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INGLS INSTRUMENTAL

DO YOU SPEAK ENGLISH?


Quantas vezes voc ouviu est pergunta?
Em tempos de globalizao, saber ingls passou a ser requisito bsico para a
sobrevivncia nesse mundo interconectado. No nada incomum encontrarmos
pessoas que at tentam fugir do idioma, mas se rendem a ele quando descobrem
que esto rodeados de situaes as quais, no mnimo, a habilidade de ler em
ingls se faz necessria. Quer seja por diverso, a trabalho ou simplesmente
para enriquecimento cultural, navegar pela internet, consultar um site de notcias
internacionais, bater aquele papo com o amigo indiano que voc acabou de
conhecer virtualmente, ler o manual daquela mquina fotogrfica de ltima
gerao e tantas outras circunstncias que nos abrem infinitas possibilidades de
crescimento quando o idioma deixa de ser uma barreira para tornar-se
instrumento de ao e autonomia dentro dessa nossa imensa aldeia global.
O curso de ingls instrumental tem o objetivo especfico de instrument-lo para a
prtica da leitura em lngua inglesa e no envolve as habilidades de fala, audio
e escrita. Durante o curso, voc ser apresentado s diversas tcnicas de leitura
que vo auxili-lo na compreenso de textos dos mais variados gneros. No
entanto, preciso observar que o seu sucesso no curso depender
primordialmente de sua dedicao e empenho para desenvolver as atividades
prticas que faro parte das aulas. Entender a dinmica das aulas ir auxili-lo na
organizao de seu tempo de estudo.
Compreenso de textos em lngua inglesa aqui entendida como leitura para a
construo de significados e no um pretexto para a prtica descontextualizada
de estruturas da lngua e, para atingir a compreenso textual desejada, voc
leitor ir ser convidado a interagir com o contedo do texto, relacionando-o ao
seu conhecimento de mundo, ativando os diversos nveis de conhecimento
(lingstico, textual, prvio e estratgico) em um processo ativo de construo e
reconstruo de significados.
Para darmos incio, vamos comear com uma atividade de conscientizao para
a prtica do ingls instrumental:

1) COMO VOC SE DEFINE COMO APRENDIZ?

a) Voc acha que quem conhece bem a prpria lngua tem vantagem na
compreenso de um texto em lngua estrangeira?
a) No: so duas lnguas diferentes;
b) Depende: se as duas lnguas forem parecidas...
c) Sim: sempre possvel estabelecer relaes.
b) O que a leitura representa para voc?
a) satisfao

b) obrigao
c) informao.
c)Como voc organiza seu tempo?
a) Mal: estou sempre correndo atrs; queria que o dia tivesse 30 horas.
b) Depende da poca s vezes estou mais folgado; s vezes menos.
c) Bem procuro fazer o que preciso reservar um tempinho para me distrair.
d) O que mais importante para um atleta?
a) vocao
b) Inspirao e transpirao.
c) sorte.
e)Imagine-se na cozinha. Voc vai testar uma receita e descobre que no tem um
dos ingredientes. O que voc faz?
a) Vai ao mercado e compra o que est faltando.
b) Deixa para fazer aquele prato outro dia;
c) Substitui o ingrediente que falta por algo semelhante.

2) ROTEIRO DE LEITURA
O seguinte roteiro tem a funo de orient-lo para a leitura de todos os gneros
de texto. Muitas delas j so usadas inconscientemente e automaticamente
quando voc l um texto em sua lngua materna. A partir de agora, voc ir uslas para engajar-se em um processo consciente de dilogo com o texto em lngua
inglesa tambm. Assim, voc se tornar ativo e autnomo em seu processo de
aprendizagem.
SEMPRE QUE ABORDAR UM TEXTO EM LNGUA INGLESA, SIGA OS
SEGUINTES PASSOS:
A- ANALISE TTULO E SUBTTULO: faa perguntas para o ttulo: Ex.: Qual o
gnero do texto? Quais assuntos so geralmente abordados nesse tipo de
gnero?
Para um texto jornalstico, por exemplo, pergunte:
O que aconteceu?/ Quem involveu?/ Quando? Onde? Como?
Para um texto cientfico, pergunte?
Qual a pesquisa realizada? Por qu? Quando? Onde? Qual o objetivo?
A partir dos questionamentos levantados, busque acionar seu conhecimento
prvio sobre o assunto do texto para levantar hipteses e fazer inferncias sobre
possveis respostas.
B- ANALISE INFORMAES NO VERBAIS: grficos, layout, tabelas, figuras
etc. Muitas vezes, a leitura de um grfico j d uma boa idia do texto como um
todo.
C- SKIMMING: Leitura rpida na qual o leitor apenas Corre os olhos pelo texto
e tenta responder seguinte pergunta: SOBRE O QUE FALA O TEXTO?

