAOHOCHEIX Web- nporpaMM, KOMNaHMA peluivna BBECTH B MX COCTaB HOBbIe pyHKMn URL Outbreak Detection 1 Botsite Defense, koropbie ete Gonee yBe- JAYHBALOT OTpbIB NPOAyKTOB lronPort Web Reputation Filters or KOH- KypeHTOB, Tenepb HOBbIM YPOBeHb 3alLiMTb! OT BPEAOHOCHBIX NPO- Tpamm 6ygeT goctyneH ana cictem Web-6esonacHocTn lronPort S- Series™ v1 ceren lronPort SenderBase® Network. WWW - spegubiii-Bpequbii Web? Ananua ceTeBbix yrpo3, NPOBepeHHeIM cneyvanncTamH lronPort v Cisco, noxasan, 4ro VnTepHer Bce Yale CTaHOBHTCA Manlo6neH- HbIM KaH@sIOM SNOYMbILUN@HHMKOB, Yepe3 KOTOPbIA OH pacnpocT- PaHsloT CBOu nporpaMMel. B pesynbTate KomMNaHnn no_Bepralorca B@CbMa U3OLUPEHHbIM yrpo3saMm, UCXOAALWMM M3 MHOKECTBA XOPO- LUO CKOOPAVHMPOBaHHbIX ACTOYHMKOB. SnoyMbILUNeHHMKM NOCTOAHHO MLUYT HOBbIe MYTH pacnpocTpa- H@HMA aTAK VM MOBBILUCHMA UX ScqpCPeKTUBHOCTH. OAKH M3 TaKMX Ny- Te — pacnpoctpanennve BpeAHbIX nporpamm Yepe3 O6bI4HbIe “3a- KOHONOCNYWHbIe” Cale. K npymepy, B Hayane MapTa 2008 roga COTHM O6bINHbIX CaTOB GbINM VCNONb3OBaHbI ANA nepeagpecaynn pacnpocTpaHeHiA BpeAHbIX NpOrpPaMMHbIX pOGOTOB (bots) B pam- KaX KpynHOMaclwTa6HOl AVHAMUYeCKOM CeTeBOA aTakn. @wreTpel lronPort Web Reputation Filters pacnosHatoT cpakT nepeagpecaynn vy OCTaHaBnuBaloT UcnonHeHve sanpoca AO Toro, kak BpeAHaA Npo- TpaMMa MPOHMKHeT B Bally ceTb. Mpocraa duneTpaynAa aApecos Pannono6nrenb - 04/2008 |] Cisco — MupoBow nugep B O6nacTu ceTeBbix TEXHONOrUV, MEHAIOLUVX CrOCO6bI YeNnoBeYeCcKoro OG6LEHHA, CBA3H UM COTpyAHMyecTBa. VcbopmMayna o pelieHiax, TexHOnorHAx 4 TeKyLen HeATeNbHOCTH KOMITaHH ny6nuKyerca Ha calitax www.cisco.ru 1 www.cisco.com URL egecb He mOMOxeT, nockoneKy @TaKa UCXOQUT OT O6bINHbIX calitos, HO cbunsrper tronPort Web Reputation Filters c dbyHky“amn Botsite Defense 1 URL Outbreak Detection pacno3HatoT 3apaxeH- HbIe CaliTbI MW He NOSBONALOT BaLUAM CHCTEMaM NOAKTOYaTBCA K HAM. B mnpe cyuyectayeT Gonee 10 munnuapgos aKTMBHbIx Web-cTpa- Hi. To AaHHbIM OTPacneBbIX AHANMTHKOB, OT 2 10 10 NPOLeHTOB Web-caiiTos TaAT OnacHOCTb ANA NonbsoBaTenen, YTO cosqaeT Ce- pbesHyo yrpoay ana CoBpeMeHHbIX KoMNaHMi. LUinvoHcKve 1 ApyrMe BpeAHbIe Nporpammbl, pacnpocTpaHAembIe C STUX CaMTOB, BEAYT K NOTepe KOHCPMDeHYVANbHO MHCPOpMaLINN, BbISbIBaIOT NPOCTOM Ce- Te VM CMCTEM, CHWKAIOT NPOVZBOAMTeNbHOCTb TpyAa VW NOBbILUAIOT pacxopbi Ha TeXHMYeCKylO NoAAepxKy. Take penyTA4MOHHbIe CHC- Tem! cbunbtpaunn, kak lronPort Web Reputation Filters ¢ @yHKLMA- mv URL Outbreak Detection v Botsite Defense, aauyuuyaioT oT 3apa- .K@HHbIX CAMTOB 1 GbICTPO MYTMPYtOLUNX BPeACHOCHbIX NPOrpamM. Bot-caittsl — HoBbid Cnoco6 O6mMaHa Ofna v3 Hav6onee onachbix Web-yrpo3 ucxOANT OT 3apa>xKBH- HbIX XOCTOB (TaK Ha3bIBAeMbIX “6OT-CAMTOB”), KOTOpbIe BbINONHAIOT KoMaHfbl ynpaBnaiouyel xakepcKon ceTu (“6oT-cern’, “botnet”). Qelictaya Yepe3 cuctemb! 3neKTPOHHOM NOYTbI C NOMOLYbIO Cra- Ma, 60T-CalTbI peKNamupyloT 4 pacnpocTpanaloT ce6a Yepes coama- Baembie MMM CaMMMM OfHOpaHroBbie CeTH. BOT-CeTH XOPOLUO KOOp- QUHMpytoT cBO!O padory Apyr c Apyrom 4 reHepupyioT criaM CO CCbiT- kami Ha 3apaxxeHHbie Web- crpaHnibi. Cuctema botnet/botsite npeg- craanner coGoi unrennektyanbHyto niaTdopmy pacnpocTpaveHna BPeACHOCHbIX NPOrpamM, KOTOPaA MICNONb3yeT cpyHKLAY NOBTOPHO- PO VCnONbSOBAaHNA VW CAMOZaLUTbI. Mo HeEKOTOpbIM OLEHKaM, 10 MEHb- Wel Mepe 7% KOMNbIOTepOB, NOAKNIOYEHHEIX 6 MHTepHeTy (TO ECTb 75-100 MMNNVOHOB MaLUNH) yKe BKTHOYeHbI B CLCTeMbI botnet/botsite. “TennektyanbHocTb 60T-ceTei nopakaeT BOObpaxKeHve, — TOBO- put Tom Munnuc (Tom Gillis), BAYe-npes“AeHT NO MapKeTUHTy W3 KOM- naunn lIronPort Systems. - Ogua 60T-ceTb MOKeT CO3MaTb ThICAHK 3aPaKeHHbIX 6OT-CalTOB, KAKAbI U3 KOTOPbIX AKTHBHO pa6oTaetT OT HECKONBKUX MUHYT 0 HECKONbKUX YaCOB. SaLuWTUTb OT HMX MOKET TONMbKO penyTayMoHHan Web-ycnyra, KoTopan pacnosHaeT OOmaH (pUNbTpyeT CaliTbI B ynperkWaloL\eM PeruMe”. Onacubie anpeca (URL Outbreaks) Nomumo 6bicTporo pacnpoctpaHeHna apegHpix bot-cairos, YeHTp OYeHKK yrpo3 IronPort (Threat Operations Center) Ha6niofa- @T 3HANUWTENbHbIA POCT KONMYeCTBa agpecoB URL, yepes KoTopbie PACNPOCTPAHAIOTCA HOBbIC BPEAOHOCHbIE NPOrpaMMbI C HeEMSBeCT- HbIMM CUrHaTypaMu, 3a nocnepHve 12 MeCAYeB KONMYECTBO TakUXx agpecos yeenuunnoce Ha 300 npoysHTos, Torfa kak Npegnpusatna WO CX NOP He MMeIOT SccheKTHBHbIX CpefcTB GopE6pI c HUM. Cerogua yrpo3bi MCXOAAT, MnaBHbIM O6pa30Mm, OT GoT-caliTop, KOTOpbIe ChYxKaT HEHTPaMM pacnpocTpaHeHuA BpeAHbIX Nporpamm, OT CNama, B KOTOPOM CofepxaTca CobINKM Ha Bpeghbie agpeca URL, OT S9apaKeHHbIX CaviToB Web 2.0 4 BpefOHOCHOM ceTeBo peKna- mobi. B cuTyayun, Korpa YrpO3b! CTANM MHOFONPOTOKONBHbIMM, KOM- nanva lronPort HagexHO 3auMLyaeT KOpnopaTHBHble ceTH MH nOoMo- FaeT KOMNAHMAM Scp(PPeKTMBHO paboTaTh, He noABepraAncb yrposam NaQeHnA NPOVSBOAUTeNbHOCTM M OTKNIONeEHMA pecypcos. “Pacty- wee 4YNCNO 60T-caiTOB HW YeBNNYeHKe KONMYeCTBA HOBbIX HeEN3BeC- THbIX BPEAOHOCHbIX NPOrpaMM BbIsbIBaeT GONbLUMe NpOG6nembl, — ropopuT Tum Commepc (Tim Sommers), crapluvi vnxeHep, oTBe- Yaoi 3a CeTeByi0 6esonacHOCTh B MeAMUMHCKON KOMnaHKK Aurora Healthcare. — Nocneguaa sepcva cbunbrpos lronPort Web Reputation Filters faet Ham peweHve QnA Hage xXHOM salute! OT STMX Yrpo3, DaxKe eCNnv UX CHrHaTYpbI MOKA HEMSBeCTHbI”. ®ynxunn Botsite Defense u URL Outbreak Detection CytwecTBylouyve pewexua Ana TpaQNUMOHHON cbunbTpayNn ap- pecos URL 6 aToM cuTyauMn ManoacdbcbeKTMBHbI, TAK KaK BO MHO- Tom NonaraloTcA Ha MeTOPbI py4HOW KnaccnepHKaynn. SapaxKeHHpie caWiTbl MOryT OTHOCHTbCA K BECbMa CONMAHbIM M ABTOPMTeTHbIM KaTeropvaM (uHaHCOBbIe, pasBNeKaTeNbHbIe, HOBOCTHbIC CaliThI 4 1.2.), YTO BeNnaeT TpagnyvoHHylo KNaccnh¢pnKayMio vu cbuneTpa- Unto COBEPWeEHHO HeENpUrogHoN. @yxKyua IronPort URL Outbreak Detection pacnosnaet vv 6no- kupyer anpeca URL, y koTOpbix HeT yCTOABUeMICA penyTaymn V4 cHr- Hatypbi. Kak npasuno, Takve agpeca pacnonaratorca Ma 60T-cali- Te, KOTOPbIM ynpaBsAeT 6OT-ceTb. Cert IronPort SenderBase Network wmeeT OnHy 49 CaMbIX LUM- Poknx 8 OTpacnn 6a3 AaHHbIx C aApecaMN sreKTPOHHOM NOuTEI Web-caittos, 4To no3sBonAeT KOMNaHMH IronPort 6bICTpO HaxO_UTD hw 6NoKMposaTb HOBbIe anpeca URL. Cneynanuctei lronPort Threat Operations Center HenpepbiBHo aHanvaupyioT rnobanbHbii Web- Tpacpuk B pEXMMe PeanbHoro BpemeHM lV 3apaHee NOACHMTbIBAIOT PenyTayMOHHbi pevTMHr HOBbIX agpecos URL AO Toro, Kak paspa- 6OTYMKM @HTMBMPYCOB VM AHTHLUNNOHCKMX NporpamM npegocTaBAT komnanun lronPort curnatypy. B 4vcne nocnegunx noctTwxKeHnii IronPort - merogbi MomennpoBaHnvA 6esonacHocT™H sna AMHAMMYeC- KOM 3AL\MTbI OT CeTeBbIX yrpO3, HANPABNeHHbIX NPOTHB “qo6pono- PAACYHbIX” CaMTOB, a TaIOKe HeENpepbIBHO pa6OTalOLMe CHCTeMbI, KOTOpbIe PacnOsHaloT MNqpacTpyKTypHbie CpeAcTBa, No”WeEpxU- Baloune aTaKy, M 6bICTpO 6NOKMpyIOT MX. Alocrynnocte Nocnegnue Bepcun cbunbtpos IronPort Web Reputation Filters ye AOCTyNHbI Ha CucTemax Web-6esonacHoctn IronPort S-Series. Bonee nogpo6uyto vncbopmMayvio MOKHO NONyYMTb Ha CTpaHnye www.ironport.com/products/web_security_appllances.htm! O Komnanun IronPort Systems Sj FOPYZ0HTEITEXHVK JK lronPort pacno3snaet mw 6noKupyet aTaku HoBoro THNa, KOTOpbio HanpasnatoT nonb3soBaTenA Ha cnam-caiiTbi Yepe3 O6bINHbIe KHTepHeT-anpeca B nocnegHee Bpema cTanu pacnpocTpaHATbeA arakn, uc- NonbayouMe cyHkynu Google, Yahoo! 1 AOL ana nepegaun cna- Ma 4epes afpec URL 8 Tene coo6ueHua. STOT Tun Cnama Cco- AepxXNT OAHY CNeyWaNbHO NOATOTOBNeHHyWo CCbINKy Ha appec URL, KoTopbIi BbIrTNAQMT BNONHe 6e306MgHO M AOMKEH BbIBO- ANTb NONb3o0BaTeNA Ha O6bINHbI Cat. OfHaKO B AAHHOM cny- 4ae aanpoc ¢ O6bINHOrO Calta aBToMaTNYecCKn NepecbinaeTca Ha cnaM-cant c NOMOLibIO dbyHKYNi “Open Redirect” (oTKpbiraa nepeaspecauma) unu “Unprotected Forwarder’ (HeaauuujenHaa nepeagpecayya). Kpome Toro, ana nepeafpecayun BbI30Ba Ha CBOM cant cna- MepbI VCnONb3yloT yHKyHlo Google “I'm Feeling Lucky”. JIna aTOro cofepxalascA B COOOujeHMM CcbINKa URL npenapupy- TCA TaKMM O6pa30M, YTO6bI AKTMBUMpOBaTb PyHkynio “I’m Feeling Lucky” 8 novckoBom mawuHe Google. B pesynstate NoNb30BaTeNb ABTOMAaTHYeCKM NonagaeT Ha HYXHbIN cCNaMBpy calir. Ana Tex xe Yenew NCNONb3yi0TCA MexaHN3MbI OTKPbITOM Ne- peagpecaynn Yahoo u AOL, npvyem B nocnegHve ABa Mecaya KONMYECTBO STUX ATAK MOCTORHHO pacterT. YKe CeroAHA npn- Me@pHO 1% BCexX Cham-cOO6WeHMM COnepxHT “3apaxKeHHbie” CCbInky, NPHYeM aTaKM MaHHOrO Tuna BCTpeYaloTcA Bce YaLe, WC NOMOLbIO STO MeTOANKUY SNOyMbILUNeHHMK MOxKeT Hanpa- BUTb Bac Ha CaMT, 3apaxKalOLNi KOMMbIOTepb! BPeAOCHOCHHIMU nporpammamn. Cuctema 3auvTbl 8neKTPOHHOM noth IronPort email security appliance u cuctema 3auutb AnTepHera IronPort Web security appliance ycnewHo 6noKupyloT aTakn 3TOro Tuna, 3alMlaA BAKASYUKOB OT YPO3, CBASAHHbIX C MCNONb3OBaHVeM MeTOAOB COYMaNbHOM MHKeHeEpuH. MIPUMEP ATAKU - Bbi nonyyaeTe NO SNeKTPOHHOM NoYTe coo6WeHHe, cofep- XKALUCE CCbINKY Ha COBEPLWWeHHO OGbINHBIN agpec. B sTOT afpec, OfHakO, 3anOxKeHbI CneyManbHble Napamer- Pbl, NOSBONAIOLKe ABTOMATNYeCKM NepeaApecoBbIBaTb BalwU BbIZOBbI, TAK YTO, HAXKAB Ha 9TY CCbINKY, BMECTO MCKOMOFO Cai- Ta BbI NONagaete Ha Cait 3nOyMbILUNeHHUKAa. Ecnu Bawa cuctema 3neKTpOHHOw Noth! salWMiueHa Cpep- cTBamn IronPort, a KOHeYHbIe NONb3OBaTeNnv UMeWT CUCTeMbI 3auynTol lronPort Web security appliance, ataxv aToro THna Bam He CTpawHbi. Cuctempbi IronPort aBToMaTuyecKku O6HOBNAIOTCA W HafexXHO npesOTBpaliwjawT nepegayy cnama uv BpeAHbIx Web- A@MPpecoB KOHeYHbIM NCNb3soBaTensM. BnonHe BO3MOXHO, YTO CO BpemMeHeMm CnaMepbI HaYHYT ic- NONb3OBaTb ABTOMATHYeCKy!O NepeagpecauMio He TONbKO ANA NpMHyAUNTeNbHOrO NpOoCMOTpa CBOUX CaTOB, HOW BNA AOCTaB-- KW Ha Bal KOMMbIOTepbI LWNMOHCKMX MW APYTUX BDeAOHOCHbIX nporpamm, Komwnakna lronPort npogonxkaet cneguTb 3a MeTO- AaMM 3nOyMbILUNeHHMKOB VW ABTOMAaTHYUeCKH afaNnTUpOBaTb CBOU CUCTeMbI, YTO6bI HAAEXHO 3aLUVTUTb 3aKa34UKOB MW CBOeBpe- M@HHO YBEAOMUTb MX O HOBbIX PUCKAX UM YrpO3ax, YTO “ MenaerT- CA aHHbIM npecc-pennsom. Komnanna lronPort Systems co wra6-kBaptupou 6 Cax-BpyHo (utarT Kannqbopuna) npunagnexut Komnanun Cisco. IronPort Systems — Begyuwii NOcTAaBLNK peweHNi ANA Gopb6bl co cnamom, Bupycamu HW LuNMOHCKYMK nporpammamn. Pewexnvamn lronPort NONb3YIOTCA OpraHv3salMn CaMbIX PaSHbIX THNOB, OT MaNbIX NPEANPMATHH AO BeAYLWX MUMpOBbIX KOMNAHK. Stn peweHuA nomnep- xneaeT SenderBase® — caman kpynvan B Mupe 6a3a AaHHbIx, re XPaHATCA CUHATYPbI aTAK, BCTPEYAIOLUUXCA B Untepuete uv CUCTEMAX 3NEKTPOHHON nouTel. Npopyktel IronPort ornmyalorca HOBATOPCTBOM, NPOCTOTOM VCNONb3OBaHMA VM BbICOKOM NDON3BOAN- TeNbHOCTbIO. OHM wrpaloT KPUTHYECKM BAKHY!O PONb B CUCTEMAX 3ALYVTbI KOPNOPATMBHbIX CeTeBbIX MHcppacTpykTyp. Bonee nop- po6Haa MHopmaynsA oO NpogyKTax MW ycnyrax IronPort Systems ony6nukoBaHa Ha caiiTe http://Awww.ironport.com/ [| Ponnonic6urens — 04/2008 ———— +] TOPUZB0OHTbI TEXHUKYU [--—--____+ ..oT http: //www.cenews.ru/ Coanana scpcpextwenan nnaasmennan namna http://md.cnews.ru/tect/news/line/index_science.shtml?2008/0/24/293361 Komnanua Luxim 13 Kpemunesoi