Você está na página 1de 575

BUREAU OF RECLAMATION

BRASIL

Standard Technical
Specifications

MANUAL DE
IRRIGAO
BRASLIA - DF
2002

Todos os Direitos Reservados


Copyright 2002 Bureau of Reclamation
Os dados desse Manual esto sendo atualizados por tcnicos do Bureau of Reclamation.
Estamos receptivos a sugestes tcnicas e possveis erros encontrados nessa verso. Favor
fazer a remessa de suas sugestes para o nosso endereo abaixo, ou se preferir por e-mail.
1 Edio: Dezembro de 2002
Meio Eletrnico
Editor:
BUREAU OF RECLAMATION
SGA/Norte - Quadra 601 - Lote I - Sala 410
Edifcio Sede da CODEVASF
Braslia - DF
CEP - 70830-901
Fone:
(061) 226-8466
226-4536
Fax:
225-9564
E-mail: burec2001@aol.com
Autores
Kenneth Franc. - Eng Civil - Especialista em Especificao - Bureau of Reclamation
Richard A simonds. Eng Civil - Especialista em Tabulaes - Bureau of Reclamation
Catarino Esquivel - Eng Civil - Especialista em Irrigao - Bureau of Reclamation
Thomas Haider Eng Civil - Especialista em Canais - Bureau of Reclamation
Clete Mages - Eng Mecnico - Bureau of Reclamation
Sherwood Baxter - Eng Eltrico - Bureau of Reclamation
Rod Vissia - Eng de Planejamento - Bureau of Reclamation
Douglas C. Olson - Eng de Planejamento - Bureau of Reclamation
Peter J. Hradilek - Eng Civil - Especialista em Barragens - Bureau of Reclamation
Equipe Tcnica do Bureau of Reclamation no Brasil
Catarino Esquivel - Chefe da Equipe
Ricardo Rodrigues Lage - Especialista Administrativo
Evani F. Souza - Assistente Administrativo
Revisores Tcnicos:
ENGECORPS (Corpo de Engs Consultores) - Vrios Especialistas
CODEVASF / DNOCS - Vrios Especialistas
Composio e Diagramao:
Print Laser - Assessoria Editorial Ltda

Ficha Catalogrfica:

Standard Technical Specifications / Kenneth Franc.... [et al.].


Braslia: Secretaria de Recursos Hdricos, 2002.
574 p. : il. (Manual de Irrigao, v.5)
Trabalho elaborado pelo Bureau of Reclamation, do Departamento de Interior, dos Estados Unidos, por solicitao do Ministrio da Integrao Nacional do governo brasileiro.
1. Manual - Especificao . I. Franc, Kenneth. II. Srie.
CDU 627.82.004.15

Standard Technical Specifications

APRESENTAO

Em maio de 1986, o Banco Mundial aprovou um Contrato de Emprstimo para a


elaborao de estudos e projetos de irrigao no Nordeste do Brasil. O Contrato inclui
recursos para assistncia tcnica Secretaria de Infra-Estrutura Hdrica e, para isto, foi
assinado - em novembro de 1986 - um acordo com o Bureau of Reclamation, do Departamento do Interior, dos Estados Unidos.
A assistncia abrange a reviso de termos de referncia, estudos bsicos, setoriais
e de pr-viabilidade; projetos bsicos e executivos; especificaes tcnicas para construo de projetos de irrigao; critrios, normas e procedimentos de operao e manuteno de projetos de irrigao; apresentao de seminrios tcnicos; acompanhamento da
construo de projetos; formulao de recomendaes de polticas relativas ao desenvolvimento da agricultura irrigada.
O trabalho de assistncia realizado por uma equipe residente no Brasil, e por
pessoal temporrio do Bureau, do Centro de Engenharia e Pesquisa de Denver, Colorado,
Estados Unidos. A equipe residente conta com especialistas em planejamento, projetos
de irrigao, barragens, hidrologia, sensoriamento remoto e operao e manuteno.
O Bureau vem prestando estes servios h mais de dezesseis anos. Neste perodo,
obteve um conhecimento bastante amplo sobre a agricultura irrigada, no Brasil. Devido a
este conhecimento e grande experincia do Bureau, em assuntos de irrigao, o Ministrio da Integrao Nacional, solicitou que fossem elaborados manuais tcnicos, para
utilizao por rgos governamentais (federais, estaduais e municipais), entidades privadas ligadas ao desenvolvimento da agricultura irrigada, empresas de consultoria, empreiteiras
e tcnicos da rea de irrigao.
A coleo que ora entregue a esse pblico um dos resultados do Contrato
mencionado. Ela composta dos seguintes Manuais:

Planejamento Geral de Projetos de Irrigao


Classificao de Terras para Irrigao
Avaliao Econmica e Financeira de Projetos de Irrigao
Operao e Manuteno de Projetos de Irrigao
Especificaes Tcnicas Padronizadas
Standard Technical Specifications
Avaliao de Pequenas Barragens
Elaborao de Projetos de Irrigao
Construo de Projetos de Irrigao
Para sua elaborao contou com o trabalho de uma equipe de engenheiros e especialistas do Bureau of Reclamation, por solicitao do governo brasileiro.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

Standard Technical Specifications

O objetivo dos Manuais apresentar procedimentos simples e eficazes para serem


utilizados na elaborao, execuo, operao e manuteno de projetos de irrigao.
Os anexos 10, 11 e 12 do Manual de Operao e Manuteno de Projetos de
Irrigao foram redigidos por tcnicos do Instituto Interamericano de Cooperao para a
Agricultura - IICA. O anexo do Manual de Avaliao de Pequenas Barragens foi elaborado pelo Grupo de Hidrometeorologia da Superintendncia de Desenvolvimento do Nordeste - SUDENE, em convnio com o Institut Franais de Recherche Scientifique pour le
Developement en Cooperation - ORSTOM.
Foram publicadas, separadamente, pelo IBAMA / SENIR / PNUD / OMM (Instituto
Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais, Secretaria Nacional de Irrigao,
Programa das Naes Unidas para o Desenvolvimento, Organizao Meteorolgica Mundial), as Diretrizes Ambientais para o Setor de Irrigao. Estas diretrizes devem ser
seguidas em todas as etapas de planejamento, implantao e operao de projetos de
irrigao.
O Bureau of Reclamation agradece a gentil colaborao da CODEVASF (Companhia de Desenvolvimento do Vale do So Francisco) e do DNOCS (Departamento Nacional de Obras Contra as Secas) pela disponibilizao de informaes sobre Leis e Normas
Tcnicas Brasileiras.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

Standard Technical Specifications

SUMRIO

APRESENTAO ............................................................................................................ 3
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 10
SECTION - CIVIL
C-010101
C-010103
C-010105
C-010107
C-010109
C-010201
C-010202
C-010203
C-010205
C-020101
C-020201
C-020303
C-020304
C-020401
C-020501

WORKS ............................................................................................... 12
CIVIL WORKS - PRELIMINARY ACTIVITIES ............................................. 12
MOBILIZATION AND DEMOBILIZATION .................................................. 12
CONSTRUCTION CAMP ....................................................................... 13
STAKING OUT THE WORK ................................................................... 14
ACCESS TO THE WORK AND HAUL ROUTES ......................................... 14
SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATIONS ........................................................... 14
DIFFERING SITE CONDITIONS ............................................................... 15
POWER FOR CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES .............................................. 15
WATER FOR CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES .............................................. 15
CLEARING AND CLEANING CONSTRUCTION
AREAS AND BORROW AREAS .............................................................. 16
DIVERSION OF RIVER AND CONTROL OF WATER
DURING CONSTRUCTION ..................................................................... 16
LOWERING GROUNDWATER TABLE ...................................................... 18
SYSTEMS FOR LOWERING GROUND-WATER TABLE ............................... 19
SITE DRAINAGE .................................................................................. 20
FENCES .............................................................................................. 21

SECTION - EARTHWORK ............................................................................................... 25


C-030100 EARTHWORK, GENERAL ...................................................................... 25
C-030101 CLASSIFICATION OF EXCAVATION ....................................................... 25
C-030102 DEFINITION OF EARTH MATERIALS ....................................................... 26
C-030103 BLASTING .......................................................................................... 28
C-030201 EXCAVATION FOR CANALS AND DRAINS ............................................. 28
C-030203 EXCAVATION FOR STRUCTURES .......................................................... 30
C-030205 EXCAVATION FOR TRENCHES .............................................................. 31
C-030207 EXCAVATION FOR BUILDINGS .............................................................. 33
C-030211 EXCAVATION IN BORROW AREAS ........................................................ 35
C-030213 OVERHAUL ......................................................................................... 36
C-030301 BACKFILL ABOUT STRUCTURES ........................................................... 37
C-030303 BACKFILL IN PIPE TRENCHES ............................................................... 38
C-030401 CONSTRUCTION OF EMBANKMENTS .................................................... 40
C-030501 SLOPE PROTECTION - RIPRAP .............................................................. 43
C-030505 PROTECTION OF SLOPES WITH VEGETATION ........................................ 44
C-030507 CYCLOPIC CONCRETE ......................................................................... 44
C-030601 SURFACING FOR ROADS ..................................................................... 45

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION - CONCRETE STRUCTURES .............................................................................. 47


C-040100 GENERAL CONCRETE REQUIREMENTS .................................................. 47
C-040101 COMPOSITION AND MIXING ................................................................ 47
C-040102 CONCRETE TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROL ....................................... 50
C-040103 CEMENT ............................................................................................. 52
C-040104 ADMIXTURES ..................................................................................... 53
C-040105 WATER .............................................................................................. 54
C-040106 AGGREGATES ..................................................................................... 54
C-040107 REINFORCING BARS ............................................................................ 55
C-040108 FORMS AND SHORING ........................................................................ 57
C-040109 TRANSPORTATION OF CONCRETE ........................................................ 58
C-040110 CONCRETE PLACEMENT SCHEDULE AND DRAWINGS ............................. 59
C-040111 PLACING CONCRETE ........................................................................... 60
C-040113 CONSOLIDATION OF CONCRETE .......................................................... 61
C-040115 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS ...................................................................... 62
C-040117 REMOVAL OF FORMS .......................................................................... 63
C-040119 CONCRETE CURING ............................................................................. 64
C-040120 PROTECTION OF CONCRETE ................................................................ 64
C-040121 CONCRETE FINISHING, INSPECTION AND REPAIR ................................... 65
C-040122 CONSTRUCTION OF STRUCTURES ........................................................ 69
C-040123 PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE ................................................................ 69
C-040124 TOLERANCES ..................................................................................... 71
C-040125 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT FOR CONCRETE ................................... 75
C-040128 MISCELLANEOUS - CONCRETE STRUCTURES ........................................ 76
C-040130 EMBEDDED ITEMS ............................................................................... 77
C-040201 TRIMMING AND SHAPING CANAL ........................................................ 78
C-040203 CONCRETE CANAL LINING ................................................................... 79
C-040205 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION JOINTS IN CONCRETE CANAL LINING ... 81
C-040401 WATERSTOPS .................................................................................... 82
SECTION - SHOTCRETE ................................................................................................. 84
C-040501 SHOTCRETE ....................................................................................... 84
C-040503 SMOOTH OR POLISHED EXPOSED REINFORCED CONCRETE .................... 87
C-040505 MIXED REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS ................................................ 89
SECTION - BUILDING AND URBANIZATION WORKS .......................................................... 92
C-050000 BUILDINGS ......................................................................................... 92
C-050201 FOUNDATIONS FOR BUILDINGS ............................................................ 93
C-050302 MASONRY ........................................................................................ 102
C-050304 BRICKS ............................................................................................ 105
C-050308 PAVEMENTS AND FLOORS ................................................................ 107
C-050312 CEILINGS ......................................................................................... 112
C-050314 ROOFING .......................................................................................... 112
C-050316 WATERPROOFING ............................................................................. 116
C-050318 WOODEN FRAMES ............................................................................ 117
C-050320 METALLIC FRAMES ........................................................................... 119
C-050322 GLASS ............................................................................................. 120
C-050324 HARDWARE ..................................................................................... 121
C-050326 PAINT FOR BUILDINGS ...................................................................... 122
C-050328 FINISHES .......................................................................................... 125
C-050330 ELECTRICAL AND TELEPHONE INSTALLATIONS ................................... 128
C-050332 WATER SUPPLY AND SANITARY SYSTEMS ......................................... 133
DIVISION - MECHANICAL ............................................................................................ 137
S-010101 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL ................................................. 137

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION - PUMP
S-010201
S-010202
S-010203
S-010205
S-010206

AND MOTOR UNITS .......................................................................... 154


PUMP AND MOTOR UNITS, GENERAL ................................................. 154
VERTICAL - SHAFT, CENTRIFUGAL PUMPING UNITS ............................. 163
HORIZONTAL-SHAFT CENTRIFUGAL PUMPING UNITS ........................... 167
INDUCTION ELECTRIC MOTORS ......................................................... 170
SYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MOTORS ................................................... 175

SECTION - GATES AND VALVES .................................................................................. 179


S-010301 GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL ......................................................... 179
S-010302 BUTTERFLY VALVES WITH ACTUATORS ............................................. 182
S-010303 BUTTERFLY VALVES (WITHOUT ACTUATORS) ..................................... 184
S-010304 GATE VALVES .................................................................................. 185
S-010305 GLOBE VALVES ................................................................................ 185
S-010306 CHECK VALVES ................................................................................ 186
S-010307 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES ................................................................ 186
S-010308 SURGE ANTICIPATOR VALVES ........................................................... 187
S-010309 MULTI-FUNCTION VALVES ................................................................. 188
S-010310 PRESSURE REDUCING VALVES, GLOBE-TYPE ....................................... 188
S-010311 AIR VALVES ..................................................................................... 189
S-010312 STANDARDIZED CAST OR DUCTILE IRON SLIDE GATES ........................ 190
S-010313 AUTOMATIC LEVEL CONTROL VALVES ............................................... 192
SECTION - WATER LEVEL CONTROL GATES .................................................................. 194
S-010401 WATER LEVEL CONTROL EQUIPMENT FOR IRRIGATION CANALS ........... 194
SECTION - STEEL SUCTION PIPES, DISCHARGE PIPES, AND MANIFOLDS ................ 214
S-010501 STEEL SUCTION PIPES, DISCHARGE PIPES, AND MANIFOLDS ............... 214
SECTION - HANDLING APPARATUS .............................................................................. 220
S-010701 HANDLING APPARATUS, GENERAL ..................................................... 220
S-010702 TRAVELING GANTRY CRANE, ELECTRIC .............................................. 222
S-010703 TRAVELING GANTRY CRANE, MANUAL .............................................. 225
S-010704 OVERHEAD TRAVELING CRANE, MANUAL ........................................... 226
S-010705 MONORAIL HOIST ............................................................................. 229
SECTION - STRUCTURAL EQUIPMENT .......................................................................... 232
S-010801 STOPLOGS ....................................................................................... 232
S-010802 TRASHRACKS .................................................................................. 235
SECTION - SUMP
S-011001
S-011101
S-011102
S-011103
S-011104
S-011105
S-011106
S-011107
S-011201
S-011202
S-011203
S-011204
S-011205
S-011206

PUMP .............................................................................................. 238


SUMP PUMP ..................................................................................... 238
COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL ................................................. 240
LINE METERS .................................................................................... 243
PRESSURE SWITCHES ....................................................................... 245
WATER-LEVEL DEVICES ..................................................................... 246
MANOMETER .................................................................................... 247
FLOW SWITCH ................................................................................. 247
SPRINKLERS ..................................................................................... 248
HYDROPNEUMATIC TANKS ................................................................ 253
SURGE STANDS ................................................................................ 254
FILTERING EQUIPMENT ...................................................................... 256
EMERGENCY DIESEL MOTOR-GENERATOR UNITS ................................. 257
ASSEMBLY JOINTS ........................................................................... 260
CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR PIPELINES ................................ 263

SECTION - ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL ............................................................. 267


S-020200 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL ................................................... 267

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

Standard Technical Specifications

S-020201
S-020202
S-020203
S-020204
S-020205
S-020206
S-020208
S-020209
S-020210
S-020212
S-020214
S-020216
S-020218
S-020220
S-020222
S-020224
S-020226
S-020228
S-020230
S-020232
S-020234
S-020236
S-020238
S-020240
S-020242
S-020244
S-020246
S-020248
S-020250
S-020252
S-020254
S-020256
S-020258
S-020260

POWER TRANSFORMERS MAXIMUM VOLTAGE UP TO 15 kV ................ 276


POWER TRANSFORMERS - MAXIMUM VOLTAGE UP TO 72.5 KV ........... 285
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS ............................................................. 303
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS ................................................................ 308
DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS ......................................................... 315
AUTOTRANSFORMERS ...................................................................... 322
MEDIUM VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS - 15 kV ................................... 328
HIGH VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS - 72.5 kV ..................................... 335
SWITCHGEARS ................................................................................. 346
LIGHTNING ARRESTERS ..................................................................... 355
INSULATORS .................................................................................... 361
AUTOMATIC RECLOSERS .................................................................. 368
THREE-POLE DISCONNECTING SWITCHES - 15 kV ................................ 372
THREE-POLE DISCONNECTING SWITCHES - 72.5 kV ............................. 379
SINGLE POLE DISCONNECTING SWITCHES - (15 kV) (72.5 kV) .............. 389
FUSE DISCONNECTING SWITCHES - 15 kV .......................................... 394
FUSE DISCONNECTING SWITCHES - 72.5 kV ....................................... 399
15 kV TANDEM SWITCHES ................................................................ 401
BARE COPPER CABLES ...................................................................... 403
0.6 kV TO 15 kV POWER CABLES ....................................................... 410
CONTROL CABLES ............................................................................ 418
ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS ................................................................ 427
STEEL CORE ALUMINUM CONDUCTOR ............................................... 431
DIRECT CURRENT SYSTEM - (48 Vdc) (125 Vdc) .................................. 437
THREE-PHASE BANK OF CAPACITORS ................................................ 446
GROUNDING RESISTORS ................................................................... 455
MEASUREMENT ASSEMBLIES ............................................................ 459
PAINT AND ANTI-CORROSION TREATMENT ......................................... 465
DATA SHEET (EXAMPLE) ................................................................... 467
METERING AND PROTECTIVE CUBICLES .............................................. 468
EQUIPMENT PRICE ADJUSTMENTS ..................................................... 470
WELDING ......................................................................................... 471
PACKING .......................................................................................... 472
DRAWINGS AND TECHNICAL DATA TO BE
FURNISHED BY THE CONTRACTOR ..................................................... 474

DIVISION PIPELINES .................................................................................................... 477


S-030101 PIPELINES, GENERAL ......................................................................... 477
S-030201 SECTION - STEEL PIPE AND FITTINGS ................................................. 480
S-030301 SECTION - REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE AND FITTINGS ....................... 482
S-030401 SECTION - ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE AND FITTINGS ............................. 484
S-030501 SECTION - PVC PIPE AND FITTINGS .................................................... 488
S-030701 SECTION - DUCTILE IRON PIPE AND FITTINGS ..................................... 491
S-030801 SECTION - ALUMINUM PIPE AND FITTINGS ......................................... 492
S-030901 SECTION - GALVANIZED MALLEABLE IRON PIPE AND FITTINGS ............ 493
DIVISION - INSTALLATION OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ............................................... 494
I-010101 INSTALLATION, GENERAL .................................................................. 494
I-010102 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS TO BE INSTALLED
BY THE CONTRACTOR ...................................................................... 499
I-010103 PUMP UNITS .................................................................................... 499
I-010105 GATES AND VALVES ......................................................................... 501
I-010107 HANDLING APPARATUS .................................................................... 504
I-010109 COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT ................................................................ 504
I-010111 SUMP PUMPS ................................................................................... 505
I-010113 STRUCTURAL EQUIPMENT ................................................................. 505

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

Standard Technical Specifications

I-010115
I-010117
I-030101
I-030103

WATER LEVEL CONTROL GATES ........................................................ 507


STEEL SUCTION PIPES, DISCHARGE PIPES, AND MANIFOLDS ............... 508
INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND APPURTANCES ............................... 510
CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR PIPELINES .............................. 521

SECTION - INSTALLATION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ................................................. 523


I-020101 INSTALLATION, GENERAL .................................................................. 523
I-020102 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS TO BE
INSTALLED BY THE CONTRACTOR ..................................................... 528
I-020103 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ................................................................... 528
I-020104 INSTALLATIONS ............................................................................... 529
I-020105 ACCEPTANCE OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS ............................................ 530
I-020106 SWITCHGEARS ................................................................................. 531
I-020108 DISCONNECTING SWITCHES .............................................................. 532
I-020109 POWER CIRCUIT BREAKERS ............................................................... 532
I-020110 DIRECT CURRENT SYSTEM - (48 Vdc AND) 125 Vdc ............................ 532
I-020111 INSULATORS .................................................................................... 532
I-020112 GROUNDING ..................................................................................... 532
I-020113 CONDUIT SYSTEMS .......................................................................... 534
I-020114 INSULATED CONDUCTORS ................................................................ 536
I-020115 PAYMENT FOR ELECTRICAL SYSTEM .................................................. 537
D-020201 DIVERSION OF RIVER AND CONTROL OF WATER
DURING CONSTRUCTION OF EARTH DAMS AND
APPURTENANT STRUCTURES ............................................................ 538
D-030103 BLASTING ........................................................................................ 542
SECTION - OPENCUT EXCAVATION .............................................................................. 546
D-030201 OPENCUT EXCAVATION, GENERAL ..................................................... 546
D-030203 OPENCUT EXCAVATION REQUIREMENTS ............................................ 546
SECTION - CONSTRUCTION OF DAM EMBANKMENTS ........................................... 550
D-030401 CONSTRUCTION OF EARTHFILL AND/OR ROCKFILL DAM EMBANKMENT 550
DIVISION - PREPARATION AND TREATMENT OF FOUNDATIONS ..................................... 563
D-040101 GENERAL ......................................................................................... 563
D-040201 CLEANING, LEVELING, AND SURFICIAL TREATMENT OF FOUNDATIONS 563
D-040203 CONCRETE STRUCTURE FOUNDATION AREAS ..................................... 565
D-040205 SLUSH GROUTING FOUNDATIONS ...................................................... 569
D-040207 DENTAL CONCRETE .......................................................................... 569
D-040209 TOLERANCES ................................................................................... 570
SECTION - GEOLOGICAL-GEOTECHNICAL MAPPING ....................................................... 573
D-040301 GEOLOGICAL-GEOTECHNICAL MAPPING OF THE FOUNDATIONS ........... 573

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

Standard Technical Specifications

INTRODUCTION

This MANUAL contais standard technical Specifications prepared by the Bureau of


Reclamation for use in the competitive bidding process for the construction of irrigation
projects in Brazil. These Specifications are available in Portuguese as well as in English.

The standard technical Specifications should be considered a preliminary version, and


should be continously modified, updated, and improved. In the upper right-hand corner
of the first page of each standard Specification, the dates of the latest and next-tolastest revisions should be indicated, in order to keep track of the revision process.
The Specifications were developed by specialists in the areas, with the assistance of
civil, hydraulic, irrigation, mechanical, and electrical engineers. The principal source
document for these Specifications was the Caderno de Encargos prepared by
CODEVASF in 1988. Other source documents included the technical specifications
prepared for the Itaparica, Piranhas/Acu and Jaguaribe-Apodi Projects, and Bureau of
Reclamation standard specifications.
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

The following is a general description of the coding system, the content and the use of
the Specifications.
1)

Identification Code. The letter and number identification code for each Specification
is located on the upper right-hand corner of each page of the Specifications. The
letters are used to identify the type of work or service described in the Specifications.
For the English version the letter codes are as follows:

T - Table of Contents and Introduction


C - Civil Works
D - Dams
S - Equipment Supply
I - Equipment Installation
In the Portuguese version these letter codes are TP, CP, DP, SP and IP, respectively.
The 6-digit number code, which immediately follows the letter code is used to identify
the standard Specification in accordance with the Table of Contents, which has the
Code T - 010101. Each Specification is listed in the Table of Contents next to the letter
and number code used for its identification, (e.g. I - 030101 is for Installation of
Pipelines and Appurtenances). This Introduction has the Code T - 010102.
The identification codes are also the names of the WORDSTAR archives on the diskettes.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

10

Standard Technical Specifications

2)

Content. The civil works Specifications include requirements for the construction
of canals, pipelines, pumping plants, power supply substations, and buildings. Also
included in the civil works Specifications are requirements related to preliminary
work, local conditions, and sitework. The dam Specifications provide requirements
for the construction of earth and concrete dams. The equipment supply Specifications
indicate requirements for the furnishing of mechanical equipment, electrical
equipment; and primary, secondary and on-farm pipe. The equipment installation
Specifications indicate requirements for installing mechanical equipment, electrical
equipment; and primary, secondary, and on-farm pipe.

3)

Use. The standard Specifications are intended to be used to assist in the development
of technical specifications for any given specific project. The standard Specifications
should be considered as basic text that can be inserted, as required, into the text of
specifications being developed for a given specific project. Only those standard
Specifications, or portions thereof, required for a particular project should be used.
For each particular project, the standard Specifications should be modified, revised,
and/or supplemented, as needed. Individual words, phrases and paragraphs can be
modified wherever necessary to meet the needs of a specific project. Some standard
Specifications may require little or no revision, while others may require extensive
revisions and/or additions in order to meet project requirements.

It may be decided that some of the revisions, modifications, and/or additions made for
a specific project should be included in the standard Specifications. ANY CHANGES
MADE TO THE STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS SHOULD BE MADE ON THE MASTER
AND BACK-UP COPIES, AS WELL AS ON ANY OTHER COPIES THAT ARE BEING USED
BY CODEVASF, DNOCS, ETC.
The identification code system should in no way limit the use of any individual standard
specification. Standard Specifications can be combined, and portions of different individual
standard Specifications can be selected and combined into the specifications being
prepared for a particular project. For example, Installation of Pipelines and Appurtenances
(I - 030101), includes requirements for the excavation and backfill of pipeline trenches,
concrete in pipe trenches, construction at road crossings, and valve installation, as well
as transport, repairs, installation, filling, and testing of the pipe. Any pertinent information
from the pipeline installation Specifications may be extracted and included in the civil
works specifications, depending on the requirements of the particular project. Another
example would be the use of the blasting Specifications, C - 030103 and D - 030103.
If subsurface investigation along a canal or pipeline alignment indicate the need for rock
excavation by blasting, Specification D - 030101 could be modified and used in the
canal or pipeline specification by deleting the contour blasting requirements which normally
pertain only to dam construction.
Paragraphs, sentences, phrases, or words contained within parentheses in the standard
Specifications text may or may not be applicable to a specific project. If applicable, the
parentheses should be removed; if not applicable, the paragraph, sentence, phrase, or
word, and the parentheses should be deleted.
Note that the parentheses are provided to assist the specification preparation for a
specific project. The parentheses are not intended to limit modifications to the standard
Specifications to only those items contained in parentheses. All paragraphs, sentences,
phrases and/or words are subject to modification depending on the needs of a specific
project.
Wherever blanks occur in the text of the standard Specifications, they should be filled in
with the appropriate information relative to the specific project for which specifications
are being prepared.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

11

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION - CIVIL
WORKS

C-010101

CIVIL WORKS - PRELIMINARY ACTIVITIES

This section deals with the preliminary activities to be performed by the CONTRACTOR
which are necessary for the proper execution and completion of the work. Preliminary
activities include, but are not necessarily limited to mobilization and demobilization of
personnel and equipment; construction of the CONTRACTORs camp; staking out the
work; and construction of roads necessary for access to the work and haul routes.
C-010103
1.

MOBILIZATION AND DEMOBILIZATION


Description of the work. The CONTRACTOR shall make all necessary arrangements for
the mobilization of personnel and equipment immediately after signing the Contract and
receipt of the Notice to Proceed, so as to be able to effectively start and complete the
work within the stipulated contract time.
Upon completion of the work, the CONTRACTOR shall remove all equipment, construction
camp installations, temporary buildings, surplus or unused materials, debris, and other
like materials, belonging to the CONTRACTOR or used under the CONTRACTORs
direction during construction. All areas shall be left in a completely clean condition.

2.

Measurement and Payment. Mobilization and demobilization will not be subject to


measurements for payment purposes. Lump-sum payments will be made to the
CONTRACTOR for mobilization prior to the beginning of the work and for demobilization
upon termination of the Contract, in accordance with the Bidding Schedule.
The lump-sum prices for these items include, but are not necessarily limited to, the
following:
the cost of transporting and installing all construction equipment owned or leased
by the CONTRACTOR to the work site, and its subsequent removal;
the cost of transporting all CONTRACTOR and/or Sub-contractor personnel to the
work site and subsequent return of such personnel;
the cost of all travel by Contractor personnel necessary for the execution of the
work, or as determined by the ENGINEER, regardless of the duration and nature of
the trip. C-010105

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

12

Standard Technical Specifications

C-010105
1.

CONSTRUCTION CAMP

Description of the work. The construction camp shall be constructed in accordance


with the designs and plans prepared by the CONTRACTOR and approved by the
ENGINNER. The designs and plans shall be based on the preliminary layout submitted in
the Bid Proposal by the BIDDER.
The construction camp shall consist of two different areas:
a residential area of living quarters and dining facilities for personnel of both the
CONTRACTOR and the ENGINEER.
an administrative area of central offices for staffs of both the CONTRACTOR and
the ENGINEER, and warehouses, work shops, garages and yards, laboratories, and
medical facilities.

All construction camp permanent facilities installed by the CONTRACTOR shall become
the property of the CLIENT upon completion of the work, unless otherwise specified.
Living quarters shall provide the following minimum requirements:
sleeping facilities accomodating a maximum of four persons per each 12 square
meter room with floor-to-ceiling height of 2.6 meters; the rooms shall have natural
ventilation;
a single bed, with mattress, pillow, top and botton sheets, and two blankets for
each person;
lighted corridors, with lighting fixtures spaced at maximum 10 meter intervals;
a minimum of one toilet (WC) for every twelve persons;
a minimum of one shower for every fifteen persons;
a collective lavatory, with one faucet for every twelve persons;
complete electric installations, including electrical outlets and lighting for all rooms;
the dining facilities shall be fully lighted and shall have toilet and washroom facilities.
The dining area shall have tables for a maximum of twelve persons. The kitchen
shall be contiguous to the dining area and shall have running potable water. Special
care shall be given to proper hygienic conditions in all dining facilities, in order to
protect the health of workers.

Additional requirements for construction and maintenance of the camp include:


equipment to supply compressed air;
supply of potable and industrial water;
storing, stockpiling, processing, handling, and transportation of construction
materials;
construction of concrete portions of structures in accordance with the applicable
requirements contained in the specifications;
installations required for the transmission and distribution of electric power to the
various locations at the camp;
construction of water and sewage systems;
construction and maintenance of all roads.

The locations for construction of the facilities will be designated by the ENGINEER and
shall be in the proximity of the work.
2.

Measurement and payment. A lump-sum payment will be made to the CONTRACTOR


for the construction camp in accordance with the Bidding Schedule.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

13

Standard Technical Specifications

This lump-sum price shall include the cost of all work and materials necessary to construct
and maintain the camp in accordance with the approved designs and plans and the
requirements specified herein.
C-010107
1.

STAKING OUT THE WORK


Description of the work. The CLIENT will provide the CONTRACTOR with basic topography
of the work site. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish all materials, equipment, and labor
required for staking out the work, including stakes, survey field books, measuring tapes
and instruments.
The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for maintaining all stakes and markers until
authorized to remove them.
The ENGINEER will check the survey measurements as work progresses, in order to
verify that the lines, grades and dimensions established by the CONTRACTOR are accurate
and in accordance with the designs provided. The survey verifications made by the
ENGINEER shall in no way exempt the CONTRACTOR from responsibility to execute the
work in accordance with the designs provided.
In the event of any survey mistakes by the CONTRACTOR which cause errors, damage,
or any other irregularities in the work, the CONTRACTOR shall be required to remove
and reconstruct the affected portion of the work at no additional cost to the CLIENT and
within the time period stipulated by the ENGINEER.

2.

Measurement and Payment. No separate payment will be made to the CONTRACTOR


for materials,equipment, and labor required for staking out the work as required by the
designs provided or as directed by the ENGINEER, and the costs shall be included in the
prices for the work for which the surveys are required.

C-010109
1.

ACCESS TO THE WORK AND HAUL ROUTES


Description of the work. All work for access to the site shall be performed by the
CONTRACTOR. He shall be responsible for constructing and maintaining, at his own
expense, any temporary haul roads, temporary access roads, and associated structures
required for construction operations.
Permanent roads are defined as roads which are required to be constructed by the
CONTRACTOR in accordance with the Specifications and drawings. Construction and
payment for these roads shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of the
Specifications. If the CONTRACTOR uses these roads for access and hauling, the roads
shall be maintained and repaired as necessary until final acceptance of the work.

2.

Measurement and payment. No separate payment will be made to the CONTRACTOR


for construction and maintenance of temporary access roads and haul routes and the
costs shall be included in the prices for the work for which the access roads and haul
routes are required.

C-010201

SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATIONS
All results of borings, studies, or tests performed for the classification of the subsurface,
which are available to the CLIENT, shall be furnished to the CONTRACTOR as part of
the information pertaining to local conditions at the work site.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

14

Standard Technical Specifications

Since the CONTRACTOR shall be fully responsible for the structures to be constructed,
it would be to his benefit to obtain, at his own expense, whatever additional subsurface
information may be required in order to perform the work in an acceptable manner.
The tests and investigations for classification of the subsurface shall follow the DNER
and ABGE standards and also the CLIENTs Standards, Methodology and Guidelines
for Ecological and Geotechnical Studies.
C-010202

DIFFERING SITE CONDITIONS


The CONTRACTOR shall promptly, and before the conditions are disturbed, give a written
notice to the CLIENT of (a) subsurface or latent physical conditions at the site which
differ greatly from those indicated in this contract, or (b) unknown physical conditions
at the site, of an unusual nature, which differ greatly from those ordinarily encountered
and generally recognized as typical for the area and type of work being performed.
The CLIENT shall investigate the site conditions promptly after receiving the notice. If
the conditions do differ greatly and cause an increase or decrease in the CONTRACTORs
cost of, or the time required for, performing any part of the work under this Contract,
whether or not changed as a result of the conditions, a verification of the requirement
for an equitable adjustment shall be made by the CLIENT.

C-010203
1.

POWER FOR CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES


Description of the work. The CONTRACTOR shall make all necessary arrangements and
shall provide all power required for construction purposes. This shall include providing
all necessary transmission lines, distribution circuits, transformers, and other equipment
required for distributing the power to the place or places of use by the CONTRACTOR.
At the termination of the Contract, the CONTRACTOR shall dismantle and remove all
distribution lines serving his installations, or those of his subcontractors, that are not
part of the permanent power installation.

2.

Measurement and payment. No separate payment will be made to the CONTRACTOR


for providing power for construction purposes and the cost shall be included in the
prices for the work for which the power is required.

C-010205
1.

WATER FOR CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES


Description of the work . The CONTRACTOR shall furnish all water required for
construction purposes. The CONTRACTOR shall make all arrangements for obtaining
water and provide all means for conveying water to points of use.
Water required for use in concrete and soil cement shall meet the requirements set forth
in item (C-040105 - Water).

2.

Measurement and payment. No separate payment will be made to the CONTRACTOR


for furnishing water and providing necessary facilities for conveying water to points of
use and the costs shall be included in the prices for the work for which the water is
required.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

15

Standard Technical Specifications

C-020101
1.

CLEARING AND CLEANING CONSTRUCTION AREAS AND BORROW


AREAS
Description of the work. Clearing and cleaning construction areas and borrow areas
shall include the following:
Clearing all vegetation, including cutting and uprooting of all trees and shrubs.
Cutting and stacking of usable timber at locations designated by the ENGINEER.
Demolition or removal of small buildings and other structures located within the
construction and borrow areas.
Removal of stones, rocks, and other material in the area.
Removal and transportation of all materials resulting from the clearing and cleaning
operations to the boundary limits of the cleared areas or to other locations previously
designated by the ENGINEER.
Burning of materials resulting from the clearing and cleaning operations when
approved by the ENGINEER.
Scraping and final cleaning of the top surface layer of the natural ground of all
construction and borrow areas to a depth of 20 cm to remove any remaining
unsuitable material.
All areas to be cleared and cleaned are shown on the drawings or shall be designated by
the ENGINEER.
Usable timber shall be identified by and become the property of the CLIENT.
The CONTRACTOR shall be liable for any damages to adjacent property of others,
which are a result of the clearing, cleaning, and disposal operations.

2.

Measurement and Payment. Clearing and cleaning construction areas and borrow areas
shall be measured to the nearest square meter of area actually cleared and cleaned. No
measurement will be made for clearing and cleaning of areas outside the limits designated
by the ENGINEER.
Payment for clearing and cleaning will be made at the unit price per square meter
indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
The unit price shall include the cost of all labor, tools and equipment required to perform
the work as specified herein.
Under no circumstances will payment be made for clearing an area more than once,
therefore it is the CONTRACTORs responsibility to assure that the clearing and cleaning
operations be performed during the appropriate period, so that areas will remain clean
until completion of the work.

C-020201
1.

DIVERSION OF RIVER AND CONTROL OF WATER DURING


CONSTRUCTION
Description of the work. The CONTRACTOR shall design, furnish all materials for,
construct, operate, and maintain all cofferdams, dikes, channels, flumes, drains, sumps,
and pumping equipment that are necessary for the protection of the work against floods
and provide conditions so that the construction can be performed in areas free of water.
The portions of work that will require the diversion and control of the river shall be
designed based on the topographic, geologic, and hydrologic data included in the
Specifications.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

16

Standard Technical Specifications

The CONTRACTOR shall be solely responsible for the construction and safety of the
cofferdams and for the diversion and control of the river during construction. Damage
occurring during their construction shall be repaired by and at the CONTRACTORs
expense.
Except as otherwise provided, the CONTRACTOR shall not interrupt nor interfere with
the natural flow of the river for any purpose without the approval of the ENGINEER.
The CONTRACTOR shall at all times pass the full flow of the river through the site,
except that the CONTRACTOR will be permitted to reduce such flow in the amount of
water used for construction purposes, as approved by the ENGINEER.
Materials used in the compacted sections of the cofferdams shall be obtained from
designated borrow areas or from required excavations.
All of the equipment for the removal of water from the various parts of the work shall
have sufficient capacity to maintain the construction areas free of water, regardless of
its origin.
2.

Contractors Plan. At least 15 days before beginning construction of the diversion works,
the CONTRACTOR shall submit his plan for the diversion and control of the river for
approval by the ENGINEER.
The CONTRACTORs plan shall include the general and detail plans, as well as pertinent
specifications regarding the cofferdam design and construction; the type and capacity
of the equipment for the removal of water from the area; a schedule with the construction
sequence of the diversion and control works;and the methods for the removal of the
temporary works and installations which will not cause damage to the permanent
structures.
Approval of the plan by the ENGINEER does not relieve the CONTRACTOR from full
responsibility for the adequate accomplishment of the diversion and control operations.

3.

Maintenance of the Diversion and Control Works. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish all
equipment and personnel necessary for the maintenance and repair of the diversion and
control works. Maintenance and repair include, but are not limited to, the removal and
substitution of inadequate materials and the control and repair of erosion due to piping,
undue settlements, erosion and sliding of slopes, and the repair of all structures.
The CONTRACTOR shall perform repairs in accordance with recognized procedures and
practices, approved by the ENGINEER.

4.

Control of Water in Excavations for Structures. During excavation for the construction
of hydraulic structures that extend below the water table or which collect water at the
bottom of the excavation, the control of water shall not be required until it is about 0.50
m above the final surface of the excavation, as long as stability of the excavated slopes
is not compromised and no interference is created for the movement of excavation and
transport equipment.
If the excavation operations are suspended due to a high groundwater table, continuation
of the excavation shall only be permitted after the water is removed and the groundwater
table is lowered to a minimum depth of 0.50 m below the final excavation surface,
unless otherwise approved by the ENGINEER. The dewatering shall be accomplished in
a manner that will prevent loss of fines from the foundation.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

17

Standard Technical Specifications

5.

Measurement and Payment. A lump-sum payment will be made for diversion of river and
control of water during construction as indicated in the Bidding Schedule. The lumpsum price bid shall include the cost of all labor, equipment, and materials necessary for
constructing and maintaining cofferdams, dikes, channels, flumes, temporary timberings,
and other temporary diversion and protective works; removing or leveling such works,
where required; and disposing of materials.
Except for lowering the groundwater table in accordance with item (C-020303 - Lowering
Groundwater Table), no measurement or payment will be made for control of water
during construction, and the cost of all work required for maintaining areas free of
water and dry shall be included in the applicable price in the Bidding Schedule for
excavation.

C-020303
1.

LOWERING GROUNDWATER TABLE


Description of the work. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish, install, maintain, and operate
all necessary equipment for the lowering of the groundwater table as required for
construction of the work. If a plan for lowering the groundwater table is not provided by
the ENGINEER, the CONTRACTOR shall be required to prepare a plan which shall be
submitted for approval to the ENGINEER.
Approval of the plan by the ENGINEER shall in no way relieve the CONTRACTOR from
full responsibility for the adequacy of the installations used for lowering the groundwater
table.
Installations shall include all components necessary for proper operation, including drains,
filters, collectors, hoses, connections, valves, gauges, centrifugal and vacuum pumps,
vacuum tanks, and piping and/or conduits to convey the water from the pump discharge
outlet to its final disposal point.
A complete backup installation shall be available at all times for immediate operation in
the event of a breakdown or malfunction of the equipment being utilized.
The CONTRACTOR shall provide a sufficient number of qualified personnel to operate
and maintain the system on a continuous basis in order to prevent damage to the work.
Any discontinuity of the operations must be approved by the ENGINEER.
The CONTRACTOR shall be liable for any damages caused by his operations to existing
structures, whether owned by the CLIENT or by others. The CONTRACTOR shall repair
any such damage, at no additional cost to the CLIENT.

2.

Types of systems. Some types of drawdown systems available include well-points,


deep wells, vaccum systems and drainage by electrosmosis. The CONTRACTOR shall
develop a system for lowering the groundwater table and submit it to the ENGINEER for
approval.

3.

Measurement and payment. If deep wells are approved and utilized for lowering the
groundwater table, an estimate shall be made of the actual number of linear meters of
well drilled for each diameter of well, as approved by the ENGINEER.
Payment for drilling deep wells will be made at the applicable unit prices per linear meter
for each diameter well indicated in the Bidding Schedule for these indefinite quantities.
The unit prices shall include cost of all work and materials required for drilling the wells.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

18

Standard Technical Specifications

The lowering of the groundwater table by a deep well system or by any other type of
system shall be measured for payment on the basis of the actual number of hours of
operation of the system as approved by the ENGINEER.
Payment shall be made at the unit price per hour of operation indicated in the Bidding
Schedule.
The unit prices shall include the cost of all labor, equipment, and materials required for
furnishing, installing, maintaining, and operating the system.
No separate payment shall be made for any type of tests or trial runs required prior to
implementation and operation of the system.
C-020304

SYSTEMS FOR LOWERING GROUND-WATER TABLE

1.

General. The type of system selected for lowering the ground-water table shall depend
on factors such as soil permeability; excavation depth; location of watertable; duration
of drawdown and type of work foundations located near the drawdown operation. The
following discussion regarding specific types of systems for lowering the ground-water
table is provided for the CONTRACTORs information. The actual system used shall be
dependent upon the conditions encountered and shall be approved by the ENGINEER.

1.1

Well-Points. Well-points consist of small diameter pipes (1 1/2 to 2 1/2"),30 to 100 cm


long, perforated, and wrapped in a small mesh screen.
Well-points are usually driven into the ground by means of high pressure water jets,
through holes at their lower end.
Well-points are connected to pipes of the same diameter, which are in turn connected,
on the ground surface, to a collecting/header pipe of larger diameter by means of flexible
canaflex-type pipes that permit observation of water flow. Gate valves are welded to
the header pipe which allow each individual well-point to be turned off for cleaning.
The header pipe is connected to a pump unit that removes the water from the header
pipe, and also air that eventually enters the well-point.
If the soil is less permeable or enough water is not available, well-points may be installed
inside holes of larger diameters with the space between the hole walls and the well
points filled with adequate filter material.
The lower ends of the well-points, for a single stage system, shall be at the same
elevation.

1.2

Deep Wells. Deep wells are wells with a diameter from 300 to 600 mm within which a
steel pipe of 150 to 300 mm in diameter is installed. The steel pipe is capped at the base
and perforated along a certain length, which is the draining portion of the well.
At the lower end of the pipe a centrifugal vertical axis pump is installed. The pump is
connected to an electrical motor (for submergerd type pumps) whose capacity shall be
determined on the basis of local hydrogeological conditions at the site and as a function
of head.
The spacing between wells shall vary from 5 to 20 m, depending on soil permeability
and drawdown required.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

19

Standard Technical Specifications

Since the pumps must have a substantial capacity, the system shall be operated
intermittently. Thus, a relay system shall be installed in each well that will turn the
pump on when the water level reaches a given maximum elevation and turns it off when
the minimum predetermined elevation is attained so that the pump always operates
submerged.
Deep wells shall be used in fairly permeable soils, such as gravel or sandy soils, where
water infiltrates into the wells freely, by gravity.
1.3

Vacuum System. The adhesion and capilarity of soils with low permeability (k = 10-3 to
10-5 cm/seg), such as fine sand, silty sand or silt obstruct water percolation. The solution
is to apply a vacuum, regardless of the drainage system being used, i.e. well-points or
deep wells.
If well-points are being used, they shall be installed inside filtering wells. The draining
length of the filtering wells shall be slightly longer than that of the well-point and the
upper portion sealed off with impermeable material (bentonite and kneaded clay). Vacuum
is then applied at the header pipe.
If deep wells are being used, the draining length shall also be controlled. Vacuum is
applied to the internal piping where the pump is located between seal joints, installed in
the well pipe, to keep the air out.
When vacuum is applied to drawdown systems, a pressure gradient is created between
the inside of the well and the adjacent subsurface area (which is subjected to atmospheric
pressure), forcing the water to percolate into the well, to be pumped out by the centrifugal
pump.

1.4

Electrosmosis. In fine soils, such as silts, clay silts and fine silt-clay sands, with
permeability coefficients from 10-5 to 10-7 cm/seg, the drawdown methods previously
described will not function. Nevertheless, these soils may be drained by means of wells
or well-points, together with an electric current passing through the soil. This method is
known as electrosmosis.
Two electrodes are placed into the satured soil, with an electric current flowing between
them. The water in the soil between the eletrodes migrates from the positive electrode
(anode) to the negative electrode (cathode). If well-points are made to function as a
cathode, water will percolate into the wells and can be pumped out.
This process may be used for stabilizing excavated surfaces in saturated soils since the
water will percolate towards the well-points installed outside the excavation and will
create percolation forces that increase slope stability.

C-020401
1.

SITE DRAINAGE
Description of the work. The CONTRACTOR shall handle all flows from natural drainage
channels intercepted by the work being performed under these Specifications. The
CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain any temporary drainage installations or
structures required to bypass or otherwise cause the flows to be harmless to the work
and adjacent property. When the temporary drainage installations or structures are no
longer needed and prior to acceptance of the work, the CONTRACTOR shall remove the
temporary installations or structures and restore the site to its original condition as
approved by the ENGINEER.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

20

Standard Technical Specifications

2.

Measurement and payment. No separate payment will be made to the CONTRACTOR


for temporary drainage installations or structures. The cost of all work and materials
specified herein shall be included in the prices bid in the Bidding Schedule for the items
of work which require temporary drainage installations or structures.

C-020501
1.

FENCES
Description of the work. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish and erect fences, including
gates and cattleguards, at the locations shown on the drawings and in accordance with
the requirements of this Specification.
Fences shall consist of posts and braces that may be of wood or reinforced concrete,
with barbed or smooth wire, or chain link fabric.

2.

Materials.

2.1

Wooden posts and braces. Posts and braces of hardwood (Aroeira, Sabi, Pau-Fuso,
Barauna, or Corao-de-Negro, or other woods of similar quality), with diameters of
aproximately 25 cm and 15 cm, respectively.
The lower half of posts and braces shall be given a preservative treatment.
Posts and braces shall be chamfered at the top and trimmed at the base, straight, and
free of cracks and any other defects that would make them inadequate for fences.
Posts and braces shall be 2.50 m and 2.20 m in length, respectively.

2.2

Reinforced concrete posts and braces. Posts and braces for wire fences shall have
square cross-sections of 20 x 20 cm and 12 x 12 cm,respectively. Lengths shall be
2.50 m and 2.20 m,respectively. Posts for chain link fence shall have a square crosssection of 15 x 15 cm and length of 2.5 m. Concrete strength shall be equal to or higher
than 15.0 MPa.
Reinforcement shall consist of spiral-shaped stirrups (3 mm diameter wire, at 20 cm
spacing) and longitudinal bars (6 - 6.3 mm diameter bars for wire fence posts and 4 6.3 mm diameter bars for braces and chain link fence posts), symmetrically arranged.
Minimum concrete cover shall be 2 cm.
Concrete shall consist of good quality materials, in a batch that yields a dense and
homogeneous concrete, with good appearance, and with acceptable results in absorption
tests, according to ABNT s NB-221 standards. The absorption test is required to guarantee
durability of the posts and braces.

2.3

Cattle-guards. Cattle-guards shall be constructed with 4" x 2" I-section structural steel,or
with steel rails, supported by reinforced concrete beams. Concrete beam and steel rail
dimensions shall be as shown on the drawings.
Cattle-guards shall be 2.5 m in length and 4 m in width.

2.4

Gates. Gates shall be 2.5 m wide and made of hardwood (sucupira, ip, peroba, etc).
Gates shall be built with two vertical boards, 7 x 12 cm in cross-section and 1.6 m long
and with three boards 2.5 x 1.5 cm in cross-section and the same length as that of the
gate opening, installed horizontally, and one board 2.5 x 7 cm in cross section, installed
diagonally.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

21

Standard Technical Specifications

2.5

Barbed wire. The barbed wire shall be MOTO brand, or equal, galvanized barbed wire.
The number of strands of wire and the spacing shall be as specified on the drawings.

2.6

Smooth wire. The smooth wire shall be high strength carbon steel smooth wire, with
oval cross-section and 3x2.4 mm or 2.7x2.2 mm gage. The wire shall be erected through
holes in the posts and braces. The number of wire strands shall be as specified on the
drawings.

2.7

Chain link. Chain link fabric shall be galvanized, with square mesh and dimensions as
specified on the drawings.

2.8

Stays. Stays shall be of high strength carbon steel wire.Stays may be off-the-shelf,
with a wire gage of 4 mm. Stays may also be made of fence wire and metal fasteners.
The ends of the wire stay shall be wrapped around the first and last wire strand, similar
to the off-the-shelf stays.
The metal fasteners shall be used for clamping the stays to the intermediate wire strands.
Metal fasteners shall be kneaded for clamping the stays to the fence wires.
Distances between stays shall be 2 to 3 m.

2.9

Ratchets. There shall be one ratchet for each wire strand.


Ratchets may be fastened to posts, as needed.
Ratchets fastened to posts shall be classified as simple or double.
Double ratchets are recommended for fastening and stretching fence sections of equal
lengths.
Ratchets which are not fastened to posts, called free ratchets, are tied to posts by the
same wire used for the fence.

3.

Erection.

3.1

Cleaning of Fence Strip. A 6 meter-wide strip shall be cleaned to facilitate fence erection
and subsequent maintenance, and to provide protection against fires. Cleaning shall be
in accordance with item (C-020101 - Clearing and Cleaning Construction Areas and
Borrow Areas).