Parece simples, no ? E realmente, porm, exige uma dose de disciplina.


Nesse momento, voc deve focar sua ateno para o que voc j sabe. Leia o
texto do incio at o final, concentre-se nas palavras cognatas (aquelas palavras
cuja grafia e significado so parecidos com a do portugus); nas palavras chaves
(aquelas que geralmente se repetem no texto) e nas palavras cujo significado
voc j conhece. Tente verificar suas hipteses sobre o assunto do texto.
D- SCANNING: Volte ao texto. Agora hora de ir um pouco mais a fundo,
interagir mais com o texto, procurar respostas para aquelas perguntas que voc
fez no item 2. Nesse momento, recomendvel que voc:
a) Observe novamente se circulou todas as palavras cognatas, chaves e
conhecidas;
b) Analise os tempos verbais empregados;
c) Localize e relacione os pronomes empregados pelo autor s palavras s
quais se referem. Ao fazer isso, voc no ir distanciar-se das idias
enquanto l.
d) Localize os marcadores de discurso, ou seja, os conectivos (elementos
que do coeso, que ligam uma idia a outra, uma frase a outra) e que
implicaes trazem para o entendimento do texto. Os conectivos podem
indicar: concesso, tempo, causa/efeito, resultado,modo, propsito,
condio, lugar etc. Ex.: I wont go out, unless you want me togo (Eu no
vou sair, a no ser que voc queira). A conjuno UNLESS indica a
condio para que eu saia de casa.
E- COMO LIDAR COM VOCABULRIO DESCONHECIDO: Sempre que voc se
deparar com uma palavra cujo significado voc no conhece, procure seguir os
seguintes passos:
a) Procure identificar se a palavra realmente essencial para a informao que
voc procura;
b)Caso seja uma palavra chave para o entendimento global do pargrafo, procure
inferir o contedo pelo contexto;
c) Verifique se o vocbulo parte de uma informao parte de um grupo
nominal e qual a sua funo dentro desse grupo. De modo geral a estrutura
sinttica de uma frase em ingls a mesma que o portugus:
SUJEITO + VERBO + OBJETO/COMPLEMENTO
Localizar esta estrutura facilita seu entendimento e ajuda na inferncia do
significado de palavras desconhecidas.
Ex.: Observe a frase abaixo:
The price of the petrol skyrocketed last month.
Vamos imaginar que voc no saiba o significado de skyrocketed, porm, a
partir da anlise das funes sintticas podemos estabelecer algumas dedues:
SUJEITO: The price of the petrol
VERBO (VEM LOGO APS O SUJEITO): skyrocketed
COMPLEMENTO (TUDO O QUE VEM APS O VERBO ): last month.

Portanto, j sei que skyrocketed refere-se a uma ao realizada pelo sujeito (o


preo do petrleo).
A partir da, continue fazendo inferncias e tentado chegar ao significado atravs
de uma anlise aprofundada.

d)Observe se o vocbulo apresenta afixos (prefixos e sufixos) que possam dar


pistas de seu significado: Ex.: unbelievable : believe acreditar / un- prefixo que
significa que no d para / able sufixo que significa ser capaz de. Portanto
unbelievable significa: inacreditvel.
e) Caso tenha recorrido a todos os recursos acima e ainda tiver dvida, recorra
ao dicionrio;
F- CONSTRUA UM ESQUEMA DE ENTENDIMENTO DO TEXTO: Junte todas
as informaes trabalhadas acima, leia o texto diversas vezes e escreva uma
frase contendo o assunto de cada pargrafo ao lado do mesmo (idia geral).
Junte todas as frases em um pargrafo nico e voc ter um panorama geral do
texto lido.

3) AGORA HORA QUE COLOCAR TODAS AS DICAS EM AO.

1)
a) Utilizando o roteiro acima e os conhecimentos adquiridos em nossas tele
aulas, analise o texto abaixo e responda:

1- Qual o assunto da notcia? O que aconteceu?