gonvHbl paspa6otana HoBy!0 sqpcpeKTMBHyIO NaMny Ha OCHOBE APrOHOBON Mmnasmbl. Jlawna vanyyaer Gerbil CBeT B pesynbTaTe CBeYeHVA NagMbl, B KOTOpYIO NPeBpaujaeTcA apron NOP ACHCTBMEM BbICOKOYACTOTHbIX paspA- fos. Jlamna Benvunton c TaGnerky AaeT CBETOBOM NOTOK 140 nM/BaTT, 4TO NOYTH B 10 pas acbdeKTMBHOS, 4emM CTAaHAAapTHbIe NaMnbi HaKaNuBa- HUA, MB 2 pasa acbqbeKTMBHee, 4em CBETOAMOABI. Cpok cny>k6b1 Namnb! coctaBnsert 20 TbIc. YacoB. Asnenne He COMEPXKMT PTYTM lM APYTMX TAKENbIX METAUINOB, Kak NOMMHECLIGHTHbIC NaMNbI. Coayan “ru6pvq” mvkpocKona WM CoTOROrO Teneqboua http://rnd.cnews.ru/natur_science/news/line/index_science.shiml?2008/02/20/292953 Ucenefosarenv v3 yHuBepcnteta KanucpopHnu B bepkni paspaGoTann MVKpOCKON BbICOKOrO YBENMYCHVA, COBMECTUMbIA C COTOBbIMN TenecboHamn. YeTpolicTBo NpeAHaSHaYeHO ANA MEQVKOB B OTAANeHHbIX paoHax. OHO NOsBaNAeT AeNaTe CHVMKM passiM4Hbix Guonormyeckux c6pa3sy0B C NOMOLUbIO KaMeporpoHa, a saTeM NepesaBaTb NONyYeHHBIe CPoTOrPachMN SKcnepTaM B FOPOACKMX MEQUUWHCKHX LeHTPAaX. CTonmoctb nepBoro NpoTOTMNa, NOCTPOEHHOO M3 CTaHAAPTHbIX KOMNOHeEHTOB, CocTaBnaeT 75 USD; oH ocBeLaeT O6pasely C NOMOLIbIO HeEgoOpornx CBeTOAMOCB C HH3KMM SHepronoTpeGneHvem. Mukpockon nocTaBisercn B ABYX BepcHAX: c yeennueHvem B 5 14 60 pa3. MocnegHee yerpolicTBo NOSBONACT FeNaTe FETANbHbIe CHAMKV KNETOK KPOBM V4 NapasvTos. B Poccnn noasenies OTevecTBeHHbI GOA KETHbI KOMNMBIOTep 3a 400 USD hitp://rnd.cnews.ru/tech/news/line/index_science.shtml?2008/03/14/292042 Kak coo6uaert calr “Benopycckve HOBOCTH”, MAHCTP HHCPOpMaLVOHHbIX TeXHONOM 4 CBAs PO Jleonvg PelimMay aHOHCMpOBaN BbIMYyCK oceHbio 2008 ropa poccniickoro nepcoHanbHoro KOmnbioTepa 3a 400 USD. Mo cnopam Peiimana, Mofenb 6yfeT COOTBETCTBOBaTb COBPeMEHHOMY YPOBHIO pasBnTMA TexHONOrMi. Ee BbiINyCK NOMOXeT YBENUYMTb Yicno POCCVIACKUX NONb3o0BAaTeENeN MHTePHETA. Ofno v3 seneHorpaacKnx npeANpuATM B CNeAyIOLeM ropy NPesCTABMT COGCTBEHHbIe MAKPONPOLeCcop MM NaMsiTh. OTeYeCTBEHHbIe KOMN- neKtytouve ANA KOMNbIOTepoB, NO MHeHHiO Pelimana, noaBonaT Pocchn NPHONM3KTECA K TEXHONOMMYECKON HESABUCHMCCTH. MUHCTp He yTOH- HIN TEXHVYECKMX XAPAKTEPUCTHK HOBBIX POCCHICKMX KOMNbIOTepOB. Nokasana ycnewHan xakepckan ataka Ha KApAMOCTUMyNATOp http://nd.cnews.ru/math/news/ine/index_science.shtml?2008/03/19/291945 Vccneposatenu 43 pAga aMepuKaHCKUX YHVBepPCHTeTOB NOKagzann, YTO K ANMHHOMY NEPEYHiO OGBEKTOB, YASBUMbIX ANA XAKEPCKMX aTaK, cnepyet po6asviTb YenoBeYeckoe cepALe. Vim yganoce npofemMoHcTpupoBath, Kak MOXKHO NepenporpaMMupoBaT MMNNaHTMpyeMbI KADHMOCTHMYNATOp, MMeIOLUMH cbyHKyAM DechH6- punnatopa n BogMTens pitma. ATaKa OcyLecTBNANach Yepe3 BCTPOBHHOE PafMOYCTPOMCTBO, C NOMOLUbIO KOTOPOrO M@AMKM OObISHO KOHTpann- pytoT KOppexTupyioT pa6oTy KapAvocTumynsaTopoB. B pesynsrate 6bina HapylweHa paGoTa MeAMUMHCKOrO npKGopa, YTO B PeaNbhbIX YCNOBNAX NOBNEKNO Ob! 3a COGOM CMepTb naLeHTa. Pa6ora onvicana B cTaTbe “Pacemakers and Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators: Software Radio Attacks and Zero-Power Defenses” u 6ypeT npepctaaneva Ha Cumnosvyme no 6e30nacHOCTH WW 3aLUMTe NVGHbIX HAHHbIX VHCTVTYTa VHDKEHEPOB SNEKTPOTeEXHUKM 1 aneKTpOHUKH (IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy). Hosasn Kamepa “BuqyT” CKBOSb OFexKny hittp://md.cnews.ru/tech/news/line/index_science.shtml?2008/09/1 1/291415 Kak coo6.yaert Bu-6u-cv, 6pvTanckve yueHbie paspa6oTann Kamepy, KOTOPaA MO>KET “BUDETb” B3PbIBYATKY, OPYKVE W HAPKOTHKM CKBO3b ofexny 4enoBeka c pacctorHva 70 25 metpos. Hopan kamepa ThruVision MOET NOABUTECA B ASPONOPTAX, *KENESHOAOPOXKHbIX BOK3ANIAX M APYTUX NODHbIX MecTax. B ornnune oT APyYMx aHANOrM4HbixX YCTPOMCTB, B KOTOPbIX MCONb3yeTCA PeHTTeHOBCKOe U3aNyYeHve, HOBAR KAMepa HNYerO He U3Ty4aeT, OHA paGoTaeT TONbKO Kak NPVEMMMK CUrHANOB, ManyYaeMbix YENOBEKOM. B ocHopy HoBoro ycTpolictaa nerna T-ny4eBaa TexHONOrMA, KCNONbSyeMan ACTPOHOMaAMM NPM M3YYeHHM racHyLUMx sBe3gn. TaKan TeEXHONOrMA NOSBONAET YNABNVBATS Cna6ble SNEKTPOMArHVTHBIG VMInyNbChI, UCNYCKAeMbIe YeNOBEYECKM TeNOm. STV CHTHaNb! NPOXOAAT Yepes ODE *KRY, 6ymary, Kepamuky 4 FepeBo, HO He NPOOMBAICT MeTaN VW Boy. KaMepa pervicTpypyer BONHbI, HenyyaeMbie TeNnoM, OOpadaTbIBaeT NONyYeHHyo VHCpOpMaLIM0 1 BbIDAeT KAPTHHKYy, Ha KOTOPOM BUQHO, ECTb NM y YenOBeka MOQ ONB*HOM 4TO-TO NOfOspHTeNbHOe MN HeT. Paspa6oT4kn yBepalor, YTO, HECMOTPA Ha YAMBMTeMIbHbIe BOSMOKHOCTH KAMepbI, PASNMYHbIC NOAPOGHOCTH TenOCcNOKeHMA OCTalOTCA ANA Hee HEBYAMMbIMH, 1M OHA He NOABepraeT OGbeKT HAGMHOZeHUA ONACHOMY M3NyYeHHio. B Benrpun paspadatpisatot nporpammy-nepesoaunk c COGaubero ASbIKa Ha YENOBeYeCKHA http://md.cnews.ru/mati/news/line/index_science.shtrnl?2008/0 1/16/283478 Benrepckve yyenbie 13 yHuBepcrteTa MmMeHM STeewa (ByAanelwT) paspa6aTbiBaroT NDorpaMMy, C NOMOLUbIO KOTOPOK YeNnoBeK CMOXET NOHATb, YTO NbiTaeTCA BbIPASTb CBOMM Naem cobaka. Ceviuac nporpamMoi NpoaHanu3upoBaHo Gonee 8 THIC. sanuceii nan 14 co6ak BeHrep- CKO nacTyWbe nopopbI. Mporpamma pasnuyaeT OCcOGeHHOCTH Naa OTAeNbHbIxX Cobak NyYWe, YeM YenoBeK, COOSWaIOT yYeHbIe. B AanbHel- Wem Nporpamma “Hay4vTcR” CONOCTABNATb U3AaBaemble COGAKON SBYKH C LUECTbIO CHTYAL|MAM, B KOTOPbIX Yale BCerO OKa3bIBaeTCA KMBOT- HOe B NOBCeAHEBHOM xKU3HK. Vix MOKHO O6O3HaNUMTb cnoBaMM “Yy>kKak”, “Apaka”, “MOTH rynAT.”, “OMHOKO”, “Mrpywika’ M “MrpaTb”, NnWeT Spiegel. B xoge nepsoro ucnbitaHuA nporpamma Alana COOTBETCTBYOLUM peanbHOn cuTyaymn “nepeBog” B 43% cnyyaes. Jlyuwe BCero CHa pacnosHagana no nalo cvTyaynn “ppaka” v4 “ayKak”, xyxke Bcero — “MrpaTh”. PeaynbTaTb! NOATBEPKAAIOT VEBECTHYIO TMNOTESy, YTO COGaKU pearnpyloT Ha pashble CHTYaLINM pa3HbIMV TMNaMH MaA, KOTOpbIe BbIDaKaIOT arpeccHio, APyxKeNloOGne UNM NOKOPHOCTb. Y4eHbIe CHUTALOT, UTO UX MeTOAMKA OTKPOET HOBbIE NePCNekTHBbI B M3yYEHVN KOMMYHMKATMBHbIX CrOCOGHOCTeM KMBOTHBIX. Panuono6urens - 04/2008 [] Anppek KauiKkapos r. C-Nerep6ypr Kak onv ycTpoenbi Dlomodou cocront u3 gByx “acter: BbI3bIBHOM MaHesu, ycTaHaBnBae- MOM OGbIYHO pAOM C BxOAHOM ABe- PblO C BHeLUHe cTOpOHb! (Ha ynnue) w NeperoBopHon ayqnotpy6Kn (ganee — Tpy6ku) BHyTPM NomeWeHuA. Ecnu BaHganb! pagiom He xopaT, TO AeweBNe vw Npowe BCero CMOHTUPOBaTb HaknagHylo nnactmaccosyto aygnona- HeNb (Janee —naHenb), HANpUMeD, 43 TH- nogoro pagja DS-2D, AVC-105, AVC-108, AVC-109. Bonee 3aujnujeHb! OT BHELWHUX MexaHn4eCkux BOsgercTBul BpesHbie naHenu AVC-102. NaHenu AVC-102, AVC-105, AVC-108 umetor nocagou- _ HOe MecTO (npu Heo6xogumocTy) ana ycTaHoBkn Kamepbi SK-1004CP (c MAOCKHM O6beKTHEOM “pin-hole”). Mexay co60i BbI3bIBHaA NaHeNb W BHYTPeHHAA Tpy6Ka COeQMHaAloTCA aByMaA NpoBogamn. Mpnuem, ecnn psa- OM Het ceTeBoro NpoBosa, TO B Ka- yecTBe COeAMHUTeNbHOrO AocTaToO4- Ho mio60r0 HeSKpaHupoOBaHHOro Npo- soqa. Mpu Hakatnn KHONKM Ha BbI- 3biBHOM NaHenu Tpy6Ka, ycTaHOBNeH- Has B NOMeLWeHuH, U3faeT Menogny- Hyl0 Tpenb ABa pasa Nogpag (MoryT 6biTb BapnaHtbi). Bpisatot pasrosopnbie 60K Kak C KHOMKOW NpHHygMTeNbHO BbIKMOYe- Hua 6noKa, Tak MU 6e3 Hee (TOrga Cur- Hasla-BbI30Ba He 6yAeT CNbILWHO). Npu ucnonb3sopahuw gomodoua oTNagjaeT HEOOXOAMMOCcTh B TpaguLn- OHHOM 3neKTpOHHOM 3BoHke. Ha Bcex Tpy6Kax (unu Kopnycax gepxatenen Tpy6oOK), yCraHaBnuBaeMbIx BHYTpM QOMOB, MMelOTCA KHONKM OTKPbITHA SNEKTPOHHbIX 3AMKOB. Kak noaKso0unTS Ha pwc. 1 npenctasnena anekTpnyeckan cxema ycunurena HOMOCPOHAa. TexHnyeckue xapakTepuc mk 6noKa HOMocboHa, yCTaHABNNBaeMOrO BHYTpH Oma (KBapTMpb!): - Hanpspxenne nutanua, B 13 - TOK NoTpe6nenusa, MA 30 - radapuTubie pa3Mepbi, MM GOxX230x35 - MQIbHOCTb YCTAHOBKM KBADTUDHbIX Onoxos (He MeHee), M 100 {| ABTOMATMKA [ | Pewen3na Ha ROMOdOH KIS7TYQIA Set "Tpuem/lepedava” DAt +10...13B Puc. 1. Snextpnyeckan cxema yCunutena Fomodpona Nepea Hayanom MeuTaxka DOMo- oxa v NaHenu Hago CoequHutb 6N0- KM MexaAy CO60M OBYXNpOBOAHbIM MHOrOXWsIbHbIM KaGeneM (mto6oro ce- 4¥eHMA, BbIBOAbI A B cooTBeTCTBeH- HO KaxkgOMy 6noKy). Mepeg Hayanom Neperosopos o6a nynbTa HaXOgATcA B pexkume OxKMgaHnA uM TOK He noTpe6- Natot. “tO6bI HayaTb CBA3b, HEO6xO- AMMO OfHOMy M3 OCOualOLUMxcA Ha- KaTb KHONKY, Nocne 4yero nepesaBatb coo6.yeHne. Mocne nepegaun kHOnky ODKaTb. YCTPONCTBO HE MMEET BbIKNIO- Yatena NvTaHna, NOTOMY 4TO BKTOY4e- Hue OTAeNbHOTO OnoKka ycunutena NPOMCXOAMT ToNbKO B MOMEHT Nepesa- 4, a 3aTem (Kora KHONKa oTKata) nuTaHve BbIKNIOYAeTCA. Kputuueckne same4anna Kpome HECOMHEHHBIX “nntocoB” AOMO- qboua, KuTeNH (He TONbKO NepBbIx 39Ta- Kei) NOCTOAHHO BbIHyKNeHbI OTBEYAaTb H@ 3BOHKM-BbIZOBbI pa3NM4HbIX Noce- TuTenen (NpuiweAWnXx K TEM TOgAM, y KOTOpbIx He yCTAHOBMeH pasrOBOpHbin 6nok 4 AMcTaHun- CBOMM AONrom nonactb B ABepu Hawe- ro Goma, TpeBOxKa COBEPLUEHHO He Ke- Narounx Toro nomen. Ito, 6esycnos- HO, OTpuyaTenbHaA CTOpOHa BCeO6- wei HOModoHn3aunn ropoyvCsB u no- CenKoB. Bropoe HeyqQo6cTBO COCTOMT B TOM, 4TO EXKEMECAUHO NPKXOAAT cYeTa Ha onnaty yonyr opraHv3auyuu, ycTaHo- BUBWeN AOMoCpoH. “ro cnenatb, 4to6b! AOMOMoH uc- Nomb3so0Banca Gonee acpcbeKtuBHo, a cyeTa Ha ero onnaty He NpuMHocunn 3a- nosganoro coKaneHun o “6ecuenbHo NpoxKuTbix rogax”? OcTaBum pagukanbHbil cnoco6 “Boo6lue He NnatTuTb”, MV BCNOMHUM, 4TO Ha 9TO CKa3ana u3BecTHan ynpaB- OM B cbuibme “Bpunnvadtosaa pyka”: “ne 6yayT 6patb — OTKNIONMM Fa3”. 3a npowegtune rofbi MHorne yc- Nenu wa cBoeM ONbiTe y3HaTb uw NNto- Cbi, 4 MUHycbI GOModoHM3ayNn. BbI- Bog HanpawuBaetca CaM: eCnn ycta- HaBNuBaTb AOMoOpon, TO — c Bugeona- HesIbIO. RR OHHOe ynpaBne- Hne pas6noKupos- KOH BXOAHOM pBe- TPEBYETCA Ha NOCTOAHHYIO pabOoTy UH xKeHEp- SACKPOHUK NO PeMOHTy OOOpyAcBa- HUA BUAeOHabAIOAeHHA, annapaTypbl OXPaHHO-NOxapHOU CUrHaAH3aLiMn, CUCTeM KOHTpOA AOCTYNa. Tpe6osanna: 3HaHne UM ONbIT PeMOHTa Ha YPOBHE 3ACKTPOHMKh. pv B MHOroKBap- TVPHOM ome). He Matot “cnoKonHo cnatb” yyactKo- Bbie TepaneBtbi n MUN MUMOHepbI, NouTosble chy xKa- uve vw OBOpHMKH. Becb stor, He non- HOCTbIO Ha3BaH- HbIM, KOHTMHFeHT niogenv cuntaet KontakTHbIiii Teaecpou: 226-99-66 [] Pagnono6urens — 04/2008 3auyntTa OT KOMAaPOB | ABTOMATUKA — f Bnaynumup Konosanos r. Apkytck-43, a/a 380 nporpammnpyempim McnapntTesem {na Gopb6pl c KoMapamnu ObIM paspa6oTaHb! BCEBO3MOx%x- HbIe@ OTNYTMBAIOLUNe KpeMbI UV asposonnK. Bes ucnonb30Ra- HMA STMX 3ALUMTHbIX CpeACTB BO BpeMA NOXOMOB MU c6opa Tpn6os nv Arog B Necy He OGomTMCb. Hegoctato« Np npu- MeHeHMH — peskuiA 3anax MW pasgparxKenne KOXKHbIX NOKPO- BoB. Paguonto6uTenamu 6bINK paspa6oTanbl sneKTPOHHbIe NpW6opb! SatynTb! OT KOMapOB, B KOTOpbIX 4YacTOTa reHepa- Unn COoTBeTCTByeT 3Byky TpeBorn. ABTOp gonroe Bpema Nonb3oBanca TAKUM NPMGOpOM 3aBosckKoro u3rTOTOBNeHua, pa3mepom c asTopyyky — KOMapbI HaKe 6N3KO He Nogne- Tau, HO, K COKANEHH1N, B OAH M3 NoxOgOB B Taliry Npu6op Obi yTepsaH. Ona 6opb6bl C KOMapaMU ANOHCKOM KOMNaHHerA “Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd” paspa6oTaHo BeLiecTBo “Etoc”, npv gevictann koToporo KomMapbi norM6ator. Npu anutenb- HOM McnonbsoBaHnn 3TOro BeLUeCTBa B NOMeLLIeHMAX 3aMe- 4YaNUCb FOOBHbIe 60H, TO ECTb BbIABNEHO HEraTMBHOe BIIM- AHMe Ha OpraHi3M 