3.2

Wire Fences with Wooden Posts. Posts shall be properly aligned and vertical, and backfill
shall be placed and compacted such that displacement does not occur.
Fences shall be 1.5 m high and posts shall be buried 1 meter into the ground. Brace
posts shall be buried 70 cm into the ground.
The distance between posts shall be up to 1.0 meter for barbed wire and up to 10.0
meters for smooth wire. There shall be a post at all locations where there is a change in
horizontal or vertical alignment. Braces shall be aproximately 10 meters apart.
For property boundaries and calf enclosures, five wire strands shall be used and the
spacing between strands shall be 30 cm.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

22

Standard Technical Specifications

For beef cattle pasture boundaries, four wire strands shall be used and the spacing
between strands shall be 37.5 cm.
For dairy cattle pasture boundaries, three or four wire strands shall be used and the
spacing between strands shall be 50 or 37.5 cm, respectively.
Fences around pastures used for goats or sheep shall have nine strands of wire,
aproximately 16.7 cm apart.
Posts shall be stayed by female topped braces, fastened with No. 18 AWG galvanized
wire and counter-braced with boards.
Wires shall be drawn tight with ratchets fastened to the posts.
Spacing between wire strands shall be maintained by means of wire or wooden stays.
Barbed wire shall be fastened to posts by means of galvanized steel staples.
3.3

Wire Fences with Reinforced Concrete Posts. Posts shall be properly aligned and vertical,
and backfill shall be placed compacted such that no dislocation occurs.
Posts shall be stayed by female topped braces, fastened with No. 18 AWG galvanized
wire and braced with a reinforced concrete beam.
The distance between posts shall be up to 1.0 meter for barbed wire and up to 10.0
meters for smooth wire. There shall be a post at all locations where there is a change in
horizontal or vertical alignment.
Fences shall be 1.5 m high and posts shall be buried 1 meter into the ground. Brace
posts shall be buried 70 cm into the ground. Braces shall be aproximately 10 meters
apart.
The number of wire strands for fences with reinforced concrete posts shall be the same
as specified for fences with wooden posts.
If barbed wire is used, the wire shall be fastened to posts and braces by means of a
strap of smooth galvanized No. 14 AWG.
The tightening and spacing of strands shall be performed as specified above for wire
fences with wooden posts.

3.4

Strands shall be fastened by means of a brace of smooth galvanized No. 14 AWG wire.
Chain Link Fence. Posts for fastening the fabric shall be made of reinforced concrete,
with cross-section of 15x15 cm and length of 2.6 m. Fences shall be 1.8 high and posts
shall be buried 70 cm into the ground. Posts shall be properly aligned and vertical and
shall be set in concrete of at least 150 kg/m3 m so that no displacement occurs.
Concrete strength for the posts shall be 15.0 MPa or greater.
Reinforcement shall consist of helicoidal-shaped stirrups (3 mm diameter wire at 20 cm
intervals) and longitudinal bars (4 - 6.3 mm diameter) symmetrically placed.
Posts shall be approximately 2 meters apart. Three high strength carbon steel smooth
wire strands with oval cross-section of 3x2.4 mm gage shall be used to fasten the
fabric. The strands shall be installed along the top, middle and bottom lines of the fabric.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

23

Standard Technical Specifications

For fastening the fabric to the smooth wires, wire ties of smooth galvanized No. 14
AWG wire shall be used.
4.

Measurement and payment. Fences shall be measured by linear meters and gates and
cattle-guards shall be measured by installed units, in accordance with the details shown
on the drawings.
Payment for fences, gates, and cattleguards shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the
applicable unit price indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
The unit prices for fences, gates , and cattleguards shall include the cost of all labor,
equipment and materials required to perform the work as specified herein, except for
cleaning.
Payment for cleaning of the fence strip shall be in accordance with item (C-020101 Clearing and Cleaning Construction Areas and Borrow Areas).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

24

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION EARTHWORK

C-030100

EARTHWORK, GENERAL
The CONTRACTOR shall immediately cease all earthwork operations when unusual or
unexpected subsurface conditions are encountered such as sink holes, low-load carrying
capacity soils, or other conditions which have not been identified in the Project designs.
The ENGINEER will evaluate the conditions and determine if any design and/or construction
changes are necessary. Any increase or decrease in contract costs shall be made in
accordance with item (C-010202 - Differing Site Conditions).

C-030101
1.

CLASSIFICATION OF EXCAVATION
General. The principal criteria that will be used in the classification of materials excavated
will be the difficulty of removal or the resistance to excavation of the material. Thus, the
classification is based on the equipment required to economically excavate the material.
Excavation will be classified in the categories listed below.

2.

Material in the 1st category. Materials in the 1st category include all deposits which are
loose or moderately cohesive, such as gravels, sands, silts, clays, or mixtures thereof,
with or without organic materials, formed by natural aggregation, that can be excavated
with hand tools or with conventional excavation equipment. Included in the lst category
are rock fragments, loose rock, or cobbles that have diameters equal to or less than 15
cm, regardless of the moisture content, and, in general, any material that can not be
classified as 2nd or 3rd category, as described below.

3.

Material in the 2nd category. Materials in the 2nd category include those with a lower
resistance to mechanical excavation than that of solid rock. Excavation shall be performed
by a combination of methods that involve ripping equipment,blasting or other equivalent
processes. Blocks of rock, boulders, or cobbles with diameters greater than 15 cm and
equal to or less than 1 meter are included in this category.

4.

Material in the 3rd category. Materials in the 3rd category include those natural formations
that result from the natural aggregation of mineral grains, bonded by permanent cohesive
forces of great intensity, with a resistance to mechnical excavation equal to that of
solid rock.
To be classified as rock the material must have hardness and texture such that it can
not be loosened or broken down with hand tools and can only be removed by blasting,
wedges, steel bars or rods, or by other similar means.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

25

Standard Technical Specifications

Included in this category are those rock fragments, blocks of rock, or boulders which
have diameters greater than 1 meter.
5.

Excavation in very soft soils. Excavations in very soft soils are those performed in
saturated material with low strengh (less than one blow per 30 cm of the SPT), and are
incompatible for excavation by conventional earthmoving equipment. This type of
excavation will require the use of draglines or other similar equipment.

6.

Measurements. The classification of the excavations and the estimation of percentages


of material in each category shall be performed by the Engineer.
When the volume of material to be classified is composed of 1st and 2nd category
materials, the percentage of each of these materials in the overall volume shall be
estimated.
Excavations which have mixtures of 3rd category materials with those of the other
categories, with poorly defined limits or boundaries, will receive special attention from
the Engineer in order to permit a just classification of the excavated materials.
If 3rd category material is verified in an excavation, after 1st and 2nd category materials
have been removed, the surface shall be surveyed and when removal of the 3rd category
material is concluded another survey shall be performed in order to determine the
excavated volumes.
The CONTRACTOR may utilize the excavation method he considers most convenient
and productive, since the method of excavation will not influence the classification of
the material.

C-030102
1.

DEFINITION OF EARTH MATERIALS


Materials for compacted embankments. Materials to be used in embankments shall be
produced from required excavations or from borrow areas shown on the drawings or
approved by the ENGINEER. Embankment materials shall be free from organic matter,
mica, and under no circumstance shall peat, organic clays, and expansive or collapsible
soils be used. All materials shall have good workability and shall be impermeable when
compacted. Suitable soils include GW-SW, GP-SP, GM-SM, and GC-SC, as described in
the Unified Soil Classification System. 1.1 Soils suitable for embankment construction
are those in which 90% of the materials, by weight, have diameters less than 10
centimeters and a maximum of 35% of the material passes the ASTM No. 200 sieve
size.
The material passing the ASTM No. 200 sieve size shall comply with one of the
following requirements:
Liquid Limit - LL 35, or
Liquid Limit - LL 40 and Plasticity Index - PI (0.6 LL - 9).
The California Bearing Ratio index shall be greater than 5.
Maximum density obtained in the Normal Proctor Test shall be greater than 1,700
grams/dm3.

1.2

Soils marginally suitable for embankment construction are those in which a maximum of
25% of the materials, measured by weight, have diameters greater than 15 centimeters.
The material passing the ASTM No. 40 sieve size shall comply with one of the
following requirements:

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

26

Standard Technical Specifications

Liquid Limit - LL 35, or


Liquid Limit - LL 65 and Plasticity Index - PI (0.6 LL - 9).
The California Bearing Ratio index shall be greater than 3.
Maximum density obtained in the Normal Proctor Test shall be greater than
1,500 grams/dm3 .

1.3

Soils unsuitable for embankment construction are those with high contents of organic
matter, peat, humus, roots, or any other similar matter. Soils whose organic matter
content is greather than 4%, by weight, and a California Bearing Ratio index lower than
3, or those whose expansion is greather than 2%, as determined by the California
Bearing Ratio test, shall be defined as unacceptable soils for embankment construction.

2.

Earth materials in contact with concrete. No material with sulfate content, expressed in
SO3 higher than 0.2% shall be used for embankment or fill in contact with any type of
concrete work.

3.

Materials for soil-cement. Materials used for soil-cement shall have the following
characteristics:
Liquid limit ........................................................................................ 40 %
Plasticity index .................................................................................. 18 %
% smaller than the No. 200 sieve size .................................................. 50 %
Soil-cement shall be prepared in concrete mixers and shall have a minimum California
Bearing Ratio index of 30% and maximum expansion of 1%.

4.

Materials for backfill about structures and in pipe trenches. Materials obtained from
required excavations may be used for backfill provided that the requirements specified
herein are met. When excavated materials are not suitable for backfill, materials from
borrow areas shall be used. Such borrow materials shall consist of clean, natural, silicium
sands and gravel or materials from stone crushing operations and shall have a gradation
conforming to the following:
ASTM Sieve Size

% Passing the sieve size, by weight

1 1/2"

100

3/4"

95-100

No. 10

60-100

No. 20

0- 50

No. 200

0- 20

In areas where the bottom of the trench or structure foundation is below the groundwater
table or where effective drainage is needed as determined by the ENGINEER, backfill
materials shall consist of silicium gravel and sand, resistant to water and weathering,
and shall have a gradation conforming to the following:

ASTM Sieve Size

% Passing the sieve size, by weight

1 1/2"
3/4"

100
95-100

No. 10

0- 25

No. 20

0- 05

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

27

Standard Technical Specifications

Material from required excavations shall generally be acceptable for backfill provided it
is free from roots, organic matter, and decayable substances. Except as provided in
item (C-030102 - Backfill in Pipe Trenches), rock or clods shall not exceed 7.5 cm;
plasticity index shall be less than 10; and no more than 20 % of the material, by weight,
shall pass the No. 200 sieve size; unless otherwise indicated on the drawings.

C-030103
1.

BLASTING
Description of the work. If blasting is required, it shall be approved by the ENGINEER.
The CONTRACTOR shall submit to the ENGINEER, for approval, a blasting plan to be
followed for excavation by blasting.
The blasting plan shall include, as a minimum, the location and time of the blast, the
volume of excavation anticipated, the type and amount of explosive, and the location,
depth, and spacing of holes. Approval of the plan shall in no way relieve the CONTRACTOR
from full responsibility for the adequacy and safety of the work.
Blasting will not be allowed if there is a possibility of excessive fracturing of surrounding
materials or of loosening or damaging adjacent foundations or structures.
Transportation and storage of explosives shall be performed and supervised by duly
qualified personnel and only after securing authorization from the proper authorities.
Fuses and detonators of any type shall not be transported in the same vehicles or stored
in the same facility as explosives. The location and arrangement of powder magazines,
as well as transportation methods shall be approved by the ENGINEER.
Blasting shall always be performed in strict compliance with existing laws applicable to
work being performed under these Specifications.
The handling and use of explosives shall not be allowed when an electrical storm is
impending or during a storm.

2.

Measurement and payment. No measurement or payment shall be made to the


CONTRACTOR for blasting, and the cost shall be included in the unit prices indicated in
the Bidding Schedule for the items requiring this work.
Note to Specifiers: This Specification should be used in cases where the use of explosives
is not anticipated, except that the use of explosives may be necessary due to unforseen
conditions. C-030201

C-030201

1.

EXCAVATION FOR CANALS AND DRAINS

Description of the work. Excavation for canals and drains shall be performed in accordance
with the lines, grades, and dimensions shown on the drawings or established by the
ENGINEER.
Excavation for canals and drains shall include the following:
All excavation performed below the natural ground surface, or below the surface
after scraping, to the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the drawings.
In the case of canals and drains constructed in embankment, all excavation
performed from the top of the fill to the lines, grades and dimensions shown on
the drawings.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

28

Standard Technical Specifications

(When required in the project specification and designs, excavation for canals and drains
shall include required excavation for adjacent O & M road sections.)
In order to obtain materials from the required excavation which are suitable for the
construction of embankments or other earthwork, or for use as concrete aggregate, the
CONTRACTOR shall perform selective excavation, and transport the material to designated
points of use or stockpiles, as directed by the ENGINEER.
Excavation for canals and drains shall be performed with adequ-ate mechanical equipment.
Depending on the types of materials encountered in natural ground, the CONTRACTOR
may use explosives when approved by the ENGINEER. All necessary precautions shall
be taken to minimize disturbing or loosening of the rock and/or ground adjacent to the
required excavation.
Except as otherwise provided below for small canals and drains, trimming and shaping
of canals and drains shall be performed and paid for in accordance with item (C-040201
- Trimming and Shaping of Canal).
Excavation for canals and drains shall be classified in accordance with item (C-030101Classification of Excavation).
Small canals or drains shall be indicated on the drawings or designated as such by the
ENGINEER. Whenever possible, small canals and drains shall be excavated by
mechanical equipment or machinery with buckets or scoops shaped like the canal or
drain sections shown on the drawings.
The bottom and side slope surfaces of small canals and drains in excavation or in
compacted embankments that are to receive concrete lining, shall be carefully trimmed
to the lines and dimensions shown on the drawings or as directed by the ENGINEER.
The CONTRACTOR shall perform the excavation in a manner to assure the stability of
excavated slopes. In order to minimize any possible stability problems, the CONTRACTOR
shall start the lining operations as soon as possible after the completion of excavation.
The refilling of any excess excavation shall be made in accordance with item (C-040201
- Trimming and Shaping Canal).
2.

Tolerances. The following tolerances shall be permitted:


Canals. Deviation from design sections: + 2 cm
Drains (and road sections). Deviation from design sections + 5 cm
These tolerances shall only be permitted when they occur gradually and uniformly along
the alignment or grade.

3.

Measurement and payment. Excavation for canals and drains shall be measured by
cubic meters of material excavated to the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the
drawings or established by the ENGINEER. Measurement of excavation for canals and
drains shall be performed using the Average End Area Method, between stations at 20
meter intervals, or at other intervals, as determined by the ENGINEER. Measurements
will be taken before and after excavation.
The ENGINEER will classify materials encountered while the excavation is being performed
for subsequent calculation of the quantities that correspond to each type of material.
No measurement or payment shall be made for any excavation that the ENGINEER
considers to be in excess of that necessary for the adequate execution of the work.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

29

Standard Technical Specifications

Payment for excavation for canals and drains shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the
applicable unit price per cubic meter of classified material excavated as indicated in the
Bidding Schedule for the haul distances listed below:
Up to ____1 m
from ____ 1 m to ____ 1 m
from ____ 1 m to 1000 m
Haul distances shall be measured between the centers of gravity of the material excavated
and the material placed or deposited. When the haul distance required is greater than
1000 m, as approved by the ENGINEER, the haul of such material shall be paid for as
specified in item (C-030213 - Overhaul).
The unit prices shall include the cost of all labor, equipment and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein, including loading, hauling, unloading and spreading
of materials, as needed.
1 - Haul distances shall be determined by the design engineer.
EXCAVATION FOR STRUCTURES

C-030203

1.

Description of the work. Excavation for structures shall be performed in accordance


with the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the drawings or established by the
ENGINEER.
Excavation for structures shall include all excavation required for the structures below
the original ground surface, or below the surface after scraping, including any final
trimming required for placing forms and concrete.
Excavation for structures may be performed manually or with mechanical equipment.
Depending on the types of materials encountered, the CONTRACTOR may use explosives
when approved by the ENGINEER.
All necessary precautions shall be taken to minimize disturbing or loosening of the rock
and/or ground adjacent to the required excavation. All excavation performed for the
convenience of the CONTRACTOR, or in excess of that required, for any reason except
for additional excavation directed by the ENGINEER, shall be at the expense of the
CONTRACTOR, including the cost for refilling the excess excavation (with lean concrete).
Excavation for structures shall be classified in accordance with item (C-030101 Classification for Excavation).
The CONTRACTOR shall be required to excavate all drainage or interceptor ditches and
provide all other drainage installations necessary to maintain the excavations in good
order during construction and to protect concrete foundations from damage.
All excavated materials which the ENGINEER considers suitable for use in other parts of
the work, which are in excess of the requirements for backfill about the structure, shall
be hauled by the CONTRACTOR to the site where the materials will be used or to
previously selected locations. All unsuitable materials shall be hauled to the waste areas
shown on the drawings or to locations approved by the ENGINEER. Materials deposited
in waste banks shall be left with reasonably even and regular surfaces as approved by
the ENGINEER.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

30

Standard Technical Specifications

Excavation performed for concrete foundations shall be controlled through the verification
of the specified lines and dimensions.
2.

Measurement and payment. Excavation for structures shall be measured by cubic meter
of material excavated to the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the drawings or
established by the ENGINEER.
The ENGINEER will classify the materials encountered while the excavation is being
performed for subsequent calculation of the quantities that correspond to each type of
material. No measurement or payment will be made for any excavation that the ENGINEER
considers to be in excess of that required for proper performance of the work.
Payment for excavation for structures shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the
applicable unit price per cubic meter of classified material indicated in the Bidding Schedule
for the haul distances listed below:
Up to ______ 1 m
From ______ 1 m to ______ 1 m
From ______ 1 m to 1,000 m
Haul distances shall be measured between the centers of gravity of the material excavated
and the material placed or deposited.
When the haul distance required is greater than 1000 meters, as approved by the
ENGINEER, the haul of such material shall be paid for as specified in item (C-030213 Overhaul).
The unit prices shall include the cost of all labor, equipment, and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein, including loading, hauling, unloading, and spreading
of materials, as needed.
1 - Haul distances shall be determined by the design engineer.

C-030205
1.

EXCAVATION FOR TRENCHES


Description of the work. Excavation for trenches shall be performed in accordance with
the lines, grades and dimensions required for proper installation of pipe, as shown on
the drawings or as established by the ENGINEER.
Excavation for trenches may be performed manually or with mechanical equipment.
Depending on the types of materials encountered, the CONTRACTOR may use explosives,
when approved by the ENGINEER. All necessary precautions shall be taken to minimize
disturbing or loosening of the rock and/or ground adjacent to the required excavation.
When not shown on the drawings, the minimum width (W) of the trench shall be calculated
as follows:
For pipe with an internal diameter equal to or less than 450 mm;
W = d + 40 cm
For pipe with an internal diameter greater than 450 mm;

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

31

Standard Technical Specifications

W = d + 90 cm
Where:
W = width of the trench (cm)
d = outside diameter of the pipe (cm)
Trench widths for all other cases shall be as established by the ENGINEER.
Trenches with depths greater than 1.5 meters shall be shored, or the side walls sloped
at an angle to stabilize the excavation, as determined by the ENGINEER.
The CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain all necessary shoring for the trench walls.
Trenches shall be excavated to the depths required for laying the pipe to the lines and
grades shown on the drawings, or as directed by the ENGINEER.
Excavation for the pipe trenches shall be classified in accordance with item (C-030101
- Classification of Excavation).
When the foundation material below the bottom of the pipe is of the 2nd or 3rd category
or otherwise unsuitable, as determined by the ENGINEER, the CONTRACTOR shall perform
additional excavation to a depth of 10 cm below the specified bottom elevation of the
pipe in order to allow the placing of bedding material for the pipe.
All excavated material not suitable or not required for backfill or compacted backfill shall
be hauled by the CONTRACTOR to the waste areas shown on the drawings or to
locations approved by the ENGINEER. Materials deposited in waste banks shall be left
with reasonably even and regular surfaces as approved by the ENGINEER.
The bottom of the trench upon which the pipe will be laid shall be smooth, straight and
uniform, without high or low points, hard or soft, that may result in unequal loading of
the pipe. If a crane with slings is used to lower the pipe into the trench, holes shall be
excavated in the bottom of the trench to facilitate removal of the slings. When bell or
sleeve joints are used, holes of adequate size shall be excavated in the bottom of the
trench to prevent the bells or sleeves from coming in contact with the subgrade. The
pipe shall be uniformly supported along its entire length.
2.

Measurement and payment. Excavation for trenches shall be measured by cubic meter
of material excavated to the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the drawings or
established by the ENGINEER.
The CONTRACTOR will not be required to excavate trenches to vertical sides, but
regardless or whether the trench sides are vertical or sloped, measurement of excavation
for trenches will be made to vertical sides and to the widths specified herein.
Measurement of excavation for trenches shall be performed using the Average End Area
method, between stations at 20 meter intervals, or at other intervals, as determined by
the ENGINEER. Measurements will be taken before and after excavation.
The ENGINEER will classify the materials encountered during the excavation for
subsequent calculation of the quantities that correspond to each type of material.
In addition to the classification of excavation, all trench excavation shall correspond to
one of the following trench depth ranges:

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

32

Standard Technical Specifications

Less than 2.00 m


From 2.00 to 4.00 m
From 4.00 to 6.00 m
No measurement or payment shall be made for any excavation that the ENGINEER
considers to be in excess of that required for proper performance of the work.
Payment for excavation for trenches shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the applicable
unit price per cubic meter of classified material indicated in the Bidding Schedule for the
depth ranges specified above and the haul distances listed below:
Up to _____ 1 m
From _____ 1 m to _____ 1 m
From _____ 1 m to 1000 m
Haul distances shall be measured between the centers of gravity of the material excavated
and the material placed or deposited.
When the haul distance required is greater than 1000 m, as approved by the ENGINEER,
the haul of such material shall be paid for as specified in item (C-030213 - Overhaul).
The unit prices shall include the cost of all labor, equipment and materials required to
perform the work as specifed herein, including shoring, loading, hauling, unloading and
spreading of materials, as needed.
1 - Haul distances shall be determined by the design engineer.
C-030207

EXCAVATION FOR BUILDINGS

1.

General

1.1

The various types of excavations for buildings shall be performed according to the
elevations, dimensions, and slopes shown on the drawings or established by the
ENGINEER. The required excavations shall be performed so as to prevent any damages
to life, property or both.

1.2

Excavation in excess of 1.5 meters in depth shall be sloped or protected by means of


appropriate devices. Permanent excavations shall be protected by means of retaining or
curtain walls.

1.3

Excavations for foundations, basements, water reservoirs, and other underground facilities
shall be executed as specified in the foundation drawings and other designs, with due
consideration being given to soil characteristics and to the amount of material to be
excavated.

1.4

Excavation work shall comply with these Specifications and with the specific standards
set forth in ABNT Standard NBR-6122 (NB-51).

1.5

Excavation for blocks and surrounding foundation walls shall be performed using shoring
and removal of water, as needed, so that structural elements can be constructed and
waterproofed in open excavations.

1.6

All excavations shall be protected, as needed, against runoff or groundwater, through


drainage, pumping, or groundwater drawdown, in accordance with items (C-020401 -

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

33

Standard Technical Specifications

Site Drainage) and (C-020303 - Lowering Groundwater Table), in order to assure an


adequate execution of the work.
1.7

Refill of temporary excavations and of areas near retaining or curtain walls shall be
carefully executed, so as to prevent displacements which may effect neighboring
structures, buildings or public property.

1.8

Excavations shall be classified according to the type of excavated material and the
difficulties encountered in excavating, as stipulated in item (C-030101 - Classification
of Excavation).

1.9

Excess excavations shall be filled with lean concrete or other material approved by the
ENGINEER, at the CONTRACTORs expense, in accordance with item (C-030203 Excavation for Structures).

2.

Sloped Excavations

2.1

Sloped excavation slopes shall be adequately protected against both groundwater and
superficial erosion during their execution.

2.2

Final slopes, unless otherwise specified, shall be protected by means of vegetation or


other material, so as to avoid future erosion.

3.

Design

3.1

In the event that the excavation drawings are not furnished by the CLIENT, the
CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for preparing and submitting them for approval and
authentication by the ENGINEER.

3.2

The dimensions of structural elements shall meet the loads to which each element is to
be subjected during the various phases of the work (temporary and/or permanent).

3.3

Adjacent conditions and estimated overloads during the various phases of the work
shall be taken into account.

3.4

Under no circumstances shall the CONTRACTOR initiate excavations without prior


authentication of drawings by the ENGINEER.

3.5

Designs shall meet pertinent ABNT standards, particularly NBR-6122 (NB-51).

4.

Measurement and Payment. Excavations for buildings shall be measured in cubic meters
of material excavated to the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the drawings or
established by the ENGINEER.
The ENGINEER will classify the materials during the excavation for the purpose of
subsequently calculating the corresponding volume of each type of material.
No measurement or payment will be made for excavation performed in excess of that
necessary for the adequate execution of the work.
Payment for excavation for buildings shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the applicable
unit price per cubic meter of classified material indicated in the Bidding Schedule.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

34

Standard Technical Specifications

The unit prices shall include the cost of all labor, equipment, and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein, as well as to load, haul and unload the material as
necessary.
When the haul distance exceeds 1000 m, and with the approval of the ENGINEER, haul
of excavated or backfill material shall be paid for in accordance with (C-030213 Overhaul).
C-030211
1.

EXCAVATION IN BORROW AREAS


Description of the work. Borrow materials shall be excavated in accordance with these
Specifications or as directed by the ENGINEER.
The CONTRACTOR shall inform the ENGINEER sufficiently in advance before beginning
excavation of any borrow area so that all necessary inspections and measurements of
the area may be performed.
All excavation performed by the CONTRACTOR shall conform to the directions of the
ENGINEER, with the intent of obtaining the highest yield and best utilization of the
materials from the borrow area. If the ENGINEER determines that the materials being
excavated from a borrow area are unsuitable for use in the work, the CONTRACTOR
shall discontinue the excavation, the materials excavated shall be disposed of as directed,
and suitable material shall be obtained from other borrow areas previously approved by
the ENGINEER.
The CONTRACTOR shall clear, clean and scrape all borrow areas in accordance with
item (C-020101 - Clearing and Cleaning Construction Areas and Borrow Areas).
Unsuitable materials, as determined by the ENGINEER, shall be hauled to waste areas to
prevent mixing with suitable materials at the borrow area site.
The CONTRACTOR shall construct and maintain, in a manner approved by the ENGINEER,
all drainage ditches and other works necessary for the control of runoff and groundwater,
in order to avoid flooding and/or ponding which might cause deterioration of suitable
materials.
The ENGINEER shall designate the extent and depth of the excavation cuts in all borrow
areas, and the excavation cuts shall be made to the designated depths.
The CONTRACTOR shall perform excavation in borrow areas in a manner that will at all
times guarantee the stability of the excavated slopes and of the excavation in general
during the borrow operations. When necessary, the ENGINEER will direct changes in the
extension, depth, slopes, or manner in which the excavation is being performed,to
reduce the possibility of the slopes collapsing or sliding, or to improve the yield and
quality of excavated material.
Excavation from borrow shall be performed with adequate mechanical equipment.
The CONTRACTOR shall take all necessary precautions to avoid excess excavation and
to ensure that the excavated surface and the remaining material is maintained in a
satisfactory condition.
The CONTRACTOR may use explosives when approved by the ENGINEER.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

35

Standard Technical Specifications

Blasting in borrow areas shall not be allowed closer than 50 meters to a construction
site, except when otherwise approved by the ENGINEER.
During excavation of a borrow area the CONTRACTOR may be directed to excavate
materials which could be used in subsequent stages of the work. The CONTRACTOR
shall excavate and stockpile the materials in a manner approved by the ENGINEER.
Stockpile areas shall be dry, protected from runoff, and shall be kept free of any
vegetation, debris, or other foreign material that might interfere with the eventual
utilization of the materials.
After completion of the borrow operations, the CONTRACTOR shall return the area to a
natural appearance and evenly spread the previously removed topsoil over the area.
2.

Measurement and payment. No separate payment will be made for materials excavated
from borrow areas and used for embankment, backfill, or other required earthwork, and
the costs of excavation from borrow shall be included in applicable unit prices for the
items of work in which the borrow materials are used. Volume determinations shall be
made at the place where the borrow materials are actually used, as described in the
applicable paragraphs. When the volume of the material actually placed cannot be
measured effectively, measurement shall be performed at the borrow area using the
Average End Area method, between stations at 20 meter intervals, or other intervals, as
determined by the ENGINEER. The unit prices which include the cost of excavation from
borrow shall also include the costs of separating the material and stockpiling, whenever
such operations are required.
No payment shall be made for the disposal of unsuitable materials from borrow areas,
regardless of the haul distance, and the costs of such disposal shall be included in the
price of the work in which the adjacent suitable borrow material is to be used.
When the haul distance required from the borrow area to the site of placement is greater
than 1000m, as approved by the ENGINEER, the haul of such material shall be paid for
as specified in item (C-030213 - Overhaul).

C-030213

OVERHAUL

1.

Description of the work. Overhaul is defined as the product of excavated volume, in


cubic meters, times haul distance, in kilometers, when the required haul distance of the
material exceeds the maximum established haul distance. Overhaul includes the hauling
of materials from required excavations or from borrow areas for the construction of
embankments and placing of backfill, filters, surfacing, and riprap, as well as the haul of
unsuitable or excess materials from excavations to waste areas, except unsuitable
materials from borrow areas, all as approved by the ENGINEER.

2.

Measurement and Payment. The overhaul shall be measured in cubic meters x kilometers,
m3 x km, for the different types of classified materials to be hauled. Material volumes
shall be measured at the site of placement or deposit for embankments , backfill, filters,
surfacing, and riprap, whenever possible. If not possible or not practical, as determined
by the ENGINEER, material volumes shall be measured in excavation. All material volumes
for haul of unsuitable or excess materials to waste areas shall be measured in excavation.
The above measurements shall be performed using the Average End Area Method,
between stations at 20 meter intervals, or other intervals, as determined by the ENGINEER.
Haul distances will be measured along the shortest practical route which can be followed
by the haul equipment, between the centers of gravity of the material excavated and
the material placed or deposited, after deduction of the first kilometer.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

36

Standard Technical Specifications

All haul routes shall be approved by the ENGINEER.


At the discretion of the ENGINEER, overhaul of materials which are not specifically
referred to in this paragraph may be considered for purposes of measurement and
payment. In these cases, the ENGINEER shall determine the volume of material to be
measured and the amount to be paid as overhaul.
Under no circumstances shall special coefficients be applied to the measured volume for
expansion of materials. Expansion of materials must be accounted for in the
CONTRACTORs prices for overhaul.
Payment for overhaul shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the applicable unit price
per cubic meter x kilometers indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
The unit prices shall include the cost of all labor, equipment, and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein.
C-030301
1.

BACKFILL ABOUT STRUCTURES


Description of the work. Backfill about structures shall be placed to the lines, grades
and dimensions shown on the drawings, as specified herein or as directed by the
ENGINEER. Backfill material shall be obtained from required excavation for structures,
but when sufficient suitable material is not available from this source, additional material
shall be obtained by the CONTRACTOR from other required excavation or from designated
borrow areas. Backfill material shall be subject to the approval of the ENGINEER.
All backfill material shall be free from roots, organic matter and stones or clods over 7.5
cm in diameter. Suitable materials for backfill about structures are defined in item (C030102 - Definition of Earth Materials).
All backfill material shall be compacted unless otherwise shown on the drawings or
directed by the ENGINEER. Compaction shall be performed with proper mechanical
equipment, however, manual compaction may be performed whenever the access of
mechanical equipment to a specific location is impractical. Backfill material shall be
placed and compacted uniformly about the structure to prevent unequal loading.
Backfill about structures shall be placed in successive horizontal layers, not to exceed
10 cm in thickness after compaction. Compaction shall be performed until the relative
density obtained is at least 97% of the laboratory maximum dry density as determined
by the Standard Proctor compaction test.
During backfill operations, density tests shall be performed by the ENGINEER. At least
four tests shall be performed per eight-hour shift or one for every 100 cubic meters of
backfill placed. Additional tests may be performed, as determined by the ENGINEER.

2.

Measurement and Payment. Backfill about structures shall be measured in cubic meters
of material placed, measured to the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the drawings.
The volume of the structure shall be deducted.
Payment for backfill about structure shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the applicable
unit price per cubic meter indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
For backfill about structures performed with materials from borrow areas, payment shall
be in accordance with the haul distances listed below:

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

37

Standard Technical Specifications

Up to ____ 1 m
From ____ 1 m to ___ 1 m
From ____ 1 m to 1000 m
The haul distances shall be measured between the centers of gravity of the material
excavated and the material placed.
When the haul distance required is greater than 1000 m, as approved by the ENGINEER,
the haul of such material shall be paid for as specified in item (C-030213-Overhaul).
The unit prices shall include the cost of all labor, equipment and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein, including furnishing water, moistening materials
and compacting materials.
When the material for backfill about structures is obtained from borrow areas, the unit
prices for backfill about structures shall include the cost of excavating the material from
the borrow area.
No measurement or payment shall be made for backfill required as a result of excess
excavation performed by the CONTRACTOR.
1 - Haul distances shall be determined by the design engineer.
C-030303
1.

BACKFILL IN PIPE TRENCHES


Description of the work. Backfill in pipe trenches shall be placed to the lines, grades and
dimensions shown on the drawings, as specified herein or as directed by the ENGINEER.
Prior to placing backfill material in the pipe trench, the holes excavated for the pipe bells
and for removing the cable slings shall be refilled with sand manually tamped under the
pipe to fill all voids to the fullest extent possible. Backfill material shall be obtained from
required excavation for trenches, but when sufficient suitable material is not available
from this source, additional material shall be obtained by the CONTRACTOR from
designated borrow areas. Backfill material shall be subject to the approval of the
ENGINEER.
A layer of bedding material, on which the pipe will be laid, shall be provided in the
bottom of the trench when the trench excavation is in 2nd or 3rd category material. The
bedding shall have a minimum thickness of 10 cm and, if compaction of the material is
required, it shall be compacted as specified for compacting backfill material.
Backfill material placed to 30 cm above the pipe shall contain no rocks, stones, or clods
greater than 20 mm in diameter unless otherwise shown on the drawings. All other
backfill shall be free of rocks, stones, or clods over 7.5 cm in diameter. All backfill
material shall be free from roots and other organic matter. Suitable materials for backfill
in pipe trenches are defined in item (C-030102 - Definition of Earth Materials). If bedding
is required for the pipe foundation, the material used shall be subject to approval by the
ENGINEER.
All backfill shall be compacted unless otherwise shown on the drawings or directed by
the ENGINEER.
No more than 3 pipe units shall be laid ahead of the backfilling operation. Backfill shall
be placed about the pipe so as to leave the joints exposed prior to filling with water and
testing. Backfill shall be placed to a minimum depth of 1/2 the outside diameter of the
pipe and to a maximum depth of 30 cm over the top of the pipe, prior to filling and
testing.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

38

Standard Technical Specifications

Backfill about the pipe shall be placed and compacted in layers having about the same
top elevation on both sides of the pipe to prevent unequal loading and displacement of
the pipe. Backfill below and around the pipe and up to 30 cm above the pipe shall be
compacted with manually operated tools or equipment. Backfill material shall be carrefully
placed and thoroughly tamped and compacted in a manner such as to all void spaces
beneath the lower part of the pipe.
Care shall be taken to avoid hitting the pipe with the compaction equipment and thereby
damaging the coating on the pipe. Any damaged coating shall be repaired at the
CONTRACTOR s expense with suitable material as directed by the ENGINEER.
Compaction shall be performed until the relative density obtained is at least 97% of the
laboratory maximum dry density as determined by the Standard Proctor compaction
test. The backfill material shall be wetted, as necessary, to obtain the optimum moisture
content for the compaction load to be applied.
During backfill operations, density tests shall be performed by the ENGINEER. At least
four tests shall be performed per eight-hour shift or one for every 100 cubic meters of
backfill material placed. Additional tests may be performed, as determined by the
ENGINEER.
After filling and testing of the pipe is completed, backfill shall be placed and compacted
in sucessive layers not to exceed 15 cm in thickness after compaction. Backfill shall be
placed and compacted to the lines and grades shown on the drawings.
2.

Measurement and Payment. Backfill in pipe trenches shall be measured in cubic meters
of material placed, measured to the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the drawings.
The volume of pipe and fittings 150 mm and larger in diameter shall be deducted. The
volume of concrete in pipe trenches, measured as specified in item (I-030101-Installation
of Pipelines and Appurtenances) shall also be deducted.
Payment for backfill shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the applicable unit price per
cubic meter indicated in the Bidding Schedule. For backfill in pipe trenches performed
with materials from borrow areas, payment shall be in accordance with the haul distances
listed below:
Up to ________ 1 m
From ________ 1 m to ________ 1 m
From ________ 1 m to 1000 m
The haul distances shall be measured between the centers of gravity of the material
excavated and the material placed.
When the haul distance required is greater than 1000 m, as approved by the ENGINEER,
the haul shall be paid for as specified in item (C-030213 - Overhaul).
The unit prices shall include the cost of all labor, equipment and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein, including furnishing water, moistening materials
and compacting materials.
When material for backfill in pipe trenches is obtained from borrow areas, the unit prices
for backfill in pipe trenches shall include the cost of excavating the material from the
borrow area.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

39

Standard Technical Specifications

Bedding material shall be measured in cubic meters of bedding placed and compacted.
The bedding shall be paid for at the unit price per cubic meter indicated in the Bidding
Schedule. The unit price shall include all labor, equipment and materials required for the
work.
1 - Haul distances shall be determined by the design engineer.
C-030401
1.

CONSTRUCTION OF EMBANKMENTS
Description of the work. Embankments shall be constructed using materials from required
excavation or from borrow areas. Embankments shall be constructed to the lines, grades,
and dimensions shown on the drawings, or established by the ENGINEER.
The heights of the embankments shall never be lower than those specified on the
drawings, unless otherwise directed by the ENGINEER.
When necessary, as determined by the ENGINEER, the CONTRACTOR shall build the
embankments to heights above those shown on the drawings, in order to allow for
subsequent settling.
Embankments shall be built in approximately horizontal, uniform, successive layers carried
over the entire width of the embankment to the required grades as shown in the
corresponding cross section drawings.
Each layer shall have a nearly horizontal surface, with sufficient grade, however, for
adequate draining during construction, particularly when there is an interruption in the
embankment construction. The distribution of the materials in each layer shall not cause
any segregation of the materials and shall provide a homogeneous fill without cavities,
lenses, pockets, streaks, laminations, or other imperfections.

1.1

Non-compacted embankments. Foundations for non-compacted embankment shall be


scored with a plow making open rows not more than 1 meter apart and not less than 4
cm deep.
Non-compacted embankments shall be constructed with vehicles traveling over the
embankment as much as possible, in order to obtain the utmost advantage of their
compaction effect. These embankments shall be leveled off to a uniform elevation.
Materials such as stones, gravel, and clods shall be thoroughly mixed with other materials
so as to prevent the formation of lenses or pockets with higher permeabilities.

1.2

Compacted embankments. Compacted embankments shall be constructed by preparing


the foundation by wetting and scarification.
Any type of equipment that will produce the required scarification may be used. The
rows produced shall not be more than 30 cm apart and shall be more than 5 cm, but less
than 7 cm deep.
Materials shall be free of stones and clods over 10 cm in diameter and of roots and other
organic material, as approved by the ENGINEER. Suitable materials for compacted
embankments are defined in item (C-030102 - Definition of Earth Materials). The materials
shall be brought to a near optimum moisture content (+ 2%), either by spreading and
drying the material if too wet or by moistening if too dry. The materials shall then be
spread in horizontal layers, with a maximum placement thickness between 15 and 30
cm, over the entire width of the embankment. The moistening and mixing of the materials
shall preferably be performed during excavation of the material.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

40

Standard Technical Specifications

Each layer shall be thoroughly and evenly compacted over its entire surface with a
maximum thickness after compaction of 25 cm. If the ENGINEER determines that the
top surface which is to receive the next layer of embankment material is too dry or
smooth for adequate bonding of both layers, the surface shall be wetted and/or scarified,
as specified above, to provide an effective bond.
After scarifying, the resulting loose material shall be mixed with the material of the
following layer to obtain a homogeneous mixture of materials before beginning compaction
operations. All clods in the materials shall be broken up or crushed using any adequate
type of equipment, as approved by the ENGINEER. In the event that it is impossible to
break up the clods, these clods shall be removed from the embankment material.
After any interruption or delay during the construction of compacted embankments, all
exposed or adjacent surfaces upon or against which additional compacted embankment
will be placed shall be prepared as specified above.
Once the materials have been placed as described above, the compaction of the material
shall be performed until the relative density obtained is between 97% and 100% of the
laboratory maximum dry density, as determined by Standard Proctor compaction test.
The compaction equipment used shall be appropriate for the type of materials being
placed and shall require prior approval from the ENGINEER.
Rollers shall be used for the compaction of all canal embankments.
For embankments adjacent to structures or in places not accessible to compacting
rollers, compaction shall be performed by hand or power tampers. In such cases, each
layer shall be placed with only the material necessary to guarantee proper compaction
and the thickness of a layer shall never exceed 15 cm of loose material.
As approved by the ENGINEER, the CONTRACTOR may select and utilize other compaction
methods that are deemed necessary for construction of the embankments, provided,
that such alternate methods shall result in compliance with these Specifications.
For canals in fill, embankments shall be constructed and compacted over the entire
width of the section so that after excavation and trimming, the exposed finished surfaces
shall have the same degree of compaction as the interior sections of the embankment.
For canals in partial fill with the bottom of the canal in cut, the bottom of the canal shall
be scarified, as specified above, and then compacted in place to ensure the same degree
of compaction for the entire canal surface.
The ENGINEER shall perform all necessary compaction tests for control of the embankment
construction. If the test results are not satisfactory, the ENGINEER will direct changes
in the materials or in the compaction process, in order to obtain results as specified
herein.
Each layer of embankment shall be measured by the ENGINEER to determine whether
the grade and depth comply with the Specifications requirements. If a layer does not
meet the compaction, grade, or depth requirements, the ENGINEER will, if necessary,
order total or partial removal and replacement at the expense of the CONTRACTOR.
Placement of materials in layers thicker than specified above shall only be approved
when the topography does not allow the placing of layers with a maximum thickness
after compaction of 25 cm, or when the equipment being used makes it possible to

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

41

Standard Technical Specifications

obtain the compaction requirements throughout the entire layer. In either case, the
CONTRACTOR shall obtain approval from the ENGINEER.
The following tests shall be performed on the constructed embankments and on the
embankment materials:
Tests shall be performed using the Standard Proctor compaction test for every
1000 cubic meters of material placed.
Test for determining the apparent dry specific mass, in place, of embankment
layers at 100 meter intervals, alternately on the centerline and edges, corresponding
to the above mentioned compaction test.
A test for particle size (DNER-ME-80-64); liquid limit (DNER-ME-44-64); and
plasticity limit (DNER-ME-82-63), for the main body of the embankment, for each
set of ten samples submitted to the compaction test, as mentioned above.
Test for the California bearing ratio (CBR), with the load of the Normal Proctor
method; for each set of four samples for the top layers. The number of tests will
be determined by the ENGINEER.
2.

Tolerances. The following tolerances shall be permitted:

2.1

Variation in height of + 3 cm for the centerline and the edges from the design sections.

2.2

Variation in width of + 20 cm for the embankment berm, with no allowance for negative
variations from the design sections.
Verification shall be performed by checking elevations at centerline and edges at very
other station.

3.

Measurement and payment. Construction of embankments shall be measured in cubic


meters of material placed to the lines, grades, dimensions, and cross-sections shown on
the drawings or established by the ENGINEER. Measurement of the embankments shall
be performed using the Average End Area method, between stations at 20 meters
intervals, or other intervals, as determined by the ENGINEER.
Payment for construction of embankments shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the
applicable unit price per cubic meter indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
For embankments constructed with materials from borrow areas, payment shall be in
accordance with the different haul distances listed below:
Up to ___ 1 m
From ___ 1 m to ___ 1 m
From ___ 1 m to 1000 m
The haul distances shall be measured between the centers of gravity of the material
excavated and the material placed.
When the haul distance required is greater than 1000 m, as approved by the ENGINEER,
the haul shall be paid for as specified in item(C-030213 - Overhaul).
The unit prices shall include the cost of all labor, equipment and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein, including the volume of embankment material
required for canals in fill.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

42

Standard Technical Specifications

When the material used in embankments is obtained from borrow areas, the unit prices
for construction of embankments shall include the cost of excavating the material from
the borrow area.
No measurement or payment shall be made for materials in embankments constructed
outside the lines specified in the drawings or established by the ENGINEER.
1 - Haul distances shall be determined by design engineer.
C-030501
1.

SLOPE PROTECTION - RIPRAP


Description of the work. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish, haul, and place riprap at the
locations shown on the drawings for surface stability, slope and erosion protection, and
filters. The riprap shall be dumped into position, and where required by the drawings or
directed by the ENGINEER, the riprap shall be compacted in layers by equipment travel
over the top. Riprap shall be placed into position in such a manner as to ensure that the
material is stable and without tendency to slide, and so that there will be no unreasonably
large unfilled spaces within the riprap.
The type, capacity and amount of equipment to be used shall depend on the type of
riprap work to be performed. The CONTRACTOR shall submit, for approval, a list of the
equipment to be used for each type of work required.
The thickness of the riprap and the maximum and minimum sizes of the rock to be used
shall be in accordance with the drawings or as determined by the ENGINEER.
All rock for riprap shall be hard, dense, and durable, and resistant to water and weathering.
When necessary, specific density, weight, and other quality requirements shall be
provided.
Riprap shall be bedded in a layer of graded filter material when shown on the drawings.
Voids in riprap shall be filled with rock spalls, stones, and/or gravel when specified in
the drawings or directed by the ENGINEER. The types of material and the amounts
required to fill the voids shall be as directed and approved by the ENGINEER.

2.

Measurement and payment. Riprap shall be measured by cubic meters of material placed
to the dimensions and depths shown on drawings or established by the ENGINEER.
When dimensions are not shown on the drawings, the actual volume placed at the work
site shall be measured.
For riprap placed under water, measurement shall be made in the borrow area, or
measurement shall be performed after excavation in stockpiles.
Payment for riprap shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the applicable unit price per
cubic meter indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
Payment for riprap shall be in accordance with the haul distances listed below:
Up to ___1 m
From ___1 m to ___1 m
From ___1 m to 1000 m
The haul distances shall be measured between the centers of gravity of the material
excavated and the material placed.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

43

Standard Technical Specifications

When the haul distance required is greater than 1000 m, as approved by the ENGINEER,
the haul shall be paid for as specified in item (C-030213 - Overhaul).
The unit prices shall include the cost of all materials, labor, equipment and, when utilized,
filter materials, required to perform the work as specified herein.
1 - Haul distances shall be determined by the design engineer.
C-030505
1.

PROTECTION OF SLOPES WITH VEGETATION


Description of the work. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish and plant native grass to
cover exposed earth slopes of canals, drains, and roads, as well as the surface of any
other areas shown on the drawings or directed by the ENGINEER.
Because of the severe weather conditions (hot, dry climate) in the Project area, the
CONTRACTOR shall carefully select the type of vegetation to be planted and the type of
care to be provided, all subject to approval by the ENGINEER.
Native grasses shall be of a specific variety determined by the ENGINEER. Grass shall be
supplied in cuttings or sod and shall be hauled to the required locations by the
CONTRACTOR.
Grass cuttings or sod shall be planted over the finished slope surface after spreading a
15 cm layer of topsoil. Topsoil shall be obtained from required scraping or excavation.
The rows of cuttings or sod shall be planted from the top down.
Cuttings shall be planted in alternate rows, with a maximum spacing of 10 cm, or as
indicated in the drawings.
Sod shall be placed so that 97% of the area is covered.
The work shall include watering of the planted grass cuttings or sod until the grass is
evenly green.
The work shall be visually inspected and controlled by the ENGINEER.

2.

Measurement and payment. Protection of slopes with vegetation shall be measured in


square meters of effectively protected area, as approved by the ENGINEER.
Payment shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the unit price per square meter indicated
in the Bidding Schedule.
The unit price shall include the cost of all labor, equipment, and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein.

C-030507
1.

CYCLOPIC CONCRETE
Description of the work. Cyclopic concrete consists of unreinfor ced concrete, whose
volume is increased by the addition of hand-size rocks placed in the concrete while it
is still plastic.
The concrete shall be in accordance with the requirements in item (C-040100 - Concrete
Construction - General).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

44

Standard Technical Specifications

The percentage of hand-size rocks, based on the total aggregate volume in the concrete
mass, shall not exceed 30%.
Hand-size rocks shall not exceed 30 cm in any dimension.
Care shall be taken so that hand-size rocks are completely covered by concrete and
that no rocks touch each other or the formwork.
The concrete shall be fully plastic during arrangement of the rocks.
The cyclopic concrete shall be placed at the locations shown on the drawings and
approved by the ENGINNER.
2.

Measurement and payment. Cyclopic concrete shall be measured in cubic meters, on


the basis of the dimensions shown on the drawings.
Payment for cyclopic concrete shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the unit price per
cubic meter indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
The unit price shall include the cost of all labor, equipment and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein, including furnishing and hauling hand-size rocks
and all materials required for the concrete construction.

C-030601
1.

SURFACING FOR ROADS


Description of the work. Surfacing for roads shall consist of soil and gravel, soil layers,
or soil mixtures. Surfacing shall be performed in accordance with the applicable
specifications in DNER-ES-P-10-71, when other more complete supplementary
specifications are not available. The CONTRACTOR shall perform such operations as
selection, spreading, mixing, moistening or drying, compacting, and finishing of the
materials on the roadway, in amounts that will provide the required width and the
design thickness after compaction.
After compaction, the dry density of the material shall be at least 97% of the laboratory
maximum dry density as determined by the Intermediate Proctor compaction test.
Moisture content shall be within + 2% of the optimum moisture as defined in the
Intermediate Proctor compaction test.

2.

Measurement and payment. Surfacing for roads shall be measured in cubic meters of
material placed on the roadway in accordance with the thickness, width, and lengths
shown on the drawings.
Payment for surfacing for roads will be made to the CONTRACTOR at the applicable
unit price per cubic meter indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
When surfacing materials are obtained from borrow areas, payment shall be in accordance
with the haul distances listed below:
Up to ____ 1 m
From ____ 1 m to ____ 1 m
From ____ 1 m to 1000 m
Haul distances shall be measured between the centers of gravity of the material excavated
and the material placed.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

45

Standard Technical Specifications

When the haul distance required is greater than 1000 m, as approved by the ENGINEER,
the haul of such material shall be paid for as specified in item (C-030213 - Overhaul).
The unit prices shall include the cost of all labor, equipment, and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein, including excavation of surfacing material from
borrow areas.
1 - Haul distances shall be determined by the design engineer.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

46

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION - CONCRETE
STRUCTURES

C-040100

GENERAL CONCRETE REQUIREMENTS

This section provides the requirements for concrete construction in accordance with
the project designs.
Concrete shall have compression strength equal to or higher than the specified values
for the various concrete works as required in the project designs, as shown on the
drawings. The CONTRACTOR shall have adequate equipment and qualified personnel at
both the batching plant and work site for taking representative samples of concrete for
specified testing. The CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain all equipment at the
worksite necessary for the concrete construction required under these Specifications.
The CONTRACTOR shall be fully responsible for strength, stability, durability, and finishes
of all required concrete construction.
The construction of reinforced concrete structures, relative to preparation, transportation,
placing, consolidation, construction joints, curing, forms, reinforcement, expansion joints,
removal of forms and shoring of the concrete, materials and services shall be in accordance
with standard ABNT-NBR-6118 and the following applicable Specifications.
C-040101

COMPOSITION AND MIXING

1.