2- Onde aconteceu o fato narrado?
3- Quem est envolvido na notcia? A quem interessa a informao dada?
4- Quando aconteceu?
5- Como aconteceu?
b) According to the text, are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

President Obama has called a global H1N1 emergency.


Medical centers aren't prepared yet for a rise in H1N1 cases.
There are many more flu-like cases than usual.
H1N1 has killed more than 1,000 people in the USA this year.
H1N1 has not killed as many people as thought earlier.
H1N1 is one of the biggest pandemics in centuries.
Governments have very few stocks of H1N1 vaccines.
The WHO says there is little need for us to worry.

T/F
T/F
T/F
T/F
T/F
T/F
T/F
T/F

c)Elabore um glossrio contendo as palavras do texto que voc no conhecia.

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Obama Declares H1N1 National


Emergency
President Obama has declared H1N1 influenza a national emergency in the USA.
He has given doctors and medical facilities more resources to deal with the
pandemic. The autumn weather has increased the number of flu cases reported.
Scientists have warned all year that the cooler weather could see a sharp rise in
H1N1. Medical centers and hospitals are prepared for a much busier than usual
flu season. Reports are that flu-like illnesses are already much higher than the
usual seasonal peak. Since August the 30th, 8,200 people have contracted H1N1
in the United States and 411 people have died. This brings the total number of
hospitalizations in the US this year to 20,000, with over 1,000 deaths.
The H1N1 pandemic continues to spread across the world. It has not reached the
levels people feared back in April when it first broke out. Then, experts predicted it
could be one of the largest outbreaks in centuries. Fears increased when schools
started closing and people started dying. However, the predicted hundreds of
thousands of deaths did not happen. Even though, there has been a huge effort
by laboratories to find a vaccine for H1N1. Governments around the world have
created awareness campaigns on how to prevent the spread of the disease and
have stocked up on millions of doses of H1N1 vaccines. Some countries have
started an immunization programme. The WHO warns we still need to be careful.
Source: www.breakingnewsenglish.com

2a) Utilizando o roteiro acima e os conhecimentos adquiridos em nossas tele


aulas, analise o texto abaixo e responda:

6- Qual o assunto da notcia? O que aconteceu?


7- Onde aconteceu o fato narrado?
8- Quem est envolvido na notcia? A quem interessa a informao dada?
9- Quando aconteceu?
10- Como aconteceu?

b) According to the text, are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

People who eat lots of Mediterranean food are generally miserable.


T/F
Researchers said you need to be rich to eat lots of whole grain food. T / F
Those in Mediterranean countries are the most depressed Europeans. T / F
The writer says live oil is needed with meals in Italy, Spain and
T/F
Greece.
Scientists studied 10,000 people for about four years.
T/F
A Mediterranean diet can reduce the risk of depression by 30%.
T/F
Scientists say the diet reduces depression because it is low in fats.
T/F
The authors say the diet can have a bad effect on our blood vessels. T / F

c)Elabore um glossrio contendo as palavras do texto que voc no conhecia.


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Mediterranean Diets Keep You Happier


People who follow a Mediterranean diet are likely to be happier in life. This is the
conclusion of a new report published in the journal Archives of General
Psychiatry. The studys authors say a diet that is rich in vegetables, fruits, nuts,
whole grains and fish seems to make people less likely to develop depression.
This may explain why people who live in Mediterranean countries are more laid
back than other Europeans. There are fewer mental disorders in Mediterranean
countries and scientists believe this could be because of the diet. The new
research supports previous studies that suggested olive oil protects against
depression. No Italian, Spanish or Greek meal is complete without olive oil.
Researchers from Spains University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and the
Clinic of the University of Navarra, Pamplona asked 10,000 people to keep track
of what they ate. The scientists observed dietary habits and instances of
depression for four years. They discovered there was a thirty per cent lower risk of
developing depression in people who stuck to the Mediterranean diet. The
research team says it is still unsure why this diet reduces the likelihood of
depression. They said the diet could boost blood vessel performance and
increase the bodys efficiency to produce oxygen. Both these things make the
brain and heart perform better. If our mind and body are healthier, it seems natural
we will be happier.
Source: www.breakingnewsenglish.com