4esOBeKa Np GONbWOM KOHUCHTpayAn B Bosayxe. B npogaxke uMetoTca KApTOHHbIe MNACTHHbI “TasIb- AHCKOrO NPOMSBOACTBA, NPONMTAHHbIe 3THM COCTABOM, Noa TOproBbiM Ha3BaHvem “Pantop”, ykasaH AaKe agpec B MH- TepHeTe, HO KPOME KAPTMHKM C yNaKOBKH, TaM HET Hi MHCT- pykuni, Hv TenedoHos cbupmpi. Ha kopo6ke u3-nog npu6o- pa ecTb npesynpex*«7eHne: “...npW Ucnonb3OBaHUN 3akpbITb akBapnyMbl, He BKNOYaTb 6NWKe OLWHOTO MeTpa oT 4enoBe- Ka...”, @ KaK 6biTb C HOMALWHAMM X2KMBOTHbIMH, KOrAa BeLIe- CTBO pacnpoctpaHserca No Bcemy NomMeLeHH10? Vicnonb3ytot nnactuHbi MO yHAYTOKeHMIO KOMapOB, yC- TaHaBnuBar UX B CNeyNaNbHbI snekTpuyeckni Npu6op. Harpes nnactuHb! npoucxogut ¢ NOMOLLbIO MOLUIHOrO pe3sn- CTOpa, BKNIOYEHHOTO B SNeKTpu4eckyto CeTb HanpsaMyto, 6e3 3aluvtTbI 4 perynaTopos. Vcnapremoe BeLWecTBO HaunHaeT eicTBopatTb yepe3 10-15 mmHyT. MonHoe yHnuToxKeHne KO- MapoB JO/DKHO NpoNMcxopMTb 3a 1-2 4aca pa6orTbl, Npv ex*Keg- HeBHOM 8-Ml 4aCOBOM BKNIO“eHHU. MpvmMeHeHie npvi6opa B Puce. 1 ut AOT110A —0+12B yCnoBuax KBapTHpbI C BbITAXKHOM BEHTMMIALMeN BhIABMJIO NO- NOXKUTENbHbIE KAYECTBA XUMUUECKOLO BELUECTBA NO YHHYTO- EHO KOMapoB. HocasHo, 470 B MHCTpyKUNN yKa3aHo: “...npv “3roToBne- Huy npn6opa “PANTOP” npumenatotcr HOBeMLLINe MUKpOCcxe- MbI ... NpOxXOgAT O6A3aTeNbHbIC UcNbITAaHvA Ha 6esonac- HOCTb...” — yKA3AHO Ha SIICKTPOHHYtO CxeMy, HO B Kopnyce, Kpome pe3vcTopa HarpeBatenbHoro snemMeHta uM HEOHOBOM Namnoukn, HuYero HeT. . : Kopnyc 3aBogckoro Npu6opa, BbINONHEHHbIA “3 Kanpo- Ha, HarpeBaeTca cBbilue 80 rpagycos Llenbcna, to MO>KeT NpvBectn K BOsropaHnio 6rN3kO pacnonoxKeHHbIx WTOP “NU Bete, Np OTKMHOYeHMM MOXKHO OGKeUb pyKu. HectTa6unbHocTb HarpeBa nnactHMHbl ¢ XAMMYeCKUM Be- LUECTBOM He NOSBONAeT KayeCTBeHHOe M GesBpegHoe, ana yenoBeka W DOMALUHMX %KUBOTHBIX, NpAMeHeHHe. Snektpo- 6e30nacHocTb He oTBeYAaeT Tpe6oBaHuaM MMY3, 8B pewerKu MOKET NPOHMKHYTb HE TOMbKO BOSAYX. TonoBHble 60nu vn OTpaBNeHve %KMBOTHDIX NpegNaratoT OTKa3aTbcA OT MCNONb3OBaHNA 3TOrO ycTpoicTBa B Obity, BO3MOXKHO, 4TO Npu6op uSroTOBNex B OOxOA CTaHpapToB. Lienbto cTaTby ABNAeTCA paspaboTKa SNeKTPOHHOro Npo- TpamMmpyemoro ucnapytena xuMn4eckoro BelwecTBa NO YHUYTOKEHMIO KOMApOR, C UCNONb3sOBaHKeM NNACTUH MTa- MbsAHCKOrO u3roTOBuTensA. Npu6op, cxema snekTpnyeckan NPVHUMNMaNbHaA KOTOporo NpnBeAeHa Ha pre. 1, 103B0- ' TACT CENCKTMBHO HarpeBaTb NNacTuHy No BpemMeHy, B Nep- Bble Yac padoTb! BbIAeNeHne xMMUNeCKOro BeLUECTBAa Mak- CUManbHO, a B AaNbHeiWeM CHMxKaeTCA — 3TO NPakTuHYeC- Ku ycTpaHneT OTpaBneHve oprahn3Mma YesIOBeKa VM XKMBOT- HbIx Np ANMTeNbHOM McnoNbsoBaHMn yCTpoKcTBa B NOMe- WweHun. BKntoyeHve ucnaputensa 4OmKHO NpOMCXOpMTb aB- TOMATHYeCKH, B HOYHOe BpeMs, & BbIKMIOYATbCA YTPOM, NO KoMaHge cborogaTunka ocBeweHuaA. Mocne Bbikmoyenna cBeTa B NOMeLWeHMH MM HacTynneHMn cyMepek CONpOoTHB- neHuve cboTogatunka pe3kO BO3pacTaeT M Npu Ha- >KATUN KHONKh “Tyck” NponcxoAMT CHw>KeHMe Hanpa- >KeHNA Ha HV¥KHEM KOMNapaToOpe Taimepa, BHyTpeH- Hui Tpurrep TaimMepa nepeKntount BbIXOA MUKpOcxe- MbI Ha BbICOKMA YPOBeHb, Np 3TOM HanpArKeHne Ha Noforpesatene ucnaputena 6ygeT MaKCuMasibHbIM. Hepes yCTaHOBNeHublii NPOMexKYTOK BpeMeHH, 3aBNCALWIMK OT Na- pametpos 3apagHon RC-yenn, cpa6aTbipaeT BepxXHiit KOM- Napatop Taimepa, nponcxognt nepekntovenne BHYTpeHHe- ro Tpuvrrepa B NpoTMBONONOxHoe COcTOAHHe Mu CHWDKeHKE YPOBHA CurHana ynpaBneHuA, KHTeHCHBHOCTb ncnapeHnA XMMM4eCKOrO BellecTBa CHuxKaeTcn. NoggepxaHne pexu- Ma Nogorpepa peanusoBaho noporosbim ycunuteneM, yC- TAHOBNeHHbIM B LeNv OTPuLaTebHOK O6paTHon CBASH SneK- TPOHHOM cXeMbI c Harpy3KM Ha BXOM, nporpamMMupyemoro Taimepa. KoHcTpykKTMBHO NpH6op BbinonHeH B NNacTMaccoBOM KOpnyce, HarpeBaTenbHbI anemeHT paboTaet OT Hu3KOTO PagnonioGurens — 04/2008 l| TTT HanpskKeHuA nuTaHua, co6ntogeHa anexTpo6e3onacHocTb npw skcnnyataumMn v BbINONHeHa CTa6MnnsayuA UcnapeHua XMMMUYECKOPO BeLLeCTBa, HE3ABMCUMO OT KONe6aHni Hanps- XKEHUA SNeKTPOCceTH MII AKKYMY/IATOPHOHK GaTapen nuTaHna. Bbits>kka BO3pyxa M3 KOpNyca ycTpolicTBa, HACbILLIEHHO- TO JeACTBYIOLUMM BELIECTBOM, NpOMCcxOAMT KOMNbIOTepHbIM BeHTMIATOPOM pasmepamn 40*40*10 mm tuna JF 0410S1H Ha TOK 0,11 A npw 6000 o6opoTos B MMHyTY, “IM CbupMbi “Intel” DC12V 0,06A PAT, noaknto4eHHoro NapainenbHo Ha- Tpy3ke nogorpepatens, pesuctopy R11. B pexume pexyp- HOrO NogorpeBa Hanps»KeHNe Ha pesncTope NogorpeBatena ucnaputensa noHwxKaeTcA, 3TO ABTOMATMYeCKM NpKBogMT K CHWKEHMIO OGOPOTOB BEHTMIATOpa HW YMeHbLUeHMIO Vicnape- HMA XAMM4eCKOrO BELYeECTBA. MutaHve npv6opa B 6biToBbIX ycnoBMAX akcnnyaTaumn BbINONHEHO OT ceTeBOrO agantepa Cc BbIXOgHbIM HanpmxKe- Hvem 12 B*500 MA. Mpx ucnonb3soBaHnn yctpoictBa B NOxogHbIx yCnOBMAX NVTaHMe BBINONHEHO OT AKKyMYyNATOpa aBTOMOG6MNA MN MHO- TO UCTOUHMKa TOKa EMKOCTbIO He MeHee 2 A*4. B cocTas cxeMbl BxO~UT: aHanoroBoe ycTpoicTBO Ha >KYLUEM MysIbTMBU6paTope NporpamMmMupyemoro TaimMepa DA1 c 3agepxKKOM oTKNIOYeHMA, CboTOgaTYMk Ha cboTopesn- crope FR1, ycunutenb MOLHOCTH Ha TpaH3sMcTope VT1, uc- Napntenb XMMNYECKOrO BeLIeCTBa Ha pesucTope R11, BeH- TunsTop kynepa “M1”, ycunuTenb oTpuyaTenbHon o6paTHon CBA3U Ha AVOAHO-TpaHsicTOpHon ontonape U1, AaTunk nop- Aepxkadua TemMnepartypb! ucnaputena RK1 u vngMKatopp! cocTosHua npouecca HL1 u HL2. XapaxTepucrunn ycrpoticrea: - HanpskeHue NutaHun —12 B nocrosAHHOrO TOKa; - Nnotpe6nsembii TOK MeHee 500 MA; - MOLJHOCT HarpeBatena MakcumaribHas 6 BT; - Temnepatypa HarpeBa nnactuubl He Bbilue 70°C; - p@xKMM pasoTb!: B Nepsbii Yac pa6oTb! — MaKCMMaNb- Hbi Harpes, OCTanbHoe BpemA — NoOgOrpes Np Temnepaty- pe 35-40°C; - cTa6unnsalyun pexuma padorb! ncnaputenn; - paBHOMepHoe pacnpocTpaHeHve XumMun4eckoro BeLIe- CTBa NO O6beMy NOMeLIEHMA BHYTPEHHMM BeEHTMNATOPOM; - ABTOMaTHHeCKOe BKNIOYeHMe McNapuTenA Ha MaKcn- MafibHbii pe>xKMM B NepBbI YacC TEMHOrO BNeMeHM CYTOK U1 CHW KeHMe COnepKaHHA BeLWecTBa B BO3QyYxe NOMeLUEHHA Npv BKNIOYEHHOM OcBeLUeHHM “JIM B DHeEBHOe Bpema, a TaK- xe Nocne ucxofa BPeMEHM MakKcuMaNbHOrO pexuma ucna- penua BeLuecTBa; - WHAMKalMA pasoTbl ycTpoltcTBa cBeToquogamn,; - MMHMMalbHoe SHepronorpednedne Np BbICOKMX pe- 3ynbTatax; - H3KaA CTOMMOCTb ycTponcTsa Np orcyTcTBMM Aecbu- UMTHbIX paguogetanen; - 3KOHOMMYHOe MCNApeHue aKTHBHOrO BeLeCTBa Nnac- TUHbI; - NpakTuyeckoe ycTpaHeHve BpeAHOrO BNVAHMA Ha 4e- NOBEKA V JOMALLHMX *KUBOTHbIX; - NpogsneHve cpoka UCNoNb30BaHKA NNacTHH C BOCbMU 4aCOB NO MHCTPYKUMM M3rOTOBUTeNA, MO LUECTM CYTOK, 8 aB- TOMATMY4ECKOM pexuMe, 8 NeTHee BpemaA rona; ! ABTOMATUKA |-}--—- - ABTOMATHYECKOe CHMDKEHVE OOOPOTOB BEHTUNATOpA Ky- Nlepa B pexume nogorpeBa AKTUBHOrO BeLUecTBa NNacTUHbI; - AMe@TCA 3aLUMTa OT NeperpeBa yCMNMTeNA MOLUNOCTH M1 KOPOTKOrO 3aMbikaHHA B Harpy3ke; - pyuHas 4 aBTOMaTHYeCKasd yCTaHOBKa HayasIbHbIxX Na- paMmeTpos nosBonser u36e«aTb HECTaGuNbHOCTH UcnapeHMA BeLecTBa NO BPeMeHy; Cxema ycTpoiicTea co6pana Ha mate “3 OAHOCTOpOHHe- TO (bonbrmpoBaHHoro creKnoTeKctonuta pasmepamn 70*40 mm (prc. 2) 4 ycTaHoBseHa B KOpnyc 3aBogcKoro McnonHeHMA Tuna BIl-1, B HeM xe 3akpenneH BeHTMNATOp Kynepa ana o6nyBa nogorpesarensa ucnapytena. Npu nuraxun oT ABTOMOGuNA MMeeTCA NepexOAHON WHyp, BbINONHEHHbIA U3 M3ONMpOBAHHOrO Nposona c NnogxXonALUIM- MM BYNIKAMM Ha KOHUAaX NpoBoga. Mpv ceresom nuTaHun B NoMeLJeHMnK BuNka ceresoro agantepa BKMIOYaeTCA B Npu- @MHOe THE3AO, YCTAHOBNEHHOe HA OAHOM V3 GOKOBbIX CTe- HOK HDKHeEAM NONOBMHbI KOpNyca. Onucanne cxempi Cxema *gyLUero MynbTMBH6paTopa NpesHasHayexa Ana asTomaTuyeckoro nospepxKaHia Temnepatypbi HarpeBa uc- Naputena nocne npegBapuvTenbHOH ycTaHOBKM UcXOpHbIx na- pamertpos. Vicnonb3oBanne Bo BpeMA SKcNnyaTauMN pasHoro ypoB- HA MOLUHOCTH NosBONAeT GesBpegHo pacnpesenutb xumu- 4eCKOe BELLIECTBO B BO3AYXe NOMeLYEHKMA. Nogava Hanps>keHna NuTadna Ha CXeMy NPUBODMT K aB- TOMaTHYeCKOMy 3anycky *«AyLUero MybTMBUOpaTopa. KoH- geHcatop C1 8 ucxOgHOM COcTOAHMM He 3apAKeH HM ero conpoTusnedve 6nu3ko K HyN0, YTO paspewaeT paboty TaimMepa B pexkume *Kgyujero MyNbTMBH6paTopa. Mpu Ha- NpskeHun Ha H¥KHeEM KomnaparTope B 0,667Un npoucxo- AMT Nepeknto4eHne tpurrepa no Bxogy “S”. AnutenbHocta BXOAHOrO MMNyNbca ANA HagexKHoro nepeKntoyeHna DOMK- Ha COCTaB/IATb He MeHee 1 MKC, NpM TOKe He MeHee 500 HA. Tipu Heo6xoqumoctTn BKNIOYeHve ycTpOcTBa MOXKHO Npo- u3BecTn KHonkon SA1 “MMyck”, korga Tpe6yeTca 6onbiwan KOHLICHTPauMA XMMMYECKOrO BelecTBa B BO3AYXe Nome- ujeHua. ConpotusneHve cbotopesuctopa FR1 Bo spema skcnnyaTaunu ycTpoicTBa B TEMHOe BpeMaA CyTOK BeNUKO W Hanps>KeHne Ha BEPXHeM KOMNaparTope (8x04 6) HOcTHT- HeT yPOBHA NepeKnio4eHa B HyneBoe COCTOAHHe npn fo- CTWKEHMY HaNps>KeHMA Ha KOHAeHCaTope C1 B 2/3Un co Bpe- MeHem T1 = 0,693 - (FR1+R1 + R2). AnutenbHbli, nonoxKn- TeNbHbIA VMNyNbC Ha BbIXoge (3) TaimMepa UCYe3HeT Yepe3 [| Pognonio6utens - 04/2008 4 Bpema T1. Sto 3aliMeT OKONO OAHOrO 4aca pa6oTbI ncnapr- Ten” HA NONMHyto MowHOcTb. Mpn BHEBHOM OcBeLYeHMH co- NpoTusnexve cbotopesMctopa CHwxKaeTCA, BPeMA 3apaAga KOHfeHcatopa C1 coxpaijaetca, C NOHWKEHKeM OG6LUIEM KOH- ueHTpaymMn xMMMYecKOoro BeLUeCTBa B BOsAyXe. B AaHHON cxeme MUKpocxema TalMepa pa6oraeT B pexuMe ofHOBn6- PaTopa Cc OgHMM UMnynbCom ANHHOH B OAMH Yac. Npx nog- KMIO“eHMN BepxHero BbIBOga choTopesnctopa FR1 k BbIxogy (3) TaAmMepa nponsoiget nepexog B pexkum aBToreHepato- pa, Bpema nogorpesa ucnapuTena 6yfeT nepvognyeckn cée- HATCA BPpeMeHeM Nay3bi; TAKOM pexuM Nonesen, Kora KonU- 4eCTBO KOMapoB NOCTOAHHO NononHAeTca, K NpuMepy, B SK- cnegnuMAx, B 6biITOBbIx ycnoBnax 6onee Npnemnem NepBbii BapuatT Kak Han6onee 3KOHOMMUHbIM, NpK NONHOM yHH4TO- .KeHMM KOMApoB B NOMELYCHHH. Bpipog (5) Taimepa nosBonset nonyyuTb NpaAMon AOC- TyN K TouKe AenutTenA” 2/3Un, aBnAtOLUecA ONOpHON ANA pa6orb! BepxHero KOMNapaTopa. UameHaa HanpsKeHve Ha BbIBoge (5) OTHOCUTENIbHO uC- TOYHHKAa NUTAHMA, MOKHO MODMCDULIMPOBaTb COCTORHMe MUK- pocxembI aHanorosoro Taimepa. B gaHHON cxeme 3TOT BbIBOA MCNONbsyeTcA ANA yCTaHOB- KM YpOBHA HanpAxKeHna Ha NogorpeBatene Ucnaputens, cTa- 6unv3aunn Hanps>kKeHuA Np M3MeHeHun HanpAKeHMA NMTa- Hus M 3aLMTe OT NeperpeBa ycTpoiicTBa Np BbIXOpe V3 CTpoA BeHTMNATOpa. Curvan oTpuyatenbHoi o6paTHou cansn, NpepcTasnato- LUMH pasHuuy MexKAy YCTaHOBeHHbIM NanpAyKeHMeM Harpy3- KU TpaH3ncTopa v HanpsKeHMeM AncbanaHca, NocTynaeT c ABMKKa yCTaHOBOYHOrO pesnctopa R10 Ha AMOMHO-TpaH3nc- TopHyto ontonapy U1, Bkntou“aet dboTotpaH3ucTop B pexume CoToqvoga, KOTOpbI Nepexojom KONINeKTOp-3MuTTep CHMKa- @T KOHTPOMbHOe HanpsKeHve Ha BbiBozge (5) TaAmepa. MoHn- >*eHve HaNnpmkKeHMA Ha Bxofe 5 NpMBOAMT K YMeHbLUeHUIO CpepAHero TOKa Ha BbIXOfe TaMepa n K CHM KEHMIO MOLYHOC- Tu Ha Harpy3ke TpaH3uctopa VT1. KoHgeHcatop C2 sauyn- LuaeT MUKpOcxemy OT NOMeX B Len OTPULaTeNBHOM o6par- HON cBA3K. TepMopesncTop RK1, npv noBbilweHnu Temnepa- TYyPbI B KOpnyce ycTpolicTBa Bbilwe 3agaHHbIx Npegenos, no- BbILUAET YpOBEHb NOporoBoro HaNpAxKeHUA Ha CBeTOAMOge ontonapb! U1, MOLUHOCTb aBTOMATNYeCKM CHW>KaeTCA. Ccbopmupopadhbii KAyLU4M MysibTHBK6paTOpoM Ha BbI- xoge TavmMepa NpAMOyrosbHbIN MMNysbC BbICOKOrO ypoBHa