Composition. Concrete shall consist of Portland cement, sand, gravel, and water, all in
accordance with the applicable material specifications. All the requirements in item (C040123 - Production of Concrete) shall be obeyed.

2.

Mixing.

2.1

Trial Mixing. Trial mixing shall be performed in accordance with Item 8.3.1 of NBR-6118
(NB-1), which establishes basic guidelines to be adopted, and which states that any
standard method may be used for trial mixing.
Thus, the ENGINEER shall accept the use of the INT methods of IPT and ABCP. Regardless
of the method used, all data shall be submitted to the ENGINEER for approval.
Trial mixing shall be performed to obtain a concrete that meets the design requirements
of the project using available materials.
All concrete mixes shall be evaluated in accordance with the following:
Characteristic strength after 28 days (fc28 ).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

47

Standard Technical Specifications

Maximum nominal size aggregate as related to the dimensions of the concrete, in


accordance with Item 8.1.2.3. of NBR-6118 (NB-1).
Consistency measured by slump, in accordance with NBR-7223 (NB-256). In
general, the slump shall be between 5 and 8 cm, unless otherwise directed by the
ENGINEER.
Aggregate size gradation (mechanical analysis).
Water/cement ratio on the basis of the desired strength and durability.
Concrete testing for quality control.
Consolidation of concrete.
Aggregate physical indexes (specific mass, unit weight, swelling, and moisture
coefficients).
2.2

Pre-Determined Mixes. The ENGINEER shall only accept pre-determined mixes when
performed at the work site for small concrete placements. The following conditions
shall be met:
Minimum cement content shall be 300 kg/m3 of concrete.
The aggregate gradation shall be determined so as to obtain a concrete with
adequate workability for its intended use.
Water content shall be the minimum compatible with the required concrete
workability.
If a pre-determined mix is used, the ENGINEER shall accept the mix proportions of
materials listed in Calculator Caldas Branco, by Eng. Ablio de Azevedo Caldas Branco,
provided that all other applicable specifications listed herein are met.
Special attention is recommended when using the aforementioned tables since the mix
formula selected must still meet the requirements pertaining to the characeristic concrete
strength specified in the project designs (fck), as well as concrete strength for samples
tested after 28 days (fc28 ).

2.3

Classes of Concrete - The classes of concrete for the various components of work shall
be established in accordance with the maximum size of the aggregate and with the
required design strenght as specified in the Project design. General guidelines for the
various classes of concrete are provided in Table - Classes of Concrete.
The quality control of the concrete shall be perfomed by the ENGINEER who will verify
if the specified conditions are attained.
In order to preserve the quality and economy of the work, and after investigations of
materials and the determination of the mixes, the CLIENT may modify the characteristics
of the concrete classes established.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

48

Standard Technical Specifications

TABLE - CLASSES OF CONCRETE


CLASS

APLICATION

MAX. SIZE OF AGGREGATE (mm)

TYPE OF CONCRETE TO BE
USED

M ass

76

CA 8 a CA 7

Lightly reinforced structural

76

CA 6 a CA 5

Concrete subject to abrasion, and structural

38

CA 2

Prestressed structural

38

CA 1

Structural

38

CA 6 a CA 4

Concrete for pre-casting and secondary concrete

19

CA 4

Pneumatically applied concrete

38

CA 6 a CA 4

Concrete ciclopico

76

CA 8

2.4

Types of Concrete. The types of concrete and characteristic strengths listed below shall
comply with project designs.
CA.1 Concrete
fck = 30.0 MPa
CA.2 Concrete
fck = 22.0 MPa
CA.3 Concrete
fck = 20.0 MPa
CA.4 Concrete
fck = 18.0 MPa
CA.5 Concrete
fck = 15,0 MPa
CA.6 Concrete
fck = 13,5 MPa
CA.7 Concrete
fck = 11.0 MPa
CA.8 Concrete
fck = 9.0 MPa

2.5

Material Requirements. When the actual materials used change or when the characteristics
of the materials change, it shall be necesary to calculate new mix proportions and
perform the corresponding tests.
Different types of cement or cement of different brands shall not be allowed in the same
batch of concrete. All batching shall be calculated on the basis of one full bag of cement.
Cement shall always be measured by weight; measuring by volume shall not be allowed.
The CONTRACTOR shall have a sufficient amount of cement on hand, prior to the start
of concrete batching, for each scheduled concrete placement.
Specially built wheelbarrows or carts, fork-lift trucks, and/or screens for handling
aggregates shall clearly display on the outside the name of the aggregate and the volume
required per bag of cement for the respective batch.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

49

Standard Technical Specifications

C-040102
1.

CONCRETE TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROL


Molded Test Specimens. The purpose of these tests is to provide information about the
properties and characteristics of the concrete produced at the work site, compared to
the properties and characteristics that are predicted in the laboratory and to those
specified in the Project designs.
Tests shall conform to NBR-5738 (MB-2), NBR-5739 (MB-3) and Items 15 and 16 of
NBR-6118 (NB-1).
Samples for test cylinder specimens shall be obtained in accordance with NBR-5750
(MB-833).
The number of samples required shall depend on the amount and type of concrete
placed and shall be determined by the ENGINEER. As a minimum, at least one series of
samples shall be taken for every 25 cubic meters of placed concrete. A series of samples
shall consist of three test cylinders in accordance with Item 15.1.1.2 of NBR-6118 (NB1).
To the extent possible, test specimens shall be made near the place where they are to
be stored during the initial 24 hours.
The height of the test cylinders shall be twice the diameter (15 by 30 cm). Test cylinder
molds shall be made of metal and the thickness must comply with ABNT specifications.
Test cylinders shall be provided with devices that prevent leakage of mortar.
Concrete shall be placed in the cylinders in layers compatible with the consolidation
process to which it will be submitted. Normally, for hand consolidation, three layers
shall be used and the consolidation shall be performed using an iron rod 16 mm in
diameter and 60 cm long, hemispherically tipped at the lower end.
Consolidation shall begin immediately after the placing of each concrete layer.
The upper surface of the specimem shall be smoothed out with either a trowel or metal
straight edge so that specimens have an even height. An even height is obtained by
levelling the top in two perpendicular directions.
After removal from the cylinder the test specimens shall be placed in boxes and covered
on all sides by a layer of moist sand at least 5 cm thick. Once the test specimens have
been placed in the box, the sand must be kept saturated.
In both the cylinder and boxes, test specimens shall be protected from the sun and loss
of humidity and kept at the temperature of the work site. In the laboratory, the specimens
shall be kept in a moisture saturated atmosphere at 23o C, + 2o C.
All test specimens shall be labeled showing:
Origin;
Casting date and date of concrete placement;
Part of the structure where the sample was taken during concrete placement;
Additional information (cement brand, aggregate characteristics, batch formula
used, consistency, etc.).
The testing of specimens shall be in accordance with NBR-5739 (MB-3).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

50

Standard Technical Specifications

During testing, the surfaces of test specimens shall remain in contact with the testing
machine base plates and shall not have a gap greater than 0,05 mm, in 150 mm, in the
same plane. When necessary, as determined by the ENGINEER, the surfaces shall be
ground or capped. Capping shall not exceed 5 mm in thickness and shall be comprised
of cement paste or sulphur mixtures in accordance with NBR-5738 (MB-2).
Structural concrete shall be accepted or rejected in accordance with item 16 of NBR6118 (NB-1). Regardless of the test results, the CLIENT may direct the CONTRACTOR
to perform additional testing in accordance with sub-item 4 below.
The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for any additional concrete tests, structural
tests, approved design changes, removal and reconstruction of defective structural
concrete sections, or for any other costs associated with determinations made by the
ENGINEER concerning acceptance or rejection of the concrete.
2.

Core Samples. Core sampling shall be performed whenever the results obtained from
concrete test cylinders do not meet the structural requirements established in the
drawings.
Core samples shall be taken from locations that constitute a representative sampling of
the entire batch being tested.
Sampling shall consist of at least six core samples taken from the structure. Cores shall
be 15 cm in diameter.
Core samples shall only be taken in the presence of the ENGINEER, after authorization
by the CLIENT.
Core samples shall not be taken from areas that will cause structural weakening of the
structure.

3.

Quality Control. Quality control tests are methods for assessing the quality of fresh
concrete. These tests are useful in determining if the concrete constituents in fresh
concrete meet the specified levels of quality.
Types of tests include the following:
Slump test in accordance with NBR-7223 (MB-256), or ASTM C 143.
Sampling fresh concrete in accordance with ASTM C 172.
Concrete uniformity in accordance with ASTM C 94, annex A 1.
Density (unit weight) and yield strength in accordance with ASTM C 138, except
that a 7.0 liter container may be used for nominal aggregate sizes up to 3.8 cm.
Air content in accordance with ASTM C 231.

4.

Special Concrete Tests. Special concrete tests for hardened concrete such as mechanical
sounding, gammagraphy, and hardness test (sclerometry), may be required when
determined necessary by the ENGINEER. If required, details of these tests will be provided
to the CONTRACTOR by the ENGINEER.
The ENGINEER, at his discretion and separate from the tests specified in this Specification,
may direct the CONTRACTOR to perform additional non-destructive tests. In those
cases also, if required, the ENGINEER will provide details of the tests to the CONTRACTOR.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

51

Standard Technical Specifications

5.

Tests Results. The CONTRACTOR shall provide two copies of the results of all the tests
and conclusions reports to the CLIENT. The CLIENT shall return one of the copies certified,
with any pertinent comments based on the tests results.
Acceptance of the tests results by the CLIENT shall in no way relieve the CONTRACTOR
from full responsibility for the adequate strength, stability, durability and finishing in the
construction of the overall or any part of the concrete structure.

C-040103
1.

CEMENT
General. Cement shall conform to Item 8.1 of NBR-6118 (NB-1) and to the requirements
specified herein.
All cement shall have been recently manufactured and will only be accepted if the
factory labels and wrappings are intact.
Various types of Portland cement are manufactured, some of which have been
standardized and comply with specific ABNT Technical Standards provided below.

1.1

Common Portland Cement. Common Portland cement for concrete, pastes and mortars
shall conform with the standards below and may be used for general construction work.
NBR-5732 (EB-1); NBR-5734 (EB-22); NBR-5740 (MB-11); NBR-5741 (MB-508); NBR5742 (MB-509); NBR-5743 (MB-510); NBR-5744 (MB-511); NBR-5445 (MB-512); NBR5446 (MB-513); NBR-5447 (MB-514); NBR-5748 (MB-515); NBR-5749 (MB-516); NBR6474 (MB-346); NBR-7215 MB-1); NBR-7224 (MB-348); NBR-7226 (TB-76) and NBR7227.

1.2

High Early-Strength Portland Cement. High early strength Portland cement shall conform
with NBR-5733 (EB-2). This type of cement is generally used for precast concrete and
its use shall be approved by the ENGINEER.

1.3

Fly-Ash Portland Cement. Fly-Ash Portland cement shall conform with NBR-5735 (EB208). This type of cement is generally used in concrete pavements and its use shall be
approved by the ENGINEER.

1.4

Portland Pozzolan Cement. Portland Pozzolan cement shall conform to NBR-5736 (EB758). This type of cement shall be used for concrete subjected to chemical attack and
its use shall be approved by the ENGINEER, especially when used in exposed concrete.

1.5

Special Cements. If required, details of special cements such as Portland Cement with
Moderate Sulfates and Hydration Resistance; and Portland Cement with High Sulfates
Resistance, which shall be in accordance with NBR-5737 (EB-903) for concrete subjected
to aggresive enviroments; and White Portland Cement shall be provided in the Project
designs.

2.

General Standards for Portland Cement. The main requirements for Portland cement are
provided below.

2.1

Chemical Composition Requirements


Ignition loss - as established in NBR-5743 (MB-510), or maximum ignition loss of
4%.
Insoluble residue - as established in NBR-5744 (MB-511), or maximum insoluble
residue of 1%.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

52

Standard Technical Specifications

Magnesium oxide content - as established in NBR-5749 (MB-516), or maximum


magnesium oxide content of 6.5%.
2.2

Physical Characteristics
Fineness - as established in NBR-7215 (MB-l), NBR-7224 (MB-348) and NBR-5734
(EB-22).
Initial Set - as established in NBR-7215 (MB-1), or minimum initial set time of one
hour.
Final Set - as established in NBR-7215 (MB-1), or maximum final set time of ten
hours.
Expansion - as established in NBR-7215 (MB-1), NBR-5732 (EB-1) and NBR-5733
(EB-2).
Compression Strength - as established in NBR-7215 (MB-1).

2.3

Packaging and labeling. Cement bags must conform to the following:


Both ends shall have 6 mm lettering with strength, 25, 32, 40 MPa (250, 320,
400 Kgf/cm2 ), as the case may be.
The middle of the bag shall have the standard cement brand and manufacturers
label.
Net weight shall be 50 kg and the bags shall not be damaged in any way at the
time of inspection and acceptance.

2.4

Storage. The cement must be stored in a dry and protected location and shall be easily
accessible for inspection and identification of each shipment. Stacks must be placed on
wooden platforms or pallets and shall not exceed ten bags of cement.
Wooden platforms or pallets shall be raised 30 cm from the ground and separated by 30
cm from the storage facility walls.

2.5

Acceptance. Cement which does not meet the specifications requirements shall be
rejected by the ENGINEER.
Cement stored for over three months must undergo a new series of tests and will be
rejected if it does not meet the requirements.
Cement samples shall be taken as prescribed in NBR-5741 (MB-508).

C-040104
1.

ADMIXTURES
General. Admixtures used for modifying the setting, hardening, resistance, workability,
durability, and permeability conditions of concrete shall only be used when indicated in
the project designs or upon approval by the ENGINEER.
Only admixtures whose properties have been certified by independent laboratory test
data, confirming that the applicable ASTM Standards have been met, shall be used.
Admixtures which would introduce more than 0.10 of 1 percent chloride, by weight of
cement, shall not be used in concrete for bridge decks or in concrete in which aluminum,
galvanized metalwork or prestressing steel is to be embedded.
Admixtures shall be used in strict compliance with the manufacturers recommendations
and/or instructions.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

53

Standard Technical Specifications

For admixtures approved by the ENGINEER, the CONTRACTOR shall submit precise
information about product description, recommended dosage, and chemical composition.
Indiscriminate use of admixtures shall not be allowed. All admixtures, including those
having identical effects on the concrete, shall require separate approval.
2.

Plasticizers. Plasticizers are used to decrease water content and increase strength, thereby
producing increased concreteworkability.
Plasticizers are recommended for concrete with a cement content of over 300 kg/m3.
Plasticizers shall conform to ASTM C-494.

3.

Air-Entraining Admixture. Air entraining admixtures are used to substitute the fines in
the concrete, thereby reducing the fine aggregate content. Air entraining admixtures are
recommended for concrete with cement content of under 300 kg/m3 . Air entraining
admixtures shall conform to ASTM C-260, type C or E.

4.

Retardants. Retardants are used to retard the initial concrete setting, thereby increasing
quality and allowing faster development of strength. These admixtures develop some of
the same characteristic changes caused by plasticizers. Retardants are recommended
for concrete with cement content of over 300 kg/m3. Retardants shall conform to ASTM
C-494.

5.

Accelerators. Accelerators speed up the initial strength and hardening of concrete. They
are recommended for concrete with cement content of over 300 kg/m3. Accelerators
shall conform to ASTM C-494.

C-040105

WATER
Water used in making and curing concrete, mortar, and grout shall comply with NBR6118 (NB-1), NBR-6587 (PB-19) and these Specifications.
Water shall be free of any acids, oils, alkalis, salts, silt, sugars, organic matter or other
substances which are harmful or may alter the characteristics of the concrete.
The maximum allowed suspended solids and soluble sulfates shall be 2,000 mg/l and
0.5%, respectively.
If excessive turbidity occurs during the rainy season or at any other time during use, the
water shall be filtered.
Contaminated water shall not be used and if water is suspected of having been
contaminated, periodical testing shall be performed to verify water quality.

C-040106

AGGREGATES
Aggregates shall conform to NBR-7211 (EB-4), Item 8.1.2 of NBR-6118 (NB-1) and to
the requirements specified below.

1.

Sand. Sand shall be quartzous and free from unacceptable amounts of deleterious
substances, as specified in the applicable ABNT standards, such as clay lumps, colloids,
twigs, mica, soft and/or friable granules, organic matter, sodium chloride, and other
deliquescent salts, etc.
Coarse sand is sand which passes the ABNT 4.8 mm sieve and is retained on the ABNT
2.4 mm sieve, with a nominal maximum size of 4.8 mm.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

54

Standard Technical Specifications

Medium sand is sand which passes the ABNT 2.4 mm sieve and is retained in the ABNT
0.6 mm sieve, with a nominal maximum size of 2.4 mm.
Fine sand is sand which passes the ABNT 0.6 mm sieve and is retained in the ABNT
0.075 mm sieve, with a nominal maximum size of 0.6 mm.
Sand shall be graded in accordance with the applicable requirements of MB-7 of the
ABNT standards.
2.

Coarse Aggregate. Coarse aggregate for concrete shall be crushed rock, natural gravel
or a mixture of each. Coarse aggregate shall be well graded with particle sizes between
4.8 mm and (38 mm) (76 mm)1 . Coarse aggregate shall be graded in accordance with
the applicable requirements of MB-7 of the ABNT standards. The fineness modulus shall
also be in accordance with MB-7.
Commercially available crushed rock is classified as follows:
# 0 diameter from 4.8 to 9.5 mm;
#1 diameter from 9.5 to 19 mm;
# 2 diameter from 19 to 38 mm;
(# 3 diameter from 38 to 76 mm)1.

Natural gravel found in earth deposits or in rivebed deposits shall meet all the requirements
for coarse aggregate as specified in the ABNT standards prior to use in the concrete.
The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for washing, screening, and gradation of these
materials.
3.

Aggregate quality indexes. Aggregate quality shall be assessed by means of indexes


defined in the ABNT standards. In special cases other standards may be used in order to
obtain a more precise assessment. Additional testing of materials from deposits not
previously approved by the ENGINEER may be required. Quality indexes are defined as
follows:

3.1

Mechanical Strength. Tests shall be performed to measure mechanical strength of the


aggregate in accordance with NBR-6465 (MB-170). Tests results shall be within the
values specified in NBR-7211 (EB-4).

3.2

Harmfull Substance Content. Tests shall be performed to measure the content of harmful
substances, such as clay lumps, powdery materials, etc., in accordance with NBR-7211
(EB-4), NBR-7218(MB-8), and NBR-7219 (MB-9).

3.3

Organic Matter. Tests shall be performed for determining organic matter content in
accordance with NBR-7220 (MB-10). Test results shall be within the values specified in
NBR-7220 (MB-10) and NBR-7211 (EB-4).
1 - Revise or delete maximum size aggregate as required.

C-040107
1.

REINFORCING BARS
General. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish all required reinforcing bars as shown on the
drawings. Reinforcing bars shall conform to Item 7 of NBR-6118, and to the requirements
specified herein.
Reinforcing bars shall have yield strengths equal to or greater than 400 MPa (4000 Kgf/
cm2 ) and shall conform to NBR-7480 or to ASTM A-615 or A-617, grade 60. The
reinforcing bars shall be deformed bars.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

55

Standard Technical Specifications

Reinforcing bars shall be free of heavy flaky rust, loose mill scale, dirt, grease or any
other foreign substances which may prevent adhesion to the concrete.
Exposed surfaces of dowels shall be thoroughly cleaned before placing concrete.
Reinforcement shall be secured in position so that it will not be displaced during the
placing of the concrete, and special care shall be exercised to prevent any disturbance
of the reinforcement in concrete that has already been placed. Chairs, hangers, spacers,
and other supports for reinforcement shall be of concrete, metal, or of other materials
approved by the ENGINEER.
The amount of concrete cover protecting reinforcement shall not deviate from that
specified by more than the following tolerances:
Protective Cover Specified
Less than 50 mm

Tolerance
3 mm

From 50 to 75 mm

6 mm

More than 75 mm

12 mm

The spacing of reinforcing bars shall not deviate from the required spacing by more than
25 mm.
Unless otherwise shown on the drawings, reinforcement in structures shall be placed so
that there will be a clear distance of at least 25 mm between the reinforcement and any
anchor bolts, form ties, or other embedded metalwork.
The reinforcing bars shall be sorted and stored according to size and length, as indicated
in NBR-7480 (EB-3).
The CONTRACTOR shall obtain a manufacturers or laboratory certification that the
reinforcing bars being supplied meet tensile strength and bending test standards, as
required in the ABNT Standards MB-4 and MB-5, respectively.
If the quality of the reinforcing bars is unacceptable, the lot shall be removed from the
work site. The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for any delays caused by the rejection
of any lot of reinforcing bars.
All cutting and bending shall be performed in accordance with standard practices, using
approved methods. Bending with heat shall not be allowed unless authorized by the
ENGINEER.
Splicing of reinforcing bars shall be performed in accordance with Standard NBR-6118
(NB-1). Welding of reinforcing bars shall be permitted only at locations approved by the
ENGINEER.
Before placing of concrete, the reinforcement shall be inspected and approved by the
ENGINEER.
2.

Measurement and Payment. Reinforcing bars shall be measured in kilograms (kg) of bars
placed in accordance with the drawings.
Payment for reinforcing bars will be made to the CONTRACTOR at the unit price per
kilogram indicated in the Bidding Schedule.The unit price shall include the cost of all
labor, equipment and materials required to perform the work as specified herein.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

56

Standard Technical Specifications

C-040108

FORMS AND SHORING


Forms and shoring shall conform to NBR-7190 (NB-11) and/or NB-14.
Forms shall have sufficient strength to withstand the pressure resulting from placement
and vibration of the concrete, and shall be maintained rigidly in proper position.
In long spans, subject to deformation caused by the weight of the concrete, the forms
shall be installed with the necessary counter-curve.
Forms shall be made water tight before placing of the concrete, in order to prevent any
loss of mortar.
Narrow and tall forms shall have small openings or windows in the lower part of the
forms to facilitate cleaning of debris prior to placing and to facilitate consolidation during
placing of concrete.
Forms shall be clean and free from encrustations of mortar, grout, or other foreign
material.
The forms shall be wetted to saturation to prevent the absorption of water from the
concrete mortar.
Anti-adhesive products, such as form oil, shall be applied to the surfaces of the forms
before being set in place to avoid contamination of the reinforcing bars. Form oil shall
effectively prevent sticking and shall not soften or stain the concrete surfaces, or cause
the surfaces to become chalky or dust producing.
The CONTRACTOR shall install before and maintain during concrete placement, a
monitoring system, approved by the ENGINEER, to continually monitor form positions
during concrete placement. Any deficiencies in the form positions observed by the
CONTRACTOR or the ENGINEER shall be immediately corrected by the CONTRACTOR.
The costs for installing and maintaining this system, monitoring of forms positions and
correction of deficiencies shall be included in the costs of the forms.
Metallic or wooden shoring shall conform to the criteria established in NBR-6118 (NB-l).
The following requirements shall be met for wooden shoring:
Wooden form stays of rectangular section with the smaller dimension less than 5
cm for hard woods and 7 cm for soft woods will not be permitted.
Form stays longer than 3 m shall be counter-supported to prevent buckling, unless
otherwise demonstrated.
Wooden form stays may contain only one splice. The splice shall not be located
within the middle third of the length of the stay. The end surfaces of the spliced
parts shall be level and perpendicular to their common axis. The ends of the
spliced parts shall be overlapped by splice plates.
Formwork for curved surfaces shall be constructed accurately to the required curvature.
The dimensions for the concrete surfaces shall be as shown in the sections of the
drawings. The CONTRACTOR shall interpolate intermediate sections as necessary for
the type of construction adopted, and shall construct wooden forms so that the curvature
is continuous between sections. Where necessary, to meet the requirements of curvature,
the wooden forms shall be constructed with laminated straight pieces, cut so as to

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

57

Standard Technical Specifications

obtain tight and smooth form surfaces. The forms shall be constructed so that the joint
markings on the surface generally follow the flow line of the water. After the forms
have been constructed, all surface imperfections shall be repaired; all nails shall be
hidden; and any rough areas and offsets of the formed surfaces caused by improper
joining of the form panels shall be covered to produce the required curvature.
Curved surface forms shall be supported by wooden form stays. For this purpose, the
CONTRACTOR shall prepare shoring detail drawings and submit them for the ENGINEERs
approval. Shoring of curved surface formwork shall be rigid in order to prevent movement
during concrete placement. Metallic shoring is preferred over wood shoring.
Chord forming of curves with straight forms shall be allowed only where authorized by
the ENGINEER.
Concrete forms for exposed surfaces may be made of plywood, steel plates, boards
lined with plywood sheets, or plastic coated boards.
(Plywood forms for exposed surfaces shall be coated with Tego-Film type plastic on
both sides.
The plywood shall contain five sheets, with the grain of the first and fifth sheets,
adjacent to the plastic coatings, in the longitudinal direction. The sheets shall be
manufactured from top quality material.
The second, third and fourth sheets shall have the grains in alternate directions, being
the second and fourth sheetss grain in the transverse direction and the third in the
longitudinal direction.
The plastic material Tego-Film shall be impregnated with a synthetic resin, and applied
to the plywood surfaces under high pressure and temperature.
The sheets shall be glued with a synthetic and waterproof phenolated resin.)
Embedded metal form ties used for holding forms together shall terminate at least 5 cm
from the formed surface of concrete. When removed, form tie ends should leave regular
recesses without causing appreciable spalling. Recesses left by the removal of form ties
ends shall be filled with concrete or mortar. Recesses on surfaces permanently exposed
to the atmosphere or to water shall be filled with dry pack.
Embedded wire form ties will not be allowed for holding together the forms for concrete
walls subjected to water pressure or in cases where the concrete surfaces are permanently
exposed. Embedded wire form ties may be used where there is to be earthfill on both
sides of the concrete. Embedded wire form ties shall be cut flush with the concrete
surfaces after form removal.
C-040109

TRANSPORTATION OF CONCRETE
Transportation of concrete shall be performed using equipment and methods that will
prevent segregation or separation of concrete materials and prevent slump loss exceeding
2 cm.
The maximum time interval allowed between the completion of mixing of the concrete
and its placement shall be one hour. The time interval for placement of concrete may be
increased or decreased depending on the characteristics of the admixtures, weather, or
other conditions, at the discretion of the ENGINEER.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

58

Standard Technical Specifications

Whenever possible, the transportation system selected should allow for direct placement
of the concrete into its final position.
If direct placement is not possible, proper care shall be taken in the handling of concrete
in intermediate containers.
Long distance transportation shall only be allowed in special vehicles provided with
mixers, so as to keep the concrete uniformly mixed.
At the work site, concrete may be hauled from a batch mixer to the placement site by
wheelbarrows with pneumatic tires, mechanical shovels, chutes, conveyors, pumps, or
by other means. The use of wheelbarrows with iron or solid rubber wheels will not be
permitted.
The use of aluminum pipe or aluminum chutes will not be permitted.
If wheelbarrows or carts are used, a smooth travel path shall be provided, with the use
of ramps and boardwalks, as necessary.
Elevators or hoists shall be used for transportation to excessive vertical heights, as
determined by the ENGINEER.
When concrete is pumped, the slickline shall have a minimum diameter equal to or
greater than three times the maximum size aggregate for crushed rock and 2.5 times
the maximum size aggregate for well-rounded aggregate.
C-040110
1.

CONCRETE PLACEMENT SCHEDULE AND DRAWINGS


Concrete placement schedule. Prior to placing concrete, the CONTRACTOR shall submit
to the CLIENT for approval, a complete, detailed concrete placement schedule showing
the CONTRACTORs plans for placement of all the individual features, units, and other
elements of the concrete work required under these Specifications. The concrete
placement schedule shall be complete and shall be in such form and detail as is necessary
to show the location, sequence, and date of each scheduled concrete placement operation.
If at anytime the placement of concrete deviates or is expected to deviate from the
approved concrete placement schedule, the CONTRACTOR shall revise the schedule to
show the effects of the deviation on the concrete work. The revised schedule shall be a
complete schedule and shall show those elements of work completed, those underway,
and the appropriate revisions for future concrete placements.
The concrete placement schedule will be reviewed for completeness, reasonableness of
timing, sequence of construction, and practicality.

2.

Concrete placement drawings . The CONTRACTOR shall prepare and submit to the
CLIENT for approval, placement drawings for each individual concrete placement. An
individual concrete placement is defined as a portion of concrete work placed in one
continuous operation between specified lines or joints.
The drawings shall show locations, dimensions, blockouts, openings, recesses,
waterstops, finishes, and details of all electrical, mechanical, and structural items
embedded in or associated with the individual concrete placement, except reinforcing
steel.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

59

Standard Technical Specifications

Each drawing shall also have a list of reference drawings from which the details shown
on the placement drawing were obtained, and shall also reference the related reinforcing
steel drawings associated with the placement.
C-040111

PLACING CONCRETE
Placing concrete shall conform to Item 13.2 of NBR-6118 (NB-1) and to the requirements
specified herein.
The CONTRACTOR shall notify the ENGINEER and the technical control laboratory,
sufficiently in advance, of the date and time when concrete work is to begin, as well as
how long the work is anticipated to last and at which structures the concrete placements
are to be made.
Concrete placement procedures shall be approved by the ENGINEER for the type of
structure being constructed. The ENGINEER shall direct any changes in the procedure or
stop the work if placement procedures are not acceptable.
All surfaces of forms and embedded materials shall be free from curing compound, dried
mortar from previous placements, and other foreign substances before the adjacent or
surrounding concrete placement is begun.
All surfaces upon or against which concrete is to be placed shall be free from standing
water, mud, and debris. These surfaces shall be continually wetted to maintain a
saturated with surface-dry condition at the time of concrete placement to prevent
loss of water by the concrete.
Rock surfaces shall be free from oil, objectionable coatings, and loose, semidetached,
and unsound fragments. Immediately prior to placement of concrete, surfaces of rock
shall be washed with an air-water jet and shall be brought to a uniform surface-dry
condition, as specified above.
Earth foundations shall be damp when concrete is placed against them.
Surfaces shall be thoroughly moist but not muddy to a depth of 15 cm, or to impermeable
material, whichever is less.
The temperature of the concrete when it is being placed shall be not more than 32o C.
As determined by the ENGINEER, in common agreement with the CONTRACTOR, he
may establish measures within the following alternatives to reduce the temperature of
the concrete.
Cooling the agregates with water, deducting the amount of water from the concrete
mix, and protecting the agregates from the sun.
Placing concrete at night.
Using ice as the water component of the concrete mix.
Concrete which has started to set or harden shall be wasted.
Retempering of concrete shall not be permitted.
Concrete shall not be placed in standing water except with permission from the ENGINEER,
and the method of placing shall be subject to approval. Concrete shall not be placed in
running water, and shall not be subjected to running water until after the concrete has
hardened.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

60

Standard Technical Specifications

Concrete shall not be allowed to flow over long lateral distances which causes segregation
of the aggregate from the concrete mass.
Concrete shall be placed in approximately horizontal layers.
The depth of concrete layers shall not exceed 3/4 the length of the vibrating head, or 50
cm, whichever is less. Lesser depths of layers will be required where concrete cannot
otherwise be placed and consolidated in accordance with the requirements of these
Specifications.
When depositing concrete from a height greater than two meters , appropriate chutes
or tremies shall be used.
For narrow and deep forms, concrete shall be placed through openings (windows) on
the sides of the form or with hoppers or drop chutes.
C-040113

CONSOLIDATION OF CONCRETE
Consolidation of concrete shall conform to Item 13.2.2 of NBR-6118 (NB-1) and to the
requirements specified herein.
Concrete shall be consolidated by vibration with immersion-type vibrators, electrically
or pneumatically driven, unless otherwise approved by the ENGINEER.
Prior to initiating the concrete placement, the CONTRACTOR shall make ready a sufficient
number of properly operating vibrators and operators, and shall have readily available
additional vibrators to replace defective ones during the progress of the placement. The
ENGINEER may require that the CONTRACTOR delay the start of the concrete placement
until the number of working vibrators available is acceptable. The CONTRACTOR shall
immediately replace improperly operating vibrators with acceptable vibrators.
Consolidation must be carefully carried out so that concrete completely fills all voids
and surfaces of forms, joints, and embedments.
Proper care shall be taken to avoid contact of the vibrating head with other vibrators,
with reinforcement, with other embedded items, or with formed surfaces that will be
exposed to view.
Immersion-type vibrators shall be immersed and withdrawn vertically or, when this is
not possible, as determined by the ENGINEER, at a maximum angle of 45o ; other methods
of immersion shall always require approval by the ENGINEER. Vibration shall be sufficient
to remove air bubbles and rock pockets, forming a thin film of mortar on the concrete
surface. Excessive vibration which cause segregation or excessive quantities of water
on the surface of the concrete will not be permitted.
Vibrators shall be slowly immersed and withdrawn from the concrete.
The concrete shall be vibrated to a depth not greater than the length of the vibrating
head.
The thickness of the concrete layers to be vibrated shall preferably be three-fourths the
length of the vibrating head.
Vibrators shall be inserted at points 45 to 75 cm apart.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

61

Standard Technical Specifications

Vibration shall be performed for short periods of time (5 to 15 seconds) at points adjacent
to one another.
The vibrating head shall penetrate and revibrate concrete in the upper portion of the
underlying layer in order to ensure the bonding of both layers.
Immersion-type vibrators with heads of less than 10 cm in diameter shall be operated at
speeds of at least 7000 vibrations per minute when immersed in concrete. Immersiontype vibrators with heads equal to or greater than 10 cm in diameter shall be operated
at speeds of at least 6000 vibrations per minute when immersed in concrete.
In exceptional cases, and if approved by the ENGINEER, other types of vibrators such as
form vibrators, straight edges, or manual consolidation may be used.
C-040115

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS
Construction joints shall conform to Item 13.2.3 of NBR-6118 (NB-1) and to the
requirements specified herein.
Construction joints are joints which are purposely placed in concrete to facilitate
construction; to reduce initial shrinkage stresses and cracks; to allow time for the
installation of embedded metalwork; or to allow for the subsequent placing of other
concrete. Bond is required at construction joints regardless of whether or not
reinforcement is continuous across the joint.
Construction joints shall be located as shown on the design drawings or the drawings
prepared by the CONTRACTOR as a part of the concrete placement schedule. Care shall
be taken so that location of construction joints do not coincide with the shear planes.
Unless otherwise specified, joints in beams shall preferably be normal to the longitudinal
axis of the beam (vertical joints). The joint position shall be secured by wood forms
adequately fastened.
Placement of the beam concrete shall attain the middle third of the span; joints next to
the supports are not permitted.
Placement of concrete for concrete slabs shall attain the middle third of the longer span.
Joints shall be located parallel to the principal reinforcement.
In concrete slabs with stiffening ribs, joints shall be located parallel to the longitudinal
axis of the rib.
The relocation, addition, or elimination of any construction joints proposed by the
CONTRACTOR to facilitate construction shall be submitted in writing to the ENGINEER
for approval.
A cold joint is an unplanned joint resulting when a concrete surface hardens before the
next batch is placed against it. Cold joints are undesirable and should be avoided. However,
in the event of equipment breakdown or other unavoidable prolonged interruption of
continuous placing when it appears that unconsolidated concrete may harden to the
extent that later vibration will not fully consolidate it, the CONTRACTOR shall immediately
consolidate such concrete to a stable and uniform slope. If delay of placement is then
short enough to permit penetration of the underlying concrete, placement shall resume
with particular care being taken to thoroughly penetrate and revibrate the concrete
surface placed before the delay. If concrete cannot be penetrated with a vibrator, the

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

62

Standard Technical Specifications

cold joint shall then be treated as a construction joint if the design requirements are
such that a construction joint is practical. If a construction joint will impair the structural
integrity, as determined by the ENGINEER, the concrete shall be repaired as determined
by the ENGINEER. Repairs in some instances will include removal of all or a portion of
the previously placed concrete and the CONTRACTOR will not be entitled to any payment
for such work.
Care shall be taken to prevent cold joints when placing concrete in any part of the work.
The concrete-placing rate shall ensure concrete is placed while the previously placed,
adjacent concrete is plastic so that the concrete can be made monolithic by normal use
of the vibrators.
Concrete shall not be placed in rain sufficiently heavy or prolonged to wash mortar from
concrete. A cold joint may necessarily result from prolonged heavy rainfall.
Construction joints must assure adequate bonding between the already hardened concrete
and the new concrete. In order to guarantee bonding, the surface of the joint must be
roughened by forming nitches, grooves or saliences and cleaned prior to placing adjoining
concrete. Methods of roughening and cleaning may include mechanical abrasion or
cutting, wire brushing, sand blasting, acid etching, or high pressure water jetting. All
methods shall be subject to the approval of the ENGINEER.
The construction joint surface must be cleaned of powdery materials, laitance, grease,
and any other foreign material that may interfere with bonding.
Immediately prior to placing concrete, the joint surface shall be thoroughly washed with
water or air-water jets, and shall be uniformly surface dried.
Special care and attention must be given to adequately consolidate the new concrete
adjacent to construction joints to ensure adequate bonding to the already hardened
concrete.
During placement of new concrete on surfaces of hardened concrete, the use of structural
adhesives may be required, as determined by the ENGINEER.
C-040117

REMOVAL OF FORMS
Removal of forms shall conform to Item 14.2.1 of NBR-6118 (NB-1) and to the
requirements specified herein.
Forms shall be removed within 24 hours after the concrete has hardened sufficiently to
prevent damage by careful form removal, and specified repair and curing shall commence
immediately thereafter. It is the CONTRACTORs responsibility to design and build
adequate forms and to leave them in place until the forms can be safely removed. The
CONTRACTOR shall be liable for damage and injury caused by removing forms before
the concrete has gained sufficient strength.
The removal of ceiling forms shall be performed in an adequate and gradual manner,
particularly in the case of cantilevered sections, so as to avoid fissures resulting from
differential loads.
Forms on upper sloping faces of concrete, such as forms on the watersides of warped
transitions, shall be removed as soon as the concrete has attained sufficient stiffness to
prevent sagging. Any needed repair or treatment required on such sloping surfaces shall
be performed at once and be followed immediately by the specified curing.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

63

Standard Technical Specifications

To avoid excessive stresses in concrete that might result from swelling of forms, wood
forms for wall openings shall be loosened as soon as the loosening can be accomplished
without damage to the concrete. Forms for the openings shall be constructed so as to
facilitate such loosening. Forms for conduits, siphons, and tunnel lining shall not be
removed until the concrete strength is such that form removal will not result in perceptible
cracking, spalling, or breaking of edges or surfaces, or other damage to the concrete.
Forms shall be removed with care so as to avoid injury to the concrete and any concrete
so damaged shall be repaired in accordance with these Specifications.
C-040119

CONCRETE CURING
Concrete curing shall conform to Item 14.1 of NBR-6118 (NB-1) and to the requirements
specified herein.
The curing process shall begin on unformed concrete surfaces as soon as they have
been finished and have attained a dull appearance free from bleed water and moist
sheen.
The curing process shall begin on formed concrete surfaces as soon as minor surface
imperfections have been repaired, but in no case shall curing begin more than 2 hours
after form removal. Concrete surfaces shall be kept continuously moist after form removal
until initiation of the final curing process.
The following curing procedures will be allowed:
Continuous moistening of exposed concrete surface for 14 days.
Covering concrete surfaces with burlap materials, which are kept water saturated
for 14 days. The minimum layer thickness shall be 5 cm.
Covering concrete surfaces with a layer of sawdust, sand, or other approved
materials which are kept water saturated for 14 days. The minimum layer thickness
shall be 5 cm.
Covering exposed concrete surfaces with plastic canvas materials (polyethylene
film) or waterproof bituminous paper for 28 days. The materials shall be light in
color,shall be placed after all concrete surfaces have been thoroughly moistened
with water, and shall be held tightly against the concrete to prevent circulation of
air inside.
Coating concrete surfaces with chemical curing compounds or membranes,
consisting of finely ground pigment and wax-base or water-emulsified resin-base,
ready mixed for immediate use. The curing compounds or membranes shall be
reapplied as necessary to maintain a continuous, water-retaining film on the concrete
surface for 28 days. Use and application of curing compounds or membranes shall
be approved by the ENGINEER.

C-040120

PROTECTION OF CONCRETE
The CONTRACTOR shall protect all concrete against damage until final acceptance by
the ENGINEER. Concrete shall not be loaded, forms and shoring shall not be removed,
and backfill shall not be placed against concrete until the concrete has gained sufficient
strength to safely support its weight and all imposed loads.
Fresh concrete shall be protected against: erosion from rain; contamination from foreign
materials; and damage from foot traffic until the concrete has hardened. Methods of
protection shall be subject to approval by the ENGINEER.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

64

Standard Technical Specifications

When precipitation appears imminent, the CONTRACTOR shall immediately make ready
at the placement site all materials which may be required for protection of concrete. The
ENGINEER may delay placement of concrete until adequate provisions for protection
against weather are made.
Concrete curing compounds or membranes shall be kept intact, and other curing materials
and processes shall be maintained as necessary to assure continuous curing for the
minimum specified curing time.
Where foot traffic or other construction activity is necessary on concrete being cured
by curing compounds or membranes or by plastic canvas or polyethylene film, the
curing compounds or membranes shall be protected by covering with sand or earth not
less than 3 cm thick, with plywood, or by other effective means approvedbythe
ENGINEER.
Protective coverings shall not be placed on curing compound until after the compound
has dried for 24 hours. The CONTRACTOR shall remove protective coverings before
final acceptance of the work.
C-040121
1.

CONCRETE FINISHING, INSPECTION AND REPAIR


General. After the removal of forms the concrete shall be inspected by the ENGINEER.
Only after the inspection and at the direction of the ENGINEER shall the CONTRACTOR
repair any concrete voids or other flaws, including sack rubbing or surface grinding of
exposed concrete required to obtain smooth surfaces.
If the ENGINEER does not approve and accept any part of the work, the CONTRACTOR
shall remove and reconstruct the work at his expense, as many times as necessary,
until final acceptance of the work.
In accordance with the tolerances defined in item (C-040124 - Tolerances), concrete
surfaces may show irregularities which, at the ENGINEERs discretion, should be repaired
so as to fall within the limits permissable for the various classes of finish, in accordance
with the drawings.
Surface irregularities may be described as abrupt or as gradual. Offsets caused by
displacements or loosening of the forms, and other similar defects, shall be considered
abrupt irregularities and shall be verified by direct measurement. All other irregularities
shall be considered gradual and shall be verified by means of templates 1,5 m long.

2.

Classes of Finish. Different classes of finish shall be defined for concrete surfaces,
whether or not formed.

2.1

Formed Surfaces. Formed surfaces shall not, in general, have the need for any treatment
such as chipping, sand blasting, sanding, or others, unless specifically required and
executed during the repair of imperfections.
Unless specified differently or so indicated on the drawings, the classes of finish for
formed surfaces shall be:
F1 - applies to formed surfaces upon or against which fill material or concrete is to
be placed. These surfaces do not require treatment after removal of the forms,
except for repair of defective concrete and filling of holes left by the form ties.
The correction of surface irregularities will only be necessary in depressions which,
when measured, exceed 25 mm. Form sheathing may be any material that will not

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

65

Standard Technical Specifications

leak mortar when the concrete is vibrated. Forms may be built with a minimum of
refinement.
F2 - applies to all the formed surfaces permanently exposed for which other classes
of finishes are not specified. Surface irregularities shall not exceed 6 mm in case
of abrupt irregularities and 25 mm for gradual ones. Form sheathing may be shiplap,
plywood, or steel. Thin sheets (steel lining) supported by a backing of wood
boards may be used on approval, but the use of steel lining is not encouraged. To
obtain an F2 surface, the forms must be built in a workmanlike manner to required
dimensions and alinement, without conspicuous offsets or bulges.
F3 - applies to surfaces of structures prominently exposed to public view where
appearance is of special importance. The forms shall be built accurately to the
required dimensions in a skillful, workmanlike manner. The forms may be either
tongue-and-groove boards or plywood; steel sheating or lining is not permitted.
Surface irregularities shall not exceed 3 mm in the case of abrupt irregularities and
6 mm for gradual ones.
F4 - applies to formed surfaces for which alignment and eveness of surface are of
paramount importance from the standpoint of eliminating the destructive effects
of water action, such as the formed surfaces of spillways, turnouts, bridge piers,
etc.
Surface irregularities shall not exceed 6 mm in case of abrupt irregularities parallel to the
flow and 3 mm where not parallel to the flow, and 6 mm for gradual irregularities. The
work necessary for obtaining this finish shall be executed immediately after the removal
of the forms. To obtain this finish the forms must be strong and held rigidly and accurately
to the prescribed alinement. Any form material or sheathing that will produce the required
surface may be used. For warped surfaces, the forms shall be built of laminated splines,
cut to make tight, smooth form surfaces, after which the form surfaces are dressed and
sanded to the required curvature.
2.2

Unformed Surfaces. The unformed surfaces generally will be the horizontal or nearhorizontal upper faces of slabs, floors, beams, etc. All the internal or external surfaces
shall be leveled and finished with sufficient slope to guarantee drainage, unless other
superposed finish materials are indicated on the drawings or determined otherwise by
the ENGINEER.
Unless specified differently or so indicated on the drawings, the classes of finish applied
to unformed surfaces shall be as follows:
U1 - screeded finish. This applies to unformed surfaces that will be covered by fill
material or concrete, as well as to surfaces that will subsequently be covered or
receive a smoother finish, as specified later. The finishing operations shall consist
of sufficient leveling and screeding to produce a uniform surface. Surface
irregularities shall not exceed 10 mm.
U2 - floated finish. This applies to unformed surfaces destined to remain visible
and which do not require a smoother finish. It is also the second stage, after U1,
of U3 finish as subsequently specified. Floated finish may be executed with manual
or power driven equipment, starting as soon as the screeded surface has hardened
sufficiently to produce a surface with a uniform texture where no screed marks
appear. If the U3 finish is to be applied subsequently, floating shall continue until
a small quantity of mortar without excess water is brought to the surface, so as
to permit effective troweling.
Surface irregularities should not exceed 6 mm in case of gradual irregularities, and 3 mm
in case of abrupt ones. Any necessary cutting and filling should be done during the
floating operations.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

66

Standard Technical Specifications

Joints and edges shall be tooled where indicated on the drawings or as directed.
U3 - troweled finish. This applies to unformed surfaces where surface uniformity
is of major importance from the standpoint of eliminating the destructive action of
water, and to others as indicated in the drawings or directed by the ENGINEER.
The troweled finish shall be started as soon as the floated surface has hardened sufficiently
to avoid an excess of fine material from being drawn to the surface. Steel troweling shall
be performed firmly so as to flatten the sandy texture of the floated surface and produce
a dense uniform surface free of blemishes and trowel marks. Except when specified
otherwise, the gradual surface irregularities shall not exceed 6 mm. Abrupt irregularities
should be eliminated.

3.

Concrete Repairs

3.1

General. After removal of the forms and inspection of the concrete, all repairs necessary
for the correction of all imperfections noted or measured on the concrete surfaces
should be made, so that the specified requirements are met.
Routine curing should be interrupted only in the area of repair operations.
Minor surface repairs shall be completed within 2 hours after form removal. Dry-pack,
concrete replacement less than 25 cm thick, and cement mortar repairs shall be completed
within 7 days of the original concrete placement, or shall utilize epoxy-resin bonding
systems. Repairs involving epoxy-resin bonding systems shall be performed after 7 days
and before 60 days from the original placement. Concrete replacements over 25 cm
thick and all other repairs shall be completed within 60 days after original concrete
placement.
Defective concrete shall be repaired by cutting out the unsatisfactory material and replacing
it with new concrete. All repairs on exposed or hydraulic surfaces shall be executed by
sawing with a diamond or carburundum disk all along the border of the damaged area,
following plumb lines, level lines, or lines parallel to the lines of the forms or structure. The
cuts by the disk shall have a minimum depth of 12 mm, and the remaining defective
concrete shall be removed so as to avoid breakage beyond the cut lines.
The repairs on exposed surfaces shall be executed so as not to adversly affect the
aesthetics of the structure. Thus, the coloration of the repaired areas shall be
approximately the same as that of the rest of the concrete of the structure.
The locations to be repaired shall be completely washed by air and water jetting, so that
all loose materials are removed, and the surface has an adequate texture with effective
adherance.
When necessary, bonding with existing concrete may be obtained by the use of epoxybased resins, as directed and approved by the ENGINEER.

3.2

Repairs with Dry-Pack. Dry-pack should be used for filling holes having a depth equal to
or greater than the least surface dimension of the repair area. This procedure should not
be adopted for relatively shallow depressions with depths less than 3 cm, or behind
considerable amounts of exposed reinforcement, or in holes that extend completely
through a structure.
Voids, holes left by the removal of form ties, narrow slots cut for the repair of cracks,
and the recesses for grout pipes shall be filled with dry-pack. The ENGINEER, at his
discretion, may alter the type of filling material, as well as the locations of its application.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

67

Standard Technical Specifications

The exact proportions of the component materials of the mixture and its method of
application shall be defined by the ENGINEER.
3.3

Repairs with Replacement Concrete. This process shall be utilized when the area to be
repaired has a minimum depth of 10 cm, or when the break passes entirely through a
wall or beam. The minimum area for this type of repair should be of the order of 30 cm
by 30 cm in mass concrete, and 20 cm by 20 cm in structural concrete, as long as its
depth extends beyond the reinforcement.
Reinforcement bars may not remain partially embedded in existing concrete; a space of
at least 25 mm should be cleaned out around the exposed bar.
Repairs with concrete may only start after adequate cleaning and after the surface is in
a saturated , surface dry condition.

3.4

Repairs with Replacement Mortar. Repairs with replacement mortar should be adopted
in areas too large for repair with dry-pack, and too shallow for repair with concrete. In
structural concrete, the process should be used where the defects are no deeper than
the far side of the reinforcement that is nearest to the surface. Repairs may be made by
either the use of shotcrete or by hand methods.
All the areas to be repaired should be chipped to a minimum depth of 25 mm.

3.5

Repairs with Epoxy-Resin Bonding Systems. Epoxies should be used to bond new concrete
or mortar to old concrete whenever the depth of repair is between 4 and 15 cm. Epoxybonded epoxy mortar should be used where the depth of repair is less than 4 cm to
featheredges.
When surfaces are repaired with epoxy-bonded epoxy mortar, the surfaces of the finished
epoxy mortar shall, in areas visible to the public, be lightly ground or otherwise prepared
to eliminate gloss and produce a surface color and texture that closely matches the
surrounding concrete surfaces.