3- Leia o texto Religion and the vote in the 2008 election que se encontra nos
anexos e responda ao questionamento abaixo:

a) Qual foi a relao entre religio e o voto nas eleies presidenciais americanas
de 2008?
b) Se a mesma pesquisa fosse feita no Brasil, qual seria o resultado? Qual a
relao VOTO X RELIGIO no Brasil?
c) Monte um glossrio com as palavras chaves do texto.
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4- Acesse os principais jornais internacionais on-line e faa uma pesquisa sobre
notcias brasileiras veiculadas por eles no ltimo ms. Use as estratgias de
leitura estudadas para levantar o assunto principal de cada notcia:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

www.thenewyorktimes.com
www.bbc.com
www.breakingnews.com
www.cnn.com
Outro de sua preferncia

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5- Usando as estratgias de leitura e seu conhecimento prvio sobre a turma da


Mnica, leia a tirinha abaixo e responda:
a) O que a turminha da Mnica estava fazendo?
b) Por que a Magali parece brava e chateada?
Obs. Para entendimento de uma tirinha, as informaes no verbais so
essenciais.

6- Leia o anncio abaixo. Por que a multa de $200 d ao texto um efeito de


humor?
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7- A receita abaixo de um bolo de frutas. Aps le-la, responda:


a) Quais so os principais ingredients?
c) Faa um resumo do modo de preparo.
d) Em sua opinio, por que o autor da receita diz que este o melhor bolo de
todos os tempos (veja nome do bolo), o que o torna especial?

Best Fruit Cake Ever


Ingredients:
1 or 2 quarts Whiskey
1 cup butter
1 cup sugar
1 tsp. salt
4 large eggs
1 cup dried fruit
1 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. baking soda
1 cup brown sugar
1 cup of nuts
1 oz of lemon juice
Mixing Instructions:
Before you start, sample the whiskey to check for quality. Good, isn't it? Now go
ahead. Select a large mising bowl, measuring cup, etc. Check the whiskey again
as it must be just right. To be sure whiskey is of the highest quality, pour one
level cup into a glass and drink it as fast as you can. Repeat.
With an electric mixer, beat 1 cup of butter in a large fluffy bowl. Add 1 tsp. of
thugar and beat again. Meanwhile, make sure that the siskey is of the finest
quality.
Cry
another
cup.
Open the second quart is necessary. Add the 2 arge eggs, 2 cups dried fruit and
beat till high. If druit gest stuck in the beaters, juse pry it loose with a drewscriver.
Sample the whiskey again, checking for toxscisticity.
Next sift 3 cups of the salt or anything: it really doesn't matter. Sample the
whiskey.
Sift
1/2
pint
lemon
juice.
Fold in chopped butter and strained nuts. Add one babblespoon of the brown
thugar,
or
whatever
color
you
can
find
and
wix
mel.
Grease oven and turn cake to 350 degrees. Now pour the whole mess into the
coven and bake. Check whiskey again, and go to bed.
Source: http://www.jokersrevenge.com/fun-recip3.htm

8 Exercicios em anexo no material complentar em PDF.

ANEXOS
ANEXO 1

Religion and the vote in the 2008 election


SOUR CE: www.boston.com/.../articles_of_faith/Green1.jpg

KEY WEST _ At the final session of the Faith Angle conference today, two
prominent survey researchers, John C. Green and Anna Greenberg, examined a
variety of polling data about the relationship between religious affiliation and
voting behavior in this year's presidential election.
The chart above shows the bottom line, and reinforces patterns that have been in
place for at least the last two decades -- Democrats are favored by minority ethnic
and religious groups, as well as by less observant white Christians, while
Republicans are favored by more observant white Christians. The chart was
generated by Green (left), who is a political science professor at the University of
Akron, and also a senior fellow at the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, which
is the sponsor of the conference.
Green suggested that the basic structure of "faith-based politics" did not change
much since the 2004 campaign -- despite unprecedented efforts by the Obama
campaign to move religious voters, and a lot of erroneous predictions by pundits -but that it was enough to elect Obama. "It was not very different than weve seen
in the past, but different enough to have a different result,'' he said. He said the
Democrats made their biggest gains among minority religious groups (particularly
Hispanic Protestants) and failed to make significant gains among white Christians
(although there was some movement to the Democrats among evangelicals who
go to church less than weekly, and among young evangelicals).