noctynaet “epes pesnctop R7 Ha Gasy ycunutensaA MOLYHOC- TH Ha TpaH3ucTope VT1, npw NpoxoxKAeHuM TOKa Yepes pe- 3uctop R11 noporpesatens npoucxognt Harpes nnactubi C XAMN4ECKUM BELUCCTBOM NO YHUYTOKEHUIO KOMApOB uM ero ucnapeuve. fina yqo6cTBa perynuposanna noporpeBatenb R11 8knto4eH B Yenb SMMTTepa TpaH3ucTopa. Pesuctop R10 ChyKMT OA yCTaHOBKM ypoBHA Hanps»KeHMA Ha NogorpeBa- Tene. Tenutenb Ha pesncropax R8, RY no3sBonser Bbinon- HUTb YCTAHOBKY YYBCTBMTENIbHOCTM TpaH3McTopa VT1 npu pa3z6poce napametpos. MpegoxpaHutenb FU1 8 yenn Kon- nektopa Tpad3ucTopa saujMujaeT Cxemy OT CnyYaiMHbIx 3a- MbIKaHMi B Harpy3ke. Senenbii caeTtogvog HL1 ykaabipaeT Ha CocTOAHue pa- 60TbI ycTpolicTBa B pexkume Noporpesa, KpacHbii HL2 — Ha P@ KUM NONHOM MOLLIHOCTH. Pannono6utens ~ 04/2008 J J ABTOMATUKA — | Meranu Cxema He uMeeT WecpUUMTHbIX pagquogetanen: pesucto- PbI Tuna C2, MIT, R11 — Ha MousHocTb 5 Bt Tuna C5. Snek- TponuTM4eckne KOHAeHCaTOps! cpupm: “Teapo”, ‘T.I.”, “Fujicon” win poccnackue K50-35, octanbHbie KM. Tpansuctop VT1 BO3MO>KHO ycTaHoBnTb Tuna 313 nHOC- TPAHHOTO NPOMSBORCTBA, BbIBOAbI 4 NACNOpTHble AaHHbIe cosnagator. Muxpocxema - cepuu 555 unu 7555. Dotopesnctop Tuna C-2 MooKHO NOMEHATb Ha cboToguog Df-256, Tepmopesnc- Top MMT-1 unu CT3-19. Ontonapa U1 3amMenuma Ha AOT127, AOT123, AOT126. Mpegoxpanutenb BbINONHeH NpoBonoyKOK qnameTpom 0,1 MM. Paguatop BbIXogHore TpaH3vicTopa pasmMepamn 10*20*30 mM 3akpenneH c nomousbto Gonta c ranKon Ha 2,5 MM. Hananxa Hanapky cxeMbI ycTpoiictBa CnegyeT HayaTb C npoBep- Ku NMTAIOLUerO HanpsKeHusa. MpegBapuTenbHo pesuctopom R8 pu orknto4eHHom pesncTope R7 BbicTaBvTb Hanps>Ke- Hie Ha noporpeBarene R11 BenvynHon 4...5 B, npn 3Tom nogorpesatenb Harpesaetca Ao 35...40°C, BexTuNATOp cna- / 60 Bpaijaetcn 6e3 Wyma. Danee cnepyeT BOCcCTaHOBUTb nonoxeHve pesnctopa R7. Np BkmtoY4eHnn cxeMbI ycTpoi- CTBA HA4HET 3apmKATbCA KOHMeHCaTOp C1, nHAMuKaTop HL2 YK@KeT HA BbICOKMM YpOBeHb Ha BbIXoge (3) MuKpocxeMbI TavMepa vw HanpAxkeHve Ha NopOrpeBatene BOspacTeT AO 9...10 B. O6oporb! BexTunaATopa kynepa BOspacryT c yBenn- 4eHneM HanpmkeHua. Ecnv aBuratenb nnoxo 3anyckaetca, 3Ha4MT HanpsAyxKeHHe Ha HEM HEAOCTAaTOYHO ANA pa6oTb! BHYT- PeHHei cxemb!I, ero chegyeT NOAHATb pesucTopom Rs go yc- Towuusoro 3anycka. B AHeBHOe Bpema KOHAeHCaTOp C1 Yepes HN3Koe Conpo- TUBNeHHe choTopesncTopa FR1 yckopeHHo sapagutca, Tai- Mep nepekniountca, Bbixog (3) nepeMgeT Ha Husk yPOBeHb Hanps>Keuna, Ha BbiIxoge (7) TakOKe NOABUMTCA HUSK ypo- BeHb M wHANKaTop HL1 yKaKeT Ha pexum Noporpesa ucna- putena. Nposepka pa6oTbi TepmoconpoTuBneHns” NpoBoguTca npn HarpeBe ero B pyke, HanpsKeHne Ha pesnctope R11 nopo- TpesaTena JOMKHO NOHNSHTCA Ha 1...2 B. BosMoxKHo py4Hoe ynpaBleHve MOWHocTbIO NogorpesBatena, ANA 3Toro cnepy- eT BOCNONb3OBaTbCA NYCKOBOM KHONKOM pyyHoro ynpasne- HMA ucnaputenem SA1. Pas B Hegento nnacTMHbI C XMMN4eCKHM BeLLIeCTBOM Ke- NATENbHO MeHATb Ha CBexne, C YEsIbIO NOBbILUEHUNA 3c—Pek- TUBHOCTM YHMYTOKEHMA KOMapoB. SaMe4eHO, YTO NpM npHy- M@HeHuu yCTporictBa Komapb! Norn6atoT HavleTy B NepBblii 4ac paOoTb! NoflorpeBarena Ha NONMHytO MOLUHOCTb. YcTpon- CTBO 3@LUMTbI OT KOMapOB %KeNaTeNbHO BKOYaTb KHONKOU WM BbIKMOYaTenem NVTaHKA 3a WBa 4aca MO CHa, Ona MaK- CUMA@NbHOTO YHAYTOXKEHMA OCHOBHOM MaCCbI KOMAPOB uM NOc- Nepyroujero CHMWxKeHMA MOLUHOCTM McnapuTena. PucyHoK neyaTHon nnate (palin komarik_lay.zip) Bb| MO- eTe 3arpy3uTb C Calta Hatuero KypHana: - http:/www.radioliga.com (pa3yen “Mporpammb!”) £5 10 E. Jl. Akosnes r. Ykropog, YkpanHa B nonynapHom paguotexuHnuec- - Kon NuTepatype onucpiBaetca Gonb-. woe KOMMYeCTBO CxeM pasHooopas- HbIx yoTpolctB. Noguac HekoTopbie untatesin AyMaior, YTO 6ONbLUAHCTBO wu3 Hux HuKorMa He HampeT cBoero “notpe6uTena” vu nyGnukatun cxem NpousBoMATCA TONbKO C OMHOM YenblIo — 3aNONHuTb o6bem XKypHana. Ecnu 6onee rny6oko BoyMaTbca B 3Ty Npo- 6nemy, TO cTaHeT Bugna u Apyran ee cTOpoHa — Kaxgoe n3 Mpoctbix ycr- PpOcTB MoxeT 6bITb NCNOMb3OBaHO ana yenei, KoTOpple NepBoHayasIbHO pa3pa6oT4nkoM vi He CTaBMsnch. Mpn 3TOM Takue ycTpouctTBa noguac o6ecneunBaloT BCeM KOHCTpyKuUMH yYHuKasIbHbIe CBOKCTBA UNM Ke 3Ha- 4NTEMbHO ynipouyator ee. B uTore Cco- s3gaTenb, KA3aN0Cb Obi, NPOcToro y3- KocneyMasbHoro ycTpowctBa nony- 4aeT “ MOpanbHoe, Mv duHaHcoBoe yQOBneTBOpeHue OT CBoero Tpyna. MHorve waxmartucTp! cnelnanb- HO M3y4alOT M paccMaTpHBalT Kem- TO CbifpaHHble NapTHn, 4ToGb! pasBn- BaTb CBOe NorMyeckoe MbILWNeHHe UH NamMatb. STOT onbIT 3acnyxMBaeT BHuMaHuaA. B yKpawHckom paguonto6uTenbe- KOM xypHane 6bina ony6NuKoBaHa CXeMa KBapTMPHOrO 3BOHKa C MHOM- Kauven padoTp [1]. Yuutbipad HeKO- TOpyto AecsPuuyNTHOCTb MacCOBoOn pa- WuoTexHn4eckonw nuTepatypbl B Ha- cTronljee Bpem”A, a Noguac u oTcyt- CTBMe CpescTB Ha ee NpuospeteHve, Ha pwc. 1 HacTOALen CTaTbu NpuBO- gutcar onucaHHan cxema. Oua npep- cTaBnaAeT onpegeneHHbin vHTepec QnA NoKeNaBlUx ee MCNONb3OBaTb, HO B QaHHOM cTaTbe Wenb NOBTOpe- Hua Ny6nukaunn CTaBMNaCb HECKONIb- Ko apyroi. Paccmotpes cxemy 6onee HeTaNnbHO, MOXKHO CAeNaTb BbIBODbI Ww npeaAnoxuTb CBO BapvaHT pewe- Hua. flaxe He6onbuuMe u3sMeHeHuA wnuw fononHeHMA MOryT 3Ha4NTesb- HO yny4WuTb noTpe6uTenbcKkue cBoicTBa uspennua. Kak BugHO U3 CxeMbI prc. 1, ecnnh BbiknioYaTeNb SA1 HaxogUTCcA BO | ABTOMATUKA t Npoctrasa MogfepHHn3auyna KBAPTMPHOroO 3BOHKGa BKJIIOYEHHOM COCTOAHHMM, TO NageHuA Hanp=skeHna Ha Quofe VD2 HegoctTa- TOYHO ANA cBeYeHuA cBeTOANOAAa HL1. SBoHoK BA1 MoxeT pa6oTaTb pw da@katuu KHONKn SB1. Sto uc- xOgHoe CocToAHMe cxemblI. Ecnu Ke nepesecty sbiknioyatenb SA1 B no- noxeHve “Bbikn.”, To cBeToquog 6y- eT CBeTHTbCA, a AeUCTBMe KHONKU SB1 Ha cxemy 6yfeT NpepBaHo u3- 3a feictTBua Quoga VD2. Npu Haxa- THM KHOnKn SB1 3B0HOK BA1 pa6o- Tatb He 6ygeT. B page cnyyaeB 3T0 XOPOWO, HO MMeeTCA uv ABHBIA “MH- Hyc” cxeMbI — HeT BU3YaIbHOM CBe- TOBOM “HAMKayMn HaxatTnA KHONKU 3B0HKa SB1, nockonbky cBeToquog HL1 6yQeT ropetb HenpepbiBHO He- 3ABUCUMO OT COCTOAHHA KHONKKH 3BoHKa. Onpegenues aia ce6a 3ana- 4y, MOXKHO NONbiITaTbCA ee PeLLUTb — CceNlatb Bu3yasbHyto MHANKALMIO HE TONbKO pexkuma 3B0HKa (BKn/BbIKN), HO 4 efO COCTOANMA B AaHHbIA Mo- Me@HT BpeMeHH (nbITatoTcA K BAM NO- S3BOHMTb Msn HET). B cxeme (puc. 2) Kak TosIbKO 6y- eT OTKMI04eH 3BOHOK BA1 nepeKnio- yatenem SA1 (B NonoxKeHmn “Boiks.”) 3arOpuTCA WHOAMKaTOPHbI CBeTOQn- of HL1. Ero Tok orpaHuuusaetca pe- 3ucTopamnu R71, R2 » anogom VD1 u cBeYyeHve cBeTOguoga — cnaboe. Ecnu Tenepb Haxatb KHONKY 3BOHKa SB1, To OTHOCKTeNbHO He6onbuice conpoTusneHne NocTOAHHOMy TOKY KaTYLUKU 3BOHKa BA1 3aluyHTMpyeT BbICOKOOMHbIM pesncTop R2. Tok 4e- pe3 cBeToquog 6ygeT onpefenaTbcA Benuy4unon pesuctopa R1, 3Ha4uT, 3HAYMTeNbHO BOSpAacTeT — npu oOT- KIIKOYCHHOM Nepekntovatenem SA1 3BOHKe BA1 cBeTognog HL1 cna6o CBeTHTCA, a Npw HaxkatMn KHONKU SB1 “SBoHok” ero ApPKOCTb CBeYeHUA 3aMeTHO BO3pacTaeT. Cxema (pune. 3) o6ecneynsaeT elie GONbLUYtO MHC—POPMATHBHOCTb Ha- xaTua KHONKK SB1 npv OTKHOYeHHOM 3BoHKe BA1. [Ina 3Toro. ucnonb30BaH AByXUBeTHbIN ceeTognog HL1, Hanpu- Mep, MMerOLUMA KpuCcTannbi KpacHoro R uv 3eneroro G ypeta cBeyenna. B UcxoAHoOM cocToaHmn, Korga 3@MKHYTbI KOHTAKTbI NepexnioyatenaA - SA1 (“Bkn.”), cBeTMTbCA 6yQeT TONb- KO KpacHbii cpeToguog R. Haxatue B 3TOM NonoxKeHMu SA1 KHonku SB1 npueeget k pa6boTe 3BonKa BAI, HO CBeTOAMOAKORM UHAMKalMN 3TOrO He 6ygert. Ma v 3a4em OHa B AaHHoM chy- yae, Bb 3BOHOK CJIbILUHO 4 B KBap- “Tupe, v Ha NeCTHM4HOR nnowagKe. Ecnu pasomkHyTb nepeknioua- tTenb SA1 (nepeBecTn ero B nonoxKe- Hue “Bbikn.”), TO 6yAyT OMHOBpeMeH- HO cBeTMTbcA O6a KpUcTanna cBeTO- avoga — vu KpacHbii R, vu 3enenpii G. [nas 4enogeka B CMny CBoen MHep- UMOHHOCTH 6yfeT WaBaTb CyMMapHoe uBeToBoe BocnpuaATue. Ecnu 6bitb SAI SB1 BA1 = "Bxn/Bbixn." "3e0HoK" [| Panvonio6urens — 04/2008 NYHKTYAsIbHbIM, TO MOXKHO OTMETHTb, 4TO 9TH WBA BETA NOABNAIOTCA No- O“epeAHO Cc YaCcTOTOK ceTH. Npv Haxkatun KHOnKM 3BoHKa SB1 OTHOCMTeENbHO HeEGonbuICe Conpo- _TMBNeHMe KaTYWIKM 3B0HKa BAI o6ecneunT cBeyeHue TON_KO 3eneHo- ro G Kpnctanna csetoguoga HL1. SsByKosoro curHana 3BOHKa BA1 npu 3TOM, ECTECTBEHHO, He Oyler. Takum 06pa30M py ncnonb3o0Ba- HUM AByXLBeTHOrO CBeTOANOsA B Ka- yectTse HL1 MOXxKHO NOBbICMTb UH- COpMaTMBHOCTb PasoTb! 3BOHKa NpU ero OTKMIONEHHOM COCTOAHMH. Ecnu caenatb 3aMeTHbIM CBeTO- Anog HL1 crosuemy nepeg BxOAHOK ABePbIO YeNoBeKy, TO Npu u3smeHe- HUM BeTa CBeYeHUMA CBeTOANKOAa BO BPeMA H@KATMA MM KHONKM 3BOHKa co3qactca unnio3sna pa6oTp! camoro 3BOHKa. CurHana 3BOHKa He CMbILU- HO, BNageNbuy KBAPTUMPbI OH HE Me- waeT, Hanpumep, HOU, a NOCceTH- Tenb He 6yfeT NpOABNATb GecnoKoi- cTBa. OH 6yfeT AYMaTb, YTO 3BOHOK 3BEHMT Te-TO B KOMHATE U eFo npo- CTO He CNbILUHO Nepey BXOAHOU ABe- pelo. Ero co6beT c Tonky cBeToBaA vHguKkauna. Bo3mMo>xxKHO, NpW NOBTOpeHMu cxe- MbI pc. 3 BO3HUKHYT TPYAHOCTH Cc npvo6petenvem AByXUBeTHOrO CcBe- ToAMoAa. Torga BNONHe BO3MOxXHO OrpaHU4UTbCcA UcnONb3OBaHNeM ABYX PasHOUBeTHbIX AMOAOB, HaNpuMep, AN1307B u AN307B. B pexypHom pe- »%UMe GyfYT CBETHTBCA 06a, a B Apy- fUux pexuMax — OAMH “NK Apyron. fake 18a opHOUBeTHbIX ANOoMa, pac- NONOX*KeHHbIX PAQOM Apyr c Apyrom, o6ecneyat uHsopmatTMBHOcTb BNa- aenbuy KBapTupbi WM AesnHcbopmupy- toT nocetuTena. [nasHoe, ¥TOG6bI xo- 3AMKH KBAPTMpb! M YNeHbI eFO CeMbU 3Hanu — 4TO M KOrgWa CBeTMTCA. B 3aknioyeHue CTaTbu xOoTenocb 6bI O6paTuTb BHAMaHMe uuTaTeNnen Ha U3BECTHYtO MCTUHY — Npolecc pa3- BUTUA HeNpepbiBeH. OTHOCMTeENbHO HavHOW CcTaTbM — Korma MaTepnanbl yoke HAXOMMNMCh B Pegakuun MU npo- XOAMNU Npouecc NoAroTOBKN kK neYa- TU, BO3HUKNU NpeANoxeHuA No co- BeplWeHCTBOBAHMIO NPUBeAeHHbIX BbILUe cxem. Hwrke OHM MW Npegnara- toTcA. | ABTOMATNKA Cxema pune. 2 npeflenbHo npocta, HO UMeeT OAMH HepocTaToK. Ecnu pa- 3OMKHYTb Nepekntoyatenb SA, To BKNIOUMTCA CBeTOQNOAHAaA UHAMKAa- Uva, ToK 4¥epe3 cBeTOAnog uM pe3nc- TOpbI R1, R2 npoTekaet Tonbko B Te- 4eHve OHOFO Nonynepvoga ceTeBo- ro Hanpaxeuua. JTomy Cnoco6cTBy- eT avog VD1. Np sknioveHHom ne- peknioyatenem SA1 3BoHKe BA1 cBe- TOANOA MHAMKaMnu OTKNIOYeH (3aKo- poyen), HO Ha pesucTope R2 8 Teve- Hue O60ux NonyBonH ceTeBoro Ha- npAxkeHHA B BYAe Tenna paccenBa- eTCA SNeKTpUYeCcKan MOLWHOCTb. CHU3nTb paccevBaHve MOLIHOC- TM Ha peanctope R2 npu sxnioueu- HOM 3BOHKe BA1 MOxKHO, ECNn BKNIO- Y4UTb NOCNeAOBAaTeNbHO C BbIWeyKa- 3AHHbIM pesMcTopoM anon VD2 — puc. 4. K coxkanennio, HenocTaTKu Npucy- LUM 6ONbLUMHCTBY OKPyxXalOLUMx Hac NpeAMeTOB uM ABNEHUA. SHaA O HUX, MOXKHO NOMbITATECA MX YCTPAHMTb. B cxeme puce. 3 TOK 4epes KaTYLU- Ky 3B0HKa BA1 npoTtekaeT B 6onb- LUWHCTBE PeXKUMOB PA6O0TbI, co3sya- Baa NoAMarHMunBadie cCepfeuHuka. Bo mMHorux cnyyanx 3TO He onpaBgza- Ho. Ecnu ucnonb30BaTb He6onbluoe U3MeHEHME B CxeMe — puc. 5, TO TOK Yepe3 KaTyLUKy 3B0HKa 6yfeT NpoTe- KaTb TOMbKO NPU HAxKAaTMM KHONKU SB1 “Ssonok’. B pApyrux pexumax padorTbI CxXeMbI KATYLUKAa 3BOHKa O6ec- ToYeHa. B cxeme puc. 6 oKa3anocb 803- MO>KHbIM CHA3UTb BABOe pacceuBae- myto B BYE TeMNa MOLYHOCTe Ha pe- aucTopax R2, R3 no cpasHeHnio co cxemou pute. 3. STomy cnocoécTBy- toT quogbi VD3, VD4, Tak kak cBeTo- ANogpi R uv G c6opKu HL1 koHcTpyk- TUBHO COEAMHEHbI BCTPeYHO. Pesuc- Top R2 yepes quogpbi VD2, VD3 u pe- 3ucTop R1 o6ecneunBaeT ToK Kpac- Horo cBeToquona R, a pesnctop R3, COOTBeTCTBeHHO, 4Yepe3 Auopbi VD1, VD4 u pesuctop R1 — senexoro cBe- Togvona G. Tok 4“epe3 KaTyLUKy 3BOHKa BA1 B STOW CxeMe NpoTeKaeT TONbKO npn HaxkaTuu KHonKM SB1 “3soHOK”. B Apyrux pexumax pa6oTbl 3B0HKa NO”- MarHu4MBaHia CepyAeuHiika sneKTpo- MarHuTa BA1 He Nponcxog”MT. l SB1 "3e0HoK"” Puc. 6 Jlutepatypa 1. B.A. MenbHuk. KBapTMpHbii 3B0- ‘HOK C MHQKaTOpoM BbIKIOUeHMA // Mai- cTep-KOHCTpyKTop. - Ne6.