3.6

Cracks or Fissures. The treatment of cracks or fissures with sealant will only be necessary
when increased impermeability is required, or when they are to be in contact with
aggressive elements.
The initial treatment of cracks and fissures shall be the drilling of holes along the crack,
spaced from 30 to 40 cm, and depths from 5 to 6 cm.
Next, the entire crack shall be covered with adhesive material, taking care to leave
tubes at each orifice, destined to facilitate the injection of sealant material.
If it is necessary to make the piece monolithic again in the area of the crack, then the
sealant material has to be rigid. The ENGINEER shall conduct a second inspection for the
purpose of acceptance of the repairs.
Any repairs that fail will be repaired by the CONTRACTOR at the CONTRACTORs
expense.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

68

Standard Technical Specifications

C-040122

CONSTRUCTION OF STRUCTURES
For purposes of this Specification, construction of structures includes construction of
permanent buildings at the locations shown on the drawings and/or as directed by the
ENGINNER. The structures to be constructed are the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
(The price in the Bidding Schedule for concrete in structures includes all cast-in-place
concrete in the structures listed in a. through __ above.)
Cast-in-place concrete for the structures shall conform to the requirements of item (C040100 - General Concrete Requirements). Pipe and fittings, miscellaneous metal work,
mechanical and electrical equipment, and other items forming a part of the structure are
provided for elsewhere in these Specifications.
The structures will be located at various points along the canals, laterals, and pipelines,
as shown on the drawings or as otherwise designated. The sequence of construction of
the structures shall be subject to approval by the ENGINEER.
The structures shall be built to the lines, grades, and dimensions shown on the drawings.
The dimensions of each structure as shown on the drawings will be subject to such
modifications as may be found necessary by the ENGINEER to adapt the structure to
the conditions disclosed by the excavation or to meet other conditions. Where the
thickness of any portion of a concrete structure is variable, it shall vary uniformly between
the dimensions shown.
Where necessary, as determined by the ENGINEER, the CONTRACTOR will be furnished
additional detail drawings of the structures to be constructed. The CONTRACTOR will
not be entitled to any additional payment above the prices in the Bidding Schedule by
reason of the dimensions fixed by the ENGINEER or by reasons of any modifications or
extensions of a minor character, as determined by the ENGINEER, to adapt a structure
to a structure site.
The CONTRACTOR shall place and attach to each structure, all timber, metal, and other
accessories necessary for its completion, as shown on the drawings.
The cost of furnishing all materials and performing all work for installing timber, metal,
and other accessories for which specific prices are not provided in the Bidding Schedule
shall be included in the applicable prices bid in the Bidding Schedule for the work to
which such items are appurtenant.

C-040123

PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE

1.

Batching Plants

1.1

Central Batching Plants. The CONTRACTOR shall have central batching plants sized for
production of concrete compatible with the placement schedules and the peaks of
concurrent concrete operations. All the concrete for the Project shall be batched at

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

69

Standard Technical Specifications

these central batching plants. All batching equipment shall be subject to the approval of
the ENGINNER.
The central batching plants shall be capable of allowing rapid changes in the controls to
compensate for variations in moisture content and grading of the aggregates and to
alter the weight proportions of the constituent materials of the concrete.
1.2

Scales. The scales shall have capacity to weigh the entire quantity of each ingredient
necessary for each batch. Weighing in parts of an ingredient for the same batch will not
be permitted.
The scales shall be checked for accuracy before the start of each operation, and at
monthly intervals during construction. Whenever judged necessary, the ENGINEER shall
order new accuracy checks of the scales. The CONTRACTOR shall make such
adjustments, repairs, or replacements as may be necessary to meet the specified
requirements for accuracy of measurement, as specified in the following paragraph.

1.3

Accuracy. Accuracy of the weighing equipment, to within 0.40%, for any increment of
test weight up to the equipment capacity is acceptable. (The equipment used to mix
and weight the concrete materials shall be capable of controlling the delivery of the
materials so that the combined errors in feeding and weighting them during normal
operations will not exceed the tolerances indicated in Table _____ ).

TABLE - TOLERANCE FOR DELIVERY OF MATERIALS


CONCRETE MATERIALS

MAXIMUM TOLERANCE IN DELIVERY (%)

Cement

1,5

Pozzolan Material

1,5

W at er

Aggregates smaller or equal to 38 mm

Aggregates larger than 38 mm

Admixtures

(The tolerances in the delivery of concrete materials, that is, the proportion and weight
combination of the materials, shall not exceed the values in Table _____ ).
1.4

Control of Batching. The CONTRACTOR shall conduct all the tests necessary for control
of batching as indicated in item (C-040102 - Concrete Testing and Quality Control). The
test results shall be submitted to the ENGINEER for approval.

2.

Mixers

2.1

Mixers. Mobile mixers will only be permitted when this equipment and its operation are
such that concretes of uniform consistency and grading are produced, without segregation
of the materials.
The utilization of truck mixers for mixing and transporting concrete shall be in accordance
with ASTM-C-94.
Overmixing which requires additional water to maintain concrete consistency will not
be permitted.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

70

Standard Technical Specifications

Batch size shall be at least 10% of, but not in excess of, the rated capacity of the mixer.
The minimum mixer capacity shall correspond to the capacity required to produce a
batch of concrete utilizing one sack of cement.
The sequence of addition of the ingredients to the mixers shall be determined in the
field, and the necessary adjustments made to obtain maximum efficiency.
If truck mixers are used, they shall not be loaded beyond the capacity recommended by
the manufacturer and should operate with the rotational characteristics indicated on the
manufacturers nameplate attached to the mixer. The discharge of each batch shall be
such that no segregation occurs. The following times should be observed for the mixing
of the concrete ingredients in the mixer:
for inclined axis mixers ........................................................... t = 120 d (sec)
for horizontal axis mixers .......................................................... t = 60 d (sec)
for vertical axis mixers ............................................................. t = 30 d (sec)

with d being the maximum diameter, in meters, of the mixer.


However, the time shall not be less than 90 seconds, unless directed otherwise by the
ENGINEER.
The timing starts after all ingredients, except for the last of the water, are in the mixer.
All water shall have been added to the mixer before one-fourth (1/4) of the corresponding
period has elapsed.
The specified mixing periods are based on the hypothesis of adequate control of both
the rotational speed of the mixer and the addition of the materials, including water. The
ENGINEER will increase the minimum mixing time required as needed, if indicated by the
results of concrete uniformity tests.
The mixer should rotate at a uniform speed for at least twelve (12) revolutions after the
addition of all the materials. The mixers shall not be loaded or operated at velocities in
excess of the capacities recommended by the manufacturer.
2.2

Control of Mixing. The adequacy of the mixing will be determined in accordance with
item (C-040102 - Concrete Testing and Quality Control).
Samples of concrete for such tests will be taken from any batch which is commonly
mixed during concrete production. For testing purposes, the CONTRACTOR shall mix, in
the mixers to be tested, the size of batch directed by the ENGINEER, and shall assist in
the collection of the required samples from that batch.

C-040124

TOLERANCES
In the finished surfaces of the concrete, the acceptable deviations from plumb or
determined alinements, as well as from the shapes and dimensions shown in the drawings,
shall be defined as tolerances.
If other tolerances are not established in the drawings for any individual structure, or
part thereof, the maximum admissible deviations shall be in conformance with the
tolerances presented in TABLE _____.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

71

Standard Technical Specifications

TABLE - Deviations from specified lines, grades, and dimensions


A.
1.

Deviations for substation structures


Footings:
Variation in length and width dimensions
from those specified .............................................................. 15 to +50 mm
Horizontal misplacement or eccentricity:
2 percent of the footing width in the
direction of misplacement, but not more than ........................................ 50 mm
Reduction in thickness from that specified:
5 percent of specified thickness, not to exceed ..................................... 25 mm

2.

Variation from plumb or specified batter for lines and surfaces of piers, stems,
walls:
When overall height of line or surface is:
Less than 3 meters ......................................................................... +- 6
3 meters or more ............................................................................ +-l0
For any two successive intermediate
points on the line or surface separated by:
3 to 6 meters ...................................................................................... 6
More than 6 meters ............................................................................ l0

3.

Variation from level or specified grades for slabs:


When overall length of line or surface is:
Less than 3 meters ......................................................................... +- 6
3 to 6 meters, inclusive .................................................................. +- l0
More than 6 meters ...................................................................... +- 20
For any two successive intermediate points on the line or surface separated
3 to 6 meters, inclusive ........................................................................ 6
More than 6 meters ............................................................................ l0

and
mm
mm
mm
mm

mm
mm
mm
by:
mm
mm

4.

Variation in cross-sectional dimensions of piers and stems


from those specified and in thicknesses of slabs and walls
from those specified .......................................................................... -6to +l5 mm

5.

Variation from specified elevation for top of


concrete for foundations ......................................................................... +- l5 mm

6.

Variation from specified grade or alignment for cable trenches:


When overall length is:
Less than 3 meters ......................................................................... +- 6
3 to 6 meters, inclusive ....................................................................... l0
More than 6 meters ...................................................................... +- 20
For any two intermediate points separated by:
3 to 6 meters, inclusive ........................................................................ 6
More than 6 meters ............................................................................ l0

B.

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

Deviations for pumping plant structures and other buildings


l.

Irrigation Manual

Footings:
Variation in length and width dimensions from those specified . - l5 to + 50 mm
Horizontal misplacement or eccentricity:
2 percent of footing width in direction of misplacement,
but not more than .............................................................................. 50 mm
Reduction in thickness ................................... 5 percent of specified thickness

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

72

Standard Technical Specifications

2.

Variation of horizontal dimensions at all floor and roof levels from specified position in
plan:
Overall building dimensions ............................................... +-15mm per 30m
length with maximum for entire length of +- 25 mm
Overall bay dimensions:
For dimensions less than 3 m ......................................................... +- 6 mm
For dimensions equal to or greater than 3 m .................................... +-10 mm
Intermediate dimensions for column, wall, and partition locations:
For dimensions less than 3 m .......................................................... +-6 mm
For dimensions equal to or greater than 3 but less than 6 m .............. +-10 mm
For dimensions 6 m or more .......................................................... +-15 mm

3.

Variation of vertical dimensions from specified position in plan:


Overall building dimensions ........................................................... +-15 mm
Overall story height:
For dimensions less than 3 m ........................................................... +- 6 mm
For dimensions equal to or greater than 3 m ...................................... +-10 mm
Intermediate dimensions:
For dimensions less than 3 meters ................................................... +-6 mm
For dimensions of 3 to 6 m, inclusive ............................................. +-10 mm
For dimensions 6 meters or more ................................................... +-15 mm

4.

Variation from plumb or specified batter for lines and surfaces of columns, piers, walls,
and for arrises:
When overall height of line or surface is:
Less than 3 m ................................................................................. +-6 mm
3 to 6 m, inclusive ......................................................................... +-10 mm
More than 6, but less than 12 m ..................................................... +-15 mm
12 meters or more ......................................................................... +-25 mm
For any two successive intermediate points on
the line or surface separated by:
3 to 6 m, inclusive ............................................................................... 6 mm
More than 6 m .................................................................................. 10 mm

5.

Variation from plumb for lines and surfaces of


corner columns, control joint grooves, and other
conspicuous lines: . When overall height of line or surface is:
Less than 3 m ................................................................................. +-6
3 to 6 m, inclusive ......................................................................... +-10
More than 6 m .............................................................................. +-15
For any two successive intermediate points on
the line or surface separated by:
3 to 6 m, inclusive ............................................................................... 6
More than 6 m .................................................................................. 10

6.

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

Variation from level or established grades for floors, roof decks, ceilings, beam soffits,
and arrises:
When overall length of line or surface is:
Less than 3 m ................................................................................. +-6 mm
3 to 6 m,inclusive .......................................................................... +-10 mm
More than 6 m, but less than l2 m ................................................... +-15 mm
12 m or more ................................................................................ +-20 mm
For any two successive intermediate points on the line or surface separated by:
3 to 6 m,inclusive ................................................................................ 6 mm
More than 6 m .................................................................................. 10 mm

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

73

Standard Technical Specifications

7.

Variation from level or specified grades for exposed lintels, sills, parapets, horizontal
grooves, and other conspicuous lines:
When overall length of line or surface is:
Less than 3 m ................................................................................. +-6 mm
3 to 6 m,inclusive ........................................................................... +-l0 mm
More than 6 m ............................................................................... +-l5 mm
For any two successive intermediate points on the line or surface separated by:
3 to 6 m,inclusive ................................................................................ 6 mm
More than 6 m ................................................................................... l0 mm

8.

Variation in location from specified position in plan of sleeves


and wall openings ................................................................................... +-l5 mm

9.

Variation in sizes from those specified for sleeves, floor openings,


and wall openings, except wall openings for swinging doors .......................... +-6 mm

10.

Variation in sizes from those specified for wall


openings for swinging doors ............................................................. - 0 to + 6 mm
ll.

Variation in cross-sectional dimensions from


those specified for columns and beams and in
thicknesses from those specified for slabs and .................... walls -6 to +l5 mm

C. Deviations for canal and pipeline structures


l.

Footings:
Variation of length and width dimensions
from those specified ............................................................ - l5 to + 50 mm
Misplacement or eccentricity:
2 percent of the footing width in the direction
of misplacement but not more than ...................................................... 50 mm
Reduction in thickness from that specified ..................... 5 percent of specified
thickness, not to exceed 25 mm

2.

Monolithic siphons and culverts:


Departure from established alignment ............................................. +-50 mm
Departure from established profile grade ......................................... +-50 mm
Variation from specified thickness:
At any point ............................................................. - 2.5 percent of specified
thickness or -6 mm, which-ever is greater
At any point ..................................................................... + 5 percent of specified
thickness or+15 mm, whichever is greater
Variation from specified inside dimensions .. +-0.5 percent of inside dimensions

3.

Checks, drops, turnouts, inlets, chutes, and similar structures:


Departure from established alignment ............................................. +-25 mm
Departure from established grade ................................................... +-25 mm
Variation from plumb or specified batter for
lines and surfaces of columns, piers, walls, and for arrises:
When overall length of line or surface is:
Less than 3 m ................................................................... Exposed +-l0 mm
Buried +-20 mm
3 m or more ...................................................................... Exposed +-l5 mm
Buried +-25 mm
For any two successive intermediate points on the line or surface separated by:
3 to 6 m,inclusive .................................................................. Exposed l0 mm

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

74

Standard Technical Specifications

Buried 20 mm
More than 6 m ...................................................................... Exposed l5 mm
Buried 25 mm
4.

Variations from level or specified grades for slabs, beams, and horizontal grooves:
When overall length of line or surface is:
Less than 3 m ................................................................... Exposed +-l0 mm
Buried +-20 mm
3 m or more ...................................................................... Exposed +-l5 mm
Buried +-25 mm
For any two successive intermediate points on the line or surface separated by:
3 to 6 m,inclusive .................................................................. Exposed l0
Buried 20
More than 6 m ...................................................................... Exposed l5
Buried 25

mm
mm
mm
mm

5.

Variation in cross-sectional dimensions of columns, piers, slabs,


walls, beams, and similar parts of the structures in 3. above from
those specified .................................................................................. -6to +l5mm

6.

Variation in sizes and locations from those


specified for slab and wall openings .......................................................... +-l5 mm

7.

Variation from plumb or level for sills and


sidewalls for radial gates and similar watertight joints ............................... Not greater
than a rate of
3 mm in 3 m

8.

Dimensions between sidewalls for radial gates shall not be more than shown on the
drawings at the sills and not less than shown on the drawings at the top of the walls.

9.

Variation from plumb of pipe erected vertically


in any length of 3 m ................................................................................ +-l5 mm
Note: Deviations not designated as (+) or (-) indicate the maximum deviation permitted
between designated successive points.

C-040125

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT FOR CONCRETE


Concrete shall be measured on the basis of the dimensions shown on the drawings for
each type of concrete work required. Concrete shall be measured in cubic meters.
Payment for the various types of concrete work shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at
the applicable unit price per cubic meter indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
Except when specified otherwise, the unit prices for concrete work shall include the
cost of supplying all materials as well as mixing, transportation, placing, consolidation,
finishing and technical control of the concrete work. Unless otherwise specified, the
unit prices for concrete work shall not include the cost of furnishing and placing of
formwork, reinforcement, or expansion joints, and such work shall be paid for separately.
Measurement and payment for concrete canal lining shall be in accordance with item (C040203 - Concrete Canal Lining).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

75

Standard Technical Specifications

Formwork shall be measured by square meters on the basis of the dimensions shown in
the drawings. Payment for formwork shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the unit
prices per square meter indicated in the Bidding Schedule, which prices shall include all
required shoring.
Measurement and payment for reinforcing bars shall be in accordance with item (C040107 - Reinforcing Bars).
Measurement and payment for expansion joints in concrete canal lining shall be in
accordance with item (C-040205 - Expansion Joints).
Measurement and payment for waterstops shall be in accordance with item (C-040401
- Waterstops).
Measurement and payment for cyclopic concrete shall be in accordance with item (C030507 - Cyclopic Concrete).
C-040128

MISCELLANEOUS - CONCRETE STRUCTURES


No structural features, such as beams, columns, parcels, slabs, etc., may be constructed
without prior and correct verification, by the CONTRACTOR and the ENGINEER, of the
corresponding locations, dimensions, connections and shoring of the forms and
reinforcement, as well as the placing of electrical, hydraulic and other piping to be
embedded in the concrete.
All door and window openings, whose upper sides should not be even with the roofing
and where no beam details are shown on the drawings, at the level of the respective
lintels, the lintels shall be of reinforced concrete and extend a minimum of 20 cm on
each side of the opening.
The same precautions shall be taken with the window sills, which shall be furnished
with reinforced concrete parcels.
Holes for placing piping through beams or other structural members, when absolutely
unavoidable, shall be accomplished with bushings or boxes purposely placed in the
forms according to the drawings. The location and dimensions of these holes shall be
subject to careful study by the CONTRACTOR to avoid reducing the safety integrity of
the structure.
It shall be the CONTRACTORs total responsibility for any eventual weakening of any
member resulting from the holes for placing the referred piping. It would, thus, be
preferable to reroute the piping that may prejudice the structure, or the CONTRACTOR
may propose to the CLIENT, changes in the structural designs and installation designs
he judges convenient.
The wall coping or cymatium around the perimeter of the roof shall have reinforced
concrete supports and parcels jointed with the structure to contain the masonry work
and avoid cracks caused by joining materials with different coefficients of expansion.
In the cases where structure members require reinforcing bars with lengths greater than
the standard 12 m lengths, the resulting splicing shall meet the requirements of standard
ABNT-NBR-6118 (NB-1).
The costs for the materials and work required under this item shall be included in the
prices in the Bidding Schedule for the various types of concrete.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

76

Standard Technical Specifications

C-040130
1.

EMBEDDED ITEMS
General. The requirements included herein are general specifications for the installation
of items to be embedded in concrete. Where more specific details are required, they
shall be included in the drawings.
The CONTRACTOR shall install metalwork and other items to be enbedded in concrete,
as shown on the drawings. Items to be embedded in concrete include, but are not
limited to, the following:
anchor bolts and inserts in first - and second-stage concrete;
pipe;
electrical ducts and conduits;
ground connections.

Pipes and conduits of aluminum shall not be embedded in structural concrete unless
approved by the ENGINEER and effectively coated or covered to prevent aluminiumconcrete reaction or electrolytic action between aluminium and steel.
Embedded metal items particularly susceptible to erosion shall be protected by an unbroken
film of asphalt, varnish, pitch, or other inert material, as directed by the ENGINEER.
Dissimilar metals should not be embedded in direct contact or close proximity with each
other unless adequate measures are taken, as approved by the ENGINEER, to assure
that there will be no serious galvanic action.
For items and services not specifically shown on the drawings or identified in these
Specifications, the applicable regulations of the ASTM, ACI, AISC, and AWS should be
followed.
All items to be embedded shall be accurately placed in correct position and alignment at
the locations shown in the drawings, and secured in a way to avoid displacement before
and during placement of concrete.
In areas where second-stage concrete is required, blockouts shall be left in the firststage concrete, as well as inserts where inserts of the second-stage concrete will be
secured. Blockouts shall susequently be backfilled with mortar or injected with cement
grout, as shown on the drawings.
All the services of installation shall be performed in accordance with good construction
techniques, by personnel trained and specialized in this area. Any damage caused to
materials furnished by the CLIENT or by others shall be repaired or replaced by and at
the expense of the CONTRACTOR. At the time of concrete placement, metallic items
shall be clean and free of rust or other foreign material.
2.

Anchor Bolts and Inserts in First-Stage Concrete. All anchor bolts and plates to be embedded
in concrete shall be accurately positioned by means of adequate templates so that after
placement of concrete they will be alined with the items to which they will be connected.
The axes of holes in the templates shall be in accordance with the axes of holes drilled or
punched in the base-plate or item to be secured to the concrete. The holes in the templates
shall exceed by 1 mm the nominal diameter of the anchor bolts or screws.
The references or marks of coincidence for the location of the item to be installed shall
be clearly indicated in each template, so as to facilitate the precise location of the
anchor bolts. After the anchor bolts have been positioned, each anchor bolt shall be
securely fixed in place to prevent displacement during placement and setting of the
concrete.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

77

Standard Technical Specifications

The holes in base-plates or other items shall not be enlarged to adjust to anchor bolts
that were not correctly positioned, without express prior authorization of the ENGINEER.
After placement of concrete, surfaces of ungalvanized metal to remain permanently
exposed shall be cleaned with wire brushes and receive two coats or primer paint, as
directed by the ENGINEER.
3.

Inserts in Second-Stage Concrete. For inserts in second-stage concrete which are required
for the attachment of special equipment, extra care shall be given to meeting the
requirements of the drawings and specifications of the manufacturers of these equipment.
After accurate positioning and securing of the inserts, placing of second-stage concrete
may proceed, in accordance with the drawings.
For mobile equipment rails, the accurate adjustment of the regulating plates, the alinment
of the rails, and tightening of the nuts that secure the attachment clips of the rails, shall
be performed prior to filling blockouts with second-stage concrete.

4.

Embedded Pipe. Pipes and fittings to be embedded in the concrete shall be accurately
positioned and securely held in position to avoid damage or displacement before and
during placement of concrete. Special care shall be taken to avoid plugging of pipes
during performance of the work. The pipes and fittings to be embedded in the concrete
shall not receive paint or any other coatings on the outside surface, unless otherwise
directed by the ENGINEER. However, at the time of concrete placement the surfaces
shall be free of dirt, oils, grease, and other objectionable materials.
Each piping system shall be cleaned internally and pressure tested before concrete
placement, except that drain pipes and other piping designed for pressures of not more
than 0.1 kg/cm2 above atmospheric pressure need not be tested. Testing pressure
above atmospheric pressure shall be 50% in excess of the pressure to which the piping
and fittings may be subjected, but minimum testing pressure shall not be less than 3.5
kg/cm2 above atmospheric pressure. The pressure test shall be held for 4 hours with no
drop in pressure except that which may be caused by air temperature. The CONTRACTOR
shall submit for the approval of the CLIENT drawings showing the anchoring of the
piping during the tests.
Pipes and fittings shall be maintained at a minimum distance of 25 mm from other
embedded items and the outside face of the concrete.

5.

Measurement and Payment. No separate measurement or payment shall be made for


embedded items in concrete. The costs for embedded items in concrete shall be included
in other items of work where this service is required.

C-040201
1.

TRIMMING AND SHAPING CANAL


General. The work includes the removal of excess or overbuilt materials and/or the filling
of depressions or holes on canal side slopes and bottoms after excavation or after
construction of embankments, in order to prepare the slopes and bottoms for placement
of the concrete lining.
Excess or overbuilt materials on canal side slopes and/or bottoms shall be excavated
and trimmed first by a backhoe or a grader, as required, followed by a finishing excavation
to be performed manually or with special equipment.
In rock excavation, loose pieces or parts that have been excessively disturbed or loosened
during blasting shall be removed and filled with soil cement, with no less than 6%
Portland cement content by weight, and shall be compacted with a power tamper or

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

78

Standard Technical Specifications

other similar equipment. When compaction using power tampers is not possible, manual
tampers shall be allowed. Materials used in the soil cement shall comply with the
requirements specified in item (C-030102 - Definition of Earth Materials).
During compaction, soil cement shall have a moisture content equal to the optimum
moisture as defined in the Intermediate Proctor compaction test, + 2%. After compaction,
the dry density of soil cement shall be at least 97% of the laboratory maximum dry
density as determined by the Intermediate Proctor compaction test.
Earth backfill shall not be allowed for the purpose of filling excess excavation performed
outside the specified limits. The filling of excess excavation shall be made with soil
cement, as described above or by increasing the thickness of the concrete lining.
Geometrical control of the trimming and shaping shall be performed visually on a
continuous basis, together with survey verification of alignments and grades at specified
locations.
Compaction tests shall be performed on the finished slopes and bottoms as necessary.
The work shall be classified by the ENGINEER as trimming and shaping of earth or rock
surfaces.
2.

Measurement and Payment. Trimming and shaping of canal slopes and bottoms shall be
measured in square meters.
Areas shall be measured on the basis of theoretical sections, as shown on the drawings.
Thus, the area between any two stations will be the product of the average perimeter of
such theoretical sections times the distance between the stations. The perimeter of a
section is the sum of the length of the slopes and the bottom of the section.
The ENGINEER shall classify the areas to be measured, as a percentage of trimmed and
shaped earth and percentage of trimmed and shaped rock.
Payment for trimming and shaping canal slopes and bottoms shall be made to the
CONTRACTOR at the applicable unit price per square meter indicated in the Bidding
Schedule. The unit prices for trimming and shaping canal slopes and bottoms shall
include the cost of all labor, equipment and materials required to perform the work as
specified herein.
No payment shall be made, under any circumstances, for shaping required as a result of
excess excavation performed by the CONTRACTOR.
No separate payment will be made for trimming and shaping for small canals excavated
by mechanical equipment or machinery with buckets or scoops shaped like the canal
section, and the costs for trimming and shaping of these canals shall be included in the
applicable unit price in the Bidding Schedule for excavation of the canal.

C-040203
1.

CONCRETE CANAL LINING


General. The CONTRACTOR shall place concrete canal lining to the lines, dimensions,
and thickness shown on the drawings or directed by the ENGINEER, and in accordance
with this Specification.
Where reinforced concrete lining is specified, reinforcement shall be used, with the
diameter and mesh spacing shown on the drawings.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

79

Standard Technical Specifications

Concrete shall conform to the applicable requirements of item (C-040100 - General


Concrete Requirements) and to these Specifications.
The CONTRACTOR shall supply all equipment and materials required for the placing
operations. Subgrades shall be thouroughly moistened prior to placing concrete canal
lining.
The concrete lining may be placed manually or mechanically and shall provide a smooth
surface with the specified thickness. The placing operations shall be rigorously controlled
so that the concrete is not porous and has no voids or pockets. Concrete shall be
vibrated internally just ahead of the slip form.
The concrete canal lining shall not vary from the established grade by more than 1 cm
for each 20 meters. No minus tolerance shall be allowed from the specified thickness.
Concrete canal lining shall be cured with approved curing compounds or membranes.
Manually placed lining shall be finished by means of a slip-form machine, travelling on
guides along the bottom and on the slopes of the canal, as described in the United
States Bureau of Reclamation Concrete Manual, with the lining placed in alternative
panels. Each panel will be no more than 2.5 meters long.
Bottom slabs shall be placed first, and side panels shall be placed from the bottom up.
Intervening panels shall only be placed after the adjacent panels have hardened. Joins
between the panels shall be filled with an approved sealing compound in accordance
with item (C-040205 - Expansion Joints in Concrete Canal Lining).
A longitudinally operating slip-form machine may also be used. The driving mechanism
moves the machine along the canals centerline with the slip-form section transverse to
the centerline.
Under proper conditions of operation the surface made by the slip-form will require no
further screeding and very little finishing. The slip -form surface and the final finish shall
be approved by the ENGINEER.
Transverse joints and longitudinal shall be spaced as shown on the drawings. The
dimensions of the joints shall be in accordance with the details on the drawings or as
directed by the ENGINEER. All longitudinal joints shall be at the same grade as the canal
segment that is being constructed.
Joints shall be cut while the concrete is still plastic using straight edges, mechanical
knifes, or cutters operated manually or by means of devices attached to the slip-form.
If the placing equipment used by the CONTRACTOR does not allow for interruptions in
the lining operation, the CONTRACTOR may perform uninterrupted lining operations
through sections where structures will be constructed, with subsequent removal of that
portion of the lining where the structures will be constructed. No payment will be made
to the CONTRACTOR for labor, equipment or materials required for placing and removing
concrete canal lining for this purpose.
In any section where the CONTRACTOR removes the concrete or interrupts the lining
for the construction of a structure, the exposed excavated foundation surface is damaged
due erosion, mudding, ponding, or any other reason, the foundation shall be repaired by
and at the expense of the CONTRACTOR, which shall include any additional concrete
required for correct placing of the canal lining.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

80

Standard Technical Specifications

Any concrete canal lining which is removed, in accordance with these specifications or
as directed by the ENGINEER, shall be deposited at the foot of the outer slope of the
canal.
Concrete for required filling depressions or holes in the subgrade shall be considered as
backfill for excess excavation and shall be performed by and at the expense of the
CONTRACTOR.
2.

Measurement and Payment. Concrete for canal lining shall be measured in cubic meters
of concrete placed in accordance with the dimensions shown on the drawings.

No additional payment shall be made for excess concrete placed over and above the
volume calculated using the dimensions of concrete lining shown on the drawings.
Payment for concrete canal lining shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the unit price
per cubic meter indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
The unit price for concrete canal lining shall include the cost of all labor, equipment and
materials required to perform the work as specified herein, including furnishing and
placing wire mesh, forming joints, and finishing operations.
Materials for filling joints shall be measured and paid for in accordance with item (C040205 - Expansion Joints in Concrete Canal Lining) and item (C-040401 - Waterstops).
C-040205
1.

EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION JOINTS IN CONCRETE CANAL LINING


Description of the work. The CONTRACTOR shall supply and place the materials for
filling expansion joints in the concrete canal lining at the locations shown on the drawings.
The material to be used for filling the joints shall be a durable, adhesive compound
which shall seal the concrete canal lining joints and prevent water leakage during
contraction and expansion cycles. The consistency of the joint material shall allow
placement at any temperature between 4o and 50o C, either by means of a gun or trowel.
After placement the material shall not run.
The joint sealing material shall be an elastic mastic with a base of polyurethane or
polysulfide rubber, with or without a tar additive and shall meet the laboratory tests
specifications related to adherence, viscosity, penetration and durability. Asphaltic mastics
shall not be used. The joint material shall be approved by the ENGINEER prior to placement.
The joint material shall be applied after the concrete canal lining has hardened sufficiently,
as directed by the ENGINEER.
Before applying the joint material, the CONTRACTOR shall thoroughly dry the joints and
remove any loose material or foreign matter.
The joint material shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

2.

Measurement and payment. Expansion joints shall be measured in linear meters of joints
shown on the drawings which have been approved and accepted by the ENGINEER.
Payment for expansion joints in concrete canal lining shall be made to the CONTRACTOR
at the unit price per linear meter indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
The unit price shall include the cost of all labor, equipment and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

81

Standard Technical Specifications

C-040401
1.

WATERSTOPS
General. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish and install waterstops, Fugenband, or similar,
in joints at the locations shown on the drawings and in accordance with the requirements
specified herein. Waterstops shall be fabricated from materials specified in subitem 2
below.
The CONTRACTOR shall protect waterstops during the progress of the work and shall
repair or replace any waterstops that are damaged at no additional cost to the CLIENT.
Waterstops shall be stored in a cool place and shall be protected from direct sunlight
and contact with oil, grease or curing compound.
Waterstops shall be installed with approximately one-half the width of the material
embedded in the concrete on each side of the joint. Special care must be taken during
the placing and vibrating of concrete around the joints so as to ensure complete contact
of the waterstops with the concrete and to obtain a continuous watertight joint.
If a waterstop is installed on one side of a joint and the scheduled date for placing
concrete on the other side of the joint is more than one month, the waterstop shall be
protected from direct sunlight.
Splices in waterstops shall be performed by vulcanizing in metal molds or by using
special connecting sleeves and rubber cement. When vulcanizing is used, the ends to be
joined shall be beveled cut at a 450 angle or flatter so that the ends will be pressed
together when the mold is closed. The ends and the surrounding surfaces shall be
buffed to obtain rough, clean surfaces. The buffed surfaces shall receive two thin coats
of rubber cement and be allowed to dry completely. A piece of gum rubber, used for
vulcanized joints, shall be cut to the same size as the beveled ends and placed at one of
the ends to be joined. The mold shall be heated to 145o . The prepared splice shall then
be set and centered in the heated mold and closed tightly to avoid any displacement
during the vulcanizing process. The mold shall be kept at 145o C for 25 minutes with the
splice secured.
If splices are made with connecting sleeves, the ends to be joined shall be carefully
buffed and cleaned prior to being placed in the sleeve. The inner surface of the sleeve
and the outer surfaces of the waterstop shall be carefully coated with rubber cement.
After the ends of the waterstops have been placed in the sleeve, the sleeve shall be
closed tightly against the waterstop until complete hardening of the cement.
Each finished splice, whether by vulcanizing or by sleeve, shall be tested by bending the
splice 180o around a pin 5 cm in diameter without showing any separation at the splice.

2.

Materials. Waterstops shall be fabricated from one of the materials listed below.
Waterstops fabricated from other materials shall be approved by the ENGINEER prior to
use in the work. Materials listed below shall conform to standards ABNT-NBR-7462
(MB-57), MB-383, NBR-6565 (MB-394), MB-407, NBR-6566 (MB-464), MB-469 and
NBR-7318 (MB-497) and to the requirements specified herein.

2.1

Butyl. Butyl shall have the following physical characteristics:


Specific weight = 1.2 g/cm3 + 0.05.
Tensile Strength, without Aging:
Failure Stress: 74 kg/cm2 , minimum;
Elongation to failure: 400%, minimum;
Shore-A hardness: 60 + 5.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

82

Standard Technical Specifications

Tensile Strength, with Aging:


The test for measuring tensile strength with aging shall be performed in an oven at 100o
C with air circulation over a period of seven days. Results must correspond to 80% of
the results for failure stress and elongation to failure obtained in the tensile strength
without aging tests. Shore-A hardness shall be 62 + 5.
Aging Test in Ozone:
This test shall be performed as prescribed in ASTM D-1149 at 38o C with 100 parts of
ozone in one hundred million parts, by volume, and the test specimen shall be elongated
by 20%. No cracking shall be observed using a seven-fold magnification after 72 and
120 hours.
Water Immersion Test:
This test shall be performed as prescribed in ASTM D 471.
Maximum weight variation allowance = 0.5%.
2.2

Neoprene. Neoprene shall have the following physical characteristics:


Minimum tensile strength - ASTM D-412 = 11 MPa (110 kg/cm2 ).
Minimum elongation to failure - ASTM D-412 = 400%.
Minimum bonding to concrete - ASTM D-903 = 3.6 kg/cm.
Strength in Ozone - This test shall be performed as prescribed in ASTM D-1149
for 70 hours at 38o C with 100 parts of ozone in one hundred million parts, by
volume, and the specimen shall be elongated by 20%.No cracking shall be observed
using a seven-fold magnification.
Water Immersion Test - This test shall be performed as prescribed in ASTM D471. Maximum weight variation, after seven days in water, at 25o C = 5%

2.3

Hypalon. Hypalon shall have the following physical characteristics:


Minimum tensile strength - ASTM D-412 = 3.5 MPa (35 kgf/cm2 ).
Minimum elongation to failure - ASTM D-412 = 400%.
Minimum bonding to concrete - ASTM D-903 = 3.6 kg/cm.
Strength in Ozone - This test shall be performed as prescribed in ASTM D-1149
for 70 hours at 38o C with 100 parts of ozone in one hundred million parts, by
volume, and the specimen shall be elongated by 20%. No cracking shall be observed
using a seven-fold magnification.
Water Immersion Test - This test shall be performed as prescribed in ASTM D471. Maximum weight variation after seven days in water, at 25o C = 5%.

3.

Measurement and payment. Waterstops shall be measured in linear meters of waterstop


actually installed as shown on the drawings.
Payment for waterstops shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the unit price per linear
meter indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
The unit price shall include the cost of all labor, equipment and materials required to
perform the work as specified herein.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

83

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION SHOTCRETE

C-040501
1.

SHOTCRETE
General. Shotcrete (mortar or concrete applied by pneumatic projection) shall be used
where indicated in the drawings for the eventual treatment of the exposed surfaces of
rock, for repairs of concrete, or anywhere else as determined by the ENGINEER.
Shotcrete is usually applied by the dry-mix process, and these Specifications are directed
towards that method. However, the jet-mix process may also be employed, if duly
approved and authorized by the CLIENT.
All the pertinent provisions of item (C-040100 - General Concrete Requirements) not in
conflict with provisions made here, shall also apply to shotcrete.
Shotcrete shall be mixed so as to have a workability compatible with the equipment to
be used and to guarantee a minimum of rebound.
The compression and shear strengths required for shotcrete shall comply with the
following minimum values applicable for 7 and 28 days after application.
If values measured after 7 days do not reach the specified minimum, the CONTRACTOR
shall modify the shotcrete batch formula as directed by the ENGINEER and shall bear all
costs resulting therefrom.

7 days

28 days
MPa

Compression strength

25,0

30,0

Adhesion to rock

0,7

1,0

Sand for shotcrete should be uniformly graded conforming with the grading as specified
for concrete sand. For coarse aggregate shotcrete the quantity of sand passing the No.
100 sieve may be substantially increased, at the ENGINEER s discretion, if needed for
added plasticity and adhering qualities, provided that quality and strength are not
detrimentally affected. If a sand is deficient in fines, the addition of diatomaceous earth
in not more than 3% of the cement, by weight, may be permitted at ENGINEER s
discretion, to increase the plasticity of the mix and decrease the amount of rebound.
Sand should contain 3% to 6% of moisture for efficient operation of equipment for
application of both sand and coarse aggregate shotcrete.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

84

Standard Technical Specifications

For coarse aggregate shotcrete the maximum aggregate size shall be 10 mm (3/8"),
except that up to 20 mm (3/4") aggregate may be employed if approved by the ENGINEER.
The ENGINEER may approve the use of natural pozzolans for the purpose of making the
mix more plastic and decreasing the rebound.
The amount of pozzolans shall not be greater than 3% of the weight of the cement.
Accelerators, with the exception of calcium chloride, may be used as specified for
concrete.
2.

Mix. The mix proportions of ingredients used by the CONTRACTOR shall provide a
homogeneous product as well as guarantee a minimum rebound.
Shotcrete batch formulas shall be determined by the CONTRACTOR, by trial mixes,
prior to placing, so that the mix conforms to the Specifications for workability,
permeability, strength, and durability using the smallest possible amount of cement, but
such amount shall not be lower than the minimum specified for each case. Batch formulas
must be approved by the ENGINEER.

3.

Batching. Thorough mixing of all ingredients, especially any coarse aggregate and setaccelerating admixture, if used, is essential to good quality shotcrete. The mixing of the
cement, admixtures (except the set-accelerating admixture), and aggregates should be
made in the dry with a mechanical mixer.
The mixing period should not be less than two minutes, and the mixer should be cleaned
frequently to maintain mixing efficiency.
After the components have been homogenized, the resulting mix shall be applied within
one hour. Any unused mixed material (cement, aggregate, accelerators) that stands
longer than one hour will not be accepted.
The ENGINEER reserves the right to increase mixing time, when the aforementioned
time is not sufficient for obtaining an adequate homogeneous mixture of the ingredients.

4.

Quality Control. The CONTRACTOR shall perform preliminary trial runs for demonstration
of equipment performance and concrete quality control, in the presence of the ENGINEER,
prior to the start of concrete placement.
Nozzlemen shall demostrate, to the satisfaction of the ENGINEER, the ability to apply
shotcrete of the required quality prior to placing of shotcrete in the work.
Procedures for extracting core specimens to be used in strength tests shall be as directed
by the ENGINEER.

5.

Preliminary Cleaning and Treatment. Prior to shotcrete placement, the surface shall be
throughly cleaned of all loose materials, with air and water jets and, if required, scrubbed
with a wire brush.
Any cavity in the rock whose bottom cannot be reached shall be manually filled with
mortar, prior to final shotcrete placement.
The surfaces shall be maintained moist before placing the sotcrete.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

85

Standard Technical Specifications

6.

Placing. The projection nozzle shall be maintened at a distance of between 70 cm and


1.5 m from the surface, and the shotcrete should be applied in a stream as nearly
normal as possible to the surface being covered.
The air pressure should be in the order of 4.0 kg/cm2 . This pressure shall be obtained by
means of a pressure reducing valve in the compressed air hose
The ENGINEER may authorize increased pressures, when a relatively long length of dry
mixture tube is necessary, and for relativelly elevated vertical displacements. The
equipment used should guarantee a constant flow of air and mixture and, if this condition
is temporarily interrupted, the jet should be directed away from the surface until the
flow normalizes.
Compressed air shall be completely free from any impurities such as lubricating oil
emulsions from the compressors. For this purpose, an air cleaner or a chamber with a
minimum capacity of one m3 shall be installed on the air hose immediately before the
application equipment. The hose shall be bled once every hour.
The water pressure, at the projection nozzle, shall be sufficiently greater than the operating
air pressure to assure that water is intimately mixed with the other materials. A value at
least 1.0 kg/cm2 above the air pressure is recommended. During placement, air and
water pressures shall be kept constant. Workers shall be protected by rubber boots,
gloves and hooded coat, as well as plastic goggles. To assure adequate protection
against toxic materials, nozzlement and helpers shall, when applying shotcrete containing
an accelerating-hardening admixture, wear sandblasting hoods supplied with filtered air
free of objectionable or toxic material, in addition to the specified protective clothing.

7.

Thickness. The shotcrete shall be applied in layers having a thinckness that will assure
the shotcrete completely adheres to the surface or preceding layer and no sagging
occurs. In order to obtain the specified thickness, shotcrete shall be applied in several
layers, with the first approximately 3 cm thick.
Shotcrete thickness shall be carefully controlled. Final thickness shall be determined by
steel spikes driven into the surface to be lined after the first layer has been placed.
Average thickness of the shorcrete layer shall be as indicated on the drawings. Minimum
thickness over rock protrusions shall be two-thirds of design thickness.
The time intermal between two layer applications shall range from 30 to 60 minutes. All
layers shall have the same batch formula and the same water/cement ratio.

8.

Rebound. Rebound shall not exceed 30%. The CONTRACTOR shall try to reduce rebound
by using an adequate water/cement ratio and, in some cases, fly ash. Overloading the
surface with green concrete should be avoided.
Rebound concrete shall be removed before it begins to set, and under no circumstances
shall it be re-used. Vertical and slanted surfaces shall be kept free of rebound material
and shall be lined from the bottom up.

9.

Concrete Repairs. If the lining has voids, spots, or pockets containing rebound material,
the lining shall be removed and shotcrete placement shall be repeated, at the expense of
the CONTRACTOR.
All repairs shall be considered as new placement of lining and all the different steps shall
be followed, namely preparation of the surface, placing, curing and protection.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

86

Standard Technical Specifications

10.

Curing and Protection. Shotcrete shall be cured by maintaining the lining wet during 14
days. If shotcrete is placed above ground, it should be protected from the direct rays of
the sun for 3 days. No surfaces shall be allowed to become dry during the curing period.
If accelerating admixtures or high initial strength cement are used, the curing period
may be shortened, upon approval by the ENGINEER, to a minimum of seven days. Water
used for curing shall be clean and free of harmful substances. Before the start of lining
work, the CONTRACTOR shall have, on hand, all equipment required for the curing and
protection of applied shotcrete.

11.

Drains. Drain openings, for the purpose of relieving pressures on the lining, shall be
made as indicated on drawings or directed by the ENGINEER.
Unless otherwise specified in the drawings, the drains shall be made with a percussion
perforator, to a depth of at least 40 cm, to be measured from the external surface of the
lining.

12.

Reinforcement. Reinforecement for reinforced shotcrete shall comply with pertinent


requirement in item (C-040110 - General Concrete Requirements). Reinforcement steel
shall be placed as indicated on the drawings.

13.

Measurement and Payment. Shotcrete work shall be measured based on the volume of
concrete placed for the thicknesses indicated in the drawings or as directed by the
ENGINEER.
No measurement or payment will be made for shotcrete placed for the convenience of
the CONTRACTOR or not placed as directed by the ENGINEER.
Shotcrete volume shall be measured in cubic meters and shall be calculated by multiplying
the lined area by the thickness specified on the drawings. The volume shall be paid for
at the unit price indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
The price shall include the cost of materials, including reinforcement, when needed,
labor, and equipmemt required for the work.

C-040503
1.

SMOOTH OR POLISHED EXPOSED REINFORCED CONCRETE


General. Exposed concrete shall comply with all requirements for reinforced concrete
and with conditions which are inherent to surface finishing materials.
These conditions require a strict quality control of concrete, in order to assure even
color, homogeneous texture, regular surfaces, and resistance to dust and weathering.
Construction of exposed concrete with white cement requires even more rigorous
attention, particularly with regards to evenness of color.

2.

Materials

2.1

Reinforcement. Reinforcement shall comply with item (C-040107 - Reinforcing Bars)


and with the following.
Since iron oxide discolors the surface of exposed concrete and such stains are hard to
remove, reinforcement shall be covered by a cement slurry or protected against weathering
by means of a polyethylene film, until placing the concrete.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

87

Standard Technical Specifications

2.2

Agregates. Aggregates shall comply with item (C-040106 - Aggregates) and with the
specifications below.
Aggregates shall have a uniform color, be from a single source and supplied in a
single lot; aggregates shall be thoroughly washed.

2.3

Water. Water shall comply with item (C-040105 - Water).

2.4

Cement. Cement shall comply with item (C-040103 - Cement) and with the specifications
below.
Only one brand of cement shall be used. If the timeframe of the work so allows, all
cement shall come from a single lot.
If white cement is used, minimum cement content shall be 400 kg/m3. The
characteristic concrete strength values defined in the drawings shall be attained.

2.5

Forms and Shoring. Forms and shoring shall comply with item (C-040108 - Forms and
Shoring) and with the specifications below.
Forms shall be finished wood or plywood forms, with a Tego-Film plastic coating
on both surfaces.
If finished wood is used, both surfaces shall be coated with a protective agent, for
the purpose of preventing concrete adherence to the form.
The use of burnt oil as protective agent or of any other products which may prevent
the even coloring of exposed concrete will not be allowed.
Tolerance in form positioning shall be plus or minus 5 mm.
The plumbness and leveling of forms shall be constantly checked, particularly during
the placing of concrete. When necessary, corrections shall be carried out immediately,
by means of wedges, shoring, etc.
In order to assure the watertightness of the forms, tongue-and-groove mortise
joints may be used, provided that the form is not used again.
Otherwise, watertightness of joints shall be obtained by means of caulking
compounds that do not harden in contact with air, preferably a silicone elastomer.
In order to obtain smooth concrete surfaces, nails shall be countersunk into the
forms and the recess caulked with a silicone elastomeric product.
The spacing between internal and external forms of reinforced walls shall be
established by means of spacers and ties passing through the concrete.
Spacers, installed under compression and preferably being PVC pipes, shall establish
the minimum spacing between the forms. Ties, installed under tension and preferably
being metallic, shall limit the maximum spacing between the forms.
Spacers and respective ties shall be placed as indicated in the drawings and as
approved by the ENGINEER.
As a rule, spacers shall be vertically and horizontally aligned. Placement tolerance
shall be 5 mm. Whenever possible, spacers shall be located in recessed joints, so
that they do not appear on the exposed concrete surface.
If metallic forms are allowed, they shall be free from oxidation.
Forms shall be kept moist from the beginning of concrete placement until concrete
has hardened. Forms shall be protected from direct sunlight by means of sacks,
canvas, or opaque polyethylene film.

2.6

Admixtures. Admixtures shall comply with item (C-040104 - Admixtures).

2.7

Batching. Batching shall comply with item (C-040101 - Composition and Batching).

2.8

Quality Control. Quality control shall comply with item (C-040102 - Concrete Testing
and Quality Control) and with the specifications below.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

88

Standard Technical Specifications

3.

Construction. Concrete construction shall comply with item (C-040122 - Construction


of Concrete Structures) and with the specifications below.

3.1

Placing Concrete
Concrete shall be placed gradually.
If cement paste escapes through the joints of the forms and is deposited on hardened
concrete surfaces, it shall be immediately cleaned off by means of a water jet. The
hardening of the cement film on exposed concrete causes differences in concrete
color.
If it rains, the ENGINEER shall decide whether concrete placing shall continue or be
interrupted.

3.2

Consolidation of Concrete
Consolidation of concrete shall comply with item (C-040113 - Consolidation of
Concrete).
Concrete shall be well consolidated by vibration. The vibrator head shall be introduced
into the concrete through channels that allow immersion.

3.3

Construction Joints
Construction joints resulting from interruptions in concrete placement, particularly
joints on reinforced walls, fall under two categories: exposed and non-exposed.
Construction joints shall comply with item (C-040115 - Construction Joints).

4.

Measurement and Payment. Measurement and payment for smooth or polished exposed
reinforced concrete shall be made in accordance with the requirements for concrete as
set forth in item (C-040125 - Measurement and Payment for Concrete).

C-040505

MIXED REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS

1.

Definition. Mixed slabs are slabs composed of precast intermediate elements, made of
normal or lightweight, plain or reinforced, ceramic or silica-lime concrete, placed between
conventional reinforced concrete ribs. The precast concrete elements are integral with
the ribs and resist compressive forces resulting from flexure.

2.

Standards. Mixed reinforced concrete slabs shall comply with the most recent version
of pertinent ABNT standards, particularly NBR-6118 (NB-1), NBR-6119 (NB-4), NBR7197 (NB-116), and NBR-5627 (NB-503). Mixed reinforced concrete slabs shall comply
with all pertinent requirements of item (S-040100 - General Concrete Requirements)
and the additional requirements specified herein.

3.

Basic Conditions. As per item 1 of NBR-6119 (NB-4).

4.

Materials

4.1

Reinforcement. - Transverse reinforcement shall be placed in the compression block of


the concrete or, if there is none, in empty spaces designed for this purpose, in the transversal
joints of the intermediate elements. Reinforcement shall be at least 0.6 cm2 /m, with only
Class CA-50 or CA-60 steels being acceptable.

Stirrups, when required, shall comply with the section on beams in standard NBR-6118
(NB-1).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

89

Standard Technical Specifications

4.2

Intermediate Elements. The compressive strength of intermediate elements shall be


determined as the average value of at least six tests, results of which shall be submitted
to the ENGINEER, on a timely basis.

5.

Execution

5.1

Ribs. The distance between the faces of any two adjacent ribs shall be equal to or less
than 50 cm. Rib width shall be at least 4 cm, but greater than 1% of the theoretical span.

5.2

Intermediate Elements. The continuity of the intermediate elements in the direction of


the ribs shall be accomplished by filling the joints with a 1:3 cement:sand mortar, so
that they are able to efficiently transmit compressive stresses. A rib shall always be
located between any two rows of intermediate elements.
When laying intermediate elements, care shall be exercised to place them in the correct
position, particularly when zones of tensile and compressive stresses will exist.
Intermediate elements shall have geometrically determined shapes. On the lower face,
elements shall be flat, so as to rest firmly on the shoring; there shall be cavities in the
upper face which shall be filled with mortar.

5.3

Assembly. All material shall be carefully selected. Special care shall be given to placing
precast beams, as regards to the position of negative and distribuition reinforcement;
beams shall not be installed on the basis of length alone.
When placing precast beams, a block shall be used at each end in order to obtain the
correct spacing of the beams. The first row of blocks shall be supported, at one end, by
an existing beam and, at other, by the first precast beam.
During concrete placement operations, all traffic in the area shall be over planks supported
by the precast beams.
All materials (beams, intermediate elements, reinforcement) shall be moistened before
concrete is placed; concrete shall be compacted (with a trowel) so that it penetrates the
joints between beams and blocks.
Reinforcement Requirements. - Next to the beams, distribuition reinforcement
(placed in both directions, as set forth in subitem 4.1., above) shall be supported
by a lath 1.25 cm thick, with one of its ends made fast by means of a small
amount of concrete. Concrete shall be placed after removing the lath.
Special Notice: Reinforcement shall not extend into the joints between beams and blocks
but shall be embedded in the concrete.
The same care shall be taken with regard to the negative reinforcement between the
inlaid slabs.
If not present in the design, slabs which are simply supported along all edges shall have
reinforcement to accomodate bending moments - as stated in NBR-6118 (NB-1).