The minimal change demonstrates, Green said, "that these basic differences are
deeply embedded.''
"Religious groups are strongly partisan these days, and deeply embedded into the
party coalitions,'' Green said -- meaning that groups like black Protestants and
Jews are important parts of the Democratic coalition, while white evangelicals play
a similar role for the Republican Party. "In the short run, there is only a limited
capacity for religious groups to move.''
Among Catholics, Green said, the data shows increasing polarization, with weekly
communicants shifting more to the right, and less frequent Massgoers shifting
further to the left.
Greenberg (right), is a Democratic pollster and senior vice president at Greenberg
Quinlan Rosner Research. She had several interesting findings -- among them,
that Barack Obama was clearly underperforming (compared to previous
Democratic candidates) among Jewish voters through much of the campaign, but
that he wound up with about 78 percent of the Jewish vote -- which is typical for a
Democratic presidential candidate. Greenberg, who said "I was actually pretty
shocked" at how well Obama did among Jews, said it was not clear how Obama
succeeded in moving Jews back to the Democratic column, but speculated that it
was the combined effect of concern among Jewish voters about Sarah Palin's
social conservatism, and what Greenberg described as the reassuring effect on
Jewish votes of Obama's performance during the debates. Green agreed, saying,
"Many Jews are Democrats, and once they became reassured that some of these
problems were not serious, they went back to their partisanship...Once the Jewish
community became reassured that Obama was going to be all right -- not that he
was going to be excellent -- that was enough.''
Perhaps Greenberg's most interesting finding, though, has to do with young
evangelicals -- a population of increasing interest to scholars and journalists
because of the perception that they may exhibit different political behaviors than
their elders. Greenberg said that research shows that young evangelicals in fact
are more liberal than older evangelicals on multiple issues -- including gay
marriage (below), global warming, and the Iraq War -- but are not moving on
abortion -- young evangelicals are just as strongly opposed to abortion as are
older evangelicals.
Green said that, although white evangelicals are still strongly Republican, there is
clearly change taking place among younger evangelicals. "Generational change
happens all the time on a steady basis, but there are points of time when it has a
big effect, and evangelicals are going through one of those times, on religious
terms, social terms, and political terms.''
Available at: http://pewforum.org/news/display.php?NewsID=17118

Available at: http://pewforum.org/news/display.php?NewsID=17118

ANEXO 2
DISASTERS RELATED TO THE WEATHER
Severe storms in the South of France caused the river Arc to rise and flood
several towns. Trains had to be diverted through Switzerland because tracks
were covered with water. Many towns suffered severe damage as the water
carried all before it. Cars were swept away and piled on top of one another. Fifty
people were also carried away by the waters. Many homes and shops were
wrecked by a combination od water and mud.
Comptons Interactive Encyclopedia. Copright 1994, 1995 Comptons New Media, Inc.

ANEXO 3
Computers are electronic machines that process information. They can perform
complex operations in a fraction of time. But, they cant think.
Computers are divided into two parts: hardware and software. Hardware refers to
the actual equipment and software refers to the programs that control and
coordinate the activities of the computer.
The CPU is the part of a computer that executes the arithmetic and logic
operations. It controls all the computer activities.
ANEXO 4
Julys Poem of the Month
If Death is Kind
By Sara Teasdale (1884 - 1933)
Perhaps if Death is kind, and there can be returning,
We will come back to earth some fragrant night,
And take these lanes to find the sea, and bending
Breathe the same honeysuckle, low and white.

We will come down at night to these resounding beaches


And the long gentle thunder of the sea,
Here for a single hour in the wide starlight
We shall be happy, for the dead are free.
ANEXO 5
FATTEST MAN IN THE WORLD PLANS TO MARRY
Love conquers all. This is certainly so for the former heaviest man in the world.
Mexican Manuel Uribe used to be the worlds most overweight person. He was in
the Guinness Book of Records in 2006 after breaking the human weight record.
Special weighing scales showed he weighed 560kg. He was so enormous he
could not leave his room. He spent his whole life living on his bed, eating huge
meals and watching TV. He decided enough was enough and that he wanted to
change his life. He also wanted to marry his longtime girlfriend Claudia Solis.
Uribe went on a crash diet and lost almost half his body weight. He lost a
whopping 250kg and has slimmed down to a lighter 310kg. He still has a long way
to go before he can once again lead a normal life.
ANEXO 6
Ponds Freeze in the Winter Why Doesn't the Ocean?
In New England, winters are cold enough to freeze the surfaces of ponds and
lakes. But why doesn't the ocean freeze along the New England coast? And how
do the animals that live in ponds survive when they freeze?
If you visite a pond during the summertime, you will probably be aware that you
are not alone. The buzzing of insects, the croaking of frogs and the splashing of
fish show that the pond is home to many living things. However, if you go to a
pond in winter, you may think that the wildlife have packed their bags and gone
on vacation for the holiday season. With the exception of a few animal tracks, the
area may seem deserted. Where did the pond's inhabitants go?
First, ponds freeze from the top down, and rarely freeze all the way through.
(Shallow ponds are more likely to freeze than deep ponds.) The layer of ice at the
top of the pond protects the water underneath from the extreme temperatures and
the wind.
Each animal has its own way of dealing with the winter cold. Many birds fly south
in the winter. Certain ducks stay, and can be seen feeding in unfrozen water.
Frogs and turtles burrow in the mud at the edge or at the bottom of the pond.
Some may burrow under leaves onshore. There, they hibernate or sleep
through the harsh weather. Their breathing and heartbeat slow, and their body
temperature lowers to conserve energy.
ADAPTED
FROM:
http://www.neaq.org/education_and_activities/games_and_activities/activities/why_doesnt_ocean_freeze.php