-2007.-C.24, Panvoniobutens — 04/2008 |] 12 Wrops Kpencxni r. MneK PA Onucanne cxempbi NpukunnvanbHaa cxema ycrpoi- cTBa NnpegcTasneda Ha puc. 6 1 puc. 7 (cxempbt “UncbpoBon” uacTu, MCTOUHMKa NUTaHHA VW UCNONHUTeNbHbIX YeNel), NpuxunnvanbHan cxema avanorosoi U3MepuTeNbHOK YacTM NpnBepeHa Ha puc. 8. Ana nuTanusa cxemb! 6bIn BbI6paH TpaHccbopmarop c 2-mA O6OMOTKaMM — OHA ANA NUTAaHKA KOHTponnepa WM aHa- NOTOBO U3MepUTeNbHOK CxeMbI, a BTO- par — nA nvTaHvA Lene KommyTaunn, YTO NO3BONAeT CHN3NTb YPOBEHb MOMeX No NUTAHMIO Np KomMMyTaunnu pene. Kpo- me Toro, 3TO NO3BONAeT VicNoNb3sOBaTb pene c apyrumu 3HayeHAMM Hanps>xKe- Husa CpadaTbIBaHiA, H3MeHMB NapaMmer- PbI COOTBETCTBYIOLUEN OG6MOTKH. Oxonyanne. Hayano B Ne3/2008 . DA1 7805 K GbINPAMUMEIIO - K UCRONHUMENbHOU CxeMe @ @ Cxema KOMMyTauM CTaHyapTHa V1 B OnvcaHun He HyKgaerTcn. Lenn nutaHna WncbpoBon “act pas- “QeNevbi Ha MMTaHe CO6CTBEHHO KOHTPOn- Nepa (cTa6unuzartop DAZ) u nuTaHne cxe- MbI MHQMKaUM 1 CxeMbI aHaNOroBon Ya- cm (cra6unu3atop DA1). Kpome Toro, 3™ cTa6unu3zarTopel pasBAsaHb! C MOMOLLbIO Auopos VD2 u VD3. Crenaxo sto ana TOFO, YTOObI Npu Nepexoye Ha NVTaHNe OT ) - K 2Hano2oeoll UsMEepUmMeNbHO CXeMe | ABTOMATNKA {-- YHMUBeEPCaNnbHOoe yCcTpPOMCTBO aBTromatTuueckoro ynpasneHnna pesepsroro UCTOUHMKa (B MoeM cnyyae 370 “Kpoxa’ 9 B) ycTpaHirb AOnonHuTeNb- Hoe ToKONOTpe6neHKe NnaToK MHANKa- un. TNomuMo 3Toro, KOHTponb muTaHMA OCyLIECTBNAeT KOHTponnep (Bx0q, RB4 ue- pes pesuctop R7) uv npv nponagaHnn oc- HOBHOFO NMTAHKA NepexoAMT Ha “COKpa- LUEHHbI” pexkim O6pa6oTKM NporpaMmbI, OTKMIOYaA MHAMKaUNI0, UCTONHMTenbHble enw v onpoc KnaBvatypbl Ha BpemA OT- cyTCTBMA NMTaHA. Ha Tpansnctopax VT1 v VT2 co6pa- Ha CXEMa KOHTPO/IA HallpmKeHMA pesepB- Horo muTann”. {nA CoKpaLueHuA pasps- Oa pesepBHoro mvTaHna M3MepuiTeNnbHOK Wenbio UsMepeHve Npon3sBogyiTcA 1 pas B 4ac (Npv Nepexope “epes 0). Npu stom NOABNACTCA BbICOKM YPOBeHb Hanpaxe- HMA Ha BbIxOQe RAS uv oTKpbiBaeTcA VT2 Ww VT1. C nenvtena Hanpaxenua R1, R2 HanpsKeHve noctynaeT Ha aHanoroBbil Bxog, RAO. Nocne usmepenna HanpsKe- HMA UCTOYHMKa VW CpABHeHMA ero C ycTa- HOBNIeHHbIM 8B NporpamMe HWKHMM 3Ha- YeHVeM Ha BbIXxofe RAS cHoBa ycTaHaB- NUBAETCA HUSKVA YPOBEHb, TO NpeKpa- LuaeT YTeEYKY TOKa Yepes DenuTenb oO cnegyrotuero u3mMepeHna. UactoTe! 13mMe- PeHMA COCTOAHMA pesepBHOrO NuTAaHMA 1 pa3 B 4ac Gonee 4eM AOCTATOUHO. K sbixogy KOHTponnepa RA2 nogKnio- 4eH 5-BONETOBbIM 6uNep CO BCTPOeHHbIM feHepaTopoM, NosTOmy NPM cpa6oTKe 6YAWIbHika Ha BbIXOAe NOABIIAETCA NpO- cToe YepefoBaHne BbICOKOrO/HU3KOrO YPOBHeH No noncekyHpb! KaxKAoe. Ha avanorospii Bxog RA1 noctyna- eT HANpAKeEHVe C aHAIO‘OBON usmepn- TENbHOM CXEMbI. Bpxogb! REO, RE1, RE2 cnykat ona ynpasneHna LienamMv KOMMYTaLM ACnon- HUTESIbHbIX yCTPOICTB. R7...R10 - 5,6« Flepexod x nname uxduxayuu K3.14 ey | idS/decode id7/data coming +5B ground Puce. 5 |] Pannonio6urenb — 04/2008 | = ABTOMATUKA QnA pasotpi ¢ KHONKaMM Vicnonb30- BaHa 4aCTb perMctpa KOHTponnepa RB, a Ana ynpaBnexna cxeMol MHAMKALIHM — pe- tuctp RD u “act pernctpa RB. B AaHHOW KOHCTpyKyMN B KaYeCTBe aatunKa 6biNno NPYMeHeHO pacnipoctpa- _ HEHHOE CTaHapTHOe TepmoconpoTuene- Hve Tuna 50M. Bo3Mo>xKHo MpvMeHeHve u Apyrux cTaHpapTHbIx TepMoconpoTMBNe- HY NPM ONVCaHHbIX HKE U3MeHeEHUAX HOMUHANOB SNEMEHTOB. . Nogpo6uble cnpasoyHbie AaHHbIe no CTaHfapTHbim TepMopaTynkam NpuBepe- HbI B [1]. Keapuesbii pesoHatop ZQ1 — 4 Mu; ZQ2 — 32 KT (4acoBoi). No ero nogopy OJHO 3amMe4aHve — KBapLibl OTeEYECTBEH- HOFO NPOMSBOACTBAa yNOPHO OTKa3bIBAalor- CA pa6OTaTb B STOM CxeMe, a AMNOPTHbI (v3 crapod MaTepnHcKol nnatbl) Mpotuen “Ha ypa”. B kayecTBe WHAMKaTOpHON nnartel 6bINa WCcnONb30BaHa roTgBAaA MNaTa Ha 6a3e mukpocxemb! ICM7278. a a z g Ki4 S Ha ucn. ~220 B K xonOeHCamopy Ct (bunemp numanua yuqdipoeou cxempi) VD1 DFO4M Ke | x x 1 ~220B K @bIxO0aM xoHmponnepa DA1 - LM324 k AN1 Konmponnepa * Homuvansi pesucmopos yxasanbi e meGnuye, 6 2a6ucuMOcmU OM UCNONnbayemMoz0 pasucmueHOzo GamyuKa “* Pesucmops! R11, R12, R15, R16 R17 nodGuparomca c mouxocmn 0.5% PR1 - yomavoeka KosqbqbuyveHnma yCUuneHUA U3MepUMAaNbHOZO ycunumeNnA PR2 - ycmahoexa 3HayeHUR MOKA, MpOmeKaiowe2o Yepe3 RT1 Paguonio6urens — 04/2008 {| Puc. 8 f HactpomiKa namepnTenbHon cxembi TepMomeTpa Npu c6opke cxemb! (pc. 8) HeO06- xOAMMO NopO6paTe pesucTopel, nome- YeHHbIE ABYMA 3BeE3N04KAaMU, C MaK- CUMANbHOM TOHHOCTbWO. OT sToro 3a- BUcHT Ka4eCTBO pa6oTb! UCTOYHNKa Toka. Homunan pe3sucTopos MoxKeT 6biTb B Npenenax 2,4...2,6 KOm, HO MexAy CO6OM HOmMHaNbI O603HaueH- HbIX PESMCTOPOB He DODKHbI OTNMYATb- cA 6Gonee 4em Ha 0,5%. Kongencaropbi C13 nu C14 cnyxar Oa ynyyLweHiA NOMeXOZaLLIVLLIEHHOC- TM CXeMbI. . Peauctopb! RP1 u RP2 nyywe nc- Nonb3soBaTb MHOrOO6opoTHbie. Pesucropom RP2 ycraHoButb TOK yepes TepmMoconpoTMBneHuve, paBHbiM 1 MA (onaTb Ke — C MaKCUMAanbHOW Tou- HOCTbIO). Pesncropom RP2 ycraHasnuBaetca KOS@P(PPMUMeHT ycunenna cxembi. Ecnu @CTb BOSMOXKHOCTb, MCNONb3yiiTe rpagy- MpoBouHble Ta6Nuiub! WNA BaLwero Tep- mogatunka VM noAKniounTe Mara3uH Co- NpoTMBneHuilA BMeCTO WAaTHUMKA. Nepeg HactpoiiKon KoscbcbuuneHta ycuneHua cxembi HeEO6xOgMMO BBeCTU nonpasky gna ALIN 8 namartb PIC. na 3TOrFO HEO6XOAMMO ycTaHOBITb 3Have- Hue napametpa “ADJ_LSD” (cm. onn- caHve nporpammbi). PacueTHoe 3Have- Hue Napametpa pasHo EO. 3Sro 3Have- Hve nuwetca 8 EEPROM npn nepgo- HayanbHOu 3arpy3ke nporpammbl. Npu NPAaBUNbHOM M3rOTOBNeHNH UU HaCcTpOW- Ke MCTOUHUKa TOKa U3sMepNTeNnbHOK CXEMbI, HACTPOCHHOe 3HaYeHe Napa- MeTpa COOTBeTCTByeT paccyeTHOMy. SHauenve napametpa 6yyeT OTNNYAaTb- CA Np 6onbLuOM 3HayeHUN ConpoTuB- NeHAA NPUCOEAMHMTENbHbIX NPOBOAOB AaTuuka. SHayeHve Nog_Gupaerca Ta- KUM 06pa30M, YTO6bI Npu Temnepary- pe 0°C Ha qucnnee oro6paxkanocb 3Ha- yeHnve 0 rp. Heo6xoqumyto TOUHOCTb npeoc6pa- 30BaHiA NonyyaiorT, NocnefoBaTenbHO NOBTOpAA Onepauun NoAroHKM AMana- 30Ha (pesuctop RP1) u nog6opa 3Ha- yeHua “ADJ_LSD”. Ana nogpo6Horo o3HakomneHua C TeXHUKOM U3MepeHKMA TemnepaTypbt pu nomMowM TepmcconpoTuBneHni O3HAKOMbTECh C penpeseHTaTMBHbI- MM OKyMeHTaMU cbupmb! Microchip Technology Inc. [2]. 13 Cxema MHAMKaWNN Ona vHgnkalinn B ycTpoiicTBe 6bina Vicnionb308aHa rOTOBaA mnata Ha OCHOBe MuKpocxembI — ApaiBepa “vHANKaynn ICM7218, nosBonsroLyen ynpaBnarb 8-10 CBETOQMODHbIMN 7-CerMeHTHbIMI HHEKa- Topamn. B Hatuem cnyyae 5 nHAVKAaTOpoB Address 00 o1 02 03 0000 00 EO 00 00 0010 00 00 00 00 0020 FF FP Pr FF 0030 PF FP PP FF 0040 FF FF Fr PP 0050 PF FF PF Pr 0060 FF FF FF FF 0070 FF FP FF Pr 0080 FF FF FF FF 0090 PF PP FP FPF OoAO FF FP PR FPF 00BO PP PF PR Pr ooco FF FF FF PF 00D0 FP FP FF Fr OOEO Fr FF FF PF 0oFO PP FP FF FF | ABTOMATMIKA Vicnonb3ytoTca ANA LIncbpoBod MHAMKaLN (DIG1-—5), B 2-x ucnonb3yroTcA No 2 cBe- TOAMOAAa ANA unANKauMN pexuMoB (DIG6—7) 4 ogun ANA MHANKAUUN 1-ro 3 8 cBeTOAMOfOB BbIGopa NyHKTa MeHIO (DIG8). Noppo6Hee — B KomMMeHTapuAx kK ViCXOAHOMY TeKCTY NporpamMbI. 04 os 06 07 08 a9 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 04 02 FF FF FF FP FF FF FF FP FF FP FF FF FP FP FF FP FF FF FP FP FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF Fr FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FPF FF FPF FP FPF FF PF FF FF FP FF FP FP FP FP FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FP FP FF FP FF FF FF FF FF FF FP FF FP FPF FF FP FF FPF FF FPF FP FR tye OE — nonpaska ALIN ADJ_LSD (cm. onvicatne aHanoroBoi WSMepiTenbHON CxeMbi); 04 v 02 — nepBoxayanbHan ycraHoBKa TepmMopenie (24°C). HasHayeHiA OCTANbHbIX AYeeK NAMATH BYAHbI 43 ACXOQHOrO TeKCTa MporpamMMbl. Ey bay. Puc. 9 at J - - - J = ad Pecypcp! Pyccknii nepesoy AOKyMeHTAUMN Ha muKpocxemy ICM7218 npuseged B [3]. TlporpammMa KOHTponnepa Npu npowmske KOHTponnepa o6”3a- TeNbHO 3aNnporpaMMMpOBaTb HaYaNIbHbIe 3HayeHvn B EEPROM namatv faHHbix: OA OB oc oD OE oF 00 00 00 00 00 00 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FP FF FP FF FPF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FPF FF FF FF FF FF FP FP FF FF FF FF FP FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FP FF FF FF FF FF FP FF FF FF FF PF FF FF FF FP FF FF FP FF FP FF FF FF FP FF FF FF FP FP FP Neuvarnaan nnata NeyarHas nnata ycrpolictaa npuseyena Ha pu. 9. BHeLUHMM BUA yCTpOCTBa CO CHATbIM KOpnycoM — puc. 10. Komnnekt nporpamm (cbalin aqua_prog.zip), pvcyHoK neuar- HOM NnatTbl (chain aqua_pcb.zip) Bb! MOKeTe 3arpy3uTb C cata Haluero *«ypHana: http://www.radioliga.com (pa3gen “Nporpammo!”) a Takxe C Calta aBTopa: http://de7bugger.narod.ru/ 1. http://de7bugger.narod.ru/termod.htm! 2. http:/Awww.microchip.com/ 3. http://de7bugger.narod.ru/ucs//CM7218DOC.zip |] Pannonio6utenb — 04/2008 Butadbou Butaqbou — tbu3noTepanestnyecknit npu6op BosfencTBuA AKYCTHYeCKUMN KONe6aHuAMM AMaNa3OHa 3ByKOBbIX 4a- CTOTOT Ha NOBEPXHOCTHBIM CNOK KOxKU, 6OraTbih KpoBe- HOCHbIMM KanunnApaMmn pasnn4Horo pasmepa (qnMHbI, qua- MeTpa...). Teopua PyHKYMOHMpoBaHUA STorO Npv6opa 6asupy- eTCA Ha TOM, 4TO KaxkAbIN KanMNNAp MOAeNUpyetca KoO- ne6atenbHbIM KOHTYPOM C ONpefeneHHoO pesoHaHcHon 4aCTOTOM. Mpu Bo3sqecTBUN C STOW YaCTOTONM Ha Kanun- AAP OH BeAeT Ce6A KaK PEZOHAHCHAA CMCTeMa CO BCeMN COOTBeTCTBYIOLUMMM CBOMCTBaMU pesoHaHca. To ecTb pe- 3OHAHCHOe KONeGaHue KanusINnApa BbISbIBAeCT MNOBDILIICH- HbIM TOK KPOBU, COOTBETCTBEHHO NOBbILUeHHOe NuTaHMe TKaHeA KUCNOpopOM, NUTaTenbHbIMM BeLUeCTBamn, HTOo, B CBO ONepenb, CNOCO6cTBYyeT CHATHWO 6Onen, Gonee 6bI- CTpOMy 3aNe4MBaHnio pad UM T.A. Takum 06pa30M, OCHOBHaA UM eAMHCTBeHHaA 3anaua - BATadona — renepalvA 3BYKOBbIX KONeGAaHN pasHbix ya- cTOT. ABTOpbI O6palialoT BHUMAHHe, 4TO NDegNaraemoe yc- TPOUCTBO HE NPOXOAMNO HUKAaKMX KNMHNYeCKMX WM NpoUNx UcnbiITaHui, NOSTOMyY HUKaKOM OTBeETCTBeHHOCTH 3a NO- cneACTBMA MCnoNb3sOBaHuA YCTpOucTBa He HeCyT. Cxema, dbyHkuMoHMpoBanne uM AeTaNu Cxema snekTpuyeckad NpvHuvnnanbHan Npv6opa NpvBepena Ha pu. 1. , . 