Deflections. Deflections greater than those stated in NBR-6118 (NB-1) shall not be
accepted. For the purpose of avoiding such deflections, the following minimum amounts
of camber (at the center of the span) and shoring are recommended.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

90

Standard Technical Specifications

SPAN WIDTH
up to 3,0m

camber amount of

3,0 to 4,0m

camber amount of

shoring
shoring
camber amount of

h = 9.5 at 11.5cm
every 1.5m

h = 15.0 at 20,.cm
every 1.30m

h = 25.0 at 20.0cm
every 1.20m

h = 35.0 cm
every 1.0m

0.5 cm

0.5 cm

0.5 cm

0.5 cm

1.0 cm

1.0 cm

0.5 cm

0.5 cm

2.0 cm

2.0 cm

1.0 cm

1.0 cm

shoring

camber amount of

2.5 cm

2.0 cm

1.5 cm

5,0 to 6,0m

shoring

Measurement and Payment. Measurement and Payment for mixed reinforced concrete
slabs shall be made as set forth item (C-040125 - Measurement and Payment for Concrete).

4,0 to 5,0m

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

91

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION - BUILDING
AND URBANIZATION
WORKS

C-050000

BUILDINGS

1.

General

1.1

The work contracted for construction of buildings shall be executed in full compliance
with these Specifications, the drawings and other requirements stated therein.

1.2

All materials, except when otherwise stipulated in the Specifications, shall be furnished
by the CONTRACTOR.

1.3

All labor, except when otherwise stipulated in the Specifications, shall be furnished by
the CONTRACTOR.

1.4

Any work that does not meet the requirements of these Specifications shall be rejected
by the ENGINNER.

1.5

The CONTRACTOR shall demolish and reconstruct, at this own expense, any work
rejected by the ENGINEER, immediately after official notification by the CLIENT.

1.6

The materials used shall be appropriate for the type of work being executed and shall
meet design requirements and these Specifications.

1.7

The CONTRACTOR shall keep enough engineers, foremen, workers, and clerks, in the
appropriate technical field, as well as sufficient material, at the work site for the
accomplishment of the work.

1.8

The CONTRACTOR shall be liable for any damages caused to the CLIENT and/or to third
parties, resulting from neglect, unskillfulness or omission.

1.9

The CONTRACTOR shall maintain constant surveillance over the work site and shall be
held liable for any damages caused as a result of negligence during the execution of the
work, until the final acceptance.

1.10

Equipment, machinery and tools used shall be appropriate for each type of work
performed, as determined by the ENGINEER.

1.11

The CONTRACTOR shall take due precautions and care so as to completely assure the
stability of adjacent buildings and utility networks that may be affected by the work,
paved areas and third party property, as well as to guarantee the safety of works and
pedestrians, during all stages of the work.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

92

Standard Technical Specifications

1.12

All trash and refuse from the work shall be periodically removed. This work shall include
removal and transport of the material to the limits of the work area or to an area
previously established by the ENGINEER.

2.

Concrete, Earthwork and Foundations. In accordance with the requirements in this


Specification, the CONTRACTOR shall execute concrete construction, earthwork and
subsurface investigations for foundations. All said work and services shall be in
accordance with the applicable Specifications for construction of civil works. Therefore,
all applicable provisions of the civil works Specifications are made a part of this
Specification.

3.

Description of the Work

3.1

The work shall be performed in strict compliance with designs and these Specifications.

3.2

The CONTRACTOR shall provide detail drawings for the work being executed, as required
or requested by the ENGINEER; detail drawings shall be examined and certified by the
ENGINEER. During construction, the ENGINEER may provide complementary drawings
which shall, in turn, be certified by the CONTRACTOR.

3.3

In the event a partial or a total modification is made to the work, whether proposed by
the CLIENT or by the CONTRACTOR, this fact shall in no way invalidate or annul the
CONTRACT, which shall always remain in force. In cases where changes to the design
result in additional work, the CONTRACTOR shall submit the corresponding manner of
measurement and payment, for the CLIENTs analysis and approval, prior to starting the
work. Changes in amounts shall not be considered sufficient reason for changing unit
prices. No prices adjustment shall be made in the event the CONTRACTOR initiates and
concludes additional work without requesting a price review.

3.4

Any difference of opinion on the interpretation of CONTRACTOR documentations for


the execution of work shall be subjected to the stipulations contained in these
Specifications.

C-050201

FOUNDATIONS FOR BUILDINGS

1.

General

1.1

Definition. For the purpose of these Specifications, the following features and/or parts
of a building shall be considered as Foundation.

1.1.1

Blocks;

1.1.2

Base plates;

1.1.3

Beams;

1.1.4

Balance beams or lever beams;

1.1.5

Retaining walls;

1.1.6

Piles/pile cap;

1.1.7

Caissons/caissons cap.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

93

Standard Technical Specifications

1.2

Standards and Regulations. The construction of foundations shall meet applicable ABNT
standards, particularly NBR-6l22 (NB-5l) and NBR-6ll8 (NB-l), as well as local codes and
regulations of the official agency within whose jurisdiction the work is to be accomplished.

1.3

Shoring. -The CONTRACTOR shall provide all required shoring.

1.4

Quality of the Groundwater

1.4.1

The CONTRACTOR shall investigate the quality of the groundwater and the occurrence
of any deteriorating effects to the works must be immediately communicated to the
ENGINEER.

1.4.2

The CONTRACTOR shall investigate how to assure the protection of reinforcement and
concrete against aggressive groundwaters, as well as the method for placing the concrete,
in order to guarantee the integrity and durability of the structure.

1.5

Responsibility. The construction of the foundations as well as the strength of the concrete
and the stability of the structures shall be the sole responsibility of the CONTRACTOR.

1.6

Modifications and Additions

1.6.1

Modifications and/or additions caused by differing site conditions shall be treated according
to item (C-0l0202 -Differing Site Conditions).

1.7

Concrete. All concrete work shall meet the requirements specified herein and shall be in
accordance with item (C-040122 - General Concrete Requirements).
Before starting construction of the buildings, the ENGINEER shall inspect and approve the
building foundations.

2.

Surface Foundations

2.1

Definition. Surface, shallow or direct foundations are foundations immediately below


the lowest part of the superstructure, where pressures are transmitted through the
base, directly to the supporting soil, with negligible pressures transmitted through lateral
friction.

2.2

General

2.2.1

Concrete shall meet all design requirements (fck, slump, etc.).

2.2.2

In constructing surface foundations the CONTRACTOR must strictly comply with design
depths; excavations must be made to the depth where the soil offers the required
strength, compatible with the allowable design stresses and able to prevent differential
settlement.

2.3

Preparation for Concrete Placement

2.3.1

The procedures necessary for satisfactory preparation of foundations over which concrete
will be placed are determined by design requirements and the characteristics and type
of the foundation material.

2.3.2

Before placing the concrete for the foundations, the excavations shall be cleaned and
any material detrimental to concrete, such as wood, loose dirt imported by rains, etc.,
shall be removed.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

94

Standard Technical Specifications

2.3.3

In the event there is water in the foundation trenches, it must be completely removed
before placing the concrete. Under no circumstances shall concrete be placed before
removal of water.

2.3.4

The bottom of the trench must be lined with a layer of lean concrete, at least 6 cm in
depth.

2.3.5

Under no circumstances shall foundation concrete be placed using the soil as side forms.

2.3.6

Preparation of Foundations in Rock


When the design stipulates effective adherence of concrete to rock, the surface
of the rock must be roughened and thoroughly cleaned, in the area of the foundation.
Loose rocks, dry mortar, organic matter, oily or friable substances, and other
foreign material must be removed.
Open cracks, filled with clay or other fine materials, must be cleaned to an adequate
depth by means of air and water jets.
Cleaning methods include the use of picks, levers, hard brooms, sand blasting and
other appropriate means.
Groundwater from outside the foundation area must be drained and channeled to
pumping areas. 2.4 Types of Surface Foundations

2.4.1

Foundation Blocks. Foundation blocks are isolated foundations, rigid and undeformable,
of reinforced concrete, constructed on the ground surface. These types of foundations
are generally used for moderate structural loads and when the allowable load on the soil
is not too high. Foundation blocks are characterized by their height.

2.4.2

Footings
Isolated Footings. - Isolated footings are isolated foundations of reinforced concrete,
semi-flexible or semi-rigid, shallow constructed on the ground surface.
Continous Curtain Footings
Continuous curtain footings are continuous and rigid foundations, of reinforced
concrete, constructed on the ground surface, utilized when the base of one
or more footings overlap, as required by the designs.
Tensile stresses produced at the lower part of the footing will be resisted by
the reinforcement, which must be adequately covered by concrete, to avoid
corrosion.
In order to avoid the occurrence of forces above those anticipated in the
design, it is important to strictly control the location of foundation features,
as well as their respective batter.
For continuous curtain footings, constructed at different levels, the footing
located at the lower level must be constructed first, in compliance with the
standards set forth in item 6.3 of NBR-6l22 (NB-5l).
The CONTRACTOR shall verify whether the soil bearing capacity is compatible
with the information used in the designs and shall construct the footings on
soils that assure adequate stability of the structure.

2.4.3

Foundation Beams. Foundation beams, constructed on the ground surface, are semiflexible or semi-rigid foundations, in the shape of a continous beam, common to several
columns whose centers, in plan, are located in the same alignment. Foundation beams
are constructed of reinforced concrete and are intended to transmit to the soil, the loads
from all the points (columns) on each beam.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

95

Standard Technical Specifications

2.4.4

Lever Beams or Balance Beams. Lever or balance beams are used to transmit part of the
loads of one foundation element to another contiguous foundation element.

2.4.5

Retaining Walls. Retaining walls are structures designed to support lateral forces resulting
from earth and/or water loads.
Types of retaining walls
Gravity walls;
Relief gravity walls;
Flexible walls; - Buttress walls; and
Sheet piling.
Retaining walls, unless otherwise specified, may be built of masonry (rock and brick),
concrete, wood, or steel, as shown on the drawings or as determined by the ENGINEER.
Unless provided by the CLIENT, the CONTRACTOR shall prepare retaining wall designs
and submit them to the ENGINEER, for review and approval, prior to construction.
As required and at the request of the ENGINEER, the CONTRACTOR may be required to
provide, together with the design and detail drawings, the structural calculations for the
feature at issue.
Retaining walls shall be constructed in compliance with the applicable requirements for
concrete, when concrete is used; concrete must be waterproof.
Retaining walls shall include required drainage as provided for in the designs.
Retaining walls shall be made waterproof after being completed and before final backfill
work is undertaken.
The ENGINEER will accept retaining walls as foundation structures directly over the soil,
provided they are designed for such use and located at grade where the soil strength is
compatible with the loads it will be subjected to.

2.5

Load Test

2.5.1

Load tests for surface foundations, when requested by the ENGINEER, shall comply
with ABNT-NBR-6489 (NB-27) standard.

3.

Deep Foundations

3.1

General. Whenever surface soils have low bearing capacity and are compressible and,
therefore, do not permit the use of surface foundations, structural loads shall be transfered
to soils with greater load capacity, located at greater depths, by means of deep
foundations.
A layer of lean concrete, 6 cm minimum thick, shall be laid under all concrete
works in contact with the soil (beams, slabs).
Deep foundations under 3 meters in length will not be allowed.
When executing a deep foundation, the CONTRACTOR should not limit himself to
the Project design elevations but, rather, continue with the driving and/or excavation
until reaching a base layer whose bearing capacity is compatible with the
foundations calculated loads.
Changes required during the execution of the work may only be implemented
after being approved by the ENGINEER.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

96

Standard Technical Specifications

The CONTRACTOR shall undertake, at his own expense, any shoring of adjacent
buildings and slopes, or any other shoring required for the execution and stability
of the work.
3.2

Piles

3.2.1

General
The concept of driving to refusal shall be used for the control of pile driving only
and not for determining the load capacity of a pile. Whenever driving to refusal is
not defined in the design or the Specifications, the CONTRACTOR shall use a
driving to refusal value equal to a 20 mm advance for 10 hammer blows, after the
third consecutive attempt.
Piles shall have the required minimum length, to avoid welds or joints.
In driving adjacent piles, spaced at a distance under five times the pile diameter
and, more particularly, for sections even with the ground surface, care shall be
taken to avoid damaging the in-place piles.
Whenever required, pile ends shall be cut with a chisel, at the design elevation; no
other device shall be permitted for this work.
After the piles are driven, constructed or pressed, the ends shall be finished, in
order to connect them to the stress block or beam. Also, the following measures
shall be taken:
For concrete cutting, use very sharp chisels, work horizontally and, whenever
posssible, slope slightly upward;
Concrete shall be cut in thin layers, beginning at the sides and progressing
toward the center;
Pile ends shall be perpendicular (normal) to their longitudinal axis;
Piles must penetrate the pile cap by at least 10 cm for concrete piles, and 20 cm
for metallic piles, except when specified otherwise.
Pile Caps.
Wooden forms shall be used for forming the pile caps, in compliance with item (C040108 - Forms and Shoring).
Since the bottom of the excavation will be lined with lean concrete, care must be taken
for the concrete not to cover the piles. For this purpose, the piles must be higher than
the bottom of the excavation. The final elevation of the piles shall only be attained after
placing the lean concrete.

3.2.2

Concrete Piles
General. Piles shall be molded in the soil, in place, by means of steel tubes or other
appropriate equipment, with a belled-out section formed by the concrete, at the
base; concrete piles must comply with pertinent ABNT standards, particularly NB49, NBR-6118 (NB-1) and NBR-6122 (NB-51), as well as the following specifications.
Minimum diameter shall be 25 cm.
Piles molded in place may be of reinforced or plain concrete, with retrievable
or non-retrievable casing, as required.
Concrete mixes for construction of the piles shall be trial mixes; however,
when approved by the ENGINEER, pre-determined mixes shall be allowed
when the rated load on the pile does not exceed 10 t.
In the event a pre-determined mix of concrete is accepted, the cement
component of the mix shall not be less than 300 kg/m3 of concrete, and the
concrete shall have a plastic consistency.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

97

Standard Technical Specifications

In any of the previous hypotheses, the CONTRACTOR must prove to the


ENGINEER that the concrete to be used for constructing the piles meets
design requirements.
In order to meet the above criteria, the CONTRACTOR shall carry out, as
determined by the ENGINEER, all tests required to adequately determine the
characterization of the concrete to be used for the piles.
Minimum spacing between piles, from axis to axis, shall be equal to three
times the diameter of the smallest pile.
Unless otherwise specified, the minimum concrete cover for the steel
reinforcement shall be 25 mm.
Piles subject to horizontal displacement shall be constructed of reinforced
concrete and have appropriate devices for absorving the loads resulting from
such displacements.
The upper parts of the piles shall be connected to one another by means of
encircling reinforced concrete collar or foundation blocks, as specified in the
drawings.
Each pile cap shall cover a maximum of six piles.
Tolerances
a)

Eccentricity

For isolated piles without lateral support. For isolated piles, unsupported in two
approximately orthogonal directions, maximum allowable deviation, between the
pile axis and the load application point resulting from all the loads to which the
pile is subjected, shall be 10% of the piles diameter.
In performing safety checks for pile buckling, the CONTRACTOR shall take into account
an increase in the buckling length as a function of how the pile is supported.
For isolated piles with lateral support. The lateral support beam shall be sized for
actual eccentricity, when eccentricity exceeds the value in the above paragraph.
Buckling checks and verifications shall only be carried out for the pile.
For aligned pile sets. In checking the eccentricity in the direction of the piles
alignment, the CONTRACTOR shall consider the loads on the piles. A maximum
increase of 15% over the safe design load of piles shall be tolerated without any
correction.
Increases in excess of 15% shall be corrected by increasing the number of piles or by
structural devices.
For non-aligned pile sets. The CONTRACTOR shall check the stress on all piles.
Maximum increase of stress on any pile must not exceed 15% of safe design
load. Increases in excess of 15% must be corrected as specified in the paragraph
above.
b)

Deviation from plumb

Whenever a pile shows an angle deviation with regard to its design position, the
CONTRACTOR shall check its stability maximum deviation without correction shall
be 1:100.
Whenever a set of piles shows an angle deviation with regard to their design
positions, the CONTRACTOR shall check the stability of the set, taking into account
soil support and structural joints.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

98

Standard Technical Specifications

3.2.3

Driven Precast Concrete Piles


Reinforced precast concrete piles, driven into the soil, shall meet the following
requirements:
The reinforcement shall be able to sustain stress during transportation, handling
and driving, as well as the usual work to which they will be subjected, including
horizontal displacement.
Minimum strength (fck) of the concrete used for driven precast concrete piles
shall be 20 MPa (200 kg/cm2).
Concrete shall be consolidated by vibration and submitted to careful curing. If
either the waters or the soils are aggressive, special measures must be
undertaken to protect the concrete.
If joints are needed, they shall be able to bear all stresses to which they are
subjected. Steel sleeves shall be used for joints. The sleeves shall extend for
a distance of twice the average diameter of the pile on each side of the joint.
Plumbness of the pile shall be carefully controlled during driving and any
displacement from the vertical shall be immediately corrected.
The pile driver shall be equipped with a special hammer that ensures the
plumbness of the pile. The ratio between the weight of the hammer and that
of the pile must comply with item 7.6.1.4 of NBR-6122 (MB-51).
In order to prevent undue compaction of the soil, which would make the
driving of adjacent piles in the same block more difficult, piles must be driven
from the center of the group of piles outwards, or from one end to the other.
For hollow concrete piles, before placing concrete for the pile cap, the hollow
space shall be carefully plugged.
A steel cap with wooden pad shall protect the end of the pile during driving.
Maximum allowable driving to refusal for precast piles shall be 30 mm advance
for 10 blows.
Piles shall be driven a minimum length of five meters.

3.2.4

Control of Execution
The CONTRACTOR shall submit to the CLIENT a work schedule with the following
information:
Real length of the pile below the leveling grade;
Supplement used - type and length;
Variation from plumb, displacements and breakage;
Characteristics of the pile driving equipment, including weight of the hammer,
diameter, drop distance, number of blows/minute, etc.;
Pile leveling grade;
Number of blows/meter for each pile;
Date in which each pile was driven;
Final driving to refusal elevation for each pile (for 10 hammer blows);
Displacement and raising of piles, as a result of driving of adjacent piles,
when applicable.
The CONTRACTOR shall provide pile driving diagrams for at least 10% of the
piles, including the piles closest to the exploratory borings.

3.2.5

Metallic Piles
Definition. Metallic piles are foundation elements made of structural steel sections,
rolled or welded, simple or multiple, double plated (square, circular or rectangular
sections), with high strength points, as well as a work load around 800 kg/cm2.
Utilization. Metallic piles are used for any type of soil and are particularly indicated
when the elements have multiple functions (foundation, shoring and structure).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

99

Standard Technical Specifications

Types. The ENGINEER will allow the use of the following types of pile sections: H,
I, and tubular sections, as well as welded sections.
3.2.6

Load Test - Piles. Load tests for deep foundations, when required by the ENGINEER,
shall comply with NBR (NB-20).

3.3

Caissons. Caissons shall comply with pertinent ABNT standards, particularly NBR-6118
(NB-1), NBR-6122 (NB-51) and NBR-7678/83.

3.3.1

General Characteristics
Caissons shall always be constructed of concrete, reinforced or unreinforced.
They may have an outer steel casing - retrievable or unretrievable - or an outer
reinforced concrete casing.
Caissons shall be excavated manually or mechanically, with possible use of
bentonitic sludge.
In the case of manual excavation, the minimum diameter required to assure the
safety of the worker will be 70 cm.
In the case of mechanical excavation, the last 50 cm shall be excavated manually,
including the widening of the base (if applicable), in order to avoid disturbance of
the soil structure.
Caissons must be set on soils highly resistant to compression.
In the event the side slopes cave in, the CONTRACTOR shall submit to the
ENGINEER, for approval, a solution to the problem.
The CONTRACTOR shall provide adequate protection near the structure, in order
to prevent the introduction of foreign matter. Wooden, masonry or concrete collars
or borders may be used.
In any event, before placing concrete, the caissons shall be inspected again and
the dimensions, qualities and characteristics of the soil verified. The bottom of
the excavation shall be cleaned and any layer softened by the weather or infiltration
water shall be removed.
When variable base elevations are foreseen for the various caissons, excavation
shall proceed from the lowest elevation to the highest.
The CONTRACTOR shall not perform work simultaneously on the widened bases
of adjacent caissons, either for excavation or concrete placement.
Allowable loads and structural calculations shall comply with items 8.4 and 8.5 of
NBR-6122 (NB-51).

3.3.2

Tolerances. Tolerances shall comply with item 8.6 of NBR-6122 (NB-51), with special
attention to the following maximum allowable values:
Eccentricity: 10% of caisson diameter;
Deviation from plumb: 1%.

3.3.3

3.3.4

Work with Compressed Air. When the execution of caissons by means of compressed
air is foreseen, the CONTRACTOR shall submit to the CLIENT, for approval, a description
of the equipment and method to be used, together with working drawings and any
other documents required for an adequate analysis.
Other Constructive Measures. In addition to the requirements heretofore established in
these Specifications, the following shall also be taken into account:
Widening of the Base
The caissons shall be designed to avoid bases greater than 2 meters, which
will only be accepted in special circumstances and when adequately justified.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

100

Standard Technical Specifications

When soil characteristics indicate problems with the widening of the caisson
base, it might be necessary to consider the use of injections of grout, surface
applications of mortar, or even shoring, in order to avoid the collapse of the
base.
Whenever the base of the caisson is set on sloped rock, the structure shall
comply with item 6.1.2 of NBR-6122 (NB-51).

Reinforcement
The nucleus reinforcement shall be placed so as to assure its rigidity and
prevent deformation during handling and concrete placement.
The reinforcement connecting the shaft to the base shall be designed and
placed so as to assure satisfactory concreting of the widened base. Care
shall be taken that the grid composed of the vertical steel and the buttress
shall not be smaller than 30 cm x 30 cm. If necessary, the CONTRACTOR
shall use sets of bars instead of isolated bars.
3.3.5

Time frame. No more than 24 hours shall pass between the final widening of the base
and the placing of concrete.

3.3.6

Preparation of the Caisson Head. The concrete at the top of the caisson is usually not
satisfactory. This concrete shall be removed until reaching the adequate material, even
if it is below the final grade. Concrete shall be placed again over the section where the
previous concrete was removed, up to the required finished grade.

3.3.7

Connection between the Caisson and the Cap. The adequate transference of the column
load to the caisson shall always be guaranteed, as shown in the design.

3.3.8

Concrete Ballast. When a capping block is needed, the bottom of the excavation for the
block shall be covered with a layer of lean concrete, at least 10 cm thick.

3.3.9

Control of Execution. The CONTRACTOR shall submit to the CLIENT, for approval, the
following information about each caisson:
Top elevation;
Actual dimensions of the widened base;
Material of the base support bedding layer;
Equipment used in the various stages of the work;
Displacement and deviation from plumb;
Quantities of material used during concrete placement operations and a comparison
with the previously estimated amount of each material;
Quality of the materials; and
Abnormal conditions encountered and measures taken.

3.3.10

Load Tests. Load tests for caisson foundations, whenever required by the ENGINEER,
shall comply with NBR-6489 (NB-27).

4.

Measurement and Payment

4.1

Blocks, footings, foundation beams, retaining walls.

4.1.1

Concrete. The concrete used for blocks, footings, foundation beams, and retaining
walls shall be measured and paid as stipulated in item (CP040125 - Measurement and
Payment for Concrete).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

101

Standard Technical Specifications

4.1.2

Forms. The forms used for blocks, footings, foundations beams, and abutment walls
shall be measured and paid as stipulated in item (CP040125 - Measurement and Payment
for Concrete).

4.1.3

Reinforcement. The furnishing and placing of reinforcement shall be measured and paid
as stipulated in item (CP040107 - Reinforcing Bars).

4.2

Piles. Pile driving shall be measured on the basis of the length between the pile end
elevation and the finished grade, in linear meters of pile actually driven, as shown on the
drawings and approved by the ENGINEER. Payment shall be made to the CONTRACTOR
at the applicable unit prices for the different types of piles indicated in the Bidding
Schedule.
Unit prices shall include the cost of supplying all materials and equipment required;
transportation to the work site; placing; cutting and making joints, as required; losses,
casings, as required; and any other work required to perform the work as specified
herein.

4.3

Caissons. Caissons shall be measured on the basis of the linear meter of caisson actually
constructed, as shown on the drawings and approved by the ENGINEER.
Caisson bases shall be measured on the basis of base units actually constructed, as
shown on the drawings.
Payment shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the applicable unit prices for the different
types of caissons and their respective diameters, as indicated in the Bidding Schedule.
The unit prices shall include the cost of supplying all materials and equipment required;
excavations for the caissons, casings, placing materials, and any other work required to
perform the work as specified herein.

C-050302

MASONRY

1.

Common Bricks - For Wall Finishing. The bricks for wall finishing shall be in accordance
with item (C-050304 - Bricks).

1.1

Brick masonry shall be constructed with hollow or solid bricks or with burnt cellular
blocks, as specified below, and shall comply with the dimensions and alignments shown
in the drawings.

1.2

Thicknesses shown in the drawings are relative to finished walls. Maximum tolerance
from design thickness shall be 2 cm.

1.3

If the size of the bricks will effect changes in the thickness of walls, drawings must be
modified to show such changes, after approval by the ENGINEER.

1.4
1.5

Bricks shall be moistened before being used.


Mortar batching formula 1:1:9 (cement:lime:medium size sand) shall be used in laying
hollow or solid bricks.

1.6

Mort batching formula 1:2:7 (cement:lime:medium size sand) shall be used in laying
cellular bricks.

1.7

Recently finished masonry shall be protected from the rain.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

102

Standard Technical Specifications

1.8

When the temperature is very high and relative humidity very low, bricks shall be frequently
moistened, in order to prevent evaporation.

1.9

Soaked bricks or bricks which have been in the rain shall not be laid, in order to avoid a
chemical reaction between the sulfates contained in the bricks and the alkalis in the
cement, which would result in undesirable efflorescence.

1.10

Courses shall be perfectly leveled, aligned and plumb. Maximum thickness of joints shall
be 15 mm; joints shall be sunk with a jointing tool or a trowel, so that the plaster
adheres well to the bricks.

1.11

Brick perforations shall run the length of the wall and never across it.

1.12

Metal or hardwood cases shall be used for fixing striker plates and base boards. Cases
shall be canted or coated with waterproofing material.

1.13

Peroba blocks, or blocks made of similar wood, shall be used for fixing frames, fittings
or base boards.

1.14

If there is an overlap of brick masonry and concrete surfaces, both surfaces shall be
covered with cement and sand mortar, so as to roughen the surfaces and assure adequate
adherence between them.

1.15

All parapets, ramps and low masonry walls shall be strengthened by means of a reinforced
concrete band.

1.16

Joining of the masonry and reinforced concrete columns shall be assured not only by a
rough layer of cement and sand mortar but also by anchors made of round steel bars
installed before placement of the concrete.

1.17

Reinforced concrete lintels shall be placed over window and door openings.

1.18

Sealing walls with no structural function shall be pressed against the ceiling slab by
means of a course of bricks laid at an angle. The pressing can only be done eight days
after the conclusion of each wall section.

1.19

The function of the sills under window openings is to uniformly distribute the loads
concentrated on the lower masonry. The absence of sills will cause cracks in the masonry
and in the finishing material.

1.20

Masonry work which is to receive metal anchor bolts shall be constructed with solid
bricks.

2.

Special Brick Masonry - For Facing

2.1

Special brick masonry shall comply with all specifications set forth in the previous item,
as applicable.

2.2

Mortar batching 1:2:5 (cement:lime:medium size sand) shall be used for laying special
bricks for facing.

2.3

Courses shall be leveled, aligned and plumb.

2.4

If bricks have small variations in size, the wall shall be made plumb on one of the sides
and the other side shall show the irregularities due to different brick sizes. This operation

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

103

Standard Technical Specifications

is called facing. External walls shall always be faced on the outside, except when
otherwise determined by the ENGINEER.
2.5

In order to avoid difficulties in cleaning masonry or damage thereto, all excess and
spilled mortar shall be removed from the surface of the bricks before it hardens.

2.6

Except when otherwise determined, all joints shall be 7 mm thick.

2.7

Joints shall be filled with the common or white Portland cement paste, and smoothened
so that their surface shows small, shallow and continuous grooves. 2.8 Joints shall be
sunk uniformly by 1 cm, by means of a template, before the mortar thickens.

2.9

Concrete in sills and lintels shall not show on the facade and, therefore, they shall be set
back approximately half a brick.

2.10

The visible face of the bricks shall be cleaned before the mortar hardens.

2.11

Bricks shall be thoroughly moistened before being used.

2.12

All bricks shall belong to a single lot; have flat surfaces; be adequately molded, as
established above; have homogeneous texture; be resistent; and comply with EB-20.
Samples from each lot of bricks shall be submitted to the ENGINEER, for approval.

2.13

For adequate adherence of bricks to concrete surfaces, the concrete surfaces shall be
covered with a cement and sand mortar layer, including the lower face of beams.

3.

Hollow Elements

3.1

Ceramic Hollow Elements. As established above for Special Brick Masonry - For Facing,
when applicable.

3.2

Asbestos Cement. As established in the previous item, when applicable. The batching
formula of the mortar used in laying the element shall be 1:4 (cement:medium size
sand).

3.3

Concrete

3.3.1

Laying
Special care shall be taken in constructing panels with hollow concrete elements;
specialized personnel shall be used for this work.
Mortar batching formula 1:1 (cement:medium size sand) shall be used in laying
these blocks.
In order to avoid difficulties in cleaning masonry or damage thereto, all excess and
spilled mortar shall be removed from the surface of the blocks before it hardens.
Hollow elements shall be carefully laid, using a plumb string line.
Courses shall be straight and leveled with the use of a circular spirit level.
The first course shall receive a coating of asphalt emulsion, under the bed of
mortar.
Except when otherwise determined, hollow elements shall be layed in a grid, with
the joints of the different courses along the same plumb line.
For the hollow elements, no warping, differences of level, or being out of plumb
shall be allowed. Sinuosity of the vertical or horizontal joints shall also not be
allowed.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

104

Standard Technical Specifications

Where required, expansion joints shall be constructed with appropriate material


(asphalt, bituminous mastic, glass wool, or neoprene).
3.2.2

Pointing
Joints shall be pointed with the end of a trowel or a special tool before the mortar
hardens; they should be sufficiently deep, after pointing, so that the edges of the
hollow elements are exposed and sharp.
The joints shall later be filled with common or white cement paste, slightly sunk or
cut with a masons jointer or a jointing tool and smoothened so that their surface
shows continuous, concave, shallow grooves.
Except when otherwise indicated, joints shall have a minimum width of 6 mm.

4.

Mortared Stone. The construction of masonry in mortared stone shall be performed as


indicated in the drawings, in these Specifications and/or as determined by the ENGINEER.
The masonry shall be constructed in layers, horizontally supported, with the required
interlocking, forming a solid block, without voids. The first course shall consist of large
stones, carefully selected, laid over a lean concrete bed when in contact with soil or
rock. Exposed surfaces shall be well finished and without protrusions.
Stone shall be sound, dense and durable.
To the extent possible, stones shall be flat and cubic in shape.
Mortar batching formula 1:3 (cement:medium size sand) shall be used in joining the
stones.

5.

Measurement and Payment. Masonry shall be measured in square meters of surface,


after deducting areas of more than 1.7 m2; areas under 1.7 m2 will not be deducted.
Structural columns with dimensions exceeding 40 cm (in cross section) as well as beams,
located within the masonry structure, shall be deducted.
Payment of masonry work shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the applicable unit
price indicated in the Bidding Schedule. Unit prices shall include the cost of supplying all
materials and equipment required; storage; transportation to the work site; placing; and
any other operation required to perform the work as specified herein.

C-050304

BRICKS

1.

Clay Bricks

1.1

General. Clay bricks shall be hollow, prime quality, adequately baked, light, hard, resounding,
of uniform dimensions, and non-vitrified. Surfaces shall be flat with sharp edges. Specific
porosity shall be less than 20%.

1.1.1

When tapped, bricks shall give a clear sound, which is characteristic of well baked bricks.

1.1.2
1.1.3

Bricks shall not contain pieces of stone, voids, excess sand, or other foreign matter.
Bricks shall be easily cut with a trowel, and fractures shall be flat and only slightly irregular
(showing homogeneity). The broken surface shall contain fine and tightly packed grains
and shall be uniformly colored from core to surface.

1.1.4

Lots with bricks of variable dimensions or weights, or with many broken units, will not be
accepted.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

105

Standard Technical Specifications

1.2
1.2.1

Hollow Bricks
Characteristics. Hollow clay bricks shall comply with ABNT standards NBR-6461 (MB-53)
and - 7171 (EB-20), except items 6 and 7 and the dimensions in item 2. Minimum
compressive strengths - in kgf/cm2 - contained in item 10 of the forementioned standard,
shall be as follows: 45, 30 and 5 for types 1, 2 and 3, in Table 1.

1.3

Solid Bricks

1.3.1

Characteristics. Solid clay bricks shall comply with ABNT standards NBR-6460 (MB-52)
and -7170 (EB-19) for type 2, except items 3, 4 and 7.

2.

Cellular Concrete Bricks

2.1

Composition. Cellular concrete in plates or blocks shall be autoclaved cellular concrete,


so as to guarantee stable dimensions.

2.2

Concrete Mix Design. Mix formulas shall be selected for each specific set of physical
properties required. Trial mixing shall be performed on the basis of laboratory batching
formulas, that should be adjusted for practical concrete mixing under field conditions.
Five methods are acceptable for determining the mix design for cellular concrete:

2.2.1

Absolute Volume Method. The principle involved is that mortar volume is the sum total
of the volumes of cement, fine aggregate, water and entrained air. This mortar volume
shall be sufficient to fill the void spaces of an aggregate volume which is light, dry and
compact, plus an additional volume to provide satisfactory workability. The mix design
shall comply with ACI-613-54 standards (American Concrete Institute).

2.2.2

Volumetric Method. The volumetric method consists of a trial mix using estimated volumes
of cement, fine and coarse aggregates, using sufficient water to provide the required
slump. The method shall comply with ACI 211 standards.

2.2.3

Specific Weight Factor Method. The method shall comply with ACI 613-A-59 standards.
A trial mix shall be prepared as indicated in item 1.3.2. and tests shall be carried out as
specified.

2.2.4

Specific Weight Factor Method. This method is based on the use of the pynometer as
specified in ACI 613-A-59. The method determines, with precision, a specific weight
factor by means of a pynometer analyses of aggregates, and relates that factor to the
moisture content of the aggregate at the time it is mixed.

2.2.5

Weight Method. This method takes into account that the total weight of all components
in a mixture is equal to the total weight of that mixture. If the weight of a given concrete,
per unit of volume, containing a particular aggregate, is estimated and the cement and
water weights, for the same unit of volume, are known, the weight of the aggregates in
that volume may be determined by subtracting one from the other.

3.

Wooden Bricks

3.1

General Characteristics. Wooden bricks shall be hardwood bricks, treated with a


pentachlorophenol based product.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

106

Standard Technical Specifications

4.

Refractory Bricks

4.1

General Characteristics. Refractory bricks shall be silicon-aluminum bricks, acid resistant,


silicon and silicon carbide insulated.
Calcium Silicate Bricks

5.
5.1

General Characteristics. Calcium silicate bricks shall have high compressive strength
and shall be manufactured in compliance with DIN standard 106.

6.

Expanded Vermiculite Bricks

6.1

General Characteristics. Expanded vermiculite is a hydrated magnesium, aluminum and


iron silicate material. The quality of bricks produced with this material shall be in accordance
with the appllicable ABNT standards.

7.

Glass Bricks

7.1

General Characteristics. Glass bricks shall be molded into a single, extraclear, glass piece.

Glass shall be translucent but not transparent.


8.

Measurement and Payment. Measurement and payment for brick and materials shall be
in accordance with item (C-050302 - Masonry).

C-050308

PAVEMENTS AND FLOORS

1.

General

1.1

Pavements shall be constructed only after all the pipe to be laid under it has been
completed and, when applicable, after the drainage system has been installed.

1.2

For the purpose of this Specification, pavement shall consist of a subgrade, a sub-base,
a base, and the pavement or paving.

1.3

The mortar for laying ceramic bricks shall not contain lime, since the soil humidity will
react with the lime and produce white stains on the surface of the ceramic pieces.

1.4

Highly adhesive mixtures shall be prefered for laying bricks.

1.5

Pavements in laundry areas or areas subjected to rain shall have sufficient slope to
permit fast drainage of water into gratings. Slope shall always exceed 0.5%.

1.6

Surfaces to be paved shall be adequately leveled and compacted.

1.7

Concrete paving shall have a smooth or rough finish, as specified in the drawings.

2.

Asphalt Pavements. As specified in the drawings.

3.

Ceramic Pavements

3.1

Ceramic pavements shall be laid so that joints are perfectly aligned and have minimum
thickness, unless otherwise indicated.

3.2

Bricks shall be laid by means of mortar with a volumetric batch formula of l:2:3
(cement:sand:smooth, medium size gravel). If gravel is not available, the batching formula

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

107

Standard Technical Specifications

shall be l:5 (cement:medium size sand). Highly adhesive mixtures shall be prefered for
laying bricks.
3.3

Pavements shall be carefully cleaned before the joint mortar hardens.

3.4

After the mortar begins to harden, the laying of the pavement shall be verified by
tapping the bricks and substituting any piece not adequately secured.

3.5

In areas with flat slopes - minimum slope = 0.3% - paved with bricks, no deviations in
the slope from preestablished slopes shall be allowed, nor bulges exceeding l cm in 5 m,
that is, 0.2%.

3.6

Except when otherwise specified, joints shall not exceed 2 mm for bricks larger than
200 x 300 mm or with areas larger than 400 cm2, or 1.2 mm for bricks smaller than
200 x 300 mm.

4.

Unreinforced Concrete and Mortar

4.1

Concrete Base

4.1.1

Surfaces to be finished with portuguese mosaic work, bricks, cement-mortar or with


similar materials, except slabs, patios and driveways, shall have unreinforced concrete
bases.

4.1.2

The subgrade shall be compacted as indicated in the drawings.

4.1.3

Concrete bases shall consist of plain concrete, with a volumetric batching formula of
l:2:4 (cement:sand:crushed stone).

4.1.4

Minimum concrete base thickness shall be 6 cm in areas subject to light, rolling, or


sliding traffic loads.

4.1.5

The minimum thickness of the concrete base in areas with heavy industrial traffic,
subjected to blows or impacts, shall be 12 cm.

4.1.6

Under special circumstances, the dimensions of concrete base and sub-base will require
a specific design that takes into account the possibility of a subgrade.

4.2

Cement-mortar

4.2.1

To the extent possible, the cement-mortar finish shall be obtained by simple leveling,
floating and moderately troweling the concrete base, while the concrete is still plastic.

4.2.2

If it is impossible to construct the cement-mortar finish and respective base in one


operation, the surface of the base shall be thoroughly cleaned and abundantly washed
immediately prior to placing the cement mortar finish. The cement-mortar shall have a
volumetric batching formula of 1:3 (cement:sand).

4.2.3

Except when otherwise specified, the cement-mortar surface shall be divided into panels,
by means of grooves or construction joints that reach the concrete base.
The sides of panels shall not exceed 2 m. 4.2.5 Joints shall be arranged in a simple
design; alternating joints and intersections with acute angles shall be avoided.

4.2.4
4.2.6

Cement-mortar surfaces shall be carefully cured and, therefore, the surfaces shall be
kept permanentely moist for seven days after placement.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

108

Standard Technical Specifications

4.2.7

The cement-mortar finish shall have a thickness of approximately 20 cm with the thickness
at any point not less than 10 cm.

4.3
4.3.1

Precast Concrete Blocks


Pavements of precast concrete blocks shall consist of unreinforced concrete slabs, with
the thickness indicated in the drawings.

4.3.2

The depth of the form in which the concrete blocks are cast shall be equal to the
thickness of the concrete blocks.

4.3.3

The dimensions and arrangement of concrete blocks shall be specified, for each particular
case, in the respective detailed drawing; concrete block sides shall not be less than l50
mm.

4.3.4

Joints between concrete blocks shall be at least l0 mm wide and shall be filled with
asphalt, broken stones, soil for planting grass, wooden laths, etc., as indicated in the
drawings.

4.3.5

Wooden laths placed in the joints may also serve as the mold for the concrete.

4.3.6

Wooden laths shall be joined without overlapping, by simple splicing of the ends.

4.3.7

Continous joints, whether longitudinal or transversal, shall be reticulated; alternating


joints shall not be allowed.

4.3.8

Joints shall be cut avoiding acute angles.

4.3.9

Before placing the concrete, base and wooden laths shall be slightly moistened.

4.3.10

Concrete shall be finished with a special wooden float. Any spaces near the mold shall
be filled and excess material removed with a bricklayer trowel.

4.3.11

A common bricklayer float shall be used for smoothing the concrete where required.

4.3.12

As required, concrete blocks shall have a slight slope, not less than 0.7%.

4.4

Concrete Base

4.4.4

For the purpose of these Specifications, concrete base is the layer under the paved
area, including the wall thickness, whose purpose is to prevent water from penetrating
into the buiding, particularly through capillary action. The concrete base shall comply
with ABNT standard NB-279.

4.4.2

The concrete base shall be composed of concrete, with a volumetric batching formula
of l:2:4 (cement:sand:crushed stone), to which a liquid plasticizer, whose physicalchemical action increases the waterproofing properties of the product by reducing capillary
action, is added to the mixing water. The concrete base shall be at least 6 cm thick.

4.4.3
4.4.4

Plasticizer content shall vary between 0.2% and 0.5% of the weight of cement.
Placement of concrete to which a plasticizer has been added shall be a continous and
uninterrupted operation.

4.4.5

In the event placement of concrete must be interrupted, a work plan shall be developed
so that construction joints are located where the waterproofing of the construction is
not affected.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

109

Standard Technical Specifications

4.4.6

After the concrete has set and before it has hardened, the surface shall be thoroughly
brushed, so as to remove the cement film, exposing larger aggregate.

4.4.7

Before placing new concrete, the surface of the hardened concrete shall be cleaned and
moistened.

5.

Elastomer/Rubber Paving Tiles

5.1

Elastomer tile pavements shall be constructed over a cement paving base and shall be
perfectly smooth.

5.2

Elastomer tiles shall be laid by means of an appropriate rubber-base adhesive product.

5.3

The rubber pavement base shall be level and free from any cracks, holes, depressions,
or other irregularities.

5.4

Special care shall be taken to verify that the base is totally dry before laying the tiles.

5.5

The adhesive shall be applied to both the base and the lower surface of the rubber tiles.

5.6

One liter of adhesive shall be used for every 1.4 to 1.7 m2 of flooring. Care shall be
taken not to apply an excessive amount of adhesive.

5.7

The adhesive shall be applied to approximately 0.9 to 1.0 m2 of floor at a time; the
adhesive shall be allowed to dry until it becomes sufficiently viscous. 5.8 Tiles shall only
be laid after drying of the adhesive for 30 minutes and provided both surfaces are
sufficiently tacky; tiles shall be tapped with a rubber hammer in order to improve
adherence.

6.

Wooden Floors

6.1

Simple Parquet Blocks

6.1.1

Parquet block floors shall comply with the specifications for first class flooring set forth
in ABNT standards NB-9 and NBR-645l (NB-l4).

6.1.2

Parquet blocks shall be carefully selected so that pavement has a uniform appearance.

6.1.3

There shall be no interruption in the design of parquet floors of adjacent areas with the
same floor finish specifications.

6.1.4

Only one species of wood shall be used in each pavement and in adjacent areas. Only
whole parquet blocks shall be used. Parquet blocks shall be distributed so that the
flooring has an even mix of blocks, without any groups of lighter or darker blocks.

6.1.5

Parquet blocks shall be laid over mortar with a batching formula of l:2:3 (cement:fine
sand:smooth gravel), as set forth in the forementioned NB-9 standard.

6.1.6

Parquet blocks shall be laid by specialized workers (parquet layer).

6.1.7

A 10 mm expansion joint shall be left next to the walls; the joint shall not be visible but
shall be covered by the baseboard or the adjacent wall finish.

6.1.8

Parquet blocks shall be softly tapped with a rubber hammer (mallet), in order to obtain
full adherence to the base.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

110

Standard Technical Specifications

6.1.9
6.1.10

No traffic shall be allowed over parquet floors for 24 hours after being laid, even over
planks.
Wooden floors shall be sanded, caulked and waxed, or coated with synthetic resin, as
indicated in the drawings.

6.2

Tongue-and-Groove Parquet Blocks

6.2.1

Tongue-and-groove parquet blocks shall be laid over a slightly rough cement paving
base.

6.2.2

Parquet blocks shall have a specical cross-section for the fitting together of tongue and
grooves, and the blocks and the finished floor shall comply with the applicable standards
for first class floors set forth in NB-9. 6.2.3 Parquet floors shall have flat, dressed and
perfectly even surfaces.

6.2.4

The tongue projection shall be slightly smaller than the depth of the groove; both shall
be trapezoidal in cross section. Blocks shall fit perfectly and the joint on the top surface
shall be practically invisible.

6.2.5

Parquet blocks shall be laid dry, with the use of special glue of proven efficiency,
recommended by the manufacturer, and whose composition shall be submitted to the
ENGINEER for approval.

6.2.6

Parquet blocks shall be softly tapped with a rubber hammer (mallet), in order to obtain
total adherence and evenness. Dry and clean conditions shall be required for laying
tongue-and-groove parquet blocks.

6.2.7

Parquet blocks shall be sanded with care, in order to produce flat and smooth surfaces,
without any blemishes.

6.2.8

Parquet blocks shall be machine sanded, in the following order: with coarse sandpaper,
no. l6; with medium sandpaper, no. 40 or 50; and fine sandpaper, no. l00, in succession.

6.2.9

No chemical product shall be used for cleaning wooden floors.

6.2.10

Measurement and Payment. Measurement of pavements and/or floors shall be made in


square meters of the area effectively paved, in accordance with the dimensions shown
on the drawings, with reductions for boxes, openings, or other areas not paved or
covered.
Only areas effectively paved, covered and accepted by the ENGINEER will be measured.
Payment shall be made at the corresponding unit price contained in the Bidding Schedule,
which price shall include the cost of furnishing, transporting, storing, preparing and
placing the materials, as well as all labor and incidental expenses relating to the work.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

111

Standard Technical Specifications

C-050312
1.

CEILINGS
General. Ceiling support structures shall receive a fire-resistant coating, except when
otherwise stipulated.
Pieces shall be handled with care, so as not to damage their finish.

2.

Types of Ceilings

2.1

Metallic Ceilings - (aluminum or steel).


Metallic ceilings shall be contructed of aluminum or steel sheets.
Metallic ceiling installation shall strictly comply with manufacturers
recommendations and with Supplementary Specifications.

2.2

Wooden Ceilings
Wooden panels shall constructed of kiln-dried, solid wood moldings of the tongueand-groove type.
Wooden panels shall be applied in flat laths, fastened directly to the roof, at 50
cm intervals.
Wooden panels for lowering ceilings shall be secured to 5" x 2" beams, fastened
to the walls by means of angle irons, at the height indicated in the drawings, at 50
cm intervals.
Panels shall be fastened by means of clamps, inset among the moldings.

3.

Measurement and Payment. Ceilings shall be measured in square meter of ceiling installed,
based on the design dimensions and/or as determined by the ENGINEER.
Payment for ceilings shall be made at the applicable unit prices indicated in the Bidding
Schedule.
Unit prices shall include the cost of supplying, transporting, storing and installing all
materials, including all pieces and accessories required to perform the work as specified
herein.

C-050314
1.

ROOFING
General. All roofing woodwork shall be executed using hardwood, at least two years
old, unburnt, without sapwood, woodworms, borers, or knots, cracks or splits that
might lower its durability, strength or appearance. Roofing woodwork shall comply with
NBR-7203.
The wood structure and slabs or beams shall be adequately connected so as to avoid
separation of the roof by the wind.

1.1

The construction of the roof - woodwork and tiling - shall comply with the design and
detailed drawings furnished by the CLIENT or, if unavailable, with a specific design
prepared by the CONTRACTOR and previously approved by the CLIENT.

1.2

Wood shall comply with the applicable ABNT standards.

1.3

The tiling design shall comply with NBR-6120 (NB-5) and NBR-6123 (NB-599), as
applicable.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

112

Standard Technical Specifications

1.4

Except when otherwise indicated, the whole strucure shall be treated with synthetic
resins, pentachlorophenol and iron naphthanate, combined with plastic water-repellent
products, easily applied by means of brush, spray-gun or by immersion.

1.5

When asbestos cement tiles, self-supporting steel tiles or ribbed wood tiles are used for
tiling, the CONTRACTOR shall strictly follow, in every detail, the instructions from the
manufacturers.
All traffic during tiling operations shall be over planks and never over the tiles.

1.6
1.7

The caulking product used in waterproofing shall be permanently flexible, have good
adherence and be resistant to water and to weathering.

1.8

The intersections between roofs and walls shall be protected by cover strips, either
horizontal or following the slope of the roof, as specified in the drawings.

1.9

Cover strips may be metallic or constituted by an upward concrete parapet, integral


with the vertical facing and not common with the tiles.

1.10

Concrete cover strips shall be adequately waterproofed.

1.11

Cover strips shall be big enough to adequately cover the intersection between tiles and
parapet.

1.12

Tiling placed against the vertical parapet cover strip shall have a concave downward
profile against the vertical face and not concave upward. 1.13 The thickness and
dimensions of cover strips shall be indicated in the drawings.

2.

With Self-Supporting Tiling

2.1

Aluminum Tiling

2.1.1

Tiling
Tile size shall vary depending on the span to be covered, which should be preferably
covered by a single tile piece, in order to avoid the need for a transverse joint.
In order to assure adequate draining of water, roofs shall have a minimum slope of
10 degrees (17.6%).
Longitudinal overlaps shall be one and a half corrugations; the upper part of the
overlap shall be in the direction of prevailing winds.
Transverse overlaps shall be 150 mm, for slopes exceeding 10 degrees (17.6%),
and 200 mm, for slopes equal to 10 degrees (17.6%).
Plates shall be placed from the eaves toward the ridge and mounted in the opposite
direction from prevailing winds.
Longitudinally, the maximum spacing between fastening pieces shall be 1000
mm.
Transversely, the maximum spacing between fastening pieces shall be two
undulations.
The locations of the fastening pieces shall always be at the top of the corrugation.
Aluminum fastening pieces shall be preferred. Steel fastening pieces shall be of
galvanized steel and comply with standard ABNT-MB-25 (NBR-7397, 7398, 7399
and 7400).
No copper or copper alloy fastening pieces shall be allowed.
Transverse fastening shall be executed with aluminum screws.
Tile holes shall exceed screw diameter by no more than 0.8 mm. Minimum distance
from the edge of the tile to the hole shall be 40 mm.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

113

Standard Technical Specifications

Longitudinal fastening shall be executed with aluminum screws.


Roofs shall be finished with simple ridges, shed ridges, cover and counter-cover
strips.
Accessories of the cover strips counter-type with external top finish shall be
used.
2.2

Galvanized Steel Tiling

2.2.1

Woodwork. Woodwork shall consist of support pieces for fastening the tiles, except
when otherwise indicated in the drawings or in the Specifications. The woodwork
structure shall be as indicated in the drawings.