ANEXO 7
RENT-A-FRIEND AGENCIES ARE GROWING IN JAPAN

There are many new ways of making friends in todays world. The best known of
these is meeting new pals online. The Japanese are doing things a little
differently. There is a growth in rent-a-friend agencies. The only catch is that the
friends you meet will not become your true friends. You simply rent one when you
need one for a specific occasion. The friends for rent are professional fakers.
They will pretend to be anyone you want them to be. They serve a very useful
purpose in Japan, where its very important to keep up social appearances. If you
do not have a best man for your wedding or you need a rich aunt to seal a
business deal, rent-a-friend agencies will provide you with the perfect
impersonator.
Source: www.breakingnewsenglish.com

ANEXO 8
'SEXTING' CRAZE ARE INCREASING AMONG CHILDREN
A British anti-bullying group has issued a report on the new problem of sexting
among teenagers. Sexting is the sending of naked photos via text and e-mail.
The word is a combination of sex and 'texting. BeatBullying.coms research
reveals that over a third (38%) of under-18s have received a sext, a text with an
image of someone naked. The pictures young boys and girls are sending each
other would be viewed as pornographic by most people. Many of the photos are
breaking child pornography laws. EmmaJane Cross, head of BeatBullying, said:
It is important that parents and schools are aware that sexting is a significant
issue amongst our childrenso together we can act to stop this kind of
behaviour.
BeatBullying says sexting is increasing at an alarming rate. More and more young
people are using it to bully others online. This often leads to tragedy. Many
teenagers have committed suicide after bullies spread their private photos online.
One case that made Americans aware of the problem was that of eighteen-yearold Jessica Logan. She sent a nude photo of herself to her boyfriend. After she
broke up with him, he sent the picture to hundreds of teenagers in her hometown.
Jessicas friends said she felt like she was being attacked and tortured. Jessica
ended her own life because of the pain she felt. BeatBullying says sexting is one
of the biggest threats facing our young people today online.
Source: www.breakingnewsenglish.com

ANEXO 9
Taking A Shower May Be Bad For You

Scientists have found that taking a shower might not be so good for you. New
research from the University of Colorado has found there can be a build-up of
harmful bacteria in showerheads. Researchers said the very first jets of water
from the shower are the most dangerous. The shower acts like an aerosol,
spraying the bacteria into the air. This means having a daily shower may not be as
hygienic as we think. Scientists tested 50 different showers across nine US cities.
They discovered that a third of these had very high levels of bacteria that can

cause lung damage. Researcher Laura Baumgartner advised: For most people,
the answer is simple. Dont stand in front of the shower when the first blast comes
out."
The research is part of a wider project that is looking at our daily environment. In
particular, the research team is looking at the microbiology of water and air in
schools, homes and public buildings. Research into the bathroom environment
provided interesting results. Ms. Baumgartner said showers were more dangerous
than baths because they act like aerosol sprays. Showerheads are much harder
to clean than baths because they are enclosed. Furthermore, it is easier for us to
inhale the bacteria into our lungs because of the steam in the shower.
Baumgartner did say we should not be too concerned about her discovery: "I take
showers every day, and Im not at all worried," she said.
Source: www.breakingnewsenglish.com

