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242 Theory of Angular Momentum But the right-hand side of (3.10.44) is the same as (a’, jmjJ-V|a, jm) / (a, jmjJ?\a, jm) by (3.10.42) and (3.10.43). Moreover, the left-hand side of (3.10.43) is just j(j+1)A?. So , y Via, jm n | jm'V, = Semis im’|J,| jm), (3.10.45; a’, jm, jy = SEA jim), (3.1045) which proves the projection theorem. a We will give applications of the theorem in subsequent sections. PROBLEMS 1. Find the cigenvalues and cigenvectors of o, = Suppose an electron is in the spin state (3) If s, is measured, what is the probability of the result h/2? 2. Consider the 2X2 matrix defined by ya tot tora, a)— tera where a, is a real number and a is a three-dimensional vector with real components. a. Prove that U is unitary and unimodular. b. In general, a 2X2 unitary unimodular matrix represents a rotation in three dimensions. Find the axis and angle of rotation appropriate for U in terms of ay, 4, a3, and ay. . The spin-dependent Hamiltonian of an electron-positron system in the presence of a uniform magnetic field in the z-direction can be written as n= asersiers (Bsr se), me }\" = Suppose the spin function of the system is given by x" x"? a. Is this an eigenfunction of H in the limit A — 0, eB/me # 07 If it is, what is the energy eigenvalue? If it is not, what is the expectation value of H? b. Same problem when eB/me— 0, A #0. }. Consider a spin 1 particle. Evaluate the matrix elements of S,(S,+h)(S,—h) and S,(S,+h)(S,-h) . Let the Hamiltonian of a rigid body be _1(K?. K2, K? H-5 (FE), B where K is the angular momentum in the body frame. From this Problems m3 expression obtain the Heisenberg equation of motion for K and then find Euler's equation of motion in the correspondence limit. 6. Let U =e! %e'62Fe', where (a, B, y) are the Eulerian angles. In order that U represent a rotation (a, B,y), what are the commutation rules satisfied by the G,? Relate G to the angular momentum operators. 7. What is the meaning of the following equation: UU = PR vA where the three components of A are matrices? From this equation show that matrix elements (m|4,|”) transform like vectors 8. Consider a sequence of Fuler rotations represented hy ree ~io,8 - Q°/)(a, By) = exp( ie Jes toah )eso( fas ) 2] 2 2 Marnteos8 —g-He-v/2gin & e cost —¢ sin _ 2 2 vain Bb ptenrag 2 2 Because of the group properties of rotations, we expect that this sequence of operations is equivalent to a single rotation about some axis by an angle @. Find 6. 9. a. Consider a pure ensemble of identically prepared spin 4 systems. Suppose the expectation values (S.) and (S.) and the sign of ¢S,) are known. Show how we may determine the state vector. Why is it unnecessary to know the magnitude of ¢S,)? b. Consider a mixed ensemble of spin § systems. Suppose the ensemble averages [S,], [S,], and [S,] are all known. Show how we may construct the 22 density matrix that characterizes the ensemble. 10. a. Prove that the time evolution of the density operator p (in the Schridinger picture) is given by P(t) = Ut, fo) O(to) UNF, to). b. Suppose we have a pure ensemble at f=. Prove that it cannot evolve into a mixed ensemble as long as the time evolution is governed by the Schrédinger equation. 11. Consider an ensemble of spin 1 systems. The density matrix is now a 3X3 matrix. How many independent (real) parameters are needed to characterize the density matrix? What must we know in addition to [S,], [S,], and [S,] to characterize the ensemble completely? 12. An angular-momentum cigenstate | j, 7 = max = j) is rotated by an infinitesimal angle e about the y-axis. Without using the explicit form of the d//), function, obtain an expression for the probability for the new rotated state to be found in the original state up to terms of order e?. 244 Theory of Angular Momentum 13. Show that the 3x3 matrices G, (i=1,2,3) whose clements are given by (G,) n= ~ teins where j and k are the row and column indices, satisfy the angular momentum commutation relations. What is the physical (or geometric) significance of the transformation matrix that connects G, to the more usual 3x3 representations of the angular-momentum operator J, with J, taken 10 be diagonal? Relate your result to VoV+ tidy x¥ under infinitesimal rotations. (Note: This problem may be helpful in understanding the photon spin.) 14, a. Let J be angular momentum. It may stand for orbital L, spin S, or Jno.) Using the fact that J,, J,,J,(J..= J, +i,) satisfy the usual angular-momentum commutation relations, prove V=I2+I,J_-hd,. D. Using (a) (ur otherwise), derive dhe “famous expression for the coefficient ¢ that appears in IV ym= CVs. m1 15. The wave function of a particle subjected to a spherically symmetrical potential V(r) is given by W(x) = (x+y +3z) f(r) a. Is ¥ an eigenfunction of L?? If so, what is the /-value? If not, what are the possible values of / we may obtain when L? is measured? b. What are the probabilities for the particle to be found in various m, states? c, Suppose it is known somehow that ¥(x) is an energy eigenfunction with eigenvalue E. Indicate how we may find V(r). 