2.2.2

Tiling
Roofing pieces shall have two corrugations, so as to assure the stability of the
tiles, particularly when subject to torsion during installation. .In order to avoid
joints, pieces shall preferably be the size of the span to be covered.
Roofing pieces shall be formed from galvanized steel sheets.
Sheets shall be stamped and welded from the top. Weld areas shall be cold
galvanized again, in order to assure the durability of the product.
When roofing pieces are to be supported on concrete, steel rods with embedded
hooks shall be placed in the concrete at the time the beams are constructed. A
steel section shaped to fit the profile of the roofing piece shall be welded to these
rods to form a cradle to support the roofing pieces.
Roofing pieces shall be anchored by welding the lower corrugation to the cradle.

2.3

Asbestos Cement Tiling

2.3.1

Installation of the tiles requires strict compliance with the instructions furnished by the
manufacturers of the tile specified in the drawings.

2.3.2

Woodwork. Woodwork shall consist only of support pieces for fastening the tiles, except
when otherwise indicated in the drawings or in the Specifications. The woodwork support
structure shall be as indicated in the drawings.

2.3.3

Tiling. Asbestos cement tiles and accessory pieces shall comply with the pertinent
ABNT standards, particularly with NBR-7581, NBR-6468, NBR-5642, and NBR-6470.
Tile size shall depend on the span to be covered, which should be preferably
covered by a single piece, in order to avoid overlapping of tiles.
No intermediate supports shall be allowed when a single tile piece is used over a
span.
In order to obtain better watertightness, minimum slope for a single tile piece shall
be 3%, and 9% when pieces overlap.
Plates shall be placed from the eaves toward the ridge and mounted in the opposite
direction from prevailing winds.
Fastening pieces shall always be placed at the top of the corrugation.
Aluminum fastening pieces shall be preferred.
Steel fastening pieces shall be of galvanized steel.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

114

Standard Technical Specifications

3.

Ribbed Tile Roofing

3.1

Asbestos Cement Tiling

3.1.1

Woodwork
Woodwork structure shall consist of ridge beams, purlins, rafters, and crossbars,
with their respective supporting pieces.
Except when otherwise indicated in the design or in the specifications, woodwork
shall comply with the following specifications: Ridge beams shall measure 76 x
114 mm in cross-section and shall be arranged symmetrically with regard to the
ridge line.
Purlins and rafters shall measure 76 x 114 mm in cross-section; lumber 76 x
76 mm may also be used as rafters.
Crossbars shall measure 76 x 114 mm in cross-section and the 114 mm side
shall be placed across the purlin, in order to provide a mortise joint between
the two pieces.
Crossbar support pieces shall measure 76 x 114 mm in cross-section and be
500 mm long.
Crossbars shall be aligned in the direction of the ridge beams and purlins;
maximum allowed distance between them shall not exceed 2.5 m.
Joints in ridge beams and purlins shall coincide with supports, in order to
assure more safety, solidarity and rigidity of the joint.
Roof hips and valleys shall be constructed similarly to ridges, that is, two 76
x 114 mm pieces arranged symmetrically with regard to the axis.

3.1.2

Tiling. Except when otherwise indicated, tiling shall comply with the following
specifications:
Transverse overlap shall be 140 mm, for slopes equal to or greater than 26.8%,
and 200 mm, for slopes varying from 17.6% to 26.8%.
Lateral overlap shall be approximately 1/4 of the undulation, for slopes equal to or
greater than 17%. Roofs subjected to unfavorable wind conditions shall have a
lateral plate overlap of 1 1/4 undulations.
The overhang of eave tiles shall comply with the following criteria:
Eaves without gutters: from 250 mm to 400 mm;
Eaves with gutters: from 100 mm to 250 mm.
At least 50 mm of the length of the tiles shall be supported by the purlins.
Tiles shall be fastened with flat hooks.
Tiles shall be placed from the eaves toward the ridge, perpendicularly to the
purlins, and mounted in the opposite direction from prevailing winds.
In order to avoid the overlaping of four plate thicknesses, the corners of two
plates shall be cut, according to the hypotenuse of a triangle whose sides are
equal to the lateral and longitudinal overlaps, respectively.
Ventilation tiles and chimney hats shall be used for allowing pipes through the
roof, even if it is necessary to deviate them from their vertical alignment. Pipes
shall be contained in this manner, thus eliminating any joint on the plates surface.
Articulated ridges with ventilation shall be used; ridges shall be fastened by means
of screws with lead washer rings.
Roof hips and valleys shall consist of asbestos cement pieces.
Installation of the tiles shall be in strict compliance with the instructions furnished
by the manufacturers of the tile specified in the drawings.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

115

Standard Technical Specifications

4.

Ceramic Tile Roofing

4.1

Woodwork

4.1.1

Woodwork structure shall consist of trusses, ridge beams, purlins, rafters, crossbars,
hip beams, laths, and respective support pieces. The woodwork structure shall be
constructed as shown on the drawings or as approved by the ENGINEER.

4.1.2

Minimum slope shall be 32.4%.

4.1.3

Joints shall coincide with supports, over the truss plates or over crossbars, so as to
assure the safety, solidarity and rigidity of the joint.
Unless otherwise indicated, all main joints and connections shall be strengthened with a
steel plate, which will be fastened with adequate bolts and nuts.

4.1.4
4.2

Tiling

4.2.1

Colonial Tiling. Lower tiles, or canal tiles, shall be convex, with a flat notched edge
parallel to the laths. The notched edge shall rest over the laths and, thus, avoid oscilla
tions and slipping of tiles.
The same tiles, placed with the convex face upward, shall be used as ridges and hips;
joints shall be made with mortar with a volumetric batching formula of 1:0.25:4
(cement:lime:sand).

4.2.2

French Tiling. Tiles shall have a small projection for support from the lath work, in order
to avoid slippage.
Tiles shall be placed beginning at the eaves and from left to right.
Ridges and hips shall be finished with curved or special tiles; joints shall be made with
mortar with a volumetric batching formula of 1:0.25:4 (cement:lime:sand).

5.

Measurement and Payment. Roofing shall be measured in square meters of the surface
effectively covered.
Payment for roofing shall be made at the applicable unit price indicated in the Bidding
Schedule. Unit prices shall include the cost of supplying and placing all materails, such
as tiles, woodwork, etc., as well as all pieces and accessories, including treatment of
the wood, required to perform the work as specified herein.

C-050316

WATERPROOFING

1.

General

1.1

Waterproofing shall strictly comply with ABNT standards, particularly NB-279, and this
Specification.

1.2

For the purpose of these Specifications, waterproofing is the use of waterproofing


products and other materials for the protection of structures from the penetration of
water. Thus, the impermeability of the waterproofing materials is one basic consideration
to be satisfied. Also, the construction will continue to be waterproof even if small
cracks or structural changes occur, provided such deformations are normal, foreseeable
and do not result from accidents or large deformations.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

116

Standard Technical Specifications

1.3

Persons or workers not directly involved in waterproofing work shall not be allowed on
the site while the work is under way.

1.4

Special measures shall be taken against intoxication and fires due to gases resulting
from bituminous or elastomer waterproofing work in enclosed environments - water
tanks, basements, small toilet facilities, etc. which must be sufficiently ventilated. No
fires, smoking, etc, shall be allowed in such environments. Workers shall use special
masks and the eletrical equipment used shall not cause sparks, whether in the lamps or
on the wires.
Whenever local conditions or circumstances recommend the use of a system other than
that foreseen in the design, the ENGINEER shall be notified and the most adequate
system shall be used, after approval from the ENGINEER.
Work shall be executed and controlled by specialized personnel. All work shall be
guaranteed.

1.5
1.6
1.7

The specifications for the type of waterproofing used in each case shall be prepared by
the CONTRACTOR and submitted to the ENGINEER for approval.

1.8

The most adequate type of waterproofing shall be determined on the basis of the type
of exposure to water. There are three types of waterproofing, depending on the exposure,
as follows:
Waterproofing against water under pressure;
Waterproofing against percolating water;
Waterproofing against soil moisture.

2.

Measurement and Payment. Waterproofing shall be measured in square meter of


effectively waterproofed area.
Payment of waterproofing shall be made to the CONTRACTOR at the applicable unit
price indicated in the Bidding Schedule. The unit price shall include the cost of supplying,
storing and transportating all materials; of preparing surfaces to receive the waterproofing
products; and of supplying all labor and equipament required to perform the work as
specified herein.

C-050318

WOODEN FRAMES

1.

General

1.1

Wooden frames for doors, windows, closets, counters, garniture, guard rails, etc., shall
strictly comply with pertinent drawings and as specified below.

1.2

Pieces with any evidence of warping, displacement, cracks, splits, unevenness or other
flaws of the wood shall be rejected.

1.3

Joinings shall be mortise-and-tenon joints, with an expansion wedge to assure greater


rigidity of the joint.

1.4

Final finish of doors shall be specified for each case.

1.5

Wooden frames shall be fastened to inlaid blocks by means of Ec-brass screws, 6" x 2
1/4" (ABNT NB-45 terminology). At least eight screws shall be used for each common
fixture.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

117

Standard Technical Specifications

1.6

Special care shall be given to fixture finishings with baseboards and/or finish of adjacent
walls. Whenever necessary, detailed drawings of such finishings shall be made and
submitted to the ENGINEER for approval.

1.7

Wooden frames for glazing shall comply with ABNT Standard NBR-7199 (NB-226).

1.8

Although NBR-7199 (NB-226) accepts the use of downward-opening window frames,


their use will not be allowed under this Specification.
All glazed areas exposed to the weather shall be submitted to watertightnees tests, by
means of a water jet from a pressurized hose.

1.9
1.10

Glass panes shall be installed by using one of following systems:

1.10.1

Wooden baguettes and caulking product with an elastomer base, preferably silicone,
which demonstrates adherence to glass and wood.

1.10.2

Elastomeric compression gasket, in rigid profile, preferably neoprene, with a filling strip.

1.10.3

Wooden baguettes and elastomer gaskets.

1.11

When baguettes and a caulking product are used, glass panes shall be installed over
elastomer packing, preferably neoprene, compling with NBR-7199 (NB-226), as regards
dimensions and positioning.

1.12

No plywood shall be allowed for outer doors.

1.13

Only countersunk screws shall be used in frames. Countersink holes shall be appropriately
finished with a bushing of the same wood as the frame and adequately sanded in order
to appear as a continuous surface.

1.14

The bottom of inner W.C door frames shall not reach the floor but shall extend only to
the top of the waterproof baseboard, so as to avoid contact with cleaning water.

1.15

Frames shall be made of finished hardwood.

1.16

The width of inner door frames shall always be equal to the wall thickness.

1.17

Frames to be painted shall be protected with a coating of linseed oil and only be installed
after the adjacent masonry work is concluded.

1.18

Garniture shall be of shaped and finished hardwood.

1.19

The same wood used in wax-finish frames shall be used for garniture.

1.20

Door leaves may be solid, with panels, plywood or hollow-core, as specified in the
drawings.

1.21

Dimensions of frames, garniture, doors, windows, etc. shall strictly comply with the
drawings.

2.

Measurement and Payment. Wooden frames shall be measured on the basis of square
meters of actually installed wooden frames, as indicated in the drawings.
Payment of wooden frames shall be made at the applicable unit prices indicated in the
Bidding Schedule. Unit prices shall include the cost of supplying, transporting, storing

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

118

Standard Technical Specifications

and installing all materials, including hardware, as well as the labor and equipment
required to perform the work as specified herein.
C-050320

METALLIC FRAMES

1.

General

1.1

Metallic frames for doors, windows, closets, counters, garniture, guard rails, etc., shall
be executed in strict compliance with the drawings and these Specifications. Ordinary
and special metal work shall be performed in a professional manner by qualified workers.

1.2

Material shall be new, clean, straight, and flawless.

1.3

The CONTRACTOR shall prepare, on the basis of the drawings, all detailed construction
drawings and submit them to the ENGINEER for approval.

1.4

Cross sections of the materials shall strictly comply with the drawings and the samples
submitted to the ENGINEER for approval.

1.5

Door and window frames shall only be installed after approval by the ENGINEER.

1.6

After assembly, all door and window frames shall be marked clearly, in order to be easily
identified and installed in the appropriate places.

1.7

The CONTRACTOR shall install door and window frames in the appropriate places,
including sealing the respective anchor bolts and frames in place.

1.8

If design drawings do not provide clear enough indications as to the location of the
handle of tilting windows, the CONTRACTOR shall request, sufficiently in advance, all
necessary clarifications from the ENGINEER.

1.9

After door and windows are installed, the CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for the
plumbing and leveling of door and window frames and for their functioning.

1.10

Door and window frames shall never be forced open when out of alignment.

1.11

Anchor bolts shall be solidly fastened to the masonry or concrete by grout firmly
introduced into the bolt holes.

1.12

Special care shall be taken so that assemblies are not deformed when screwed to the
anchor bolts and/or frames.

1.13

Moveable parts of door and window frames shall have drip stops - both horizontally and
vertically - in order to assure watertightness and avoid the penetration of rain into the
frames.

1.14

Metallic frames to be glazed shall comply with ABNT Standard NBR-7199 (NB-226).

1.15

All glazed areas in the metallic frames shall be tested for watertightness by means of a
water jet from a pressurized hose.
Glass panes shall be installed by using one of the following systems:

1.16
1.16.1

Baguette of the same material as the frame, together with a elastomer-base caulking
product, preferably silicone, which provenly demonstrates adherence to glass and metal
alloys.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

119

Standard Technical Specifications

1.16.2

Elastomeric compression gasket, in rigid profile, preferably neoprene, with a filling strip.

1.17

When baguettes and a caulking product are used, glass panes shall be installed over an
elastomer packing, preferably neoprene, complying with ABNT Standard NBR-7199 (NB226), as regards dimensions and positioning.

2.

Ordinary Steel or Iron Frames

2.1

Frames shall be squared and all welded angles and splices shall be ground or filed
smooth, so that no burrs or sharp edges are left after the welding procedure.

2.2

All rivet or bolt holes shall reamed and any roughness filed smooth. Holes made at the
work site shall be drilled and not punched.

2.3

Small differences in size between rivet or bolt holes, when not evident, may be corrected
by means of a boring drill or scraper. Forcing hole alignment or the use round files will
not be permitted.

2.4

All junctions shall have intermediate points of anchorage - at maximum 100 mm intervals,
and at the ends.

2.5

All dismountable pieces shall be fastened with yellow brass bolts, if they are to painted,
and with chromium - or nickel-plated brass bolts, otherwise.

2.6

Cross section shapes shall be ground to standardized sections with consistently equal
dimensions.

2.7

Cross section shapes shall provide complete watertightness of the window and door
frames.

2.8

In the fabrication of door and window frames, elements made up of more than one
single shape, whether welded or joined by any other means, shall not be used.

2.9

Sections and sheets to be used in making the frames shall be submitted to a preliminary
anti-rust treatment.

3.

Measurement and Payment. Metallic frames shall be measured on the basis of square
meters of actually installed metallic frames, as indicated in the drawings.
Payment of metallic frames shall be made at the applicable unit price indicated in the
Bidding Schedule. Unit prices shall include the cost of supplying all materials including
hardware, as well as the labor and equipment required to perform the work as specified
herein.

C-050322

GLASS

1.

Common Flat Glass

1.1
1.1.1

General
Glazing work shall comply with ABNT Standard NBR-7199 (NB-226), with detailed
drawings and with these Specifications.

1.1.2

Glazing work shall comply with the applicable requirement in items (C-050318 - Wooden
Frames) and (C-050320 - Metalic Frames).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

120

Standard Technical Specifications

1.1.3
1.1.4

Glass panes shall preferably be supplied in the appropriate size: cutting glass at the
work site shall be avoided.
Cuts shall be emery ground, so that edges are smooth and without irregularities. The
use of glass panes with jagged edges is strictly forbidden.

1.1.5

For safety reasons, glazing areas should be cordoned off to all traffic: if access to such
areas cannot be controlled, they shall be adequately protected.

1.1.6

Glass with bubbles, undulations, scratches, or any other defect shall not be accepted.

1.1.7

Glass panes shall be set over plastic glazing compound, neoprene strip, or equivalent, as
required for each type of glass or frame.

1.1.8

Glass panes set over putty only shall not be accepted.

1.1.9

Frame recesses for holding glass panes shall be cleaned and sanded before glass in set
into them.

1.1.10

Glass shall be set before the final coat of paint is applied.

1.1.11

The thickness of flat glass shall depend on the half-perimeter of the opening to be
glazed: minimum values shall be as follows:
Half-perimeter

Glass Thickness

Up to 1.5 m

3 mm

From 1.5 to 2.5 m

4 mm

From 2.5 to 3.5 m

5 mm

2.

Measurement and Payment. Glass shall be measured on the basis of square meters of
actually glazed area, by glass type and thickness, except when otherwise indicated.
Payment of glass shall be made at the applicable unit price indicated in the Bidding
Schedule. The unit price shall include the cost of supplying all materials, labor and
equipment required to perform the work as specified herein.

C-050324

HARDWARE

1.

General

1.1

Hardware for wooden and metalic door and window frames, closets, counters, etc.,
shall be new, flawless and in perfect working condition.

1.2

Hardware shall be of chromium-plated brass, dull or polished finish, as specified for


each case; hardware that includes choromium-plated iron parts shall also be acceptable,
when specified.

1.3

Hardware shall be installed with care. Recesses or mortises for hinges, locks, end plates,
etc., shall have the same shape as the hardware. Clearances requiring splices, wooden
bushings, etc., shall not be allowed.

1.4

Good quality screws and bolts shall be used for fastening the hardware; finish and
dimensions shall perfectly coincide with that of the hardware pieces to be installed. All
screws and bolts shall comply with ABNT Standard NB-45.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

121

Standard Technical Specifications

1.5

The choice of screw and bolt sizes, as well as instructions for their use, are specified in
the APPENDIX of NB-45.

1.6

The locations of the hardware in the frames shall be measured with precision to avoid
visible discrepancies in position or level differences.

1.7

If there are no indications in the drawings about the position of locks, latches, pulls,
hinges, and other hardware, their position shall be determined by the ENGINEER, who
shall notify the CONTRACTOR.
Latches and bolts, when drawn back shall not protrude more than 0.8 mm from the face
of the unit.

1.8
1.9

At least three points shall be used in fastening cover plates to their housing.

1.10

Except under special conditions, door handles shall be located 105 cm from the finished
floor. Key-only locks shall also be placed 105 cm from the floor.

1.11

Locks for sash windows shall not be installed on the outside of the window, closure
springs shall be installed on door frames, and guard plates located on the respective
leaf.

1.12

Lock tumblers shall be hidden inside door frames or panels an only knobs or handles
shall be visible.

1.13

Door locks shall be set 160 cm from the floor or, if impossible, installed so that opening
and closing of the doors is facilitated. In both cases, locks shall be installed after giving
due consideration to aesthetics.

1.14

Hardware, particularly hinges, shall be sufficiently strong to easily withstand the work
intended for the piece.

1.15

The CONTRACTOR shall comply with painting specifications, in order to avoid staining
hardware with paint or vanish. All exposed pieces, such as end plates, guard plates,
escutcheons, knobs, handles, latches, pulls, etc., shall be protected from paint by means
of plastic adhesive tape.

2.

Measurement and Payment. No separate payment shall be made for hardware. Hardware
costs shall be included in unit prices pertaining to other items, such as wooden or
metallic door and window frames, counters, etc., where the hardware is required.

C-050326

PAINT FOR BUILDINGS

1.

General

1.1

Paint for buildings shall comply with the applicable provisions of item (S-020248 - Paint
and Anti-Corrosive Treatment) and with the following requirements.

1.2

Painting shall be executed in a professional manner by qualified personnel using the best
technique available.

1.3

All surfaces to be painted shall be carefully cleaned and prepared for the type of paint
specified.

1.4

After applying the undercoat or the primary coat, as appropriate, the painted surfaces
shall be carefully rendered and sanded, as indicated in the drawings, followed by at

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

122

Standard Technical Specifications

least three coats of the paint, as specified. Highly penetrating paints shall be used for
undercoat and primer coat.
1.5

A sufficient number of coats shall be applied until surfaces are uniformly painted.

1.6

Paint coats shall only be applied after the previous coat is thoroughly dry, at intervals of
at least 24 hours, during dry weather, and 48 hours, during humid weather.

1.7

Red lead paint or primer over iron shall form an elastic and continous film, resistant to
weathering and foreign agents. Iron window and door frames which arrive from the
shop with only one red lead coat shall receive a second coat, as reinforcement.

1.8

Any dripping or spattering over unpainted surfaces (floors, glass panes, fixtures, etc.)
shall be avoided. Any unavoidable stains shall be cleaned while the paint is still wet, by
means of an appropriate paint remover.

1.9

On the frames in general, escutcheons, rosettes, pulls, etc. shall be removed or protected
with tape before painting is started. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the frames
are to be painted.

1.10

In order to remove all dust, surfaces shall be cleaned with brush and dry cloth after
being sanded and before applying the next coat.

1.11

When finished, painted surfaces shall have a uniform texture, color and luster (flat,
semi-gloss, glossy).

1.12

Finishing paints shall be taken to the work site in their original packing, with clearly
marked indication of manufacturer and type of material. All cans shall arrive with seals
and soldered points intact.

1.13

Paints for top coat shall not be prepared at the work site; no substance or product shall
be added to the original paint.

1.14

If paint requires thinning, only thinners and dosages recommended by the paint
manufacturer shall be used.

1.15

Brushes shall be kept in turpentine while not in use.

1.16

The CONTRACTOR shall protect painted rooms and pieces. Before work is accepted,
the CONTRACTOR shall repair any damages or defects to the paint, regardless of the
cause of such damages or defects, and even if repair requires total repainting of one or
more rooms.

2.

Whitewash. Whitewash shall comply with the specifications below.

2.1

Only good quality, new and pure white lime shall be used.

2.2
2.3

Non hydrated lime shall be slaked with a small amount of water and the remaining water
added after hydration has been completed; care shall be taken not to add too much
water.
Adequate amounts of crude linseed oil and glue shall be added.

2.4

Surfaces shall receive at least three coats of whitewash, in crossed directions, alternately.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

123

Standard Technical Specifications

3.

Oil Based Paint. Oil based paint systems shall comply with the following:

3.1

Over plaster finish

3.1.1

Without Finishing Compound

3.1.2

Dry sanding and cleaning of dust.


One coat of a waterproofing agent.
At least three coats of finish paint, as recommended by the Manufacturer.
Over PVA Based Finishing Compound
Dry sanding and cleaning of surfaces to be painted.
Application of fine and successive coats of finishing compound, at four-hour
intervals.
Dry sanding and cleaning.
One base coat of paint appropriate for oil based paint.
One coat of waterproofing agent.
At least three coats of finish oil paint, with touch ups of the finishing compound
before the second coat is applied, as recommended by the Manufacturer.

3.1.3

With Oil Based Finishing Compound


Dry sanding and cleaning of surfaces to be painted.
One coat of primer appropriate for oil based finishing compound.
Application of fine and sucessive coats of finishing compound.
At least three coats of finish oil paint, with touch ups of the finishing compound
before the second coat is applied, as recommended by the Manufacturer.

3.2

Over Wood
Dry sanding and cleaning of dust. . One undercoat of a waterproofing agent.
One base coat of oil based finishing compound.
Dry sanding and cleaning of dust.
At least three coats of finish paint, with touch ups of the finishing compound
before the second coat is applied, as recommended by the Manufacturer.

3.3

Over Metal
After cleaning pieces manually, mechanically or chemically, as specified, until all
rust is removed, and after application of an anti-corrosive agent, the following
services shall be performed:
dry cleaning and dust removal;
application of finishing compound for surface correction, as required.
dry sanding and dust removal;
at least two coats of finish paint, in the colors indicated in the drawings.

4.

Latex-PVA Based Paint. Latex-PVA based paint systems shall comply with the following:

4.1

Over Rendering

4.1.1

Without Finishing Compound


Dry sanding and dust cleaning.
One coat of anti-alkaline sealing agent.
At least three coats of finish paint, as recommended by the Manufacturer.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

124

Standard Technical Specifications

4.1.2

Over Finishing Compound


Dry sanding and removal of dust.
Application of finishing compound in fine, successive coats.
Dry sanding and cleaning of dust.
At least three coats of finish paint, with touch ups of the finishing compound
before the second coat is applied, as recommended by the Manufacturer.

4.3

Over Wood
Dry sanding and dust cleaning.
One undercoat for waterproofing.
One coat of finishing compound.
Dry sanding and cleaning.
At least three coats of finish paint, with touch ups of the finishing compound
before the second coat is applied, as recommended by the Manufacturer.

5.

Measurement and Payment. Painting shall be measured in square meters of the surfaces
effectively painted, conforming to the dimensions shown on the drawings, with reductions
for doors, windows and other areas not painted. Only areas effectively painted and
accepted by the ENGINEER will be measured.
Payment for painting shall be made at the applicable unit price indicated in the Bidding
Schedule. Unit prices shall include the cost of supplying all materials and equipment
required; storage; transportation to the work site; placing; and any other operation
required to perform the work as specified herein.

C-050328

FINISHES

1.

Mortar Finishes

1.1

General. Mortar finishes shall comply with the applicable ABNT standards, particularly
NB-231, and with this Specification.

1.1.1

Finished surfaces shall be straight, plumb and level; corners shall be sharp; no undulations
will be accepted.

1.1.2

The base surface for the various coats of mortar shall be sufficiently regular to allow an
even thickness of mortar.

1.1.3

The surface to be finished shall be clean, free from dust, grease, oil or organic material.

1.1.4

Except when otherwise indicated, mortar finishes shall consist of at least two
superimposed, continuous and uniform layers: mortar render coat, applied over the
surface to be finished, and plaster, to be applied over the mortar render coat.

1.1.5

Surfaces shall be roughened before mortar is applied.


As pretreatment, for the purpose of improving the adherence of the mortar render coat
an irregular layer of rough, strong mortar (first coat) shall be applied.
Surfaces of walls and ceilings shall be cleaned with a broom and thoroughly moistened
before any mortar is applied.

1.1.6

The render coat shall be applied, at the earliest, 24 hours after the application of the
rough mortar layer (first coat).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

125

Standard Technical Specifications

1.1.7

Surfaces not appropriate as base for the finish (such as wooden or metal parts) shall be
covered by a support layer (wire screen, etc).

1.1.8

Mortar for individual finishing layers shall have the same thickness throughout and shall
be carefully spread.

1.1.9

Finishes with lime mortar and/or cement shall be kept moist, since fast drying would be
detrimental to curing.

1.1.10

Mortar mixes shall be free from small stones and other foreign matter.

1.1.11

Render and plaster finishes, internal and external, on masonry walls, at the ground level,
shall be executed with a 1:3 cement and sand mortar mix by volume, with an appropriate
waterproofing admixture, up to the height, and according to other recommendations,
indicated in the drawings.

1.1.12

All concrete surfaces to be covered by mortar render or plaster finishes shall receive a
rough layer (first coat) of 1:3 cement and sand mortar mix.

1.2

Rough Mortar Layer - First Coat. A rough mortar layer - first coat shall be executed with
a 1:3 cement and sand mortar mix by volume; sand used shall be coarse sand, that is,
between 3 and 5 mm in diameter, with predominance of 5 mm grains.

1.3

Mortar Render Coat

1.3.1

A mortar render coat shall be started only after all conduits have been installed and after
the complete set of the masonry mortar and rough mortar layers.

1.3.2

The render coat thickness shall not exceed 20 mm, so that, with the application of a 5
mm plaster layer, the overall mortar finish does not exceed 25 mm in thickness.

1.3.3

Render coats for internal and external surfaces shall be executed with a 1:1:6 mortar
mix (cement:lime:sand) by volume, using medium grade sand, with maximum diameter
of 3 mm.

1.3.4

The render coat shall be clean and without dust, before receiving the plaster finish; all
visible impurities shall be removed.

1.4

Plaster Finish Coat

1.4.1

The surface of the mortar render coat shall be thoroughly moistened before applying the
plaster finish.

1.4.2

The external plaster finish coat shall not be executed when the surface may get wet by
rain or without adequate protection.

1.4.3

If temperatures are high, all external plaster finishes executed during the day shall have
their surfaces moistened at the end of the day.

2.

Ceramic Finishes

2.1

General

2.1.1

After the masonry work is finished, all holes on the surface shall be filled, particularly
those holes resulting from the placing of bricks or blocks with the holes across the wall.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

126

Standard Technical Specifications

2.1.2

After the holes have been filled, a rigorous check shall be made of the straightness of
surfaces, leaving guides that will produce straight surfaces after the finishing is
completed, whether by glazed or other type of tiles.

2.1.3

Brick surfaces shall be thoroughly moistened.

2.1.4

The rough mortar layer shall be executed with the surfaces still moist and, later, the
mortar render coat shall be applied, as previously described.

2.1.5

Tiles shall be laid after curing of the render coat.

2.1.6

Seventy-two hours after the laying the tile, the joints between the tiles shall be filled
with white cement mortar.

2.1.7

Before placing glazed or other tiles, bushings shall be set into the walls, for later installation
of fixtures.

2.1.8

Tiles shall be laid with a mortar mix 1:2:3 (cement:sand:smooth coarse sand) by volume.
If there is no coarse sand available, a 1:5 cement and sand mortar mix shall be used.

2.1.9

Tiles shall be immersed in clean water for 24 hours before being laid.

2.1.10

Surfaces shall be completely plumb and flat and joints shall be aligned and uniform.

2.1.11

Joint thickness shall not exceed 1.5 mm.

2.1.12

Tiles cut for installing conduits, faucets, and other fixtures shall not be cracked or have
joints.

2.1.13

The adherence of tiles or bricks shall be verified three days after having been laid.
Adherence shall be tested by tapping them with a trowel. Any tile or brick giving a
hollow sound shall be rejected. After checking adherence, mortaring and pointing of tile
joints shall be started.

3.

Ceramic Bricks Finishes

3.1

General. Surface preparation and masonry work shall be in accordance with subitem 2,
and as set forth below.
Ceramic bricks shall be laid after the mortar render coat has cured for approximately
10 days.
Bricks shall be laid in a crisscross pattern - except when otherwise specified - with
their larger side laid horizontally and the joints aligned and level.
Joints shall be uniformly 10 mm thick and shall be pointed 5 mm, by means of a
special tool, before hardening of the mortar, so that the bricks present clean sharp
edges.
Joints shall be smoothened later with a pre-mixed paste.
Bricks shall be laid while the highly adhesive mortar beads are still fresh.
The face of the bricks shall be flat against adjacent door and window casings.
A continuous 10 mm joint shall surround the casings.
The joint of the window and door sills shall coincide with a horizontal joint in the
bricks.
All excess mortar over the brick surface or on the joints shall be removed before
hardening.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

127

Standard Technical Specifications

If no highly adhesive mix is available, bricks shall be laid with a volumetric mortar
mix of 1:2:3 (cement:sand:smooth coarse sand) or 1:2:5 (cement:lime:medium
fine sand). The joints shall be smoothed with plain cement paste.
4.

Wooden Finishes

4.1

Baseboard

4.1.1

The cross-section of wooden baseboards shall strictly comply with the drawings.

4.1.2

Unless otherwise specified, baseboards shall be smooth and 50 x 20 mm in crosssection; the free edge of baseboards shall be slightly rounded.

4.1.3

Baseboards shall be fixed by means of screws and nylon bushings tightly secured to the
masonry.

4.1.4

Spacing between bushings shall not exceed 80 cm.

4.1.5

In the event the drawings do not indicate harmony between the wooden baseboards
and other materials or frame garniture, materials shall be determined on a timely basis,
for each particular case, in consultation with the ENGINEER.

5.

Measurement and Payment. Finishes shall be measured in square meters of area effectively
finished and approved by the ENGINEER.
Payment of finishes shall be made at the applicable unit price indicated in the Bidding
Schedule. The unit price shall include the cost of supplying, transporting, storing and
laying all materials, as well as all labor and equipment required to perform the work as
specified herein.

C-050330

ELECTRICAL AND TELEPHONE INSTALLATIONS

1.

General

1.1

These specifications are relative to light, power, telephone, lightning arrestors, and any
other control/communication system required.

1.2

Installation shall comply with ABNT standards, particularly NB-3, and local utility company
standards, as well as the specifications herein.

1.3

Cases not covered in these specifications shall be resolved by the ENGINEER, so that
high standards of workmanship and equipment are used throughout.

1.4

As required by the ENGINEER, the CONTRACTOR shall obtain, at his own expense,
quality control certificates for the material and equipment installed. Only quality control
certificates issued by reputable and technically qualified sources shall be accepted.

1.5

The CONTRACTOR shall test the equipment received, in the presence of the ENGINEER.

1.6

The CONTRACTOR shall submit to pertinent local agencies, on a timely basis, the electrical
and telephone installation designs and, after notifying the ENGINEER, shall comply with
any changes required by the agencies.

1.7

The CONTRACTOR shall execute all electrical and telephone wiring. All costs related to
approval and inspections, as well as other pertinent costs, shall be paid by the
CONTRACTOR.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

128

Standard Technical Specifications

1.8

The CONTRACTOR shall request an inspection of all telephone conduits when ready to
be used, rather than waiting until all work is completed.

1.9

All electrical and telephone installations shall be carefully executed and all lines, conduits,
and equipment shall be carefully fastened to their support structures and fittings.

1.10

All exposed live parts of circuits shall be protected from accidental contacts, either by a
protective wrapping or by being out of reach of non-qualified personnel.

1.11

Before concrete placement, all conduit ends shall be adequately capped, in order to
prevent dirt and moisture from entering.

2.

Control Panels

2.1

The distribution of panels and their connections with feeder line shall comply with the
drawings.

2.2

The height at which panels are installed will depend on their dimensions and on the ease
of switch operation and inspection of the instruments. Under no circumstances shall the
bottom edge of the panels be located less than 50 cm from the finished floor.

2.3

Installation depth shall depend on the thickness of the specified finish at the panel location
and against which the framing of the panel box will be seated.

2.4

Telecommunications control panels shall comply with utility company specifications


and be constructed as specified in detailed drawings previously approved by the
ENGINEER.

2.5

Panels shall provide safety to the elements installed within and to personnel. The outer
cover and any external switches shall be adequately insulated so as to prevent any
possibility of electrical shock.

3.

Wires

3.1

Wire dimensions shall be indicated in the design. Copper wires shall comply with ABNTNB-3 standards.

3.2

Wires shall be continuous from one connection box to another.

3.3

Splices and branchings shall only be made at connection boxes.

3.4

Spliced wires and wires whose insulation layer has been damaged and repaired with
electrical tape shall not be used.

3.5

In order to facilitate identification, wires shall be supplied in different colors. Feeder


lines shall be red, blue and black for the R, S and G phases, respectively, and white for
neutral.

3.6

In distribution circuits, black shall be used for the phase and white for the return and
neutral.

4.

Conduits. The recommendations below shall apply to the installation of rigid electrical
conduits.
Cuts in conduits shall only be made in straight sections. All burrs resulting from
cutting the conduit or cutting threads into the conduit shall be removed.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

129

Standard Technical Specifications

The connection between conduits and boxes shall be made by means of bushings
and washers;
The connection between conduits shall only be made by means of sleeves and
other devices that guarantee the regularity of the inner surface, as well as electrical
continuity;
Rigid conduits in reinforced concrete structures shall be installed over the
reinforcement or over the surface of pre-molded pieces; conduits shall be installed
so as to prevent any deformation during the placing of concrete; conduit ends and
boxes shall also be protected;
Vertical conduit sections shall be installed before the masonry around them;
Care shall be taken to avoid a decrease in inner diameter when making curves
with electrical conduits of less than 25 mm in diameter; .The radius of curves
made at the work site shall always be equal to or greater than the values set forth
in Table 10 of NB-3;
Any electrical conduit with splits or with a decreased diameter as a result of
bending shall be rejected;
Curves in electrical conduits with diameters exceeding 25 mm shall be prefabricated
or shall be made at the shop by means of special machinery;
Curves shall not be less than 90o ; and
Where conduits are cut for expansion joints, electrical continuity and sealing shall
be maintained by a special device as required.
5.

Boxes and Conduletes

5.1

Boxes shall be installed at the following places:


At
At
At
At

5.2

wire entrance and exit points;


splices and branching points;
points where devices or equipment are to be installed; and
points where conduits branch off.

Conduletes may be installed at the following places:


Wire entrance and exit points into conduits, and
At points where conduits branch off.

5.3

Boxes in the power distribution network shall be employed as follows, unless otherwise
specified in the drawings.
Octagonal boxes with removable bottom, for luminaries in pavement or floor slabs;
Stamped octagonal boxes, 3" x 3", between parallel surfaces, at the end of
distribution lines, for telephone or bell points;
Stamped rectangular boxes, 4" x 2", for sets of 3 outlets and switches, or less;
Stamped square boxes, 4" x 4", for pull boxes or for sets of more than 3 outlets
or switches;
Maximum distance between boxes shall be 15 m;
The top edge of switch boxes shall be 1.3 m above the finished floor, and the top
edge of pull boxes shall be 30 cm above the finished floor.
Boxes for light fixtures and high outlet boxes shall be installed as specified in the
drawings and/or determined by the ENGINEER;
Switch boxes shall be installed at least 10 cm from door frames; and
All boxes in a room shall be well aligned and uniformly arranged.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

130

Standard Technical Specifications

5.4

Special Pull Boxes

5.4.1

Special pull boxes shall be made of non-corrosive, high-strength aluminum alloy, with a
hinged, screw-on cover to facilitate opening, and with fastening lugs.

6.

Wiring

6.1

Only 600 V wires adequately protected against abrasion shall be installed in electrical
conduits.

6.2

Wiring shall only be done after the following work has been completed:
Roof tiling or waterproofing;
Mortar finish of walls, etc.;
Installation of doors and windows and making the building weatherproof; and
Any pavements or flooring requiring mortar.

6.3

Before wiring, conduits shall be dried with oakum and cleaned by the passage of a
bushing soaked in insulating varnish or paraffin.

6.4

Lubricants such as talcum, dolomite, soap stone, etc., may be used to facilitate wiring.

6.5

Wire or metallic tape may be used to pull wiring.

6.6

Wire splices shall only be made at boxes; installation of wires in spliced conduits will not
be permitted.

6.7

Insulation of splices and branchings shall be at least equivalent to wire insulation.

6.8

Underground wires shall not be subjected to tensile stress that may damage their soldered
ends or insulation.

6.9

Wire splices and junctions shall be made so that complete and permanent electrical
contact is assured; splices and junctions shall be made by soldering and application of
electrical insulating tape. Ordinary adhesive tape shall not be used.
Electrical continuity through lead caps and steel reinforcements shall be assured by
means of electrical soldering around the splice or junction.

6.10

Splices and junctions shall be enclosed in metallic insulators, of appropriate form and
dimensions, which shall be completely filled with insulating compound, in accordance
with the manufacturers recommendations.

6.11

Wire ends shall not be exposed to atmospheric humidity, except while splicing, joining or
fastening wire terminals.

6.12

Power entrance facilities shall be delivered complete, with the final connection to the
public power grid ready and operational, and with approval from the utility company.

7.

Underground Lines

7.1

Only wires insulated against moisture shall be used underground.

7.2

Splices and junctions shall be made according to the type of wire used and shall always
assure mechanical strength, permanent electrical contact and watertightness.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

131

Standard Technical Specifications

7.3

Wires exiting from underground sections and rising along walls or other surfaces shall
be protected by a rigid enamelled or galvanized electrical conduit, to a minimum height
of 3 meters.

8.

Telephones

8.1

The utility company grid and the internal distribution network for buildings shall be
independent from each other and terminate at an entry box.

8.2

The entry box shall consist of an individual compartment, with the dimensions required
by the utility company, as well as by the number of cables.

8.3

The location of pull boxes, outlets, etc. shall comply with the design details.

8.4

Incoming cables shall comply with the requirements of the utility company and shall be
supplied by the CONTRACTOR, who shall also provide any specifications, designs,
estimates, and other requirements, including the payment of pertinent taxes.

8.5

The material and the location of pull boxes shall comply with utility company requirements.

8.6

Minimum nominal inside diameter of the conduits shall be 3/4".

8.7

Wires shall make up a continuous, complete and distinct electrical network that complies
with the drawings.

9.

Outlets, Switches and Lighting Fixtures. Outlets, switches and lighting fixtures shall
comply with the drawings.

10.

Lightning Arrestors

10.1

Lightning arrestors shall be installed to effectively protect the building (including antennas).
Lightning arrestors for excess voltage shall be installed at the sub-station entry point,
on the high voltage side.

10.2

Ground rods shall be driven into the soil at least 3 m away from walls; rods shall be
sufficient in number and length to provide required ground resistance.

10.3

All ground wires in a building shall be linked into a single network, in compliance with
item 2183 of NFPA 78 (National Fire Protection Association - USA) and VBE standards
(Verbandes Deutscher Elektrotechniker - FRG).

10.4

The CONTRACTOR may improve resistance and grounding capacity by chemically treating
grounding points, as required; a specialized company shall be contracted for this work;
at least three rods shall be driven into the soil.

10.5

Ground rods shall be located inside boxes with removable covers that permit regular
inspections of connections.

10.6

Ground installations shall have a point for measuring grounding resistance. The resistance
of this point shall be negligible, and the cover shall be removable only with an appropriate
tool.

10.7

The distance between fasteners for grounding wires shall not exceed 1.5 m.

10.8

Minimum area for grounding wires connecting to the ground rods shall be 70 mm2.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

132

Standard Technical Specifications

10.9

Grounding wires shall be mechanically protected by means of non-magnetic material for


at least 3 m above the soil.

10.10

Interconnecting grounding wires shall be protected mechanically, along their whole length,
by means of non-magnetic material.

11.

Measurement and Payment. Electrical and telephone installations shall be measured on


the basis of an overall survey of the systems installed and tested, as indicated in the
drawings and approved by the ENGINEER.
Payment for the electrical and telephone systems shall be made at the applicable lump
sum prices indicated in the Bidding Schedule. The lump sum price shall include the cost
of supplying, transporting, storing, and installing all materials for electrical and telephone
installations, as well as all labor and equipment required to perform the work as specified
herein.

C-050332

WATER SUPPLY AND SANITARY SYSTEMS

1.

General

1.1

Water supply and sanitary systems include the supplying, transportation, storage, and
installation of all materials relative to water supply systems, sanitary systems, and
storm water drainage of buildings.

1.2

Work shall comply with ABNT standards for each type of installation, with local codes
and orders issued by pertinent official agencies with jurisdiction over the locality wherein
the work is being executed, and with the specifications below.

1.3

Hydrostatic tests shall be performed at the pressures specified for each type of installation,
as stated in pertinent standards.

1.4

Pipes shall not be located inside concrete columns, pillars, beams, and other structural
elements of the building.

1.5

The bottom of the trench for underground pipes shall be adequately compacted before
pipes are laid. Pipes shall be laid on a continous base or cradle made up of a plain
concrete layer containing 150 kg/m3 of cement, with a 6 cm average thickness.

1.6

At the option of the ENGINEER, the base may not be required, provided the soil strength
and quality so permit.

1.7

During the execution of the work, if the ENGINEER considers that the soil will not assure
permanent pipe stability and watertightness, the pipes being used shall be replaced by
pipes of another material that is compatible with the type of soil and its strength.
Bell and spigot pipes shall be laid by inserting the spigot into the bell and with the bells
laid uphill.

1.8
1.9

Backfill shall be executed in 20 cm layers of good quality material, free from any waste,
stones, etc., successively and carefully compacted and moistened.

1.10
1.11

Pipe cutting for joints and connections shall only be done in straight sections and threads
shall not extend beyond the respective joint.
Threaded parts shall have clean cut threads that correctly align the connecting pieces.

1.12

Joints shall assure complete sealing of the pipe against the leakage of water or gases.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

133

Standard Technical Specifications

1.13

Rigid PVC pipe joints shall be made by means of an adhesive and cleaning solution, or a
ruber gasket, depending on whether pipes belong to the cold water supply or the sanitary
system.

1.14

Joints between rigid PVC and cast iron or concrete pipes shall be made with appropriate
adaptors.

1.15

Joints between galvanized steel and lead pipes (if specified in the drawings) shall be
made with a special copper or brass piece (adaptor), which is threaded at one end and
soldered at the other.

1.16

Joints between ceramic, asbestos cement or cast iron pipes and vitrous ceramic or
asbestos pipes shall be made with tar soaked oakum and prepared asphalt.

1.17

Joints on cast iron pipes shall be executed with tar soaked oakum or cord and molten
lead that is caulked afterwards.

1.18

Joints in galvanized steel pipes, if part of the cold water installation, shall be threaded.

1.19

Galvanized steel pipes shall not be bent; curves shall be made by meams of appropriate
fittings.

1.20

Joints between rigid PVC and metal pipes shall be made by means of connections with
brass sleeves threaded and cast directly on the pipe.

1.21

Copper pipe joints shall be made by means of appropriate brass or copper connections,
with the inner joint space being soldered after sanding and application of flux, as
recommended by the manufacturer.

1.22

Pipes shall have their ends capped or plugged; caps or plugs shall only be removed when
sanitary fixtures are connected.

2.

Cold Water

2.1

General

2.1.1

Cold water installations shall comply with Standard ABNT-NB-92/1966.

2.1.2

Pipes shall not go through septic tanks or manholes, nor be laid in the same trench with
drain and sewage pipes.

2.1.3
2.1.4

All main lines shall be embedded.


Fittings shall have the same joint characteristics as the pipes.

2.1.5

Special PVC connections, solvent-cemented at one end and with brass threads at the
other, shall be used for connecting pipes to shut-off valves, faucets, or other special
threaded pieces.

2.1.6

A sealing compound supplied and recommendad by the manufacturer shall be used for
threaded couplings.

2.1.7

Unions or threaded couplings shall be placed at convenient intervals, in order to facilitate


pipe disassembling.

2.1.8

Pipes shall be installed using curves and elbow bends; pipes shall never be bent.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

134

Standard Technical Specifications

2.1.9

All water pipes outside of buildings shall be laid at a higher elevation than drain and
sewage pipes.

2.1.10

Sanitary fixtures shall only be installed when all other work that might damage them has
been completed.

2.1.11

Minimum pipe diameter shall be 3/4", including sub-lines.

2.2

Building Supply Line

2.2.1

A brick masonry housing shall be built and completely finished (both rendering and
plaster finishes). The housing shall comply with the following requirements:
It shall be convered by a concrete slab, adequately weather-proofed, with a 10
cm ledge over an access door;
It shall have ceramic floors, with an adequate slope, so as to facilitate drainage of
leaking water; and
It shall have a galvanized No. 14 USG steel plate door, with permanent ventilation,
brass fastener and hinges, and mounted on an iron frame anchored to the walls of
the housing.

2.3

Reservoirs

2.3.1

No building shall be supplied directly from the public water system; water supply shall
always be accomplished from water reservoirs.

2.3.2

Reservoirs shall have cleaning and overflow pipes.

2.3.3

Reservoirs shall have smooth walls and be completely watertight.

2.3.4

Watertightness shall be assured by waterproofing that complies with pertinent standards.

2.3.5

Reservoirs may be made of asbestos cement or reinforced concrete.

2.4

Pumping Units

2.4.1

Pumping units shall be mounted on a nonvibrating base of cork plates or equivalent


material.

2.4.2

Pumping units should be installed with a positive suction head. If this is not possible, an
automatic priming device shall be installed.

2.4.3

Whenever necessary, the pumping station shall have the devices listed below.
On the pump suction line:
Screen;
Check valve;
Control valve (gate valve, brass); and
Excentric pipe reducers;
On the pump discharge:
Excentric pipe reducers;
Check valves;
Elastic coupling joint; and
Control valve (gate valve, brass).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

135

Standard Technical Specifications

2.4.4

The discharge of water from the pump supply line into the reservoir shall be free-flow.

2.5

Internal Water Distribution System

2.5.1

The water distribution system shall be composed of the following elements:

Reservoir outlet;
Distribution manifold;
Feeder column;
Main lines and sub-lines;
0.5 m. c. a. minimun service pressure at the top of columns;
Control valves located at the following heights above the floor:
1.8 m, for toilet discharge valves, main lines and sub-lines;
1.2 m, for filters, showerheads and urinals; and
0.75 m, for bathtubs.
3.

Measurement and Payment. Water supply, sanitary, and drainage systems shall be
measured on the basis of an overall survey of the systems installed and tested, as
indicated in the drawings, the applicable standards and as approved by the ENGINEER.
The survey shall be based on the List of Material.
Payment of water supply, sanitary, and drainage systems shall be made at the applicable
lump sum price indicated in the Bidding Schedule. The lump sum price shall include the
cost of supplying, transporting, installing and testing all materials for water supply and
sanitary systems, as well as all labor and equipment required to perform the work as
specified herein.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

136

Standard Technical Specifications

DIVISION MECHANICAL

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL

S-010101

1.

Objective. This Document establishes the general technical conditions with which the
supply of equipment and materials shall comply, for the _____________ (name) Project.
The PURCHASER assumes that prior to the submittal of the Bid, the contents of the
Bidding Documents were reviewed in detail by the BIDDER, who will be responsible for
all obligations derived from lack of knowledge or misinterpretation of any of the
requirements contained therein.

2.

Languages and Units of Measure. In principle, units of the International System of Units
shall be used in the Bid, and later in all documents submitted by SUPPLIER during the
course of the Contract, unless otherwise requested .
All instruction manuals, captions, leaflets, test reports, etc., issued by the SUPPLIER,
shall be written in Portuguese.

3.

Operating Conditions. Unless otherwise indicated, the equipment shall be designed and
constructed to operate in the environmental conditions described in item _______ of the
Instructions to Bidders, Chapter _______, Volume ________ . The medium to be pumped
will be raw water at ambient temperature. The water may contain varying amounts of
sand, silt, and organic matter.
When equipment is specified for exterior use, it shall be designed to be installed outdoor,
exposed to direct sun rays and to storms.
It is emphasized that the predominant climate of the job site contributes to forming of
fungi and acceleration of corrosion. Thus, a treatment of tropicalization and suitable
protection against said climate conditions shall be provided for the equipment and
acessories.
The equipment must be designed to endure continuous and intermittent operation up to
24 (twenty four) hours a day, over a 3 (three) month of period, at an ambient temperature
of up to 40o C.

4.

Supply Scope. The supply scope of each package includes, but is not limited to the
following items:

4.1

Preparation of design drawings, data, catalog sheets, and calculation sheets and submittal
for approval where applicable.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

137

Standard Technical Specifications

4.2

Furnishing instruction manual for assembly, operation and maintenance of equipment


and/or materials.

4.3

Manufacturing and supplying of equipment and/or materials in accordance with the


PURCHASERs respective Technical Specification and the approved drawings.

4.4

Supply of special tools required for assembly and maintenance of equipment.

4.5

List of spare parts as specified in the General and Special Conditions of Contract, Chapters
_____ and _____ , Volume _____. Individual Specification paragraphs may require spare
parts for one or more years in the supply of the equipment with no additional payment
made.

4.6

Tests of equipment and/or materials at factory, as indicated in these Specifications and


in the respective Technical Specification of the equipment.

4.7

Packing, transportation and insurance of equipment from factory to jobsite, in accordance


with the General and Special Conditions of Contract and with these MECHANICAL
EQUIPMENT, GENERAL paragraphs.

4.8

Supervision of equipment and/or material assembly and installation,when requested by


the PURCHASER, as established in the General and Special Conditions of Contract and
in accordance with this Specification.