ANEXO 10

Woman Fired for Using Capital Letters


WOULD YOU GET ANGRY IF YOU GOT E-MAILS WITH LOTS OF CAPITAL
LETTERS? A New Zealand boss saw red after one of his employees used block
capitals in e-mails to colleagues. Vicki Walker, an accountant in Auckland, was
fired after her co-workers complained about her use of caps. Members of staff at
ProCare Health were angry with Ms. Walker for constantly filling her mails with
sentences in capital letters, bold and red text. They said they found the e-mails
confrontational. Bosses at ProCare dismissed Ms Walker for causing
disharmony in the workplace. Walker took the company to court and sued for
unfair dismissal. She won the case and ProCare had to pay her US$11,500 in
damages and lost pay.
Source: www.breakingnewsenglish.com

ANEXO 11
Arctic Ice May Disappear in a Decade
A new report on global warming predicts the frozen Arctic Ocean will soon be like
a normal sea in the summers. There are shocking changes happening in the polar
environment and its fragile eco-systems. For millions of years, the sea around the
North Pole has been frozen all year round. Recent research from the World
Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Catlin Atlantic Survey show things are changing fast.
They predict that within a decade, the Arctic will be largely ice-free in the summer.
They base their prediction on the rate at which the sea ice is currently thinning.
The lead researcher, Professor Peter Wadhams, said: "The area is now more
likely to become open water each summer, bringing forward the potential date
when the summer sea ice will be completely gone."
Source: www.breakingnewsenglish.com

ANEXO 12
Storing data in computer programs
For those new to computer programming, data and code go hand in hand. You
cannot write a program of any real value without lines of code, or without data. A
Word Processor program has logic that takes what the user types and stores it in
data. It also uses data to control how it stores and formats what the user types
and clicks.
Data is stored in the memory of the computer when the program runs (it can also
be stored in a file, but that is another matter beyond the scope of this tutorial).
Each memory 'slot' is identified by a name that the programmer chooses. For
example LineTotal might be used to name a memory slot that holds the total
number of lines in a Word Processor document.

ANEXO 13
VIRTUAL REALITY
Researchers in computer imaging technology are developing systems by which
users can experience a simulated three-dimensional reality (3D). This simulated
reality is known as virtual reality (VR). Sometimes the term cyberspace is used as
synonym with VR.
Since the 1970s, technologists have learned how to produce animated
computer images of objects that exhibit colors, textures and special changings.
The images can also be subjected to changing light conditions and to simulated
effects of gravity and other forces. The results can look as real as actual motion
pictures.
The further aim of technologists is to make it for person t enter and actually
manipulate VR. This is being achieved by having an observer who wears a
headgear through which computer images are displayed on small screens in front
of the eyes. At the same time, gloves that are equipped with sensors are
transmitting apparent changes of body orientation in VR. A simpler form of these
VR techniques is seen in the flight simulators used for training pilots.
Adapted from: Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc., 1996

ANEXO 14
CAREERS IN THE COMPUTERS FIELD
Computer specialists include System Analysts, Programmers and Operators.
Systems Analysts develop methods for computerizing business. They also
improve the efficiency of systems in use. Application Programmers write
commercial programs to be used by business, science center and home. System
Programmers write the complex programs that control the inner working of the
computer. Computer operators handle several types of computers.
Other people who work in the computer field include Computer Scientists, who
conduct research and teach at universities; Hardware Designers and Engineers,
who work in areas such as microchip and peripheral equipment design;
Information Center Administrators or Data Base Administrators, who manage the
information collections of business or data banks.
Excerpted from Comptons Interactive Encyclopedia 1993, 1994.

Base
Form
------arise
awake
be
bear
beat
become
befall
beget
begin
behold
bend
bet
bid
oferta
bind
obrigar-se
bite
bleed
blow
break
breed
bring
broadcast
build
buy
cast
catch
choose
cling
come
cost
creep
cut
deal
dig
do
draw
drink
drive
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
flee
fling
fly
forbid
forget
forgive
freeze
get
give