4 OcHosa ycTpoiictea — muKpoKkoHTponnep DD1 cpup- Mb: Atmel. OH nocnegoBaTenbHO reHepupyeT 4“acrTOTbI 11719, 5859, 2929, 1464, 732, 366, 183, 92 Ty. Yacrorpi. MeHAIOTCA Kakabie 250 mc. CreHepvposaHHbie Ha HOxKKe 12 mukpocxembI Umnynbcbl ycunuBaloTcA TpPaH3MCTOpOM VT1, KOTOpbIA ynpaBnAeT nbesokepamuyeckuo u3nyya- Tenem ZQ2 Tuna 3I1-1 wn ananoruyHbim. DD1 ATTiny2313 C4, C2-33 C1 -ZQi 5h ry 12 My Puc. 1. Cxema anekTpvyeckar NpvnuMnvanbHan Npu6opa “Butacbou” ABTOMATIVKA | flasen Herpo6os, r. Doneuk Huxona Kapansanos, r. CTaspononb Amnnutyga Kone6aHuii 3agaetca HanpmkKeHveM nu- TaHMA CxeMbI — 4eM OHO BbIWwe, TEM aMNNMTYAAa Gonbwe. Npu Bbi6ope Hanpr>keHia NMTAHMA TaKwKe CnepyerT yun- TbIBATh MaKCMManbHOoe UKs TpaH3nctopa VT1 (Ana KT315B — 25 B), npegenb: Usx DA1 (ana LM7805 ono cocragnaer 8...35 B) 1 MaKCMMalbHoe Hanps>KeHHe Mbe30- usnyyaTena (0 HEKOTOPbIM AaHHbIM, 0 60 B). Ecnu Heo6- XOAMMO, CnenyeT 3AMeHUTb TpaH3UCTOpP Ha 6onee MOLI- HbIM (HanpuMep, KT817) 4 3amMeHuTb cTa6unusatop Ha- NpspkKeHMA ANA KOHTpONNepa (fomKeH O6ecneynBaTb +4,5.,.5,5 B). KoHTponnep MOXHO 3aMeHUTb Ha ycTapeBluUk AT9082313 unu nio6oK ns cemetictsa AVR, cnoco6Hbii paéoratb Ha Yacrote 8...16 (20) MT u umetolnid 16-6uT- HbIM TaAmep-cueTUUK. Ho Bce 3TH N3MeHEHNA BNekyT 3a CO60K HEOGXOAMMOCTb KOPpeKLMM MUKpOKONAa. KoHTponnep npowumMBaeTca N06bIM NporpamMaTopom (Hanpumep, PonyProg). MoxxHO ucnonb30BaTb BHYTpH- CXeMHOe Nporpammnposanne (ISP), T.K. BbIBOAbI KOHTpON- nepa, Tpe6ytouveca Ansa ero NporpammupoBanna (Reset, PB5..PB7), cxemow He ucnonbaytoTca. Mpu nporpamun- POBaHMM HEO6xOQMMO BKNIONUTb pexUM pa6orTbl OT BHELI- Hero KBapua. OcHosHoe AOCTOMHCTBO CxeMbI NepeA MHOroUNcneH- HbIMM aHaNoraMu — UcnoNb3soBaHNe OHO MuKpocxeMbI KOHTponnepa BMeCTO 3-6 MUKPOCXeM HN3KOM M CpenHei cTeneun mHTerpaunn (noruka, TpMrrepbi, CHeETUMKM, MYNb- Tunnekcopbi uM np.). OTcioma — 3HaYMTeNbHOe yHewesBne- Hive ycTpodcTBa u NpoctoTta c6opkKn. HefoctaTkom MOxKHO CHUMTAaTb UCNONbsOBaHMe B MUK- pokofe 16-6uTHOrO Talimepa, KOTOPbI ECTb TONbKO y KOH- Tponnepos C HOBONbHO GonbLUMM KONUYECTBOM BbIBOAOM (MUHMMaNnbHO 16), 13 KOTOpbIX McnONb3yeTCA TONKO OAMH. PricyHoK neyaTHOM Mnatbl ycTpoiicTBa NPUBesAeH Ha PMc. 2. cs ap 5 ooo°0 o ° ° ° ° oe °o Q a. Rt Puc. 2. PucyHok neyaTHon nnatel Npowneky KOHTponnepa C MCxXOgHbIMM TeKCTaMM Ha C (CvAVR) (chain vitafon.zip) w chain nevaTHow nnatel Ana Nporpammoer SprintLayout 4.0 (cbaiin vitafon_lay.zip) sbi MOXETE 3afpy3NTb C CaiiTa Haluero *«ypHana: http:/Avww.radioliga.com (pa3zen ‘Mporpammp!”) Pagnonio6urenb - 04/2008 l] FP 16 Aungpei KawKapos r. C-Netep6ypr Jlio6nto AyMaTb O KUMBOTHbIX. OTM 6OxKNNM TBAPK CONpOBOxKAAaIT YeNO- Beka NOBCIOAY U YaCTeHbKO Nomora- OT HaM B ObITy, 8 MUAHYTbI ONACHOC- TM MNM YOMBNAIOT HAC UnaYe — 3ac- TaBNaAA NOBepMTb, YTO YenoBexk Aane- KO He Uapb NMPUpOpbI, KAK HEKOTOPbIM — HPaBuTcaA DyMaTb. Hau! 6bIT pa3sHoo6pasen, Mu Warx*e OMOMALLIEHHOE KUBOTHOE MOXET A0- CTaBNATb XNONOTHI, NycTb Aaxe u npuatHble. Takve xnonoTbl “acto BOSHUKAICT, CCN Ball MMTOMeL! CxXO- avn BMecTo TyaneTa “Haneso” unu Nporpbl3 Tanku, NopBan wTOpbI, pac- Wapanan HOBylo CKaTepTb Mn O6nB- Ky guBana. Mxe 37Tu xnonoTbl Bnon- He 3HAKOMbI, MOCKONBKY y Hac KMBeET KoT Hiox. He Tonbko A AyMato © 2KMBOTHbIX. Napy net Ha3aq mom Konnera Unba Netpopuy Cemexos (v3 r. y6xna Mockosckou 06n.) pekomenfoBan MHTePecHoe YCTPOKCTBO CHrHann3a- UMM KOlWa4bero TyaneTa, KOTOpOe Hassan “CukHanu3atop”. MoxHo Aonro CNOpuTb oO ero HEO6xoOAUMoc- TM, HO cbakT ocTaeTCA chakTOm: Ha- BepHAka CemeHos noTpaTMn BpemA Ha pa3spaoorky UM peannsatnio cBoe- ro “neTuLWa” HE NPOCTO TaK, a NO Be- AleHnio coBecTH, NOAyMaB oO KOLUKe. He 6yyjem 3a6bIBaTb, TO, HaNpuMep, s Erunre kowka 40 Cux nop cyuTa- TCA CBALIEHHbIM %KMBOTHbIM. Llenb moe paspa6oTKn, pekomeHg”yemon YuTaTeENAM, B TOM, 4TO6bI OfpagMTb (HeT, He CeO) KOLUKy OT HENPUATHO- cTei, rposALyMXx ev faxe B OTHOCH- TENbHO OG6yCTPOeHHOM UM 6e3s0nacHOoM qome. Pagnonio6uTenn YacTo skcnepn- MeHTUpyloT Ha pa6ouem cTone Cc He- 3AKOHYEHHbIMU yCTpoNcTBaMN (co CHATbIMM 3ALUUTHbIMM KOpnycamn), OcTaBaAA BO BpemA padoTb! oroneH- HbIe SNeKTpnyeckie NpoBowa nog Ha- NpskeHVem VM BKNIOYeHHbIC NaANb- Hblé CTAHUMM. PbiIGONOBbI xpaHAT CBOU YOunMua C OTONeHHbIMM Kpio4- Kamu M 6necHami, 4TO He BCer”a 6e- 3onacHo. [a3 “nu snekTponnuta, BKNIONEGHHAA Ha KYXHe, MOXKeT “CNy- Yao” HAHECTH KOLUKe (M APYrMm AO- M@LUHMM KUBOTHbIM) HenonpaBumbiu —-f n ABTOMATMNKA 1 u | Kowike — cron wok. Bce 3TM u MHOrMe MHbIe ONaAc- HOCTM noAcTeperaiwT Bawero Nto- 6uMua nNpakTnyecku “Ha KaKDOM lary”. Mo>KHO, KOHeEYHO, NoANncKyTH- poBaTb: MON, He Taka KOLUKa Aypa, YTO6bI Ne3Tb Ha pasorperyi AnuTy. AH, HeT. B moed npaktuke 6binu cnyyan, YTO UV ycbl ONaNuBannu, MU KptOuOK pbI- 6onoBHbiv (B urpe) 3ayennanu 3a ce6a, 1 MHOroe Apyroe. Kpome Toro, pa3o0qpaHHble O6UBKM AuBaHOB, pBa- Hblé TaNKU, O6OMpaHHble O60u TOxXe He fOCcTaBNAIOT 6onbLUOrO ONTMMK3- Ma B KU3HH. YTO %*e WenaTb? Nockonbky Haka3aTb “CBALYEHHOe >KABOTHOe” He NOAHUMETCA PpykKa, OC- TaeTCA TONbKO OrpagNTb ee OT HENpn- ATHOCTEH C NOMOLIbIO SNEKTPOHMKU. Npegnarato npoctoe yctpoicrso, KOTOpOe O6e30NacKT MeVCTBUe KOLL- KH, He NYCTHB ee B 3anpeTHylo 3OHY. Kakaa 3To 6ygeT 3anpeTHan 30Ha (U3 BbILUENEPeYUCNeHHbIX MNM MHAA, AK- TyanbHaa TONbKO B BALUUX yCnoBuAX) — BbIGMpalite camu. STO aBTOmMaTH- yeckoe yCTpOKCTBO Cpa6aTbIBaeT np npv6nwxenun K WaTYNKy-aHTeH- He XMBOTHOLO (MM YeNoBeKa) Ha pe- rynupyemoe pacctosune 1 MM MeHb- we. YcTpoiictBo pasoraeT no npuH- uuny peaKunu Ha VSMeHEHMe EMKOC- THOrO Nona Mexay “3eMnen” Vv aHTeH- HOW. Apu npv6nuxeHuu kK aHTeHHe cpa6aTbisaeT 3ByKoBaA curHann3a- Uva, OTNYrMBaroLyaa KOLUKy. Mpnyem ANA NOBTOpeHnA Takoro ycTponcTBa Hy>KeH MAHMMYM Hegoporux peTanen M BCETO ODMH CBO6OAHbIN BeYep. Mouemy uMeHHO O KOIKE uAeT peub? KoHe4HO, *KUBOTHOE MOXKHO OTNYr- HYTb OT OMACHOrO MecTa M06bIM 3By- KOM, B TOM 41cne O4eHb FPOMKMM, WK BO3eMCTBOBaTb HECNbILUHbIM fA 4e- noseka ynbTpa3Bykom. Ho... Mbi *e Alorosopunuch AyMaTb O KOLUKe. K Tomy *e NpM paspaboTKe ycT- povcTBa cTaBunacb 3agqaya He npo- CTO OTNYFUBaTb KOLUKY KaKAbIA pas, Kora OHa NOAXOAMT kK ONacHOMy y4a- cTky, B MeCTe YCTAHOBKM AHTEHHbI, a Ana Toro, YTOG6bI pas vu HaBcerfa ee OTBagMTb OT 3TOrO MecTa. Ha NOMOLYb Npuwen cnyyan B Buge ycTpoucTBa umutatopa co6aubero naa. ITO ycT- policTBo, U3sroTOBNeHHOe dupmon Kemo, npegcTasnenHo Ha pu. 1. B ““epHomM ALUMKe” y.CTpouvcTBa 3anpaATaHa SNeKTPOHHAA HayNnHKa, KOTOpaA NpK NoAKNioYeHuU nuTaHuA (KOHTAKTbI UW MOMOCOBKAa BKNIOUeHUA o0603HaYeHbI Ha KOpnyce ycTpoicTBa) V 3aMbIKAHMM KOHTAKTOB C M306paxe- HMeM KHONKM CNOCO6CTBYeT TOMY, 4TO M3 AMHamuyeckou ronosKn (go 5 Br, conpoTusneuue He MeHee 4 Om) pas- qaeTca Tp Cepun 3ByKOsB “raB-raB- rap”. “Tas” npoasyynT scero 9 pa3 c nay3ou Mexpy Cepuamn B 2 Cex. [na akTusaunu ycTpolicTBa npu nonKnic- YeHHOM MMTaHMU B AManasore 9...12 B HeEO6XOQMMO KpaTKOBpeMmMeHHO 3aMk- HYTb KOHT@KTbI “KHONKU”. Tenepb cTa- HOBMTCA MOHATHO, NMOYeMY 3TO yCT- POMCTBO NpeAHASHAYeHO UM OKasANOC acpcbeKTUBHbIM MMEHHO ANA KOWEeK. Kak xe peanu30BaTb “eMKOCT- HylO” curHanuzayuio? VU amecb HeT npo6nem. CerogHa HUKOrO He YAMBULIb pas- NWYHbIMM NO HaSHayeHUo UU 3dpcpek- TUBHOCTH SNEKTPOHHbIMM CXeMaMH UM Puc. 1. BHeELUHMA BY SNeKTPOHHOrO ViMUTaTopa CoGatbero nan Ci 1000,0*25 B x epie. 14 DDI + +128 «ebra. 7DD1 <-> GND "TA" DD1 - K561T11 Puc. 2. SnexTpuueckan cxema yana oxpaHbl AMCTAHUMOHHOro NpepAynpexneHHA [| Paguonio6urens - 04/2008 ycTpoicTBaMi NpeBeHTMBHOrO npe- Aynpexnenna, KOTOpbie ONOBeWaloT WlogeK WAM BKOUAIOT OxPaHHyto cur- Hann3alnio 3agonro go Henocpen- CTB@HHOFO KOHTaKTa HexKenaTenbHoro FOcTA C OxpaHAeMbiM py6ex*xOm (Tep- putTopver). MHoruve u3 Takux y3nos, onucaHHbIx 8 NUTepaType, Ha MOM B3rnAg, MHTEpeCHbI, HO YCNOKHEHbI. B npotusosec um mpoctaa snektT- POHHAaA Cxema (puc. 2), Co6paTe Ko- Topyto B CMNax HaYMHatoOLyM paquo- mo6uTenb, yHVBnAeT CBOMMM MHOFO- YACNeEHHbIMM BO3MOXKHOCTAMM, OAHY U3 KOTOpbIX — BbICOKYIO YyBCTBUTeNb- HOCTb No BxOyy, MCNON_3yIOT qnA Npe- AyNpexkAeHua Oo NPUG6AMWKEHU *KUBOT- Horo (unu YenoBeka) K ceHcopy E1. B ocHoBe cxemb!l 4Ba anemMeHTa mukpocxemb! K561TJ11 (DD1), sknio- Y@HHbIX KaK UHBEPTOpPbI. OTA MMKPO- CX€Ma MMEET B CBOeM COCTaBe 4eTbI- pe OAHOTMNHbIX SNemMeHTa C CyHKUN- ev 2U-HE c Tpurrepamn Liimutta c rucTepesncom (3aqepxKo) Ha BXO- qe 4 unBepcHed no BbIxogy. DYHKLN- OHaNbHOe OG6O3Ha4eHMe — NeTNA rH- cTepe3uca noKa3biBaeTcA B TAKUX 3neMeHTaXx BHYTPM MX yCnoBHOrO fpacbuyeckoro o603HaY4eHuA”A. Mpume- HeHMe 3STOM MuKpOcXemb! 3f/eCb On- PaBAaHo Tem, Y4TO OHa (M K561 Ce- Pua MUKpocxeM B YaCTHOCTH) MMeeT ynbTpamanpie pa6ouve TOKM, BbICO- KYl0 NOMeXO3aLYMLWEHHOCTb (40 45% OT YPOBHA HaNnpsA KEHNA NUTAHMA), pa- 60TaeT B LIUPOKOM AManasone MMTa- towyero HanprxeHua (oT 4 Wo 15 B), VUMeeT 3ALUMLIEHHOCTb NO BxXOAy OT noTeHuMana CTaTAYeCKOrO aneKTpH- 4YeCTBa U KpaTKOBPEMeHHOrO MpesBbi- LU@HMA BXOAHbIX YpOBHeM, M MHOrMe Apyrve npeumyujectBa, KOTOpbie no- S3BONAIOT LUMPOKO UCNONb30BaTb ee B paquonto6uTenbcKux KOHCTpyKUMAX, He Tpe6yA oco6bIx Mep NpesocTo- POXKHOCTH UM 3aLMTbI. Kpome Toro, mukpocxema K561T/11 NO3BONAeT BKNIOYATb CBON He3aBn- cCuMbie normyeckve sneMeHTbI Napan- NeNbHO, B KaYecTBe 6ychepHbIx one- MeHTOB, BCNeACTBMe 4ero MOLUHOCTb BbIXOAHOTO CurHana NerKO KpaTHO yBenuunte. Tpurrepbi mutta — 3T0, Kak Npasuno, 6ucTa6unbHble CxeMbI, cnoco6nble pa6oTaTb C MeAeHHO BO3- pacTaloWjMMN BXOAHbIMM CurHanaMy, B TOM 4nucne c NpYMecbto Nomex, npn Paguonio6urens — 04/2008 |] 4 ABTOMATMKA 3Tom oGecneunBalolve no BbIXoAy KpyTbleé cbPOHTbI UMNYNbCOB, KOTO- pble yxxe MOXKHO NepegasaTb Aanb- we (B apyrve yanbl cxembI) 4" CTbI- KOBKM C Apyrumny KniO4eBbIMM 3ne- MeHTaMHU WM MiKpocxemamn. Ecnn ko- POTKO, TO MuKpocxema K561TJ11 (kak, BNpoYeM, M K561TS12, koTopyto Take MOXKHO NPMMEHMTb B AaHHOM yctpolictse 6e3 U3MeHEHM CxeMb!) MOFYT BbIZeNATh yYNPAaBNAIOLUMK Cur- Han (B TOM 4Mcne WMdposow) Ana Apyrux ycTpovcts u3 avanorosoro, MUNW HEYeTKOFO BXOAHOrO UMnynbca. Sapy6exHbIM aHanor K561TI1 — CD4093B. Cxema BKMIOYCHHMA MHBEPTOPOB — Knaccnyeckaa, OHa ONVicaHa B CNpa- ‘BOUHDIX U3HAHMAX. Oco6eHHOCTb NpefACcTaBnerHon paspasorku B KOH- CTPYKTMBHbIX HiOaHCaX. InekTpnyec- Kyo cxemy (pune. 2), skpahupoBan- HbIM NDOBOA MW CeHCop Et ucnonbay- iOT Kak OCHOBY ANA CeHCOpHoro y3na. B ucxoqHom nonoxkeHun nocne BKNIO- 4eHMA MMTAaHMA Ha BxOAe sNnemeHTa DD1.1 npucytctrByeT Heonpegenen- HO@ COCTOAHHe, 6NU3KOe K HN3KOMy noruyeckomy yposBHio. Ha Bbixofe DD1.1 — BbICOKNK ypoBeHb, Ha BbIXO- ge DD1.2 onatTe Hn3Knh. Buoumaune! Boixog 3snementa DD1.2 nogKnioyvaiT K nesomy npo- BOQHUKY KHOnKM 6noKa Kemo. NpeaBapntenbHo 3TO HeCNoxKHO Nposepwtp. Mpn nogaye nutanua Ha 6NOK CepMA 3BYKOB, UMMTMPYIOLUNXx TpoekpaTHbIi co6auui nal, BbiabiBa- eTCA He TOMbKO 3aMbIKaHHeM MEX*KAY co6oi NpOoBOAHNKOB c M306paxKeHNeM cumsBona KHOnKY (TA), HO MB TOM cny- 4ae, eECnv nesbli (CornmacHo puc. 2) NPOBOAHMK COeAMHUTb B “+” NUTAHHA, To @CTb NOAKMOUNTb STOT NDOBOAHMK K curHany BbICOKOrTO Noruyeckoro yposHa. K Bxogy snemeHTa DD1.1 nogKnio- YalOT NOCTOAHHbIM pesucTop R1 co- npoTusnennem 10 MOm. NMocnegosa- TenbHO c R1 nogKntioyaloT sKkpaHnpo- BaHHbIM npoBog (Ka6enb PK-50, PK- 75, UNM SkKpaHUpOBaHHbiA NPOBOA 3By- KOBOM YacToTbI (34) — nogxoAAT BCe TWobI) ANWHHOK 1...1,5 M, 3KpaH Co- enMHAeTcA C O6LIMM NpoBopom. Llex- TpanbHbiiA (He SKPAHUPOBAaHHbIN) NpO- BOA Ha KOHUE COeAMHAeTCA C CeHCO- POM, KOTOpbI ABNAeETCA AHTEHHOH E1. [ Opvvynn geticreun B AaHHOM yc- TpoUcTBe OCHOBAH Ha U3MeHeEHUN eMKOCTM CeHCOpa-aHTeHHb! E1 Mex- Ay Hei uv “semnek” (O6ujMM NpOBo- Om, BCeM