4.9

Test of equipment at jobsite and operation start-up, whenever the PURCHASER requests
the assembly supervision at the jobsite.

4.10

Instructions to the PURCHASERs operation and maintenance personnel when requested


by the PURCHASER.

4.11

Equipment and/or materials guarantee in accordance with the General and Special
Conditions of Contract.

5.

Recommended Standards. For purposes of design, raw material selection, manufacture


and tests, the standards with which the equipment and materials shall comply, will be
listed in the respective specification. It is established that such standards shall always
prevail in their latest approved revisions.
The recommended standards do not exclude others which ensure equivalent or superior
quality to that specified, providing the BIDDER clearly mentions the alternative standards
in his Bid, indicating the items in which they are applicable, and encloses a copy of said
standards. The PURCHASER, however, retains the right to reject the proposed standards,
at its own discretion.
In case of any conflict between the PURCHASERs Specification and recommended
standards, the requirements in the Specification shall prevail.

6.

Conflicting Information. The PURCHASER shall be informed in writing of any doubts


which may arise during the performance of any phase of the acquisition and/or
manufacturing process, due to errors or conflict between related technical documents.
In these cases the SUPPLIER shall adopt the solution indicated in writing by the
PURCHASER.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

138

Standard Technical Specifications

7.

General Manufacturing Requirements. Mechanical equipment and materials shall comply


with the requirements specified in the respective technical paragraphs for the item
being furnished and also to the general provisions herein specified.
The equipment shall be constructed according to the most up-to-date engineering
techniques, using high quality materials. All parts shall be finished, in keeping with their
importance, placement and utilization.
In general, all the material shall be specified in full detail, and their mechanical properties
and chemical composition proven. Other materials than those specified may be proposed
by the BIDDER, provided that:
All the materials used or supplied in accordance with these specifications will be of
equivalent or superior quality to those specified and will provide equal or better
service under the environmental conditions at its destination.
All materials used or supplied in accordance with these specifications must be
described in detail in the proposal, and for each type of material, the Standard
Specification and the Technical Standard which it meets must be included.

Acceptance of substitute materials shall be exclusively at the discretion of the


PURCHASER.
7.1

Rolled Sheets and Shapes. Rolled sheets and shapes shall have physical and chemical
properties in compliance with ASTM or equivalent standards, as below:
For carbon steel sheets and shapes for stuctural use:
ASTM A36, Specification for Structural Steel;
For high-strength low-alloy carbon steel sheets for structural use:
ASTM A572, Specification for High-Strength Low Alloy Columbium-Vanadium
Steels of Structural Quality.
All sheets employed shall have their mechanical properties and chemical composition
proven by means of material quality certificates issued by the sheet manufacturers
themselves. All sheets with thickness equal to or more than 19mm shall be subjected to
ultra-sonic tests, in accordance with the requirements in ASTM Standard A 435. For
these plates the permissible tolerance in the thickness of plates shall in all cases be
0.25mm.

7.2

Castings. The physical and chemical properties of castings shall comply with ASTM or
equivalent standards, as below:
Carbon steel castings: ASTM A27, Specification for Mild-to-Medium-Stength
Carbon Steel Castings for General Application, grade 65-35, grade 70-36 and
grade 70-40;
Low alloy cast steel: ASTM A148, Specification for High-Strength Steel Castings
for Structural Purposes, grade 80-50;
Corrosion-resistant steels: ASTM A296, Specification for Corrosion-Resistant
Iron Chromium, Iron-Chromium-Nickel Base Alloy Castings for General Application,
grade CA-15 and grade CF-8;
Cast iron: ASTM A48,Specification for Gray Iron Castings, class 30.
The principal castings to be submitted to physical and chemical tests and which shall be
inspected by the PURCHASER shall be defined in the Basic Inspection Schedule before
the casting is executed. If the test specimen is cast together with the corresponding
part, the part drawing shall indicate the location from which it is to be removed.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

139

Standard Technical Specifications

An acceptable alternative is for two test specimens to be cast from each run, separate
from the parts, with identification of the test specimens as being pieces for chemical
analysis. The SUPPLIER shall notify the PURCHASER of the date when the castings are
to be executed so that they may obtain them. The PURCHASER, at his discretion, shall
inspect the castings before they are machined.
Defects that appear during cleaning of the castings or during machining operations shall
be carefully corrected down to sound metal before any subsequent work is performed.
The castings shall not be subjected to preparations without previous authorization by
the PURCHASER, with the exception of small inclusions or defects which do not affect
the chararcteristics of the part. The PURCHASER may or not accept the repaired castings.
Filling of foundry faults shall be executed by highly qualified welders and in accordance
with the best welding technicques. Any casting requiring filling during any manufacturing
stage after the first annealing, shall be submitted to further annealing treatment, unless
indicated otherwise.
Variations in thickness, or in other dimensions of the castings, shall be admissible providing
the strength of the part is such that the calculated stresses of the actual dimensions do
not exceecd the admissible stresses adopted in the design.
Castings shall show no deformation or distortion and the dimensions shall not exceed
those called for in the design. The stucture of the castings shall be homogeneous and
free from any impurities.
7.3

Forgings. Forgings shall present physical and chemical properties as defined in the ASTM
or equivalent standards below:
Steel forgings: ASTM A668, Specification for Steel Forgings, Carbon and Alloy,
for General Industrial Use;
Carbon Steel forgings for flanges, fittings, valves and parts for general service:
ASTM A 181"Specification for Forged or Rolled Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings,
Valves and Parts for General Service.
All forged parts shall be free from defects that could affect their strength, such as
seams, pockets, bubbles, cracks, chips, protuberances, porosity, sand, excessive nonmetallic insertions, and separations. The inspection of forgings shall include ultra-sonic
inspection after shaping, unless the PURCHASER instructs to the contrary.
All forgings shall be submitted to a uniform shaping process during the forging operation,
in order to produce parts that comply with the specification requirements, and shall be
annealed or normalized.
In the case of several parts being produced from one die, individual tests to determine
physical properties shall not be required.

7.4

Stainless Steel. Stainless steels shall have physical and chemical properties as defined
in the ASTM or equivalent standards below:
Corrosion Resistant Steel Sheets:
ASTM A167 Specification for Corrosion-Resisting Chromium-Nickel Steel
Plate, Sheet, and Strip,types 304 and 316, or
ASTM A176 Specification for Stainless and Heat Resistant Chromium Steel
Plate, Sheet, and Strip, type 410, or
ASTM A240, Specification for Heat-Resisting Chromium and ChromiumNickel Stainless Steel Plate, and Strip for Fusion-Welded Unfired Pressure
Vessels, type 405 and type 410;

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

140

Standard Technical Specifications

Corrosion-Resistant Steel Bars:


ASTM A276 Specification for Stainless and Heat Resistant Steel Bars and
Shapes, type 410 or 316.
7.5

Nonferrous Metals. Nonferrous metals shall have physical and chemical properties as
defined in the ASTM or equivalent standards below:
Bronze for bearings, bushings, wear-plates, etc.:
ASTM B584, Specification for Copper-Alloy Sand Casting for General
Applications, Alloy no. 903, 923, 932 or 937.

7.6

Bearings

7.6.1

Slide Bearings. Slide bearings shall in general be used only on mechanical components
subject to limited angular movements and others which by their nature have an acceptable
performance under such conditions. Bushings employed in these bearings shall be of the
self-lubricating type, or of bronze corresponding to alloys no. 937 or 932 of Specification
ASTM B584, duly provided with grooves for suitable distribution of the lubricant.

In general, the bearing housing shall be of the two-piece type, self-aligning, with covers,
gaskets, and lubricated in accordance with the purpose for which it is to be used.
The specifications, adjustments and tolerances shall be determined by the procedures
established in the AFBMA (Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturing Association) standard,
or other approved equivalents.
7.6.2

Roller Bearings. Roller bearings shall be generally employed on mechanical equipment


subject to large forces, high-and low-speed rotation, under intermittent or continuous
service.

The type of bearing shall be determined according to its specific application and its
dimesions shall be established in the calculation sheets.
The specifications, adjustments and tolerances shall be determined by the procedures
established in the AFBMA standard, or other approved equivalents.
Bearings shall always be lubricated and provided with retainers appropriate to working
conditions. When standard roller bearing housings are used,these should be either twopiece or one-piece depending on the type of bearing employed. The mounting surface of
the bearing housings shall be machine finished and should rest upon machined surfaces.
7.7

Shafts. Shafts shall have characteristics selected according to the physical stresses to
which they are to be subjected.
The distance l between two bearings supporting a shaft shall not exceed 100 d, d
being the shaft diameter. Units of l and d are expressed in cm.
For high-speed rotating shafts (rotation greater than or equal to 1500 rpm), the critical
rotation speed should be checked, and should be higher than 110% of the running
speed.

7.8

Embedded Parts. Sets of embedded parts shall be designed for rigidity and shall take
into account the possibility of corrosion.
All sealing surfaces in contact with rubber or neoprene seals shall be of stainless steel.
Embedded lateral guiding parts shall whenever possible be comprised of rails.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

141

Standard Technical Specifications

Supports for rolling or sliding parts shall be made of sheet metal or shapes and shall be
provided with studs for adjusting and fastening the embedded parts, having threads of
sufficient length for this purpose.
All the manufacturing tolerances of the surfaces of the embedded parts shall be compatible
with assembly tolerances, thereby ensuring easy assembly and perfect sealing.
7.9

Weldings

7.9.1

Terminology.- In accordance with Standard ABNT-NBR-5874.

7.9.2

Qualification of Welders. The SUPPLIER shall be responsible for quality welding. All the
selected welders shall be qualified in accordance with standard MB-262 of ABNT Qualificao dos Processos de Soldagem, de Soldadores e de Operadores and/or ASME,
section IX, or by equivalent entities.

If the work of a given welder is rejected, he shall be submitted to a new qualification


test to once again prove his skill in executing welding works.
All the expenses relating to qualification tests shall be at the SUPPLIERs expense,
including the supply of test pieces and required electrodes.
7.9.3

Welding Process. Unless otherwise authorized or specified, all the weldings shall be
performed by the arc welding method, by a method which keeps air from the molten
metal and, where practicable, under control of a procedure utilizing automatic machines.

The process and the welding sequence, both at the factory and on-site shall be submitted
for the PURCHASERs approval. On-site weldings shall not require special processes,
materials, equipement or techniques or pre-heating or post-heating.
Parts to be joined by welding shall be carefully cut to predetermined dimensions and,if
required, rolled to the radius in accordance with the dimensions indicated on the drawings.
The edges of each piece shall be bevelled to permit total penetration either by means of
oxyacetylene torch, by bevelling machine, or by machining, depending on the type of
the piece and type of welding.
The cut surfaces shall be sound and free of any faults caused by rolling, beveling or any
other process. The surfaces of sheets to be welded shall be free of any trace of rust,
grease or any other foreign material.
All weldings performed in the construction of parts subject to important hydraulic loads
shall comply with the requirements of ASME, Section VIII Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code standard, Part UW.
Weldings performed in the construction of parts not subject to important loads, shall
comply with applicable requirements of the Structural Welding Code for Steel - AWS
D1.1 or equivalent from another approved standard.
The electrodes, which shall be approved by the PURCHASER, shall be conveniently
selected according to their electric current, materials and welding process characteristics.
After being removed from their packages, the electrodes shall be stored in ovens, as
recommended to avoid damages or deterioration.
In bimetallic weldings the electrodes shall be selected through tests made on test pieces
of the same materials to be joined by welding.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

142

Standard Technical Specifications

The weldings shall not be performed over damp surfaces or during periods of strong
winds, unless the welder and the pieces are suitably protected.
After welding, all slag and spatter shall be removed, leaving surfaces with complete
penetration, uniform, smooth and free of any porosity or presence of foreign matter. If
the welding is to be applied in the form of successive passes, each pass, except the last
shall be slightly hammered before the next fillet is applied.
The welded parts shall be free of faults, such as inclusions, grooves, bends, etc. with
regular thickness and without undercuttings, slags, porosity, failures on the root, binding
defects and cracks.
All the defective weldings shall be repaired by removing same by grinding or arc gouging
to sound metal, followed by new welding as originally specified.
7.10

Heat and Thermochemical Treatments.- Steel shall be submitted to heat or thermochemical


treatments, whenever it is necessary to restore or alter their properties or produce
certain characteristics. Detailed specifications for heat and thermochemical treatments
shall be included in the design documents.

7.11

Cleaning, Painting and Protection of Surfaces

7.11.1

General. The standards and technical recommendations for the performance of cleaning,
painting and protection of any part of the equipment, shall be those described in the Steel
Structures Painting Manual, prepared by Steel Structures Painting Council-SSPC.

The thickness of the film per coating and the methods and care in application must be
strictly in compliance with the paint manufacturers recommendations.
The antirust painting of equipment which will remain submerged, will be performed by
the Installation Contractor at the jobsite, and such parts shall be delivered unpainted.
Parts fully embedded in concrete, shall be delivered unpainted. For partially embedded
parts, the embedded portion shall be coated for a distance of 150 mm from the concrete
surface.
Painting of any part of equipment shall only be performed after the INSPECTOR has
issued a written statement that the respective equipment or part thereof has been
inspected while unpainted.
7.11.2

Colors. The PURCHASER will furnish at the SUPPLIERs request, within a practicable
time, a standard with the specification of all the colors to be used in the several parts of
equipment which have been specified with finish painting under the responsibility of the
SUPPLIER.

7.11.3

Definitive Painting Specifications. The definitive specifications for paintings to be executed


at the plant, containing cleaning methods and all painting details of the paint manufacturers,
for the paint selected by the SUPPLIER, shall be submitted, in a timely manner for the
PURCHASERs approval.

7.11.4

Paint Application. The surfaces shall not present failures, pores, runs, splashes, roughness,
waviness, cracks, cleaning marks, blisters, as well as variations in color, texture and
shine. The paint film shall be smooth and of even thickness.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

143

Standard Technical Specifications

Edges, corners, small holes (cracks), splices, joints, weldings, rivets and other surface
irregularities shall receive special treatment so as to ensure that the paint film has
suitable thickness.
The painting shall be made on prepared and dried surfaces.
Unless otherwise specified, the temperature of the surfaces to be painted and of the air
in contact with the same shall not be under 7o C during paint application, and paint
should not be applied while the preceeding coat of paint has not yet dried. This should
be checked by touch.
Painting shall not be applied on surfaces which have been heated by exposure to the
sun or other sources of heat.
Painting shall not be applied in locations where the relative humidity of the air is over
85%. If painting is necessary in such locations, the relative humidity shall be reduced by
means of shelters and/or heating the enclosure until paint has dried.
Machined surfaces shall be protected for transport with a coat of varnish easily removable
by suitable solvents. In the case of parts which are subject to transport by sea, their
surfaces shall be protected with varnish suitable for that purpose.
7.11.5

Coverage. The surface area effectively covered by one liter of a given paint, shall not
exceed the coverage prescribed for that particular paint.

The minimum thickness of film of dry paint, per coating, shall be that specified by the
paint manufacturer.
7.11.6

Care of Painted Surfaces. Parts which have been painted shall not be handled or worked
until the paint film is totally dry and hard.

Until final assembly, all painted parts shall be stored without direct contact with the
ground, in ventilated locations and free of formation of condensation.
The paint of parts in which the painting has possibly been damaged shall be removed,
and subsequently painted with a new paint or touched up, with the specified paint.
7.11.7

Surfaces in Contact. Whenever a difference in potentials may be established between


metallic surfaces of different chemical composition, by contact of rivets or bolts, each of
the surfaces in contact shall be cleaned, pre-treated and shall receive a primer coating, all
in compliance with that specified for the particular case of the metals involved.

On the other hand, if the contact is between ferrous surfaces and between other parts
of similar chemical composition, those surfaces shall be protected, although not mandatory
by means of painting.
Surfaces in metallic contact, established by highly resistant bolts, in couplings of friction
type, shall not be painted, but shall receive a protective coating of grease of varnish
until they are mounted,when they shall then be removed.In the case of a non metallic
surface being in contact with a metallic surface through rivets or bolts, the contact
surface of the metal shall be cleaned and shall receive three coats of specified primer.
7.11.8

Other Protection Processes. Depending on the part, other protection processes can be
applied such as: metal-coating, hot-dip galvanizing, chromium plating, cadmium plating,
etc. Each one of these processes shall be indicated in the respective Technical Notes of
Construction and are subject to approval by the PURCHASER.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

144

Standard Technical Specifications

Unless otherwise specified, bolts, nuts and flat and spring washers for equipment subject
to weather effects, shall be hot dip galvanized in compliance with ASTM A153 Standard,
Class C or galvanized.
8.

Inspections and Tests

8.1

General. Factory inspections to be carried out by the PURCHASER, under no circumstances


shall free the SUPPLIER of any of his contractual obligations or responsibilities.
The PURCHASER shall retain the right to inspect at any stage during the manufacturing
process.
The SUPPLIER shall combine with the PURCHASER the setting up of a Basic inspection
Schedule for each supply, according to the stipulated deadlines. this schedule shall also
cover tests and inspections to be conducted at the Jobsite.
The SUPPLIER shall attach to this Schedule, a description for the different items, their
identification, place of manufacture and expected date for inspection.
The PURCHASER shall commence its inspections at the factory, only after receiving and
approving all the Drawings, Lists of Materials and Calculation Sheets related to the
equipment or to the part to be inspected.
The SUPPLIER shall perform internally the tests defined in the Basic Inspection Schedule
prior to the dates established for inspections by the PURCHASER.
With the results of these tests, the SUPPLIER shall prepare his Internal Report, which
shall be presented to the PURCHASERs inspector on the day the tests are initiated with
the presence of the PURCHASER, as called for in the Basic Inspection Schedule.
The PURCHASERs inspector has the right to request partial or total repetition of each
of the tests included in the SUPPLIERs Internal Report.
Other verifications may be defined during the detailing of the design, after having been
agreed upon between the PURCHASER and the SUPPLIER.
The SUPPLIER shall furnish the PURCHASER the following documents:
Copies of the purchase orders and specifications of the raw material and
components;
Certificates and reports on tests of materials;
Certificates of tests of mechanical and electrical components;
Reports on factory tests.
The applicable standards to be used for non-destructive tests upon receipt of raw materials
and the standards to be used for welding control are:
Receipt of rolled products (thickness = 19mm)
ASTM A435 (ultrasonic) standard.
Receipt of weldings
ASME, Section VIII (ultrasonic, magnaflux, penetrating liquid and X-ray).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

145

Standard Technical Specifications

8.2

Tests and Inspections during Manufacturing

8.2.1

Destructive Tests

Mechanical Tests. - Elongation tests shall comply with the requirements of NBR
6152 Standard Determinao das Propriedades Mecnicas Trao de Materiais
Mecnicos and the bend tests with the requirements of NBR 6153 Standard
Determinao da Capacidade do Dobramento de Produtos Metlicos, both from
ABNT.
The bend tests shall be considered satisfactory, when the test specimen tested complies
with the requirements of ABNT-MB-262.
For sheets, rolled shapes, castings and steel cables, the tensile strength of the test
specimen shall be equal to or higher than the minimum tensile strength of the material
from which the test specimen originated as specified by a standard acceptable to the
PURCHASER.
With respect to the weldings, elongation and bend tests shall be conducted on test
specimens joined by the weld fillets.
For weldings joining different metals, the tensile strength of the test specimen shall be
equal to or higher than the minimum strength of the base material which has the highest
tensile strength, as specified by a standard acceptable to the PURCHASER.
For weldings calculated with a lower tensile strength than that of the base metal, the
tensile strength of the test specimen shall be equal to or higher than the tensile strength
of the weld metal, as specified by a standard acceptable to the PURCHASER.
Chemical Analysis. For stainless steel and other materials resistant to corrosion, a
chemical analysis shall be made by sampling, at the PURCHASERs discretion to
check the certificates.
The cost for this analysis shall be at the PURCHASERs expense, if the SUPPLIER presents
the certificates of the chemical tests of these materials.
8.2.2

Nondestructive Tests

The following shall be submitted to Hardness Tests:


Shafts, sealing rubber, stainless steel and metallic surfaces of components
subject to wear.
The following shall be submitted to ultrasonic tests:
100% of the sheets, with thickness equal to or greater than 19mm, as per
ASTM A435 Standard, in their raw material form.
Cast and/or Forged Parts, such as: shafts requiring structural dependability.
Bevels for jobsite weldings.
Structural butt welds, characterized in the approved construction drawings
shall be tested by sampling a length equivalent to 30% of the total length of
the fillet. The sections to be tested shall be determined at the discretion of
the PURCHASERs inspector. If unacceptable defects are detected, the
ultrasonic test shall be extended throughout the remaining 70%. Rejected
parts shall be repaired and again submitted to the applicable tests. Parts
which do not comply with the conditions of the design shall be scrapped or
rejected.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

146

Standard Technical Specifications

The following shall be submitted to penetrating Liquid or Magnetic Particle test:


100% of the bimetallic fillet welds and structural fillet welds (in angle).
Shafts requiring structural dependability (after final machining and heat
treatment).
The above mentioned parts shall be rejected if, after the test, they present cracks or
porosity over that permitted in the ASME Standard or another applicable standard.
Rejected parts shall be repaired and again submitted to tests. Depending on the extent
or type of of the defect, the defective portion can be rejected.
Thickness of the Surface Protections. Thickness of the chrome plating and similar
processes of surface protection shall be verified by means of a magnetic measuring
instrument or any other acceptable appartus. Parts which do not contain the
thickness recommended in the design shall be rejected.
The base paint coating shall be checked prior to the application of the finish coating. A
magnetic measuring instrument shall be used. The final thickness of the paint shall
comply with the paint manufacturers specification, and if not attained, the painting
shall be rejected. Checking of the base and finish paint coatings shall only be done after
the times required for the paint cure are observed, in accordance with the manufacturers
specification.
8.2.3

Dimensions and Finishing Checking during Manufacture

Structural Parts. Before assembly of the mechanical components and after possible
corrections and approval of the weldings, after heat treatment and after final
machining, the structural parts shall be submitted to complete verification of
dimensions and checking of finish machining.
Mechanical Elements. 100% of the following mechanical elements shall be
submitted to dimensional and finish inspection, after final machining and/or prior
to any assembly
Gears;
Shafts;
Roller Bearings;
Bearings.
The remaining mechanical elements, such as nuts, bolts, anchor bolts, etc., after final
machining and before any assembly, shall be inspected for dimensions by sampling, at
the discretion of the PURCHASER.
8.2.4

Electric Motors. All the electric motors shall be submitted, at the factory, to type and
routine tests, in compliance with ABNT Standards NBR-7094 and NBR-5383.

8.3

Final Factory Tests and Inspections. Final factory tests and inspections shall be conducted
for each equipment or part thereof, assembled, after completion of the former applicable
tests defined above.
Verifications as to surface finish, manufacture, assembly, no-load operation tests and
any other necessary mechanical or electrical verifications shall also be conducted, to
ensure compliance with all the requirements of the technical specifications, which shall
form part of the Basic Inspection Schedule.

8.4

Inspections. At the sole discretion of the PURCHASER, the witnessing of the Tests
required in the respective Specification may be totally or partially dispensed with.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

147

Standard Technical Specifications

In cases where the witnessing of the Tests are dispensed with, the PURCHASER may
demand the presentation of a complete report on the tests, for each model of the
equipment, containing all data necessary for a perfect understanding of the tests
conducted and their results, with a guarantee of their authenticity.
9.

Equipment Rejection at Factory. The equipment shall be rejected if, in the course of
inspection, any equipment failure or deficiency in relation to the PURCHASERs
Specifications and approved drawings is detected.
Equipment rejection shall not exempt the SUPPLIER from its responsibilities regarding
the delivery date of the equipment.
If, in the PURCHASERs opinion, it is determined that the SUPPLIER is incapable of
complying with the requirements of the ENGINEER, or if the rejection makes the planned
delivery date impracticable, the PURCHASER retains the right to cancel all its obligations
and purhase the equipment from another source, the SUPPLIER thus being considered
as breaking the contract and subject to penalties applicable to the case.

10.

Equipment Acceptance at Factory. The equipment shall be considered accepted if the


final acceptance tests at the factory lead to satisfactory results. In this case, The
ENGINEER shall affix an inspection seal next to the nameplate, and after approving the
packing, shall issue a Certificate of Liberation for the material.
The acceptance of the equipment at the Factory by the ENGINEER shall not affect the
conditions in Item 15 (Provisional and Final Acceptance) regarding provisional and final
acceptance at the jobsite, and shall not in any way exempt the SUPPLIER from its
responsibility to supply the equipment in conformity with the Contract/Purchase Order,
or anull or jeopardize any future claim the PURCHASER may make, based on the existence
of equipment which is unsuitable, faulty or in conflict with the Specification.

11.

Packing, Transportation and Handling. The equipment shall be suitably packed so as to


protect it against damages during transportation and storage, in conditions that envolve
multiple handling, transhipment, transporting on unpaved roads, prolonged warehousing,
exposure to humidity, sea air and possibility of theft.
Without limiting the SUPPLIERs responsibilities, following is a list of conditions that
should be observed, in addition to other conditions eventually included in this Specification:
Boxes, crates and pallets shall be constructed in a manner suitable for each shipment
requirement and shall be strapped with steel bands. The wood shall be dry.
The steel bands shall be of non-annealed steel, applied with stretching tools and
fastened with pressed clamps.
Nails shall be coated with anti-corrosion protection and be adequate for package
cases.
In case of equipment susceptible to damages caused by moisture, impermeable
coverings in the form of bags or envelopes sealed with impermeable adhesives
shall be used. A moisture absorbing protection such as silicon gel shall be provided.
Machined surfaces, which may be subject to oxidation while being transported or
installed, shall be transported covered with grease or other easily removable
substance.
Items to be shipped in bales shall be separated and bound in accordance with
dimensions and weights compatible with handling at the jobsite.
The packing shall be subject to inspection and approval by the ENGINEER. If the boxes
arrive at the destination damaged or in unsuitable conditions the equipment shall be
inspected, and any damaged or unsuitable equipment shall be returned and replaced at

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

148

Standard Technical Specifications

the SUPPLIERs expense. Each package shall be marked with the names of the
PURCHASER and of the Project, the number of parts it contains, name of the SUPPLIER,
number of Contract/Purchase Order, number of shipment, destination, and gross and
net weights. A list shall also be furnished, on which all materials, accessories and/or
spare parts contained in each package are listed, to facilitate checking of same.
Transportation and insurance shall be in accordance with the General and Special
Conditions of Contract, and in addition, the following conditions shall be observed:
In the case of supply by national companies:
Shipping and insurance of the equipment from the factory to the jobsite
warehouse shall be the responsibility of the SUPPLIER.
The insurance shall also cover the unloading operation at the delivery site, which will be
performed by the PURCHASER, in accordance with the SUPPLIERs instructions.
Optionally, the PURCHASER may directly handle this freight and insurance, if
so established in the Contract/Purchase Order.

In the case of supply by foreign company:


The shipping and insurance of the equipment from the factory to the Brazilian
port of ______ shall be the responsibility of the SUPPLIER. The shipment and
insurance of the equipment from the Brazilian port of __________ to the jobsite
warehouse shall be the responsibility of either the SUPPLIER or the PURCHASER
according to that which was established in the Contract.
Storage at Jobsite. The storage and safekeeping of equipment and materials,
after arrival at the destination jobsite warehouses up to the effective date of
installation, shall be done by the PURCHASER following instructions furnished by
the SUPPLIER.
Spart parts packaged separately and each package marked with the words PEAS
SOBRESSALENTES to avoid using the spare parts the equipment.
12.

SUPPLIERS Drawings and Data

12.1

Manufacturing Schedule. The BIDDER shall present with the Bid a detailed schedule of
the supply, containing at least the following events:
Preparation of manufacturing drawings and submittal for approval;
Approval of the drawings by the PURCHASER;
Preparation of the instruction manuals;
Manufacture;
Inspection, tests at factory;
Transportation and delivery to worksite.

12.2

Drawings and Data to be Submitted for Approval. Independent from any document furnished
with the bid, the SUPPLIER shall submit for the PURCHASERs analysis and approval,
after the contract has been signed and before starting manufacture, all documents
comprising the equipment design and/or catalog data, in five (5) copies. The drawings
being furnished in blueprint form. The drawings, data,and calculation sheets listed in the
respective Technical Specifications shall be the minimum amount of material furnished.

The drawings shall be submitted with all elements required for a clear understanding of
the dimensions, concepts, and operability of the equipment and shall contain where
applicable, plan drawings, views, sections, and details with all elevations, in addition to

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

149

Standard Technical Specifications

electrical diagrams, material lists, and calculation sheets. The drawings shall be prepared
in compliance with the ABNT standard NBR - 5984.
Where data are required for commercial products or equipment, the SUPPLIER shall
submit 5 (five) sets of complete identifying data giving the manufacturers name, type,
model, size, and characteristics of the equipment. When a catalog sheet is submitted,
the particular item proposed shall be underlined or marked. The data shall be
comprehensive and shall fully demonstrate that all equipment provided will meet the
requirements of these specifications.
The drawings, data, and calculation sheets shall be stamped with the PURCHASERs
name, contract number, works name, SUPPLIERs reference number and revision number
and date.
All the drawings and other technical documents furnished shall become the exclusive
property of the PURCHASER, who may make use of same in any manner it wishes.
12.3

Criteria for Approval of Drawings and Data. The PURCHASER shall decide on the drawings
and data received within a maximum time limit of thirty (30) days following receipt
thereof. However, the SUPPLIER shall be granted the right to extend the foreseen
equipment delivery date by a period of time equal to the delay caused by the PURCHASER
in analysing the documents. This right is not applicable to drawings submitted for
clarification and/or correction of ones initially presented.
After analysis, the PURCHASER shall return to the SUPPLIER one (l) copy of each drawing
and/or data sheet, stamped with the following indications:
APROVADO (APPROVED)
APROVADO COM RESTRIES (APPROVED WITH RESTRICTIONS)
NO APROVADO (NOT APPROVED)
Drawings and data stamped APROVADO authorize the SUPPLIER to continue detailing
the design and to start manufacturing the equipment covered by the drawing. Drawings
and data stamped APROVADO COM RESTRIES authorize the SUPPLIER to continue
detailing the design and to start manufacturing, including therein the alterations requested;
the re-submittal of the drawings for new checking, however, is necessary.
Drawings and data stamped NO APROVADO shall be resubmitted for approval after
having been corrected or altered. The alterations so made do not confer to the SUPPLIER
the right to extend the delivery date for the equipment.
Immediately after completion of the approval procedure, the SUPPLIER shall submit to
the PURCHASER one (1) reproducible copy of the originals of each drawing, in polyester,
accompanied by one (1) blueprint. The polyester shall be 0.3 mm thick.
Whenever modifications to the equipment design or manufacture are required, the
PURCHASER shall be informed and, if such modifications affect the design, the SUPPLIER
shall resubmit five (5) new copies for analysis,the procedure established above being
repeated.
The approval by the PURCHASER of drawings, data,and calculations shall not diminish
the SUPPLIERs responsibilities in relation to the equipment design, raw material,
manufacture and guaranteed characteristics. The fact of the PURCHASER calling the
SUPPLIERs attention to certain errors or omissions does not imply that the the

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

150

Standard Technical Specifications

PURCHASER will be responsible for others not mentioned or not detected during drawing
analysis and approval process.
Any fabrication or procurement performed, or shipment made, prior to approval of the
drawings and data, shall be at the SUPPLIERs risk.
12.4

Presentation Schedule. Unless otherwise stated in the Technical Specifications or in the


schedule contained in these specifications, the deadlines for presentation of drawings
and data for approval shall be the following:
Deadline for remittance, counted

Description as from the date


the contract is signed

Drawings and design data which affect the performance of civil works

up to 30 days

Drawings and design data which do not affect the performance of the civil works

up to 60 days

Desenhos e informaes de projeto que no tenham influncia na execuo das obras civis

at 60 dias

It shall be observed that within the deadlines established above or in the Specifications
all the drawings of all the items of the Contract shall be submitted for the PURCHASERs
approval.
12.5

Instruction Manual. - Within thirty (30) days prior to the expected delivery date of the
equipment, the SUPPLIER shall forward five (5) copies of the equipment Instruction Manual,
in A4 format, to the PURCHASER.

Manual shall be complete and shall contain all instructions for operation, modifications
and adjustment of the equipment at the jobsite; recommendations regarding tools and
instruments to be used; routines of maintenance, storage, handling and lifting of the
unit and accessories, together with drawings for assembly and moving of parts and
packages.
Where applicable, the Manuals shall indicate , in a very clear manner, the recommended
adjustment values of parts and devices.
The Instruction Manuals shall be written in Portuguese and furnished suitably bound.
The drawings included in the Manuals shall be numbered, properly folded and attached
to the volume in a manner similar to that of the text pages.
13.

Installation Supervision. The PURCHASER retains the right to contract with the SUPPLIER
the assembly installation services in accordance with the General and Special Conditions
of Contract.
The SUPPLIER shall provide a capable assembly and test supervisor to supervise the
assembly and installation at the jobsite, and the initial and final tests and inspections at
the jobsite , of the equipment being supplied.
The supervisor shall act as a consultant for the PURCHASER as regards practical methods
and required precautions and shall be responsible for alignments, clearances and other
requirements inherent to the equipment assembly, as well as guiding the PURCHASER
with respect to handling, checking, start-up and other operations required for the effective
operation of the equipment.
The SUPPLIER shall, in advance, furnish the PURCHASER with forecasts of personnel,
tools and equipment required for assembly within the conditions and time limits established
in the Contract.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

151

Standard Technical Specifications

14.

Personnel Training. The SUPPLIER shall provide, at his expense, training of the technicians
indicated by the PURCHASER, providing them with instructions and information to qualify
them for the perfect operation and maintenance of the equipment to which this document
relates. Training shall be completed 30 days before the normal start-up of operation, or
the acceptance tests of the system and/or equipment, and shall comply with the provisions
contained in the following paragraphs. Training shall be of sufficient duration to ensure
the complete preparation of the personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance
of the system and/or equipment, using instructive facilities as well as equipment or
similar items already installed in order to define and implement the preventative and
corrective maintenance programs.
This training shall be comprised of a study of the theory of operation of the equipment,
with an analysis of schematic diagrams, a determination of the instruments and devices
required for maintenance work, and practical exercises in preventive and corrective
maintenance. A global understanding of the operation and installation of the system
shall be achieved.
Together with the bid, the BIDDER shall present a general training plan containing all the
specifications of the training to be furnished, including programs, instruction material,
instructors curricula, training locations and other information.
The SUPPLIER shall furnish all the material required for the training process. The
PURCHASER will be responsible for the participants travel and lodging expenses, including
all related legalobligations.
Travel and lodging expenses of the instructors shall be at the expense of the SUPPLIER.
Evaluation of the training program criteria shall be established by common accord between
parties, including the list of participants and the minimum qualifications required for
same, in sufficient time to ensure that training is completed before the normal operation
of the system.

15.

Provisional and Final Acceptance

15.1

Provisional Acceptance. General checking and operation tests shall be carried out after
the completion of the installation at the jobsite, in the presence of the PURCHASER.

Once the conditions imposed by the reference standards and set forth by this Specification
are complied with, and the equipment put into operation, it shall be considered delivered
and installed and a Provisional Acceptance Certificate will be issued by the PURCHASER,
without detriment to the guarantees stipulated in the General and General and Special
Conditions of Contract.
15.2

Final Acceptance. When the guarantee period ends with no pending contract item
outstanding, there is termination of the contract and a certificate of FINAL ACCEPTANCE
of the equipment relative to the supply will be issued by the PURCHASER.

16.

Identification

16.1

General. Unless otherwise specified, the CONTRACTOR shall mark all electrical equipment
to be designated, other than disconnecting switches, with the assigned designations, by
nameplate, with letters approximately 38 mm high. Fuse and disconnecting switch
identification signs are provided for elsewhere in the Specifications.

16.2

Nameplate. A nameplate shall be installed on each _______, ______ and ______. The
nameplates shall be made of stainless steel, at least 1 mm thick. All information on the
nameplate shall be in Portuguese and in the metric system.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

152

Standard Technical Specifications

The nameplate shall be located so as to be visible from the front of equipment after it is
placed in its permanent operating position. Each nameplate shall contain at least the
following applicable information:
The words (type of equipment);
Manufacturer s name and placed and year of manufacture;
Manufacturing serial number;
Type (Manufacturer s);
Dimensions of dismountable components and overall dimensions;
Weight of dismountable components and total weight;
Manufacturing standards used.
17.

Exceptions to the Specifications. The BIDDER shall include in his Bid an explicit list of all
points where the proposed equipment deviates from these specifications, and shall fill
out the specific form which is presented in Part ___ of the Instructions to Bidders.
The PURCHASER retains the right to accept or reject the exceptions and deviations
proposed. Deviations not included in the Declaration of Exceptions of the Bid will not be
accepted later, since their absence shall be an indication that the proposed equipment
fully complies with requirements established by the PURCHASER.

18.

Alternative Bid . Alternative bids, offering equipment with other arrangements and/or
concepts of design which are different from the ones included in the Specifications may
be considered by the PURCHASER, provided that an alternative qualifying bid has been
evaluated and found to be the lowest cost bid.
The alternative bid shall be presented in explicit detail, including all elements required
for a perfect characterization of the equipment offered, otherwise it shall not be considered
by the PURCHASER.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

153

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION - PUMP AND


MOTOR UNITS

S-010201

PUMP AND MOTOR UNITS, GENERAL

1.

Objective. The objective of these Technical Specifications is to define the minimum


technical criteria and supply conditions required of the pump and motor units for the
_________ (name) Pumping Station of the_________ (name) Project.

2.

Operating Conditions. The equipment shall be designed and constructed for the operating
conditions as stated in paragraph 3 of Section __________ , MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT,
GENERAL (S-010101).
The equipment shall be designed for external use.
The equipment must be designed to endure continuous and intermittent operation up to
24 hours a day, over a 3-month period, at an ambient temperature of up to 40o C;
The intermittent working regime referred above is characterized by starting and stopping
the pumping units during operation, so that within 20 hours there may occur up to 2
starts of the pump;

3.

Scope of Supply. The supply scope of these specifications includes, but is not limited to
the following items:

3.1

Preparation of design drawings and calculation sheets and submittal for approval.

3.2

Furnishing instruction manuals for assembly, operation and maintenance of equipment


and/or materials.

3.3

Manufacturing and supplying of pump and motor units in accordance with these
Specifications and approved drawings.

3.4

Supplying of special tools required for assembly and maintenance of equipment.

3.5

Supplying of spare parts for the pump and motor units, as required in these specifications.

3.6

Tests of equipment and/or materials at factory, as required in these specifications.

3.7

Packing, transportation of the equipment from factory to jobsite, and unloading at the
jobsite, including necessary transportation insurance.

3.8

Supervision of assembly of equipment and/or materials and installation, when requested


by the PURCHASER.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

154

Standard Technical Specifications

3.9

Test of equipment at jobsite and operational start-up, whenever the PURCHASER requests
the assembly supervisor at the jobsite.

3.10

Instructions and training for the PURCHASERs operation and maintenance personnel.

3.11

Equipment and/or materials guarantee.


The SUPPLIER shall present a project schedule which ensures the supply of the equipment
in an orderly and continuous manner, thus allowing the sequential and complete assembly
of each pumping system.

4.

Technical Standards. The latest revision of the following standards shall be adopted for
the manufacturing and suppling of materials,and the dimensioning and tests of the
pump and motor sets.
ABNT - Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas
DIN - Deutsches Institut Fur Normung
ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers
API - American Petroleum Institute
AISI - American Iron and Steel Institute
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
AWWA - American Water Works Association
ISO - International Organization for Standardization
SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
HIS - Hydraulic Institute Standards
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE - The Institute of Electrical and Eletronic Engineers,Inc.
NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association
VDI - Verein Deutscher Ingeneure

5.

Modifications. The lay-out of equipment shown on the drawing may be taken as a


guide, allowing the SUPPLIER to make any suggestions and/or alterations which better
adapt to the equipment he is offering. Suggestions and/or alterations which include
technical aspects inferior to those here required, however, will not be accepted;
All specification requirements will be considered as included in the alternative offered;
Suggestions and/or alterations will not be accepted which alter dimensions of buildings,
except that building openings for the pump column, pump base and pipe outlets already
designed in the structure may be altered.
The alterations which have been allowed above must be submitted to the ENGINEER in
sufficient time, in order to be implemented, if approved;
The SUPPLIER must provide detailed drawings of all the equipment in 04 (four) copies,
one of which must be a reproducible for heliographic copies;
The reproducible drawing must be or CRONAFLEX paper or similar, so as to be durable
and allow good reproductions;
The drawings must contain all the details of design, manufacture and assembly which
may result in any of the previously mentioned alterations in civil works;

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

155

Standard Technical Specifications

The modifications or information submitted cannot be altered without prior authorization


of the ENGINEER, and omissions will not exempt the SUPPLIER from his obligations
under these specifications;
Once the designs submitted are analysed, the changes by the ENGINEER, within the
scope of the present specifications, must be promptly carried out by the SUPPLIER
within the established schedule and without any additional charge;
The modified designs will be signed by both the ENGINEER and the SUPPLIER, each of
whom will keep a copy. No discrepancies shall exist between these copies;
The approval of a design by the ENGINEER will not make him responsible for errors or
omissions on the part of the SUPPLIER who will remain responsible for compliance with
all provisions of the specifications;
The SUPPLIER will provide new drawings to replace the ones which were altered according
to the instructions in the items above.
6.

Pump and Motor Efficiencies. Electric motor efficiencies and power factors shall not be
less than those specified in (S-010205 - Induction Electric Motors) or (S-010206 Synchronous Electric Motors), as applicable.
Basic Efficiency and Minimum Efficiency for the combination pump and motor units
will be as specified in the Technical Data Sheets.
Units with efficiencies higher than the Basic Efficiency specified will be accepted as
conditions of equality. Units with efficiencies lower than the Minimum Efficiency will
not be accepted.
In the evaluation of the bids submitted under this Solicitation, if a pump and motor unit
is found to have an efficiency lower than the Basic Efficiency specified, a penalty
shall be applied by adding to the applicable lump-sum price bid for furnishing the unit a
value of US$ 1.00 per kilowatt for each 1/10 of 1 (one) percent in which the efficiency
of the unit proposed by the BIDDER is less than the Basic Efficiency specified.
The number of kilowatts to be used in the determination of the dollar value of the above
penalty shall be established as the power of the pump and motor unit and shall be found
by the application of the following formula:
P=

Q x H(man) x 9.8
n

where
P = power of the pump and motor, unit in kw,
Q = design discharge of the pump and motor unit in m3 /s,
n = pump and motor Basic Efficiency.
H(man) = design manometric head in m.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

156

Standard Technical Specifications

7.

Inspections and Tests

7.1

General. The pumps and motors shall be submitted to the tests specified in this
subparagraph.
The PURCHASER shall be granted the right to have a representative present to observe
the tests. This representative may, at the PURCHASERs discretion, be from any agency.
The SUPPLIER will guarantee the PURCHASERs representative free access at any stage
of the process of manufacture or assembly of the equipment, and shall supply, free of
charge, any of the components to be tested, and offer all facilities necessary for the
tests themselves.
Any expense incurred to carry out the tests, whether for personnel or material, will be
the SUPPLIERs entire responsibility.
The results of the tests for each unit must be presented in separate, specific certificates.

7.2

Pumps. All pumps shall be submitted in the factory to hydrostatic testing at a pressure
equal to the highest value of the following conditions:
Test pressure equal to 1.5 times the shut-off pressure;
Test pressure equal to 2 times the working pressure;
Test pressure equal to 1.2 times the maximum operating pressure of the pump,when
operating in the reverse direction as a turbine.
The test pressure shall be maintained during a minimum period of 1 hour.
Welding performed on impeller and pump shafts shall be tested with penetrating fluid
(Dye Check) and/or magnetic particles (magnaflux).

7.3

Motors. The electric motors shall be submitted in the factory to type and routine tests
according to ABNT NBR-7094 and NBR-5383. After mounting, all motors shall be
submitted to the following tests, witnessed by the PURCHASER at the factory:
Measurement of insulation resistance to ambient temperature;
Withstand voltage test;
Winding resistance measurements;
No-load test;
No-load test for determination of excitation curve;
Locked rotor test for determination of starting current and torque. This test can
be carried out with reduced voltage,in which case the torque and the starting
current are extrapolate to normal voltage, taking into account the saturation effects;
Determination of vibration and noise levels.The noise level may be determined
without checking the levels in each octave band;
Check of temperature level and noise of bearings.
After the described tests have been carried out, a motor of each type chosen at the
PURCHASERs discretion, shall be submitted to the following tests:
Plotting of curves current x useful power, current x efficiency, current x
power factor, current x absorbed power and current x rotation;
Determination of the maximum torque and corresponding rotation. This test may
be carried out with reduced voltage, its values being extrapolated to the rated
voltage after taking into account the saturation effects.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

157

Standard Technical Specifications

Should rotor bars and rings be of non-cast material, welding shall be controlled by
process analysis and utilization of the penetrating fluid Dye Check.
When ABNT specification or methodology are omitted or insufficient for the above
tests, NEMA or DIN/VDE standard requirements shall be mandatory.
7.4

Pump and Motor Unit. The pump and motor unit shall be submitted in the factory to
operation tests according to DIN-1944, Class II standard, the pumps being tested at the
rated speed with plotting of at least six points placed along the characteristic curve of
the pump, i.e.:
Rated water head operating point;
Maximum and minimum water head discharge points, according to curves of the
system;
Points (no less than two) which permit checking the performance of the pump at
intermediate points;
Shut-off water head point.
For testing the unit, the duly calibrated motor (plotted curves), shall be employed when
possible. Should the performance of tests at the factory not be possible with the motor
itself and at the rated speed the SUPPLIER shall submit to the PURCHASER an alternative
for approval.
For the pump and motor unit tests with reduced speed, the four conditions below shall
be maintained:
The test conditions shall be such as to produce the same specific speed as the
field installation.
The motor used in the tests shall have all the curves plotted.
The points equivalent to the ones previously mentioned shall be tested.
The calvitation sigma factor shall be the same as the field
installation.
In the reduced speed test, the pump cavitation sigma factor shall be plotted.
The test information shall include discharges, corresponding water heads,power consumed
by the pump (bhp), hydraulic power (Whp),power consumed by the motor, efficiency,
rotation of pumps and NPSH.
At least one pump of each model will have the tests witnessed by the PURCHASER.
Tests shall be carried out to assure the control of the maximum internal temperature of
the pump and unit bearings in a continuous operating condition.
The internal temperature of the bearings under continuous operation of the pump at
approximately 30o C ambient temperature shall not exceed 80o C.
A surface temperature of the bearing box above 50o C shall be taken as evidence that
the internal temperature of bearing exceeds 80 o C, except when shown otherwise by
the SUPPLIER.
This surface temperature shall be indicated by a thermometer firmly pressed against the
external surface of the bearing box and sealed with an adequate plastic paste.
The thermometer shall have a precision of plus or minus 1 Co at 55 Co .

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

158

Standard Technical Specifications

The pump and motor units shall be submitted, at the jobsite, to the following tests:
7.4.1

Vibration Tests. The pump and motor units sets shall be submitted to vibration tests
according to VDI Standard and the vibration levels shall remain within limits considered
BOM (GOOD) as established by VDI Directive 2056.

7.4.2

Noise Test. The pump and motor units shall be submitted to noise tests according to ISO
Standards - Noise Rating Criteria Curves - Curves NC. 7.4.3 Bearing Temperatures.
Temperature levels of the bearings shall be checked with machines in operating condition.

Charges required as a result of tests at the jobsite shall be the SUPPLIERs responsibility.
8.

Packaging, Transporting, Unloading and Storage. The SUPPLIER shall provide necessary
packing of the equipment to avoid its damage or deterioration during transit to its final
destination and during the storage period. Packaging, transporting, and insurance shall
be in accordance with paragraph 11, Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL (S010101) and as specified in this paragraph.
The packing shall be sufficient to resist violent handling during transit and storage. The
size and the weight of the packing boxes shall take in account, where possible , the
distance to the final destination and the absence of heavy weight handling facilities at
all places along the route.
All the pumps must be submitted to a cleaning and washing process, internally and
externally, with an anti-corrosive product. The non painted machined parts, such as
threads, must be protected against corrosion.
All the existing holes in the equipment must be closed by plugs or flanges of wood or
other similar material.
The equipment shall be protected for a storage period of 6 (six) months.
Any repair to the equipment or packing, until delivery to the PURCHASER, must be
made at the expenses of the SUPPLIER.
Special attention shall be given to the protection of the motor shafts, to avoid shocks
which may damage or bend them.
Before shipment, motors and pumps shall be stored in a dry place, free from dust, gases
or corrosive smoke and at a uniform temperature. The motors and pumps shall be stored
in their normal position and other objects shall not lean against them.
The delivery of the equipment shall be made by the SUPPLIER according to the terms of
the Contract. The SUPPLIER will be responsible until the delivery has been completed.
The supply will be considered as being completed after delivery of the equipment at the
storage site and after issuance of the respective acceptance form.
The transportation, including loading and unloading of the equipment, and until storage
at the site will be the exclusive responsibility of the SUPPLIER and its costs shall be
included in the price of the equipment.
The supplied equipment must be totally covered by insurance against loss and damages,
caused during manufacturing or to the purchasing,transportation, storage and supply
according to these Specifications.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

159

Standard Technical Specifications

9.

Drawings and Data to be Furnished by the SUPPLIER

9.1

Technical Data and Information for the BID. The BID must contain the following
information:
Relating to the pump and motor units
Torque curves of the motors and pumps;
Outline drawings of assemblies, including dimensions of the bases and
anchorages;
Weights;
Characteristics of the lubrication system;
Moments of inertia of the pumps and motor;
Maximum dynamic and static head on the floor slab by the motor.
Relating to the pumps
Data sheet containing their main characteristics;
Complete performance curves of the model of pumps being offered;
Adopted manufacturing standards;
Type of bearings;
Descriptive memorandum for the tests;
Principal materials;
Minimum submergence;
Complete performance curves with admissible maximum and minimum
impellers.
Relating to the motors
Data sheets containing their main characteristics;
Performance curves of the motors;
Principal materials;
Type of bearings;
Standards of manufacture and test;
Descriptive memorandum for the tests.

9.2

Complementary Data to be Provided at the Time of Delivery:


Catalogs and discriptive data for the motor and pump;
Dimensional drawings;
List of spare parts;
Drawings showing the exact location, with dimensions, of the anchor bolts
for the pump and motor units.
Drawings of the necessary sections and details (such as flanges, couplings,
bearings, etc.).
Instructions for specific and for preventative maintenance, for assembly and
disassembly, for loading and unloading, and lubrication details.
Operating-characteristic curves for operating pumping units either individually
and in parallel, with other units in the pumping plant.
Curves of NPSH required as a function of discharge.
Allowable input power variation limits for the various values of discharge and
manometric height within which the pumps can operate without cavitation
problems.
Reports of all tests required by these specifications which are performed in
the factory.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

160

Standard Technical Specifications

10.

Guarantee. The SUPPLIER of the pump and motor units shall confirm that the design of
the suction and discharge piping, including the pump manifold and discharge line, as
indicated in the Reference Drawings, will not affect the operating characteristics of the
pump.
The BIDDER shall present the following guarantees in his BID:

10.1

Pumps.