16. A particle in a spherically symmetrical potential is known to be in an eigenstate of 17 and 1, with eigenvalues h?/(/+1) and mh, respec- tively. Prove that the expectation values between |/m) states satisfy 41)At— mm, (Lay (L,) 0, (aR) = (apy — EAE mn) Interpret this result semiclassically. 17. Suppose a half-integer /-value, say }, were allowed for orbital angular momentum. From LN prin(9o)~ 0, we may deduce, as usual, Yyranl0.) & €'9//sind Problems 245, Now try to construct Y,., 1,.(6,9):; by (a) applying L to Yi /2,12(4, ); and (b) using LY, 1/2(8, 6) = 0. Show that the two procedures lead to contradictory results. (This gives an argument against half-integer /-values for orbital angular momentum.) 18. Consider an orbital angular-momentum eigenstate |/= 2, m=0). Sup- pose this state is rotated by an angle f about the y-axis. Find the probability for the new state to be found in m=0, £1, and +2. (The spherical harmonies for /=(, 1, and 2 given in Appendix A may be useful.) 19. What is the physical significance of the operators K,=atat and K_=a,a_ in Schwinger’s scheme for angular momentum? Give the nonvanishing matrix elements of K , 20. We are to add angular momenta j,=1 and j,=1 to form j= 2, 1, and O states. Using either the ladder operator method or the recursion relation, express all (nine) { j,m} eigenkets in terms of |, j,; ™,m,) Write your answer as Unhm=ty= Es 40) — pple b nes where + and 0 stand for m,_,=1,0, respectively. 21. a. Evaluate i LX lash B) Pm for any j (integer or half-integer); then check your answer for j=} b. Prove, for any j, i E_ midge B)!? = $/( J +1) sin’B + m4 (308781) many [Hint. ‘This can be proved in many ways. You may, for instance, examine the rotational properties of J? using the spherical (irreduci- ble) tensor language] Consider a system with j~1. Explicitly write (j=1,m4J,|i=1,m) we e in 3X3 matrix form. b. Show that for j=1 only, it is legitimate to replace e~"*/ by 1-i(¥ )sinp- (¥ yj (1-cosB). 16 Theory of Angular Momentum c. Using (b), prove au=D(B) = (F)a +e0sa) ~(jp)sna (Ze cos) (Jane csp -(L)anp \¥2 v2! 1 1 (F)¢-cosa) (zr) 23, Express the matrix element (a,6,Y3|J7|a,8,¥;) in terms of a series in Dj, 0BY) = (aBy| mn). 24, Consider a system made up of two spin } particles. Observer A specializes in measuring the spin components of one of the particles (5,,551, and so on), while observer B measures the spin components of the other particle. Suppose the system is known to be in a spin-singlet state, that is, Sioa — 0. a. What is the probability for observer A to obtain s,.=A/2 when observer B makes no measurement? Same problem for 5, = h/2. b. Observer B determines the spin of particle 2 to be in the s,, =h/2 state with certainty. What can we then conclude about the outcome of observer A’s measurement if (i) A measures s,, and (ii) A measures 5,,? Justify your answer. 25. Consider a spherical tensor of rank 1 (that is, a vector) np (5) +e0sp) V£iV, 7 ; v2 vo WO=Yv, Using the expression for d’~) given in Problem 22, evaluate ( Byv Lag ayys x and show that your results are just what you expect from the transfor- mation properties of V, , , under rotations about the y-axis. 26. a. Construct a spherical tensor of rank 1 out of two different vectors U=(U,,U,,U.) and V=(V,,V,,V,). Explicitly write 7%) , in terms of U, y.2 and Vy.» b. Construct a spherical tensor of rank 2 out of two different vectors U and V. Write down explicitly 72)... in terms of U,,,. and V,, 27. Consider a spinless particle bound to a fixed center by a central force potential. Problems 247 a. Relate, as much as possible, the matrix elements cnt m FL (xt p)intm) and Qn’, m'izin im) v2 using only the Wigner-Eckart theorem. Make sure to state under what conditions the matrix elements are nonvanishing, b. Do the same problem using wave functions ¥(x) = R,/(r)¥/"(8, $)- 28. a. Write ay, xz, and (x?— y?) as components of a spherical (irreduci- ble) tensor of rank 2. b. The expectation value Q=e(a, j,m= j\(3z?—r?)|a, j,m= i) is known as the quadrupole moment. Evaluate ea, j,mi(x?— y?)|a, jm= j), (where m’= j,j—-1,j—-2,-..) in terms of Q and appropriate Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. 29. A spin 3 nucleus situated at the origin is subjected to an external inhomogencous electric ficld. The basic clectric quadrupole interaction may by taken to be 2, 24 | 2, Hig = —2— (3) s24{ 7% s+(28) s 25(s—1)h? |\ ax? Jo ay? } dz? }o° where ¢ is the electrostatic potential satisfying Laplace’s equation and the coordinate axes are so chosen that (a \ [a - (28) -0 lay > \ avez}, (axa ], : Show that the interaction energy can be written as A(3S? -S?)+ B(S2. +57), and express A and B in terms of (8G /8x")o and so on, Determine the energy eigenkets (in terms of |m), where m= +3, +4) and the corre- sponding energy eigenvalues. Is there any degeneracy?