Past
Tense

Past
Portuguese
Participle Translation

-------

---------------

-------------------

arose
awoke
was, were
bore
beat
became
befell
begot
began
beheld
bent
bet
bid

arisen
awoken
been
borne
beaten
become
befallen
begotten, begot
begun
beheld
bent
bet
bid

surgir, erguer-se
despertar
ser, estar
suportar, ser portador de
bater
tornar-se
acontecer
procriar, gerar
comear
contemplar
curvar
apostar
oferecer, fazer uma

bound

bound

unir, encadernar,

bit
bled
blew
broke
bred
brought
broadcast
built
bought
cast
caught
chose
clung
came
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flung
flew
forbade
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave

bitten
bled
blown
broken
bred
brought
broadcast
built
bought
cast
caught
chosen
clung
come
cost
crept
cut
dealt
dug
done
drawn
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flung
flown
forbidden
forgot, forgotten
forgiven
frozen
gotten, got
given

morder
sangrar, ter hemorragia
assoprar, explodir
quebrar
procriar, reproduzir
trazer
irradiar, transmitir
construir
comprar
atirar, deitar
pegar, capturar
escolher
aderir, segurar-se
vir
custar
rastejar
cortar
negociar, tratar
cavocar
fazer **
tracionar, desenhar **
beber
dirigir, ir de carro
comer
cair
alimentar
sentir, sentir-se
lutar
achar, encontrar
fugir, escapar
arremessar
voar, pilotar
proibir
esquecer
perdoar
congelar, paralisar
obter **
dar

go
went
gone
grind
ground
ground
grow
grew
grown
have
had
had
hear
heard
heard
hide
hid
hidden, hid
hit
hit
hit
hold
held
held
hurt
hurt
hurt
keep
kept
kept
know
knew
known
lay
laid
laid
horizontal, assentar
lead
led
led
leave
left
left
lend
lent
lent
let
let
let
lie
lay
lain
lose
lost
lost
make
made
made
mean
meant
meant
meet
met
met
overcome
overcame
overcome
overtake
overtook
overtaken
pay
paid
paid
put
put
put
quit
quit
quit
read
read
read
ride
rode
ridden
ring
rang
rung
rise
rose
risen
run
ran
run
dirigir
saw
sawed
sawn
say
said
said
see
saw
seen
seek
sought
sought
sell
sold
sold
send
sent
sent
set
set
set
condio, marcar, ajustar **
shake
shook
shaken
shed
shed
shed
shine
shone
shone
shoot
shot
shot
show
showed
shown
shrink
shrank
shrunk
shut
shut
shut
sing
sang
sung
sink
sank
sunk
sit
sat
sat
slay
slew
slain
sleep
slept
slept
slide
slid
slid
sling
slung
slung
speak
spoke
spoken
spend
spent
spent
spin
spun
spun
spit
spit, spat
spit, spat
spread
spread
spread
spring
sprang
sprung

ir
moer
crescer, cultivar
ter, beber, comer
ouvir
esconder
bater
segurar
machucar
guardar, manter
saber, conhecer
colocar em posio
liderar
deixar, partir
dar emprestado
deixar, alugar
deitar
perder, extraviar
fazer, fabricar **
significar, querer dizer
encontrar, conhecer
superar
alcanar, surpreender
pagar
colocar
abandonar
ler
andar
tocar (campainha, etc.)
subir, erguer-se
correr, concorrer,
serrar
dizer
ver
procurar obter, objetivar
vender
mandar
pr em determinada
sacudir, tremer
soltar, deixar cair **
brilhar, reluzir
atirar, alvejar
mostrar, exibir
encolher, contrair
fechar, cerrar
cantar
afundar, submergir
sentar
matar, assassinar
dormir
deslizar, escorregar
atirar, arremessar
falar
gastar
fiar, rodopiar
cuspir
espalhar
fazer saltar

stand
steal
stick
sting
stink
strike
string
strive
swear
assegurar
sweep
swim
swing
take
teach
tear
tell
think
throw
tread
undergo
understand
uphold
defender
wear
win
wind
write

stood
stole
stuck
stung
stank
struck
strung
strove
swore

stood
stolen
stuck
stung
stunk
struck
strung
striven
sworn

parar de p, agentar
roubar
cravar, fincar, enfiar
picar (inseto)
cheirar mal
golpear, desferir, atacar
encordoar, amarrar
esforar-se, lutar
jurar, prometer,

swept
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
trod
underwent
understood
upheld

swept
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
trodden
undergone
understood
upheld

varrer
nadar
balanar, alternar
tomar **
ensinar, dar aula
rasgar, despedaar
contar
pensar
atirar, arremessar
pisar, trilhar
submeter-se a, suportar
entender
sustentar, apoiar,

wore
won
wound
wrote

worn
won
wound
written

vestir, usar, gastar


vencer, ganhar
enrolar, rodar, dar corda
escrever, redigir