TEM, YTO COOTHOCHTCA K 3a3eMNAtOLUeMy KOHTypy — 8B AAHHOM cnyyae 3TO Non U CTeHbI NomeLe- Hua). pu npu6nuxKenun *KUBOTHOrO 93T@ EMKOCTb CYLUECTBEHHO U3MeHA- eTCA, YTO OKA3bIBAeTCA OCTATOUHbIM Ans cpa6aTbipaHMA MUKPOCXembI K5617/11. AHTEHHY C YA@IeHHbIMH Ha PaccTo- AHMM COeOMHMTeNbHOLO KaGena (1 Mm) ycTpolicTsom pacnonaratoT B6nu3u ONaCHbIX ANA KOLUKM MeECT MM Ta, re ee NoABNeHve HExKeNnaTeNbHO. Hanaxusanne. HanaxuBahie npn TOUuHOM co6nione- HAM pekomeHAalnh He Tpe6yeTca. Bo3mMoxHO, NPM Apyrux BapuaHTax C@HCOPOB M AHTeHH y3eNn NpoABUT ce6a 8 Apyrom KayecTBe. Ecnn 3Kc- NePUMeEHTMPOBaTh C ANMHOM BkpaHn- pyiowero ka6ens, ArMHOK Mv nnoWa- AbiO CeHCOpa-aHTeHHb! E1 uv u3meHe- HMeEM HanpAXeHUA NMTAHMA y3na, BO3MOXHO NOTpe6yeTcA CKOppeKTu- poBaTb conpoTuBneHve pesnctopa R1 8 npegenax oT 0,1...100 MOm. O netTanax MocrosHHbi pesnctop R2 ~ MJIT-0,25. Pesuctop R1 tuna BC-0,5, BC-1. Ox- CUAHbIA KOHAeHCaTOp Ct crnaKuBa- eT NOMeXM OT MCTOYHMKAa NUTAHMA. Ero tun — K50-35 unu aHanoruunbii. VUctounnk nutanua ~ cra6unu3n- POBaHHbI c HanpAKeHnem Y...15 B, C XOpOWwen cbunbTpaynen nynbcalur Hanps>keHha No BbIxogy. B astopc- KOM BapuvaHTe NpnmeHAeTcA npo- MbILUN@HHbI (C NOHMKAIOLUMM TpaHc- cbopmaTopom) wcTOYHMK nMTaHHMA C BbIXOAHbIM TOKOM 120 MA [1Y-1M. Tok noTpe6neHna ycTpoucTBa B pe- UME OXKUAaHUA (HECKONEKO MKA) uM yBennunsaetca fo 32...48 MA npu AKTMBHOM padoTe AMHaMUN4eCKOH [o- AOBKU. Quvamuyeckan ronoska — BbICO- KOY@CTOTHBIM AMHaMUK OT CTaporo Tenesuzopa Tuna 3° -8B. B kayecTBe aHTeHHbI NPUMeHAET- CA WTbIPeBaAn ABTOMOOMNbHaA AaHTeH- Ha Ha MarHUMTHOM OCHOBAHMI Cc ANM- HOM WwTbIpA 40...80 cm. 17 BectpancmbopmatopuHbi uctou- HUK NUTAHMA B DaHHOK cxeme Mpume- HAT’ HENb3A M3-3a BEPOATHOCTH M0- P@XKEHMA SNEKTPUYECKUM TOKOM. MonTax 3nemMeHTosB OcyLuecTenA- TCA KOMNAKTHO Ha Mnate U3 cTeK- notekctonuta. Kopnyc ana ycTpon- cTBa mo6oK U3 ANsneKTpnyueckoro (He nNposomALero) maTepuana. B ABTOPCKOM pa3spa6oTKe npumMeHeH Kopnyc OT aBTOMOOMMbHOrO 6NOKa Npepbigatena pene 3apy6exHoro npou3sBogctsa (pac. 3). OcoGeHHocTnHn pa6oTbi Npu akcnnyarayun y3na BbisBneHb! MHTepecHbie OCOGeHHOCTH. Tak, Ha- NpskeHve NVTAaHMA y3na BNuAeT Ha ero paéorTy. Npn yBenuyenun Hanpa- >%KeHMA OMTAaHMA 0 15 BB KayecTBe CeHCOpa-AHTeHHbI UCNONb3yeTca TONbKO OG6bIKHOBEHHbIA MHOTOKMNb- HbIM HESKPAHVPOBAaHHbIM SneKTpu- YeCKMA MeDHbIA NpoBog ceyeHvemM 1...2 MM QNnHOH 1 M. B 9TOmM cnyyae pesncrop R1 “3 cxemb! UcKnioYaloT VM nposog K aHTeHHe Et MOXKHO HE 9K- PaHUpoBatb. SNekTpUYecKH NPOBOA OT AHTEHHbI E1 nogcoegnusetca Henocpe”CTBeEHHO K BbIBOnaM 1 uM 2 anementa DD1.1. | j ABTOMATUKA fipu u3smeHennn cha3suposkyu ceTe- BOK BUNKM McTOYUHMKAa NMTAaHMA (qarKe Np peKOMeHAOBaHHOM Hallps»KeHNU 9...12 B) yctpoctBo pa6oTaeT kak Tpurrep (pearupyeT Ha npuGnwxKeHne kK Et uv ycTaHaBnuBaeTca B ODHO “3 YCTOUYMBbIX COCTOAHUA AO cnepy- wero Npv6nwxkeHnA). OvesugHo, BTOpoe Ha3HAYeHMe AAHHOK CXeMbI — CeHCOp-Tpurrep, NPYMeHATb B YCT- povcTBe NpeAynpexfeHna KOLWIKU HesqcbekTMBHO. STOT HiOaHC cNepy- eT YUUTbIBATS NPY NOBTOpeHuM y3na MW NOMeHATb chasnpoBky (nepeBep- HyTb LUTeNCenb) BKMIOUEHUA UCTOYHU- Ka TIMTAHMA B OCBeETUTeENbHYyIO CeTb 220 B. na KOHTpONA BKNIONeHMA OMTAHHMA YCTPOMCTBO CHA6>*KeEHO UHAMKATOp- HbIM CBETOANOAOM, NOAKNIOYeHHbIM nNapannenbHo MCTOYHUKy NuTaHMA. HeKoTopbim MUHYCOM yeTpoiicTBa MOXHO CHUTATb OTCyTCTBMe U36Upa- TENbHOCTH “CBOM/Y4yxKOK”, Tak Kak ysen 6yfeT curHann3npoBatb o Npu- 6nwxKeHun Kk Et nio6oro ofywesneH- Horo npegMmeta (B Tene KOTOpOrO €CTb HANpAXKeHMe HABOAKH). OnexTpuyeckne HABOAKH KM u3Me- H@HMe EMKOCTM BaKHbI Npv skcnnya- TALIM YCTPOUcTBa B KUNbIX MaCCUBaX Puc. 3. BHewHM Bug roroporo yetTponcTBa C pa3BUTOW CeTbIO SnekTpMYeEcKnx KommyHnkaynid. OkcnepumMeHTuMpyaA C AaHHbIM y3- NIOM WM MMKpocxemon K561TJ11 (qaxe B LUTATHOM €€ BKNIOYEHUN), MOXKHO NONyYUTb GECUEHHbIA ONbIT uv Apyrue, npocTble B NOBTOPeHuN, HO Opurn- H@sibHble MO CyTM WM CbyHKuUMOHaNb- HbIM OCOGCHHOCTAM 3/eKTPOHHbIe yCTponcTBa. ‘FA InekTponNMtTKG Ha AaYe Cranucnas Jlesuenxo r. C-Netep6ypr ee Ha gave, Kak NoKa3an MHOrOneTHMM OnbIT, NpenmyLue- CTBEHHO SNeEKTPONANMTKH UCNONb3yloTCA ANA NpuroToBNe- Hua Mun. UX TepMoperynATOp paHo MM NO3AHO BbIXO- ANT U3 CTpon. BosHukaeT Aunemma: KYNUTb HOBy!O MNMT- Ky UNM peMOHTMpOBaTb CBOIO. PelwNTb 3sTy 3aga4y MOx- HO NpocTo, nogKniouns HarpeBaTenb HeEnocpe”ACTBeHHO K C@TU, HO Tora TepAeTCA BO3MOXHOCTb perynupyemoro Harpesa. Mocne 3akunanna cynos, GOpLyen Hy>KHO OTKpbI- BaTb KpbILUKY MU CNeAMTb 3a Tem, YTOGbI COMeEpP>KUMOe HE c6exano. Bnonve npvemnemobin, Kak NOKa3an ONbIT aB- TOpa, ABNAeTCA MeTOA CHWKEHMA HarpeBa BNONOBUHYy Nocne 3akunaHna OPM 3akpbiTOM KpbILUKe. OTa weNb AOC- TUraeTCA TeM, YTO B PaCCeYKy OAHOrO U3 CeTeBbIX NpoO- BOOB BKNIOYaeTCA AMO“ (CM. Puc. 1). Ninutkn, Kak NpaBuNo, AMelOT MOUJHOCTb NopAgKa Of - Horo KunoBaTTa. A nosTOMy AOCTaTOYHO AecATMamnep- Horo guvoga, Hanpumep, 1232, KkoTOpbId Ha paguaTope MO>KHO YKPeNMTb Kak B OTACNbHOM KOpnyce, TaK UB Kop- nyce navtkn. B nocnejHem cnyyae Anog Ha paquatope OT rpexa noflanblue cnenyerT 3kpaHnpoBaTb ac6ecTOL|emeHT- HOM LUTOPKOK OT TeNNOBOK paquayuun BOorHyTOrO AHMWAa ~ 2208 "Dasa" “o" vD1 4232 Puc. 1 TINMTKM, TymM6nep-BbiKnio“aTenb BT3.602.007 c HeATpanb- HbIM nonoxKeHvem. Montax BecTn npoBofom 2,5 MM? B >KApONpoyHow n3zonaynn. Kopnyca snekTpo6piTosBbix Npu6opos (nnuTOK, yTIOroB VY T.11.) NOKa3biBaloT MHMMy!o chba3sy B NI060M nonoxKeHun AByXNONMOCHOK BUNKM B POseTKe NPM KACAHMM K HMM MH- AMKaTopa chasbi, xOTA ee cBeYeHue Gonee cra6boe, 4em AeUCTBUTeNbHOM. [pu DHEBHOM CBeTe OTNMYMTb NepBylo OT BTOPOKW — MopoKa. Mpowe 3aHynuTb Kopnyc nnuTKH Npv Npamok BUAMMOCTH NpoBosa 3aHyneHus, ACnonb3ys on- NeTKy OT SKpAHMPOBAHHbIX NPOBOAOB, NOAKMOYMB ero K Hy- Fesomy BBODY Ha BXOAHOK aBTOMAaT. QnemeHTapHoe npaBn- FIO TEXHUKM 6e30NACHOCTH: ECTb pabouni HONb (2,5 mM2), @CTb 3ALMTHbIN HOMb (CeYeHNe He MeHee 6 MM). : ~"" TPeanonioburens - 0472008 AnbG6ept Anexcees, Butanui AnexceesB r. Nepmb U3BecTHO MHOXKECTBO SNEKTPOHHbIX pene BpemMeHh, PasNUYHOM CNO*KHO- ctu. YacTo 6biBatoT BOCTpe6oBaHbI HeCnoxKHbIe YCTPOMCTBa ANA BKNOUe- HMA NM BbIKMIOYeHMA UCNONHUTeNb- HbIX yCTpOMcTB THNa sNeKTpOMarHuT- HbIxX pene UNM APyrux Harpy3oK. Npoctple axanorosble KMmO4N, BbI- NONHeEHHbIe Ha OAHOM MINN Ha AByx 6n- NONAPHbIX TPaH3MCcTOpAaX UC BPeMA- 3agatolen RC-enouKon, nmelorT cy- LUECTBeHHbIe HEAOCTaTKM. O6LUMM He- ocTaTKom nopo6ublx pene aABnAeTCA cnenytoujee: no Mepe pa3paAga KOH- HeHcaTopa npoucxoANT CHM>KeEHHe No- TeHlvana Ha O6KNaAKe KOHAeHCATO- pa, 4TO NpuBognT K NocTeneHHomy yBeENnyeHnio NepexogHoro CONpOTHMB- nena K yBennyeHHio NageHua Hanpa- >0KeHMA Ha TpaHsuCcTOpe vu ero Harpe- By, MU Yepe3 HEKOTOpPOe BpemaA HayHeT- CA NOCTeNeHHO CHMKATbCA HaNpArKe- Hie NUTAaHNA KaTYWKM pene WO TOKa otnyckanHua. B o60pyfoBaHuAx C 6ONbLUMMM BU6pal\vAMU pene MOxKeT CAMONPON3BONbHO OTKMOYATbCA Ha MasbIx Hanps>KeHNAX NMTAHNA KATYLU- KUM N04, BosmelCcTBMeM Npy>KUMHbI, YTO H@pYLUMT 3afaHHOe BPeMA BbIZePKKH. NpeanoxeHHoe ycTpoucTBo — 3NeKTPOHHOe pene Ha TMPUCTOPHO- TPaH3MCTOPHOM Kove (TAPUACTOPHO- TPAH3UCTOPHbIN KOMMYTATOP) Ha- npaBneHo KOMMYTHpOBaTb BbIXOAHOM 3neMeHT Harpy3ku (KaTYLUKy pene) B AVHAMMYHOM pexKume PM cpaBHe- HUM NorMyecknx ypoBHen 1 u O. UseBectHo, 4TO B MCTOYUHMKAaX Mn- TaHUA NOCTOAHHOLO TOKA LUUpOKO MC- NonbsyloTCA TUPKCTOpb! B CxeMax 6NOKNPOBOK 3AaLUTb! SNEKTPOHHbIX ycTpovcts, BknioveHnaA curHanusa- UNV 1 T.21., HO, B OTAMUNe OT BKNIOYe- HMA TUpMCTOpa, OTKMIOYEHME BbISbI- BaeT ONnpeyeneHHylo TpyAHOcTb nO ynpasnalowen yenu THpncTopa. TakwkKe U3BeCTHO, YTO B UCTOYHU- KaX NUTAHMA NOCTOAHHOrO TOKAa Y TH- PiucTopa, Npv KpaTKOBpeMeHHOM 3a- MbIKaHMM ynpaBnalolyero snekTpofa K AHOJY, THpUCTOp NepexomMT B pe- KUM padorTbi qnosa, HO, 8 OTNNYKe OT avoga, np nocTeneHHoOm CHWKeHMN ] ABTOSIIOBUTEJSIIO [ 3NeKTPOHHOE pene Ha TMHPMCTOPHO-TPaHsMCTOpHOM Kml0"e pa6ouero Toka MeHblue ynepxKuBaIo- ujero, TAPUCTOp uMeeT CBOMCTBO 3AKPbIBATbCA NOCTOAHHbIM 3HAaYeHH- . @M TOKAa. B npeanoxeHHOM ycTpoiicTBe 3NEKTPOHHOrO pene paccmMoTpeHbi asa cnoco6a OTKNIOYeHNMA THpKCTOpa. Cnoco6 1. Ha npumepe puc. 1, puc. 3 npen- CTABNeHb! BAPMaHTbI CXEMbI 3NeKT- POHHOrO pene, rae OTKNIONeHHe TUpH- CTOpa B MCTOYHMKe NOCTOAHHOSO TOKA NPOM3SBOAMTECA Yepes ynpaBnAIOLUMi anekTpog. AXon THpucTopa nogKnio- YeH B WeMb NONOKUMTeENbHOrO CMeLye- Hua 6a3bl KMi0Y4a TpaHsucTopa. Pa6o- yuu TOK Yepes TUPUCTOp 6nu3Kni TOKy yHepxuBaHUA, YTO OCONeryaeT ero oTKnioYeHve NO ynpaBnarowen Yen HE3HauUTeNbHbIMM MMnynbcamMn oO6paTHoro HanpAxXeHUA Mp Nepexo- me yepes HyNeBoe 3H24eHVe. Cnoco6 2. Ha npumepe puc. 4, puc. 6 1 pic. 7 Npepcrasnenbi BapnaHTbl cxeMbI anek- TPOHHOrO pene, rae OTKNIONeHKe THpH- cTOpa NPOU3BOAMTbCA NP TOKe MeHb- we yQepxvsanna. Basa kniova TpaH- 3ucTopa NoAKMOYaeTCA NONOKUTENb- HbIM CMeELI@HMEM MEX AY KaTOAIOM AM- Offa MW aHOAIOM TupucTopa. Tok, nuTa- tOLUMA THpUCTOp, pacnpefensetca Ha Ba nneya, OAHO nNe4o — 3TO ycTaHo- BOYHbIA TOK THPUCTOpa Yepes YeNb 6a3bl CMeLIIEHMA KNl04a TpaH3ucTopa, KOTOpbI MeHbLLe TOKa yep xKuBaHnaA. Bropoe nnevo — nvTaroLyii Bxon, Ko- TOpbId NOAKNOYeH K TpaH3sncTopy +12B 470 mK x_-* 47K 25B x R4 ¢20,047 mx Bpemasagalowje yenouKn, KOTOpaA yNPaBNAeT TOKOM BKNIOYEHMA UM OTKSIO- YeHMaA THpKCTopa. Paccmotpum nogpo6uHee 06a cno- co6a. Ha pwc. 1 npusegeno ycTpoiicTBo QNeKTPOHHOrO pene, comepxawee UCTOYHMK NUTAHMA, K KOTOpOMY nop- KIIOU@H TAPUCTOPHO-TpaH3UCTOpHbiA KOMMYTaTOp M BpemAsanaiowan Le- nouka. TAPUCTOpHO-TpaH3SUCTOPHbIA KOMMYTATOp COCTONT u3 NepeKntoua- toujero THpUucTOpa VS1 u TpaHsnc- TOpHOro KMioYa VT2, K KOoTOpoMy no”- . KnioveHa Harpy3ka KaTyluika pene K1. Bpemasaqatowan WenouKka co- CTOMT M3 HAKONMTENb_HOrO KOHAeHCAa- TOpa C1, TOoKOOrpaHn4uBatolynx pe- 3ucTopos:R1, R2 uw ycounurena Ha OAHOM TpaH3ncTope VT1. Konnektop TpaH3vctopa VT1 noaKnio4eH K “+” McTOUHMKa nuTaHua”, a O6LYaA TONKA QMUTTepa TpaH3sucTopa VT1 coeqn- HAeTCA c 6a30KM Yepes YenoUKy 06- paTHon cBA3H, NOCTpOeUHbIA pesnc- Top R4 tuna CM3-3 unu apyrou, To- koorpaHuunBalolnid pesuctop R3 u cTa6MnuTpoH VD1. O6uman ToUKa amuTTepa VT1 TaKxKe COeAMHAeTCA C TUPMCTOPHO-TpaH3MCTOPHbIM KOMMy- TaTOPOM 4epes KOHAeHCaToOp C2 u yepes3 snemexHTb! qMog VD2, pesuc- Top R5, koTopbie nogKntoyeHbI K 06- Wen TOUKe ynpaBnatolyero aneKTpo- fa TUpuctTopa VS1 uv pesncropa R6. AHO, TupucTopa VS1 noAKnio4eH K o6ujen TouKe pesuctopos R7 u RB, KOTOpbie CO3qaloT NONOKMTeNbHOe Puc. 1. SnexTpoHHoe pene C TPaHSViCTOPHbIM KITIOYOM p-N-p MpoBoguMocTu (cnocos 1) Panvonio6utens - 04/2008 I] 19 20 cmeLueHve Ha 6a3e TpaH3ucTOpHoro kntoya VT2 p-n-p NpoBogUMocTH, 3MuT- TEP KOTOPOrO NOAKMIONeH K ACTOYHMKY nutanna “+”, a KONNeKTOp NogAKNONeH K “~" uepes KaTyWKy pene K1, Moryt nogKniouaTbca cnegyroune Tune pene: 9-23, PNY (68...75 Om conpotusnenve KaTywku); POC6 — nacnopT P®0.452.104; P3C22 — nacnopt P4.500.129N2; P9C32 — nacnopt 4.500.341. Conpotusnenue MaHHbIX KATYLUeK B CpeAHeM COcTaB- naetTt50...210 Om. Pesuctop R4 — perynsatop sbigep- KM BpeMeHH. KoHAeHCaTop C2 cny- KUT ANA YNYYLWEHMA NYCKOBIX UM OT- KIOUAIOLUMX XAPAKTEPUCTHK TUpHCTO- pa. Quog VD2 cnyxut ana otceuku MMHMManbHOro ypoBHA Halps>kKeHMA Ha SMuTTepe TpaH3uicTopa VT1. Bnarona- pA STOMY NOBbIAeTCA 6EicTpogen- cTBve Nepexoga OT NONOKUTeNbHOrO Hanps>KeHUA K OTPULIATeNbHOMY Yepes HYNeBOM Nopor Ha ynpasnsaro”iem snek- Tpofle, YTO NpuBOANMT kK NepeKnioyeHnio VTi | KT31026 vb2 ABTOJIIOBUTESIIO TUpMCTOpa B 3akpbiTOe COCTOAHMe. Pont KnioyveBoro nepekmioyarena BbinOn- HAeT Tupuctop VS1 Tuna KY101E un c ApPyrum 6ykKBeHHbIM OGO3SHaYeHieM. YeTpouMcTBO padoTaeT cnenyio- LUM O6pasom. B ucxogHom cocTon- HMM pM BKNIONeHMM UcTONHMKa Nu TaHuA pene K1 oTKnio4eHo. Mpu Ha- >KATUM KHONKM SB1 BKniOYaeTcA Wenb 3apaga KOHAeHCaTOpa C1. Nonoxnu- TenbHoe Hanps>KeHve Ha 6a3e OTKPO- eT Tpansuctop VT1. Umnynbe 3apsa- Aa KOHAeHCaTOpa C2 nu TOK 4epes onemeHTbI Avon VD2, pesuctop R5 OTKpOOT TUpUCTOp VS1, aHog TupH- cTopa NpuMeT HM3KN NOTeHUMAN, a 6a3a TpaH3ucropa VT2 nonyunt or- PUWaTenbHOe CMELIEHMe, KOTOPOCe OT- KPOeT NONHOCTBIO Nepexog TpaHanc- TOpa SMuTTep-KONNeKTOP VM BKNIOUNT pene K1. Mpuw otnyckaHun KHOnKU SB1 koHAeHCaTop C1 MeaneHHo Ha4- HeT paspaxKaTbCA Npuw AOCTMxKeHNMU Ha SMUTTepe TpaH3ucTopa VT1 Ha- NpskeHua B Npepesax 1...1,5B,aHa Puc. 3. SnekTpoHHoe pene c TPaHSMCTOPHbIM KIONOM N-p-n NPOBOAMMOCTU = KaToge Avona VD2 ono 6yneT ewe meHbuwWe. Ha ynpasnatotiem snektpo- Ae Npu Nepexoge oT nonoxKUuTeNbHO- FO COCTOAHUA B OTPUL|aTeNbHOe BO3- HUKHET MMOYNbC O6paTHOrO ToKa, KOTOpbI NepeKniounT THpucTop VS1 B gakpbiTOe CocToAHue. Basa TpaH- 3uctopa VT2 nepevgeT B nonoxKn- TeNbHOe CMeLIEHMe UW TpaH3ucTop 3akpoetca, pene K1 oTKniountTca. CTouT eve pas O6paTuTb BHUMaHHe, 4TO Takoe NnepeknioveHve BO3MOXKHO TONbKO TOrAa, Kora padouni TOK Ha TMpUCTOpe 6Nu3skni TOKy yAep»xKuBa- HMA, a pu Gonbluom paboyem ToKe TUpucTopa OTKNIOYeHHe BbIsbIBAaeT onpefenennyto TpyqHOcTb no ynpaB- NAOLyen Wen B UCTOUHMKe NuTAaHMA NOCTOAHHOLO TOKa. Bpema BbIJ/ep>KK C MAHHbIMU HO- MMHanaMu 3sNeMeHTOB COcTaBNnAeT 0...20 MUHYT, a MpY yCTaHOBKe KOH- Mexcatopa C1 emKkoctbio 1000 mk® — 6onee 40 munyT, NorpewHoctTb He Gonee 5%. C ucTouHnkamn nuTaHiua 24 B ppe- MSA BbIAepKKM YBeNuUMTCA B 2 pasa, Ana STOFO CNepyeT YCTAHOBMTb KOHAIeH- catopbi C1, C2 HomuHaiom Ha 40 Bu NOAO6paTb COOTBETCTBEHHO TOKOOr- paHnuuBalowye pesncTopel. Ha pwc. 2 npvBeneHa nevaTHO-MoH- T@KHAA NNATa SNEKTPOHHOrO pene. YCTPOUCTBO BNeKTPOHHOrTO pene (pac. 3) oTnnYaeTCA OT ycTpoicTBa Ha pwc. 1 Tem, 4TO KOMMYTAaUMOHHbIA 6noK ycTaHoBneH Ha TpaH3ncTope VT2 c n-p-n npoBogMMocTbIO. Pene K1 c BkMoYeHNeM UCTOUHMKa nMTaHna 6yfeT BKIOYeHO, a C HaxkaTMeM KHON- Kv SB1 pene K1 6ygeT oTKniouaTECA Ha YCTAHOBNeHHOe BPeMA BbIDEp KKM. Nopsqok HanayKM cnepyrouni. Munumanbubii TOK yoep>kaHua TH- pucTopa (B AaHHOM cnyyae Ha Tupuc- Tope KY.101E) cocrasun 3,32 mA, no- 3TOMY TOK, NUTAOWMK TupucTOp VS1 4epe3 peancropbi R7 uv R8 (pe. 4) uyenn 6a3bI Tpad3vcTopa VT2, non- KH 6bITb BbILUe MW YCTaHaBNuBaeTcA NOA6OpoMm sTux pesucropos. B cny- yae, Kora THpUCTOp MMeeT 6onbLuMi yAOepxuBatoun TOK, OCO6eHHO Cc TP@H3UCTOPHbIM KNIOYOM VT2 Nn-p-n NpososumoctTpy, NoAKniouaetca n0- nonxuTenbHoe GannactHoe conpo- TUBNEHKE, MOKHO C NOCTpOeYHbIM pesucropom no npukyMny cxembI Ha If Pannonioburens — 04/2008 | ABTOSIOBUTESIO puc. 6. 3necb umeetca B Bupy, YTO B TPpaH3ucTope p-n-p npoBoAumocTy, B oTnuune oT TpaH3ncTopa n-p-n npo- BOAUMOCTH, NPV OTKPbITOM COCTOAHMK TMpUuCTOopa NpoTeKaeT TOK no yenu SMUTTep-6a3a M Yepe3 OTKPbITbIN TH- puicTop, BenuyunHa KOTOpOrO 3aBucuT OT TOKOOrpaHMunBalolero pesucto- pa. Jlanee 3apmxaem KoHgencaTop C1. Korga pene K1 skmroyntca, 3am- KHeM Wenb KOHAeHCaTOpa C1, npo- Mzo0rgeT paspag KoHpeHcaTopa. Pene +12B K1 omKHO 6bICTpO OTKNIOUNTECA, 3TO cnepyeT NOBTOPUTb HECKONbKO pa3. Ha pne. 4 npvsegen anbtepHa- TMBHbIM BAPMAHT SNEKTPOHHOrO pene, c yny4WeHHbIMU BO3MO>%«KHOC- Tamu. BkmoveHve THpucTopa npons- BOAMTbCA NO TOKY ynpaBnatowero gneKTpoya TOKOM 6onbwe yoepKuBa- HMA, & OTKNOYeHKe — NO TOKy HwKe yaepxueatoujero. YCTponcTBO oTNH- 4yaeTCA OT NpeAblAyuje CxembI Tem, 4ToO 6a3a TpaH3KCTOPHoro KnIOYa - fe ee ~ wo Re ete te Be Puc. 5. NeyatHan nnata (cnoco6 2) Puc. 6. SnexTpoHHoe pene c 3agaTunkom ToKa Panvonobutens — 04/2008 |] VT2 nogknioyaetca MexAy aHOAOM Tupuctopa VS1 uw kaTOgOM AuoAa VD2, a ynpasnatouni anekTpog Tu- puctopa VS1 nogKnio4en kK aHo”y quoga univ nogKnioyaetca kK SMMTTe- Py TpanH3ucTopa VT1 Yepes pesncTop R7. Bo3mMo>xHb! Apyrve nyTv no”Knio- YeHve ynpaBnatowjero snekTpoga, K npumepy, Yepe3 quog, CTaGunuTpon, KOHAeHCATOP NO OTAeNbHOCTH unK CMeLUAHHO, UAV GONONHAIOTCA pe3su- cTopom. Takum o6pasom, oTcekaeTca 6a3a knlo4a TpaH3ucTopa VT2 OT CBA- 3uc “—”, B TOM 4uCne Yepes ynpasna- fOLUM aneKTpog Tupnctopa VS1. Ha Tupuctope KY101E npu mHoro- KP@THbIX ACNbITAHMAX 6bINU yCTAaHOBNe- HbI CnepyroluMe NapameTpbi: TOK yAep- >KUBAHUA PABHASICA 3,32 MA, NP MeHb- WWeM TOKe TMPKCTOP oTKNIOYarca. Mn- HUMANIbHbIM OGLYMM TOK, Np KOTOPOM TMPMCTOP OTKPbIBasICA BHOBb, COCTaB- nan 4,2 MA. Pa3Hnya Hanps>KeHna MexAy OTKMHOYeHHeM VV BKTIOYeHKeM Tupuctopa 8B OGLE TOUKe amuTTepa VT1 coctasnana 0,7 B. (CTonT oTme- TUTb, YTO STOT NPUHUMN MOXKHO MCnosb- 30BaTb B CnegALUMXx yCTponcTBax.) Bpe- MA BbIDeP KKM NpU Tex *Ke HOMMHaNAaXx * OMHAKOBO CO CxeMOH Ha pxe. 1, a no- TPeLWHOCTb — B Npegenax 2...3%. YcTpolicTBo pa6boTaeT cnepyroluyMm o6pa3om. Mpw Ha@katTuu KHonku SB1 BKMIO“AeTCA Lenb 3apApa KOHAeHCATO- pa C1. NonoxutTenbHoe HanpsKeHve Ha 6a3e OTKpOeT TpaH3ncTop VT1. 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Oxonyanne B Ne5/2008 ‘ 21 LI | AYOMOTEXHUKA - | | CBATAA MPOCTOTA ; unum | BECTPAHC®OPMATOPHbIN | SIAMMOBO - TPAH3MCTOPHBIA Bnayucnas Kpeimep 22 r, Doveuk E-mail: thatblack @ mail.ru MUuntpo Ha MHOrHMXx TBICAYax CTpaHny BOCneTa KpacoTa amMnosoro 3ByKa MM Aya MHO- TMX, KTO BKYCH STY HEOObINanHy1o MYy3bIKANbHOCTh M, HE NOGOMOCb STOO cnosa, YenoBeYHOCTb, naMnoeBoe 3By- KOBOCNpoU3sBeAeHHNe CTANO NOKU3HEH- HOM CTPacTbIO, M60 CTaHOBUTCA O4e- BHAHbIM, YTO Ny4iuero B 3ByYKOBOCNpO- W3BeEQeHMH HET HM He 6yeT. Ho, Kak noka3bisaeT CypoBan Npak- Tuka, Janee HaCTynaloT MyYYHTeNbHbIE TOAbI NOVCKOB COBEPLUeHCTBAa, 6ECCOH- Hble HOW MM ONyxWWMe yun ©. Besb NpaswnbHbIA NamnoBbihk annapatT He- O6bI4aWHO 4YBCTBMTeNeH K KaKOMy KOMNOHEHTY M4 MPH NOAGope OHbIX pe- 3yMbTaT YaWje BCero AGCONIOTHO He- Npegcka3yem. 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Yeunutenb HanpsAxeHnA BbINON- _H@H Ha TpMoge uv chopmupyerT o6uynn xapakTep 3By4aHMA CxembI, Janee cnepyeT ycunutenb TOKa Ha COCTaB- HOM TPaH3HCTOpe, KOTOPbIN B FAHHOM BaplaHTe BKMIOYeHUA BHOCHT 8 3ByYK MVHUM@NbHO BO3MOXHYIO OKpacky. Npu stom namna-apansep (nono- BHHa COBOeHHOMO Tprvoga) Hanpamyto Harpy>keHa Yepe3 SMMTTepHbIN Nepe- xog Ha pesnctop R3 uv Harpy3ky, vc- KMIO4eHO MaKe AHOAHOe CONpoTUBNe- Hive. OSHOTAKTHbIN BbIXOQHOM Kackag pa6oTaeT B >KeCTKOM pexKume A (TOK nokoa 1,25 A, 8 Buge Tenna paccen- BaeTca 27 BT). YcunutTenb oxBayeH MArKON MW Herny6oKoK O6paTHon ceA- 3bI0 3a CYeT NaWeHNA HANPAKeHMA Ha pesuctope R2. B utore Mbi nonyyaem Becbma 6naropogHoe, CBOMCTBeHHOe Namno- BbIM ycunuTenaM, 3By4aHve Npu npak- TWYECKM MaKCUManbHOM NpocToTB HW c3 L1_ 10000,0°35 8 ~ 2208 Puc. 1 [] Paguono6urent — 04/2008 AeLuIeBNSHE W3FOTOB/IEHMA. 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Ha4¥Hem C perynatopa rpomKoc- ‘TH — K&K U3BECTHO, 3TO BECbMa KpH- |= TA4@CKHE MM CHOKHbIK y3en, 6naroga- } pa nnoxomy nepemeHHomy pesuctTo- Py MbI MOKeEM 3Ha4MTeNbHO NOTepATb NpospakHoctTb wu rny6uny 3ByKa! Ecnu y sac HeT BO3MOx%KHOCTH WK >KENAHNA UCNONb3OBaTb Takne BeLUIM, kak ALPS unu Riken Ohm, nyctb ato 6yAeT XOTA GbI TUJaTeENbHO OTO6paH- HbIW MW NpHBeqeHHbIM B NOPAAOK Co- BeTcKuhw CI13 MakcumManbHO Mou- HOCTH, MW He 3a6yAbTe NOYMCTUTb CKONb3ALUME MeTannn4eckne KOHTaK- Tel, O6ecnewBaloune coeaMHeHue noNnsyHKa C BbIBOAOM pe3sucTopa! TnasHoe — He CTaBUuTb Aewesbie co- BPeEMeHHbIe UMNOPTHbIe pesucToprl. OveHb xopowMA BAPNAHT — COoeNnaTb CTYNeHYaTbIA PperynATOp Ha OCHOBeE COBETCKOrO MHOFONO3MLMOHHOrO Ne- peknioyatena c nocepe6peHHbimnu KOHTaKTamh, 6naro ux NerkKo AocTaTb Ha pagquopbinkax. Cxema Takoro pe- rynatopa npusegena Ha pue. 2. Npv npoektuposke Aanuoro pery- naTopa CTasuylach 3aqaya Nonyyvtb MaAKCMMasIbHOe KayecTeo. V pevctsutenbHo, 8 Yen ucTOY- HMK - CeTKa NaMnbl Bcero OAMH pe- 3UCTOP M4 HM ODHOLO KOHTaKTa, B Yen KOHTAaKT. Mpaeya, 8 “Tore MbI AMeeM | w3amMenatoujeeca OT 17,3 40 29,5 KOM | BXOAHOe conpoTMenennve ycunntena, HO ANA GONbLWMHCTBA COBPEMEHHbIX MCTOYHMKOB CUrHasa 3T0 ABCONHIOTHO npvemnemo. Ecnu Heo6xoqumo no- AY4NTb SoNbwee BXOAHOe ConpoTHB- | NeHve, Hanpumep, ana nogknioY4eHna K NaMNosowy UCTOYHUKY, Nponopuy- OHAJIbHO yBenu4bTe HOMMHaNbI BCeX PpesucTopos Ha Tpe6yemyro Bennunny. Cas0eHHbIt NepekntoyaTenb fon- X%*CH ObiTb C NepeMbikaHvem coceyz- “HX KOHT@KTOB B MOM@HT KOMmyTa- uuu (“Ha4e Npu NMepeKkmo4eHun Ha MaNibIX TPOMKOCTAX 6yAyT HeNpuAT- HbIle 6POCKY FPOMKOCTH), ero, KOHeY- HO, TOKE HEO6xXOQNuMO TWaTeENbHO NONMCTMTb MW Npusectn 8B NOpAAOK | (MOCepe6peHHble KOHTaKTbI HEO6xOmN- | MO 4CTUTb YYEHUYECKON PesuHKOn, ceTKa - 3EMNA OGKH Pe3KCcTOp VM OfMH - [ HM 8 KOeM cnyYyae He HCNONb3ayuTe Ne3eve unu Hagdpunp)). NocTosAHHble pesvcTopp! AByxBaT- THbIe, BNONHe NogonAyT MJIT. He no- JIeHMTeCh ANA Nesoro uM Npasoro Ka- Hasla perynaTopa oTO6paTb pe3nctTo- PbI MaKCMMaNbHO 6NW3KUX HOMMHAa- ios! MOHTMpOBaTb UX HYKHO NPAMO Ha Nepekniouatene. Perynatop rpomKoctu peKomen- ay fenaTb CQBOeHHbIM — 3TO ropa3- 0 yoo6Hee B aKCnnyaTauMn, a B03- MOXHOCTb perynupoBaTb GanaHc B COBPeEMeHHOK KaYeCTBEHHOM CHCTe- Me, Kak NOKa3biBaeT NPAKTHKA, BELIb He Hy>KHaA. . : R3 — nposonoynbin 20-Tn BatT- THbIM, 4 YYTUTE, YTO OH 6yqeT 3HAYH- TBNbHO HarpeBaTEca! R2 — AByYxXBaTTHbIA, MOXHO CO~ CTasHou (napannenbHo 1 Om+ 1 Om MJIT-2), nio6uTenn “6apxaTHocTn” 3ByKa MOryT NoNpo6osaTb yronbHbie BC. Menaa conpotuenennve R2 8 npe- enax 0,2...1,2 Oma, MbI 6ygem no- Ay4atTb pasnuynyo rny6uny o6pat- HOW CBA3H UM, COOTBETCTBEHHO, pa3- JWYHbIA KOSdcpuyMeHT ycuneHna uv ypoBeHb rapmMoHuk. YmMeHbluan Co- npotusnennve, Mbl 6yaem nonyyaTb 6ONbWYylO YYBCTBUTENbHOCTb u Gonee “Tennbi” 4 “OKMPHBIN” 3ByK, Yeenuu4n- Banh — MCHbLUYIO YYBCTBUTENbHOCTb M 6onbuwyO NpospayHoctTb. Jlamny VL1 pekomengyio nogpic- KaTb 60-70-x rogos, Npw 3TOM eCTb CMbICN NOCNyWaTb Kak NpocTon, Tak vw EB sapnant 6H23N1, on 3eyyat no- pasHomy. Jlio6uTenu oco6o0i npo- 3Pa4HOCTH VY NerKOCTM 3By4aHMA MO- TyT nonpo6osaTb ECC88 (uoKkones- Ka Ta Ke), 8 YACTHOCTH, CTapble Tesla unu RFT ¢ no3s0noyeHHbIMW HO>kKa- MM 6yAYT OY4eHb XopowuH. Jlamny He- O6XOQUMO BbI6paTb C HV3KMM BHYT- PeHHMM CONpOTMBNeHHeM — Tak, 4TO- 6bI Ha SMuTTepe VT 1 6bINO HanpAxKe- He 10...12,5 B. CoctaBuble TpaHsuctopb! VT1 MOryT 6bITb C m060K 6yKsOu, *Kena- TENbHO OTO6paHHble No MaKCHMalb- HOMY KOodcpuynenty nepegayn. KT825 coBeTckux BpeMeH AalvT, Ha Mow s3rnag, Gonee npo3spayHbin 3ByK, COBPeMeHHbie — 6onee Bapxa- TucTbin. MoxeTe nonpobosatTb cye- NlaTb COCTABHOU TPaH3KCTOp CaMmo- CTOATENIbHO; K NPHMeEpy, MHTepecHoe, Pagnonio6utenb - 04/2008 l] 23