10.1.1

Guaranteed Net Efficiency - indicate as follows:

The BIDDER guarantees that the net efficiency of each pump, when they are pumping
________ m3 /h at ________ m of total water head and rotation of _________ RPM, will be
equal to or higher than ________ %.
10.1.2

Effective Power in the Shaft - indicate as follows:

The BIDDER guarantees that the effective power in the shaft of each pump, when they
are operating at a rotation of _______ RPM, and total water head of _______ m, will be
equal to or lower than __________ CV.
10.1.3

NPSH

The BIDDER guarantees that the NPSH required by the pump relative to a drop of 3
(three) per cent of the total head, in the operating point corresponding to _________ m3
/h, is not greater than ________ m.
10.1.4

Material Removal

The BIDDER guarantees that cavitation will not occur (zero tolerance for the removal of
material from the casing and rotor) for the operating conditions to be encountered.
10.1.5

Submergence

The BIDDER guarantees that the minimum submergence in relation to (indicate the
reference) will not exceed _________ m.
10.1.6

The BIDDER guarantees that the interval between two disassemblies of the pump and
motor unit for maintenance of the bearings is more than ________ hours of operation.

10.2

Electric Motors.

10.2.1

Guranteed Efficiency - indicate as follows:


The BIDDER guarantees that the efficiency of the motors developing full power under
the normal operating conditions will be equal to or higher than __________ %.

10.2.2

Power - indicate as follows:

The BIDDER guarantees that the power developed by the motors having voltage, power
factor, frequency, and other rated operating conditions, and without heating in an amount
higher than the limit specified, will be at least _________ CV.
10.2.3

Current with Rotor Locked

The BIDDER guarantees that the motor current with rotor locked shall not exceed
________ A, with the Standard tolerances included.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

161

Standard Technical Specifications

10.2.4

Overload

The BIDDER guarantees that the motors can operate continuously in overload with
110% of the rated power and 105% of the rated voltage at the rated frequency, without
the temperature of the windings exceeding those specified for insulation class B (ABNT).
10.3

Non-Compliance With the Efficiency Values Guaranteed and Established in the Contract.
When perfomance tests in factory indicate that the actual efficiencies presented by the
equipment purchased are lower than the values guaranteeed by the SUPPLIER in his bid
and on which the contract has been based, the PURCHASER will decide on one of the
following alternatives:

10.3.1

Acceptance of Modifications in the Design. Acceptance of modifications to be made in


the equipment at the SUPPLIERs expense, so as to meet requirements established in the
Contract. If the modification implies an extension of delivery time, a penalty for delay in
delivering shall be charged according to the General and Special Conditions of the Contract.

10.3.2

Reduction in the Contract Amount. To be established by the following procedure:

Obtain an average of three consecutive performance tests in order to determine


the final efficiency value. The test methods shall be the same established in
paragraph 7 of this Specification and shall be witnessed by a representative of the
PURCHASER.
Establish a difference between the actual and the guaranteed efficiencies and
apply a reduction in the Contract amount following the procedre specified in
subparagraph 6 for evaluation of bids.
10.3.3 Equipment Rejection . - To reject the equipment and to cancel the Contract with
the consequent execution of the bank guarantee and the other penalties forseen in the
Contract.
11.

Technical Assistance. The SUPPLIER must provide the following additional services in
accordance with the General and Special Conditions of the Contract:

11.1

Supervision of the installation and testing of the pump and motor unit in the field.

11.2

The supply of all the tools which will be necessary for the mounting and/or the
maintenance of the supplied units;

11.3

The supply of detailed operation and maintenance manuals in portuguese, for each of
the supplied units;

11.4

The training of the personnel for operation, maintenance and/or repairs of the supplied
units in accordance with paragraph 14 of Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL
(S-010101).
The SUPPLIER must give technical assistance, at the work site, for a period of 5 (five)
years, from the beginning date of the start-up of the equipment . The SUPPLIER may
accredit regional enterprises, which have qualified technicians, for this kind of service.

12.

Measurement and Payment . The quantity of pump and motor units described in this
Specification will be measured as complete pump and motor assemblies, expressed in
units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

162

Standard Technical Specifications

S-010202

VERTICAL - SHAFT, CENTRIFUGAL PUMPING UNITS

1.

Objective. This paragraph defines the manufacturing requirements which, together with
the requirements of paragraph PUMP AND MOTOR UNITS, GENERAL (S-010201),
establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the vertical-shaft,
centrifugal pumping units for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General. Pumps shall be a vertical-shaft type with one or more stages, with oil or water
bearing lubrication, and driven by an electric motor. The pumps shall be as required by
the Technical Data Sheets and be either a submersible type with motor submerged or a
pump with motor attached to the discharge head .

3.

Identification of Units. In addition to the requirements and the information described in


item Mechanical Equipment (S-010101), the nameplate supplied with each pump shall
contain the following additional information:
Number of Stages
Diameter of Pump Discharge in Millimeters
Diameter of Impeller in Millimeters
Discharge Manometric Height
Discharge Flow
RPM
Direction of Rotation

4.

Design and Manufacturing Requirements

4.1

General. The pumps must have vertical shafts direct connected to a vertical hollowshaft motor.
Rotation may be in either direction. The weight of the rotating parts of the pump,
including any unbalanced hydraulic thrust of the pump impellers, shall be carried by a
thrust bearing in the motor. The unit shall be designed to operate safely at the maximum
speed attainable in the reverse direction of rotation due to water returning through the
pump at times when the power supply to the motor is interrupted and the discharge
valve fails to close. Maximum reverse speed shall be determined using the head listed in
the Technical Data Sheets. All internal pump losses, including column and discharge
elbow losses, will be in addition to the total heads listed. The capacity of the pump at
rated total head shall not exceed 110 percent of the required minimum capacity. The
pump shall be designed to start and stop against a closed discharge valve with the
discharge line full of water and to operate satisfactorily over the expected range of total
heads. The pumps shall be designed to operate satisfactorily at the pressure head resulting
from throttling the discharge of the pump to 50 percent of the pump nominal capacity.
The performance curve of the pump shall have a continuously rising pressure characteristic
with decreasing capacity over the expected range of heads.
The pump shall be furnished in accordance with AWWA E101 and in accordance with
the requirements of these specifications. The same material combination shall be used
on all identical pumping units. Special consideration shall be given to the pumping unit
design to assure that the critical speed of the pumping unit is at least 25 percent greater
or less than the pump operating speed.
The pump bowls, column pipe, and discharge head shall be designed for a working
pressure equivalent to the pump shutoff head.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

163

Standard Technical Specifications

The pumps will be installed in individual wet-type wells whose dimensions are specified
on the drawings.
The pumps must work with a minimum submergence. The pumps must work, in parallel,
in groups of two or more, or individually, and must be designed and built so as to fulfill
this requirement.
The pumps must be operated by electric motors in accordance with the electric equipment
specifications.
The pump impellers and shafts must be statically and dynamically balanced and must
rotate without vibration or oscilation within a rotation bracket from zero to rated RPM +
5%.
The pumps must withstand, without damage or loss of durability, reverse flow and the
internal and external forces caused by this operation.
The pumping assemblies must have the maximum possible interchangeable elements,
components or complete units, to facilitate maintenance and assure continuity of
operation.
4.2

Pump Column and Discharge Head Assembly. The pump shall be supported from its
base by means of a vertical flanged discharge column, with a horizontal discharge
located above the supporting base. On the non-submersible type pump, the length of
the discharge column shall be such that the bottom of the suction bell inlet, is
approximately one-half the diameter of the bellmonth inlet or a minimum distance of
150 mm, above the sump floor, with the controlling structural elevation shown on the
drawings. The centerline of the discharge shall be at the elevation indicated on the
drawings.
The discharge column shall be made of steel pipe not lighter than that recommended by
AWWA E101 for Vertical Turbine Pumps, and shall be furnished in lengths not exceeding
3 meters. Discharge columns shall be seamless carbon steel, except that columns larger
than those listed in AWWA E101 shall be made of straight seam pipe in accordance
with ASTM designation: A 134 or A 139 with a wall thickness suitable for the intended
service. The pump may be furnished with a cast iron, cast steel, or fabricated plate steel
discharge head assembly. Fabricated plate steel discharge heads shall be provided with
either a long-radius forged steel elbow, or with a long-radius elbow with no less than
three mitered joints (four segments). The steel discharge elbow shall have a wall thickness
of not less than that specified above for the column. The discharge head shall be designed
to withstand the maximum shutoff head without undue deflection.
The pump discharge shall terminate with a straight piece of pipe suitable for connection
with a Dresser or Gibault type coupling with a thrust harness when shown on the
drawings, or shall terminate with a flanged connection. Flanged connections shall be of
steel with bolt holes compatible with the accessories offered.

4.3

Pump Base and Soleplate. The pump base provided with the pumping unit shall be
designed to rigidly support the unit over an opening in the concrete floor through which
the assembled pump column and bowl assembly can be installed and withdrawn. The
base shall be provided with a one-piece steel soleplate complete with shear keys on the
bottom. The shear keys shall be of such area that the maximum bearing stress imposed
on the grout from the pump shutoff head shall not exceed 500 N/cm2. The soleplate
shall be suitable for anchoring and grouting around the opening in the concrete floor,
and shall be drilled for the anchor bolts in the factory. The pump base and soleplate shall

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

164

Standard Technical Specifications

be designed to carry the entire weight of the complete unit, and to transmit to the
concrete structure the entire horizontal thrust due to hydraulic pressure at shutoff head.
All surfaces in contact between the motor and the pump base and between the pump
base and soleplate shall be machined. If a fabricated steel base is furnished, adequate
braces shall be provided between the base and motor support unit.
4.4

Bowl Assembly. The pump bowl and suction case shall be designed for easy removal of
the impellers and bearings. Bowls shall be provided with replaceable wearing rings where
there are close running clearances between the impeller and the bowl. The surfaces of
all vanes used to direct the flow of water through the suction piece and pump bowl shall
be as smooth as practible and free of blow holes, chilled areas, slag, or foreign matter.
The suction bowl on the non-submersible pump shall have a bellmouth inlet designed to
reduce entrance losses and shall have a sufficient number of vanes to support the lower
guide bearing. A strainer with 25 mm square openings shall be provided at the bottom
of each pump. Means shall be provided in the bowl assembly to sustain the weight of
the impeller and pump shaft when dismantling the pump. A sand collar shall be provided
on the bowl shaft above the suction case bearing.

4.5

Impeller. The impeller shall be designed to minimize cavitation and shall be fastened to
the shaft in such a manner as to make it readily removable. The impeller shall be of the
enclosed type with a replaceable wearing ring where there are close running clearances
between the impeller and the bowl. The wearing ring shall be shrunk fit, utilizing an
interference fit of 0.0005 mm per millimeter of ring inside diameter.
The water passages of the impeller shall be hand finished to remove rough spots and
excessive irregularities.

4.6

Shafts. The pump shafts shall have a section of not less than 500 Brinell hardness at
the bowl bearings, intermediate bearings and the packing box wearing surfaces. The
shaft couplings shall be threaded. The ends of shafts 50 mm in diameter and larger shall
have male and female fit to ensure alignment. For a hollow-shaft motor, a bolted shaft
coupling shall be provided between the motor and the discharge head. An adjusting nut
shall be provided at the top of the top shaft for adjusting the elevation of the pump
impeller with reference to the pump bowl.

4.7

Bearings.- The pump shall have a line shaft guide bearing located where the shaft leaves
the discharge head and shall have sufficient shaft guide bearings, spaced not over 1.5
m apart, to maintain the alignment of the pump shaft and to prevent vibration. The bowl
assembly shall be equipped with adequate bearings, including a suction case bearing
below the first-stage impeller. The bowl assembly of multistage pumps shall be provided
with water-lubricated, intermediate-bowl bearings. The line shaft guide bearings above
the impellers shall be of the bronze oil-lubricated type. The suction case bearing shall be
of the bronze-sealed, grease-lubricated type.
The line shaft and bearings of the pump shall be protected from water and foreign
matter by a shaft-enclosing tube with proper provision for lubrication of the bearings. A
packed or gasket-type seal shall be provided where the shaft-enclosing tube leaves the
discharge head. Drain ports and seals, designed to drain excess oil from the guide
bearings and to prevent the entrance of pressure water into the shaft-enclosing tube,
shall be provided above the impellers.
The shaft guide bearings shall be lubricated by means of a solenoid oiler, complete with
an oil reservoir and all necessary tubing, fittings, and conduit.
The solenoid-operated oiler shall be electrically operated.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

165

Standard Technical Specifications

4.8

Discharge Flows and Pressure.- The pumps shall be manufactured to meet the
requirements shown in the Technical Data Sheets.
The figures for discharge, and manometric height shown in the Technical Data Sheets
represent the figures to be reached when the pumps operate in parallel.
The SUPPLIER must choose pumps which will also operate well when working individually,
in which case there may be a decrease of manometric height and a consequent increase
of discharge.
Compliance with the above will not exempt the SUPPLIER from guaranteeing the working
of the pumping units, whether they operate in parallel or individually.

4.9

Materials. All the material must be new, without defects or imperfections.


The impellers shall be of bronze or cast iron.
The pump shaft shall be corrosion-proof cast stainless steel.
The pump bowl shall be of grey cast iron or steel.
The bearings shall be of bronze.
The bushing shall be of carbon steel. All the components which may require replacement
must be easily accessable, and removable.
The base-plates and supports must be of carbon steel.
The methods of coating and treatment of surfaces must be submitted to the ENGINEER
for approval.
Other materials than those specified may be proposed by the BIDDER, provided that:
All materials used or supplied will be of equivalent or superior quality to those
specified and will provide equal or better service under the environmental conditions
as its destination.
All material used or supplied must be described in detail in the Proposal, in
accordance with these specifications, and for each type of material, the Standard
Specification and the Technical Standard which it meets must be included.
Acceptance of substitute materials shall be exclusively at the discretion of the
PURCHARSE.

5.

Reference drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this Specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

166

Standard Technical Specifications

The above mentioned drawings serve as a general orientation for the preparation of the
proposals and shows the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The
design and the elaboration of the detailed fabrication drawings are a part of the supply
and they are therefore, a responsibility of the SUPPLIER who will note and comply with
the main dimensions and the characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
6.

Technical Data Sheets 7. Measurement and Payment. The supply of vertical-shaft,


centrifugal pumping units shall be measured as complete assemblies furnished, expressed
in units.
Payment for vertical-shaft centrifugal pumping units shall be made at the unit price
established in the Contract.

S-010203

HORIZONTAL-SHAFT CENTRIFUGAL PUMPING UNITS

1.

Objective. This paragraph defines the manufacturing requirements which, together with
the requirements of paragraph PUMP AND MOTOR UNITS, GENERAL (S-010201),
establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the horizontal-shaft
centrifugal pumping units for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General. Pumps shall be a centrifugal type with one or more stages, oil or grease bearing
lubricated, direct connected between shafts by means of a flexible coupling, and pump
driven by an electric motor.

3.

Identification of Units. In addition to the requirements and the information described in


item MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT (S-010101), the nameplate supplied with each pump
shall contain the following additional information:
Number of Stages
Diameter of Pump Discharge in Millimeters
Diameter of Impeller in Millimeters
Discharge Manometric Head
Discharge Flow
RPM
Direction of Rotation

4.

Design and Manufacturing Requirements

4.1

General. The details below apply to the pump and motor units, as well as to the motor
and the pump individually.
The units shall be carefully balanced so that, when they are installed and in the actual
operating condition, the vibrational amplitude does not surpass the values established
by the standards.
The motor shall be balanced separately, before assembly to the pump.
The design of the pump and motor units shall allow for a trip condition under reverse
rotation, in case of damage to the check valve. Under such condition, there shall be no
damage to elements such as coupling, shafts and bushings.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

167

Standard Technical Specifications

The bearings of the pump and motor unit shall be designed for at least 50,000 operating
hours.
The possible axial force on the shafts, in both directions, resulting from the hydraulic
asymmetry in the pump or from the magnetic fields in the motor, shall be supported, if
necessary, by a thrust bearing placed at the pump side. 4.2 Discharge Flows and
Pressures. - The pumps shall be manufactured to meet the requirements shown in the
Technical Data Sheets.
The figures for discharge and manometric head shown in technical Data Sheets represent
the figures to be reached when the pumps operate in parallel.
The SUPPLIER must choose pumps which will also operate well when working individually,
in which case there may be a decrease in manometric height and a consequent increase
in discharge.
Compliance with the above will not exempt the SUPPLIER from guaranteeing the working
of the pumping units, whether they operate in parallel or individually.
4.3

Materials. The materials for the main components of the pumps shall be as follows:
Pump casing - nodular cast iron ASTM A-48, Class 30 or ductile iron ASTM A-536
Impeller - nodular cast iron ASTM A-48, Class 30
Pump shaft - stainless steel ASTM A-276, Type 410
Metallic foundation with anchor bolt - carbon steel ASTM A-36 or nodular cast
iron ASTM A-48, class 30
All the material used must be new, without defects.
The methods of coating and treatment of surfaces shall be submitted to the PURCHASER
for approval.
Other materials than those specified may be proposed by the BIDDER, provided that:
All the materials used or supplied in accordance with these specifications will be
of equivalent or superior quality to those specified and will provide equal or better
service under the environmental conditions at its destination.
All the material used or supplied in accordance with these specifications must be
described in detail in the Proposal, and for each type of material the Technical
Standard and Standard Specification to which it conforms must be provided.
Acceptance of substitute materials shall be exclusively at the discretion of the
PURCHARSE.

4.4

Casing. The pump body shall be of the spiral type, provided with cover, bearing retainer
and support feet, designed to permit easy handling of the impeller and motor.
The pump shall be split on the horizontal centerline, with the suction and discharge
connections cast integral with the lower half. The pump casing shall be provided with
replaceable wearing rings where there are close-running clearances between the impeller
and the casing.
Suitable tapped holes shall be provided for air vents and for drains. Each air vent shall be
provided with a 1/4 inch cock. The drains shall be located such that the case can be
completely unwatered. Tapped holes shall also be provided in the discharge flange and

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

168

Standard Technical Specifications

the suction flange for connection of pressure gauges. The casing construction shall
permit the pump to be readily assembled and dismantled.
The casing base, or the suporting bracket, shall be drilled in the shop for doweling to the
baseplate in the field. The necessary dowels shall be furnished with the pumping unit.
4.5

Impeller. The pump impeller shall be set on the shaft, firmly fastened by means of a pin
and balanced statically and dynamically, after the mounting of the shaft.
The pumps must have such impellers to get a decreasing pressure with an increasing
delivery, from the zero delivery up to the nominal delivery.
The SUPPLIER must not adopt impellers either of the maximum or of the minimum
diameter, used in the proposed pump model. The Supplier must inform, for the quoted
pump, the diameter of the specific impeller and the maximum and the minimum diameters
of the available impellers.

4.6

Shaft. The pump shafts shall be a single high quality piece dimensioned to operate
without distortion and vibration. The shaft shall have sufficient size to transmit torque
over the whole CAPACITY x PRESSURE curve.
The shaft surfaces which are in contact with non-metallic sealing materials, shall be
supplied with replaceable, alined protection bushings.
The SUPPLIER shall be responsible for the coupling of the pump to the motor.

4.7

Stuffing Boxes. The pump stuffing boxes shall be suitable for the maximum head listed
in the Technical Data Sheets plus the maximum suction head and shall be provided with
mechanical double inside seals. If water is required for operation of the packing, the
water being pumped will be used, and all necessary pipe, fittings, throttle valves, leakage
water shield, and drains shall be furnished to form a complete operating unit for the
mechanical seal. A filter or centrifugal separator shall also be furnished as necessary to
provide water suitable for the intended use, as recommended by the mechanical seal
manufacturer.

4.8

Pump Bearings. The pump shaft shall be supported by two bearings of suitable design;
one located on each side of the pump. The bearings may be of the oil-or grease-lubricated,
ball-or roller-bearing type. One bearing shall be of the thrust type, designed to withstand
the unbalanced hydraulic thurst. Suitable fittings shall be furnished for the type of
lubrication provided. If babbitt-lined bearings are provided, suitable bearing temperature
sensors shall be furnished.
If the bearings are water cooled, suitable cooling water piping shall be supplied, and a Ytype strainer with blowoff shall be provided in the cooling water supply piping. The
bearing cooling water shall be taken from the pump discharge and returned to the pump
suction.
Neoprene seals shall be provided for the bearings to prevent loss of lubricent and entrance
of moisture and dirt.

4.9

Baseplate. The pump and the motor may be mounted on a common baseplate or on
separate baseplates. The baseplates shall be of sufficient size and rigidity to maintain
the pump and motor in proper alignment and position without the benefit of grout,
when subjected to the stresses imposed by normal operation. All contact sufaces between
the pump and baseplate and between the motor and baseplate shall be machined. Means

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

169

Standard Technical Specifications

shall be provided for transmitting the entire load due to pump shutoff head to the
concrete structute. If shear keys are provided, they shall be of such area that the
maximum bearing stress imposed on the grout from the pump shutoff head shall not
exceed 500 N/cm2. The baseplates shall be provided with drain connections and grout
holes. After the unit has been installed and properly aligned, the baseplate(s) will be
drilled and reamed for the anchor bolts.
5.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this Specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as a general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings listed above. Any error in the reference drawings
or specifications, be it omission, addition or misplacement of words or symbols, will not
be cause for lack of compliance with the requirements of the drawings and/or
specifications. In case of conflicts between the drawings and the specifications, the
specifications will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the attention of the ENGINEER
any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
6.

Technical Data Sheets

7.

Measurement and Payment. The supply of horizontal-shaft centrifugal pumping units


shall be measured as complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment for horizontal-shaft centrifugal pumping units shall be made at the unit price
established in the Contract.
INDUCTION ELECTRIC MOTORS

S-010205

1.

Objective. This paragraph defines the manufacturing requirements which, together with
the requirements of paragraph _________ , PUMP AND MOTOR UNITS, GENERAL (S010201), establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the induction
electric motors for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General. The motors shall be the induction type with squirrel-cage rotor. They shall be
adequate for continous twenty four (24) hour/day operation, for indoor or outdoor
installation, so as to comply with the characteristics of the load (water pump).

3.

Identification of Units. In addition to the requirements and the information described in


item_____, MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT (S-010101), the nameplate supplied with each
pump shall contain the following additional information:
Rated power in CV or Kw
Synchronous speed (r.p.m.)
Number of phases

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

170

Standard Technical Specifications

Rated voltage
Power factor
Slippage
4.

Design and Manufacturing Requirements

4.1

General. All motors shall be designed, manufactured and tested according to the last
revisions of the applicable ABNT, ANSI, IEEE, NEMA and IEC standards.
Any discrepancy between this specification and the mentioned standards or the
SUPPLIERS standards shall be communicated to the PURCHASER for explanation.
The motor power shall be confirmed by the BIDDER, and shall be such as to carry
continuously the maximum pump load developed under all operating conditions (from
zero flow to the intersection of the pump characteristic curve with the minimum elevation
system curve). The rated motor power shall be at least equal to the higher power
required by the motor actuated load, in the design conditions, rounded up to the first
normalized rated power.
The motors used to operate the horizontal - shaft centrifugal pumps shall be of standard
commercial power in the following ranges:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

4.2

Voltages. Motors shall be designed for use with voltages of 380 V or 2,400 V or 4,160
V, three-phase, 60 Hz.
The motors shall operate satisfactorily with rated load, provided that the percentage
voltage variation does not surpass + 10% of the rated voltage at a frequency of 60 Hz.

4.3

Housing and Ventilation. Motors shall be of open or enclosed type, as indicated in the
Technical Data Sheets with fan-cooled ventilation, with ABNT protection grade IPW-23
for 380-V motors, and with NEMA protection grade WPII with air intake filters (equivalent
to ABNT IPW-44) for 2,400-V or 4,160-V motors. For 4,160 V motors, for outdoors
installation, the protection grade shall be IPW-54 with air intake Filters.
Ventilators shall be adequate for motor operation in both directions of rotation and
provided with means for easy removal.
Covers shall preferably be made of fabricated steel plate; cast iron covers will also be
accepted.
The main dimensions of motors shall follow the standardization of ABNT NBR-5460
standard or NEMA MG-1 standard, where applicable.
The motors shall be designed for horizontal or vertical mounting as indicated in the
Technical Data Sheets.
The motor housing shall be provided with lifting eyes. Larger motors shall be equipped
with permanent liffiting lugs and facilities for replacement or cleaning of the air filters.

4.4

Insulation and Temperature Rise. The insulation shall be of class F material, not
hygroscopic.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

171

Standard Technical Specifications

The maximum temperature rise of the windings, based on a 40o C ambient temperature
and with 1.0 operating factor, shall not surpass that indicated on the Technical Data
Sheets or the following values, whichever is less:
Thermometer method:Insulation class F .............................................. 100 oC
Resistance method: Insulation class F ................................................... 90 oC
Windings shall be abrasion-protected and fungi-resistant.

4.5

Rotation. Motors shall be designed to operate with rotation in both directions.


Whenever the direction of the rotation is important for the operation of the pump, a
nameplate of corrosion-proof material shall be supplied, indicating the correct direction
of rotation.
The motors shall be constructed in such a way that they can safely withstand a speed
test of 20% over the synchronous speed and with rotation in either direction.
In addition, due to abnormal conditions such as the trip of a protective device, the motor
shall be capable of one hot start (motor iniatially at rated load temperature) or two
successive cold starts (motor initially at ambient temperature) without exceeding a
temperature rise that will cause injurious heating to any of the motors parts.

4.6

Torques and Currents. The torques with the rotor locked shall not be lower than the
ones indicated in ABNT-NBR-7094 and/or NEMA MG-1-12.37.
The maximum torques shall not be lower than the ones indicated in ABNT-NBR-7094
and/or NEMA MB-1-12.38.
Motors shall be able to start and accelerate, without surpassing the specified temperature
rise,the loads with moment of inertia, listed in table NEMA MG-1-20.42, or the load
curve of the pump to be operated.
The motor current with the rotor blocked shall not exceed the following values:
380 V motors:
maximum current with rotor blocked = 700% of rated current
2,400 V or 4,160 V motors:
maximum current with rotor blocked = 400% of rated current
The characterstics of the motor torques shall permit the operation of the motor at full
load, with a momentary voltage drop of up to 20%.
The motor torques shall be higher than the ones required by the pumps by at least 30%
(thirty per cent) for any point of the torque x speed curve up to the rotation corresponding
to the maximum motor torque, taking into account a motor with 85% (eighty-five per
cent) of the rated voltage.

4.7

Power Factor and Efficiency. All the motors shall be constructed with high power factor
and high efficiency.
For the motors with a rated voltage of 380 V, the minimum admissible power factor and
efficiency while operating in the 75% to 100% range of rated power, will be: 0.87 for
the power factor (compensation by capacitors or other means not being acceptable)
and 0.9 for the efficiency.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

172

Standard Technical Specifications

For the motors with a rated voltage of 2,400 V or 4,160 V, the minimum admissible
power factor and efficiency, while operating in the 75% to 100% range of rated power,
will be:
Minimum admissible power factor: 0.9
Should the motor be manufactured with a power factor below that specified, the
manufacturer shall furnish the required compensation elements and a detailed specification
for same, guaranteeing operation of the set with a power factor equal to or more than
0.9 and an instantaneous starting current equal to or less than 400% of the set rated
current.
Minimum admissible efficiency: 0.92
4.8

Bearings and Lubrication. The motor shall be equipped with a thrust bearing and one or
more guide bearings. The thrust bearing for vertical-shaft motors shall be designed to
carry the weight of the rotating parts of the motor and pump, including the unbalanced
hydraulic thrust of the pump impeller.
The bearings shall be oil or grease lubricated and shall be provided with facilities for
draining the lubricant and relubricating the bearings without disturbing the bearing housing.
The bearings shall be self-cooled and shall be double sealed against loss of the lubricant
or entrance of dirt. Each bearing shall be insulated to prevent circulating currents from
passing through the bearing surface. The bearing insulation may be omitted provided
induced shaft voltages are sufficiently low so that current will not flow through the
bearing lubricating film from one bearing surface to another.
The support bearings shall be located above the rotors. Each support bearing will have
a monolithic roller plate separate from the thrust block. The use of spacer plates will not
be permitted.
The surface of the roller plate shall be perpendicular to the centerline of the shaft, such
that when the shaft is vertically alined the roller plate distributes the load uniformly over
all the supports.
The sleeve bearings, when utilized, must be of the ring or disc type, with auto-ventilated
oil reservoir and seals to prevent the entrance of water and dust. Indicators of oil level
and inspection windows shall be provided.
When forced oil lubrification is necessary, the bearings shall be equipped with a reservoir
of adequate capacity to allow the rotor to stop rotating without damage, in case of a
failure of the lubrication system.

4.9

Connection Box. Connection boxes shall be a reinforced structure, with neoprene gaskets
and threaded inlets for conduits.
When viewed from the coupling side of the motor, the box shall be mounted as indicated
on the Technical Data Sheets. If no requirement is indicated, the box may be mounted
in the standard location of the SUPPLIER.
They shall be adequately sized to accomodate the power cables with pressure type
copper connectors. The material and size of the terminals supplied with the motors shall
be compatible with the gages of the copper motor power cable.
Separate boxes shall be supplied for current transformers, heaters and/or temperature
and/or vibration detector devices, if so specified.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

173

Standard Technical Specifications

4.10

Heaters. When specified in the Technical Data Sheets, embedded heating elements
shall be provided in each phase of the stator winding. The elements shall be calibrated
to operate at a temperature to protect the insulation. The devices shall be normally
closed contacts and shall reset automatically upon cooling. The contacts shall be suitable
for connection in a 120-volt, 60-hertz control circuit. The device leads shall be terminated
in the low-voltage terminal box.

4.11

Temperature Detection Device. Each motor bearing shall be provided with a bearing
temperature detection device. The bearing temperature relays shall be actuated by a
remote probe embedded in metal as close to the bearing surface as feasible and so
located to provide quick response to bearing temperature. The bearing temperature
relay contact shall open on high temperature to provide automatic shutdown of the unit
by deenergizing the control circuit in the motor control equipment.
Each bearing temperature relay shall be adjustable within the limits required by the
associated bearing.
Each relay shall be enclosed in an individual metal enclosure. The relays shall be mounted
on the motor in such a manner that vibration will not cause false operation.
All wiring from the relays shall terminate on terminal blocks in a low voltage terminal
box. If special leads are required between the probes and the relays, the leads shall be
furnished as part of the relays. All leads associated with the relays and probes between
the low voltage terminal box and the motor shall be furnished as part of the relays and
shall be run in liquidtight flexible metal conduit.

4.12

Accessories. When specified in the Technical Data Sheets, motors shall be provided
with temperature detector devices, and/or vibration sensors, and/or heaters.
________V motors shall be equipped with winding temperature detectors. The sensors
shall be of 10 Ohms at 25 oC resistance type, furnished in sets of 3 for each phase. All
interconnection wiring between realys and/or sensors and terminal box shall be layed
inside waterproof flexible metal conduits.
All motors shall be furnished with a terminal for connecting the housing to the ground
cable.
All motors shall have a terminal for a fourth cable connected to the housing inside the
connection box in addition to the external terminal for connection to the ground grid.
All the motors with rated power equal to or higher than 1500 CV shall be provided with
three current transformers, ratio 500/5A, precision class 5B100 ABNT, insulation class
7.2 KV, which shall feed the differential relays for motor protection.

5.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

174

Standard Technical Specifications

The drawings listed above are intended as a general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of conflicts between the
drawings and the specifications, the specifications will govern. The SUPPLIER shall
bring to the attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference
drawings.
6.

Technical Data Sheets

7.

Measurement and Payment. The supply of induction electric motors shall be measured
as complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment for induction electric motors shall be made at the unit price established in the
Contract.
SYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MOTORS

S-010206

1.

Objective. This paragraph defines the manufacturing requirements which, together with
the requirements of paragraph PUMP AND MOTOR UNITS, GENERAL (S-010201),
establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the synchronous
electric motors for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General. The motors shall be vertical hollow shaft or horizontal solid shaft synchronous
type. They shall be adequate for continuous twenty-four (24) hour/day operation, for
indoor or outdoor installation, so as to comply with the characteristics of the load
(water pump).

3.

Identification. All the motors must have stainless steel identification plates with, at
least, the following information:
Nominal power, in CV or Kw
Synchronous speed (r.p.m.)
Number of phases
Nominal voltage
Power factor
Slippage

4.

Manufacturing Requirements

4.1

General. All motors shall be designed, manufactured and tested according to the last
revisions of the applicable ABNT, ANSI, IEEE, NEMA, and IEC standards.
Any discrepancy between this specification and the mentioned standards or the SUPPLIER
s standards shall be communicated to the PURCHASER for explanation.
The motor power shall be confirmed by the BIDDER, and shall be such as to carry
continuously the maximum possible pump load developed under all operating conditions
(from zero flow to the intersection of the pump characteristic curve with the minimum
elevation system curve) . The rated motor power shall be at least equal to the higher

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

175

Standard Technical Specifications

power required by the motor actuated load, in the design conditions, rounded up to the
first normalized rated power.
The motors shall operate over all of the conditions of the characteristic curves of the
pumps without the required power exceeding that of the motor. The nominal rotation of
the pumps shall not exceed 900 r.p.m or be less than 720 r.p.m . The rotating parts
shall be mechanically balanced (statically and dynamically). The pumps and motors shall
be coupled by rigid sleeves. A support bearing of sufficient capacity to support the
weight of all of the rotating loads plus the hydraulic thrust shall be incorporated in each
motor. The calculated useful life of this bearing shall not be less than 10 years with 24
hour per day continual operation.
4.2

Voltages. The motors shall be designed for operation in a system with 13.6 kV, 4.16 kV
or 2.4 kV, 3 phases, 60 Hz, neutral grounded through a resistor, installation in the field
in a vertical or horizontal position as indicated in the Technical Data Sheets.
They must operate satisfactorily with nominal load, provided that the sum of the percent
variations of the voltage and the frequency do not exceed 10%.

4.3

Housing and Ventilation. The motors must be totally closed, with fan cooled ventilation
system and grade of IPW55 protection.
Motors with cooling by means of air-air heat exchangers are acceptable, provided that
the ventilators for changing the heat of the internal and external air are mounted on the
axis of the motor.
The totally enclosed motors shall be equipped with drains and vents to permit the
escape of condensation but not allow the entrance of dust and insects.
The housing shall be designed in a manner to minimize the penetration of dust and to
avoid its accumulation on the external surfaces.
The housing shall be equipped with permanent lifting eyes.
Openings must be designed with covers adequate to close the housing of the motors.
The openings shall be of sufficient size to permit removal of all of the components from
within the housing.

4.4

Insulation and Temperature Rise. The insulation shall be of class F material, or of superior
quality, not hygroscopic.
The temperature rise of the windings of the stator, based on a 40 degree centigrade
ambient temperature and with a 1.0 service factor, shall not exceed that indicated on
the Technical Data Sheets or the following values, whichever is less:
Thermometer method: Insulation class F ..............................................100o C
Resistance method : Insulation class F .................................................. 90o C
The windings shall be protected against abrasion and shall be fungi-resistant.

4.5

Torques. The torques with the rotor locked shall not be less than those indicated in
ABNT NBR 5117 and/or as required by the loads.
The maximum torques and the synchronization shall not be less than those indicated in
ABNT NBR 5117 and/or as required by the loads.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

176

Standard Technical Specifications

All of the motors shall have the thermal capacity to permit 2 (two) successive starts, at
full voltage, with the motor at ambient temperature (cold), of 1 (one) start at the nominal
operating temperature (hot).
4.6

Power Factor and Efficiency. All the motors shall be constructed with high power factor
and high efficiency.
For the motors with a rated voltage of 380 V, the minimum admissible power factor and
efficiency while operating in the 75% to 100% range of rated power, will be: 1.00 for
the power factor (compensation by capacitors or other means not being acceptable)
and 0.90 for the efficiency.
For the motors with a rated voltage of 2,400 V or 4,160 V, the minimum admissible
power factor and efficiency, while operating in the 75% to 100% range of rated power,
will be:
Minimum admissible power factor: 1.0
Should the motor be manufactured with a power factor below that specified, the
manufacturer shall furnish the required compensation elements and a detailed specification
for same, guaranteeing operation of the set with a power factor equal to or more than
1.0 and an instantaneous starting current equal to or less than 400% of the set rated
current.
Minimum admissible efficiency: 0.92

4.7

Bearings and Lubrication. The motor shall be equipped with a thrust bearing and one or
more guide bearings. The thrust bearing for vertical shaft motors shall be designed to
carry the weight of the rotating parts of the motor and pump, including the unbalanced
hydraulic thrust of the pump impeller.
The bearings shall be oil or grease lubricated and shall be provided with facilities for
draining the lubricant and relubricating the bearings without disturbing the bearing housing.
The bearings shall be self-cooled and shall be double sealed against loss of the lubricant
or entrance of dirt. Each bearing shall be insulated to prevent circulating currents from
passing through the bearing surface. The bearing insulation may be omitted provided
induced shaft voltages are sufficiently low so that current will not flow through the
bearing lubricating film from one bearing surface to another.
The support bearings shall be located above the rotors. Each support bearing will have
a monolithic roller plate separate from the thrust block. The use of spacer plates will not
be permitted.
The surface of the roller plate shall be perpendicular to the center line of the shaft, such
that when the shaft is vertically alined the roller plate distributes the load uniformly over
all the supports.
The sleeve bearings, when utilized, must be a ring or disc, including an auto-ventilated
oil reservoir and seals to prevent the entrance of water and dust. Indicators of oil level
and inspection windows shall be provided.
When forced oil lubrication is necessary, the bearings shall be equipped with a reservoir
of adequate capacity to allow the rotor to stop rotating without damage in case of a
failure of the lubrication system.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

177

Standard Technical Specifications

4.8

Connection Boxes. The connection boxes shall be a reinforced structure with neoprene
gaskets and threaded inlets for conduits.
When viewed from the coupling side of the motor, the box shall be mounted as indicated
on the Technical Data Sheets . If no requirement is indicated, the box may be mounted
in the standard location of the supplier.
The boxes shall be adequately sized to accomodate the power cables with pressure
type copper connectors. The materials and size of the terminals furnished with the
motors shall be compatible with the gages of the power cables for the motors.
Separate boxes shall be supplied for heaters and/or temperature detection devices, if so
specified.

4.9

Accessories. When specified in the Technical Data Sheets, the motors shall be provided
with heaters with thermostats with silver contacts, normally closed.
The winding temperature detection devices, when specified, shall be platinum resistance
type, 100 ohms at zero degrees centigrade, 6 in number, and with their leads brought to
an independent connection box.
All of the motors shall be furnished with terminals for connecting the housing to the
ground wires, with protective devices against voltage surges installed in their own
principal terminal boxes, and with auto-balanced differential protection by means of
three current transformers, class B10 F20 C5.

5.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as a general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of conflicts between the
drawings and the specifications, the specifications will govern. The SUPPLIER shall
bring to the attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference
drawings.
6.

Tecnical Data Sheets

7.

Measurement and Payment. The supply of synchronous electric motors shall be measured
as complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment for synchronous electric motors shall be made at the unit price established in
the Contract.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

178

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION - GATES AND


VALVES

S-010301

GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL

1.

Objective. The objective of this Specification is to establish the minimum technical


conditions which shall be complied with for supplying the gates and valves for
the_________(name) Project.

2.

Operating Conditions. In accordance with Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL


(S-010101).

3.

Scope of Supply. The gates and valves shall be supplied complete, with all the components
required for their installation and operation, such as anchor bolts, screws, accessories
for flanged joints, rings and lubricants for push-on joints, adhesives for bonded joints,
sealer for threaded joints, etc.

4.

Technical Standards. Unless otherwise indicated in the List of Materials or Technical


Data Sheets, the equipment, materials, and tests shall comply with the standards of
ABNT and, in the cases where the standards do not address all features, to the latest
revision of applicable standards of the following organizations:
AWWA - American Water Works Association
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
AISC - American Institute of Steel Construction
API - American Petroleum Institute
ISO - International Organization for Standardization
ISA - Instrument Society of America
DIN - Deutsches Institut fur Normung
MSS - Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fitting Industry, Inc.
(Falls Church, Virginia, EUA)
AGMA - American Gear Manufacturers Association

5.

Manufacturing Requirements. The equipment and materials shall comply with the
appropriate technical paragraphs for the item being furnished.

5.1

General. There shall be compatibility between the valves and the pipes, connections and
corresponding special adapters, related to the types and characteristics of the spigots,
bells, flanges and other connected components.
In order to comply with a particular type of connection or special component, including
the provisions in the preceding paragraph, a combination of two or more components will
be acceptable.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

179

Standard Technical Specifications

5.2

Flanges. All the flanges of the valves, pipes, connections, and fittings shall comply with
ABNT Standard NBR-7675, class PN-10 or PN-16, or with ISO-2531 Standard when
compatible. When the two standards are not compatible, the ISO Standard shall prevail.
AWWA C-207 Standard shall be used only when indicated in the referenced drawings
and the Technical Data Sheets.

5.3

Threads. All valve, pipe, connections, and fitting threads shall comply with ABNT Standard
NBR-6414 (BSP)

5.4

Materials Substitution. Other materials than those specified may be proposed by the
BIDDER, provided that:
All materials used or supplied in accordance with these specifications will be of
equivalent or superior quality to those specified and will provide equal or better
service under the environmental conditions at its destination.
All material used or supplied in accordance with these specifications must be
described in detail in the proposal, and for each type of material, the Standard
Specification and the Technical Standard which it meets must be included.
Acceptance of substitutes being exclusively at the discretion of the PURCHASER.

5.5

Anticorrosion Coating. Anti-corrosion coating shall meet the requirements of item _____
(S-010101 - Mechanical Equipment - General), and the following. All the surfaces of the
gates, valves, connections, and fittings subject to corrosion shall be treated with an
anticorrosion protective coating after required surface preparation.
Where the type of coating is not specified, the coating shall be an anticorrosive painting,
consisting of at least two coats of anticorrosive base with a minimum final dry film
thickness of 50 microns and one coat of finishing paint with a minimum dry film thickness
of 30 microns.

6.

Inspections and Tests.. The following tests will be made at the factory, by the SUPPLIER,
in the presence of the PURCHASER:
Visual and size inspection ;
Hydrostatic and leak test of the body.
If some kind of defect is detected it will be the duty of the SUPPLIER to make the
necessary repairs at his own expenses, by a method approved by the PURCHASER .
However, if the defects are excessive, or are not repairable due to improper fabrication,the
gates and valves may be rejected. Items which were not manufactured in agreement
with the is Specification may also be rejected.
All the items which were submitted for repair will be reexamined. After approval of the
final tests at the factory, the gates and valves shall be painted and, after painting
inspection, they may be prepared for shipment.

7.

Packing, Shipping and Handling.. The gates and valves must be submitted to a cleaning
and drying process and also be internally protected with an anti-corrosive product before
packing.
The non-painted machine parts, threads and small tolerance parts, must also be protected
against corrosion.
All the existing openings and holes must be closed by plugs or flanges of wood or of
other adequate material.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

180

Standard Technical Specifications

The packaging of the equipment must be sufficient to protect them during the
transportation and the loading and unloading operations. The SUPPLIER will remain
responsible for all damages which may happen by the non-observance of this requirement.
8.

Drawings and Data to be Furnished by the SUPPLIER.

8.1

Information required for the BID and before start of fabrication:


Commercial products data
The drawings and data listed in the specific technical specifications for the
respective equipment.

8.2

Complementary information required before delivery date:


Instruction Manuals
3 copies of reports of tests performed in the factory.
3 copies of list of spare parts being furnished.

9.

Guarantee. Unless otherwise specified in the respective technical specifications for the
equipment being furnished, the SUPPLIER shall furnish an equipment and/or materials
guarantee in accordance with the General and Special Conditions of the Contract.

10.

Technical Assistance. In accordance with the General and Special Conditions of Contract,
the SUPPLIER may be required to provide assembly supervision and training in the
operation, maintenance and/or repairs of multi-function valves, surge anticipator valves,
pressure reducing valves and butterfly valves with actuators.

11.

Measurement and Payment. Measurement and payment shall be as specified in the


specific technical specifications for the respective equipment being furnished.

12.

Rerefence Drawings.. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance


with the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The above mentioned drawings serve as a general orientation for the preparation of the
proposals and shows the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The
design and the elaboration of the detailed fabrication drawings are a part of the supply
and they are therefore, a responsibility of the SUPPLIER who will note and comply with
the main dimensions and the characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
13.

Technical Data Sheets

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

181

Standard Technical Specifications

BUTTERFLY VALVES WITH ACTUATORS

S-010302

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements, the data to be


submitted, and the measurement and payment criteria which, together with the
requirements of item (S-010301) GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum
conditions to be complied with for supplying the butterfly valves with actuators for the
_______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements

2.1

General. All of the valves must be furnished with flanged extremities and accompanying
flange, bolts, nuts, and gaskets of 1.5 millimeter thickness.
The actuating mechanism for the valves shall be a hydropneumatic type with reservoir
or electrically operated as indicated in the Technical Data Sheets. There shall be one
unit for each valve.
An electrical outlet will be available for each actuator in accordance with the design
drawings.
All of the valves must be provided with lifting eyes.
All valves of the same type and size must be interchangeable.
The valves shall meet the fabrication requirements of AWWA- C504 and the requirements
in the Technical Data Sheets concerning pressure class, end connections, and type of
installation.
The following information shall be punched on the body of each valve:
Name of the manufacturer
Serial number
Diameter and pressure class
Technical standards for fabrication
The valve shall close automatically with stopping of the pumping unit or by a signal from
the control center of the pumping plant.
The valve shall open automatically with the start-up of the pump unit or by a signal from
the control center of the pumping plant.
The hydropneumatic or electrical driving mechanism shall have adequate torque for
opening and closing operations calculated in accordance with AWWA C504.
The velocity of operation shall be such that the total 90 degree range of movement in
the course of opening or closing of the valve shall be executed in a time interval between
60 and 90 seconds. The electrical voltage will be 3-phase, 380 V, 60 Hz.
The motor shall be adequate for an outdoor installation,and shall be weather proofed
with IPW-55 degree of protection, unless indicated for indoor installation. The available
control voltage is _____ Vdc. In case the fabricator requires a different electrical voltage,
a transformer must be provided. The maximum number of operations will be 4 per hour,
and an indicator of the position of the disc shall be provided. The motor insulation must
be tropicalized and provided with anti-condensation electrical heating elements
thermostatically controlled.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

182

Standard Technical Specifications

Each electric or hydropneumatic operator shall be provided with an auxiliary handwheel


for manual operation.Manual operation must be made through an independent external
lever-type switch which will disconnect the electrical or hydropneumatic operator.
The butterfly valves shall be provided with a protection system against excess torque,
shall be furnished with limit switches for both open and closed positions, and shall have
additional contacts indicating the position of the disc.
2.2

Hydropneumatic Operators

2.2.1

General. A high pressure oil accumulator system shall be furnished to supply oil under
pressure to actuate the hydraulic cylinder operated valves. The oil accumulator system
shall consist of a pump/motor unit mounted on an oil sump tank, an electrical motor
control cabinet, a bank of accumulators, and all necessary controls and appurtances.
The system shall be designed to use a petroleum base hydraulic oil with a viscosity of
90 SUS at 100o F.

2.2.2

Sump Tank. The sump tank shall be constructed of welded steel plate and shall be of
ample size to receive the working capacity of the oil stored in the accumulators, 45
litres minimum. The tank shall contain flanges for floor mounting. It shall be fitted with
a flush type fluid level indicator, a clean out cover, filler/breather, and a drain connection.
In addition, the return connection shall contain a 10 micron screw cannister type fluid
filter with internal bypass.

2.2.3

Pump/Motor Unit. The positive displacement pump/motor unit shall be sized to charge
the accumulators with oil in less than five minutes, 0,06 l/s minimum. The motor shall
be suitable for 230 volt, 3 phase, 60 cycle power and of the open drip-proof construction.
Piped to the unit shall be a relief valve, gauge with isolation valve, 100 mesh suction
strainer, check valve, and pressure switch.

2.2.4

Control Cabinet.- A NEMA 3R electrical control cabinet for wall mounting shall house a
motor starter, Manual-Off- Automatic selector switch, start button, and circuit breaker.
The pressure switch shall function to automatically start the oil pump when the pressure
is below 100kgf/cm2 and stop the oil pump at 110 kgf/cm2 .

2.2.5

Accumulator Bank.- The oil pump shall charge a bank of accumulators (quantity - two
minimum) sized to stroke the hydraulic cylinders 3 (three) times between the pressures
of 100 kgf/cm 2 and 72 kgf/cm2 . The accumulators are to be nitrogen precharged, and
built in accordance with the ASME Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels.The accumulators
shall be affixed to a metal rack assembly for floor or wall mounting. Each accumulator
shall be fitted with an isolation ball valve and piped to a commom manifold containing a
system isolation valve and an accumulator drain valve. A system charging assembly,
with appropriate gauges, shall also be supplied to initially charge the accumulators with
nitrogen and to recharge them when necessary.

2.2.6

Miscellaneous. All piping and fittings shall be carbon steel pipe or seamless steel tubing
with a rated 2 working pressure of 150 kgf/cm . All exposed carbon steel surfaces are
to be cleaned thoroughly, removing rust, scale, dirt, and grease, and painted with an
industrial rust resistant primer and an oil resistant industrial enamel. The pump/motor
unit, electrical cabinet, and accumulators shall be connected to the hydraulic cylinders
in the manufacturers shop, filled with oil to the normal operating level, and tested to
verify correct mechanical and electrical operation. In preparation for shipment, all openings
shall be plugged and all instrumentation adequately protected.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

183

Standard Technical Specifications

Electrical Control. Electrical control of the valve will be accomplished by a reversing


switch and local and remote push buttons, all furnished by the SUPPLIER.
Data and Technical Information for the Bid. The SUPPLIER must include with his bid the
drawings of the general arrangement and details, including schematic electrical drawings
of the valve and the actuators for the PURCHASERs information.
The discharge coefficients and the curve of the resistant torque versus movement of
the valve shall also be submitted.
When requested, the above documents will be furnished with certificates for approval
by the PURCHASER.

4.

Complementary Data and Technical Information to be Submitted. AWWA C504 torque


calculations and detailed design drawings, completely marked with reference numbers
and indicating all of the materials to be used, shall be furnished for approval. Approval
on the part of the PURCHASER shall not relieve the SUPPLIER from the total responsibility
for his adequate execution.
The start of fabrication will only be permitted after approval of the design.
The dimensions of the valves, actuators, reservoirs, and all of the equipment or
complementary devices for the proper operation of the valves, after complete assembly,
must be compatible with the spaces existing in the pumping plant. The submittal must
contain a written description of the operation and the safety devices.

5.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of butterfly valves, including actuators and
accessory equipment will be measured as complete assemblies, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.

S-010303

BUTTERFLY VALVES (WITHOUT ACTUATORS)

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and the


measurement and payment criteria which, together with the requirements of item (S010301), GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum conditions to be
complied with for supplying the butterfly valves (without actuators) for the _______
(name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. The butterfly valves shall be manufactured in compliance


with AWWA Standard C504, ISO-5752, short-type or other internationally accepted
standards. The type of construction shall be WAFER, LUG or FLANGED, as specified
in the Technical Data Sheets. In general, valves with a diameter of up to 600 mm shall
be the WAFER or LUG type and those with a diameter of more than 600mm shall be
the FLANGED type.
The main materials to be employed in the manufacture shall be in accordance with the
requirements of AWWA C504.
The valves shall be operated by a handwheel with a reduction gearbox. A position
indicator on the butterfly valve shall be provided for diameters 200mm and larger. When
required, as indicated in the (List of Materials) (Technical Data Sheets), the position
indicator shall have a long rod to actuate the limit switches, furnished by others, for
remote signaling.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

184

Standard Technical Specifications

3.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of butterfly valves will be measured as the
number of complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
GATE VALVES

S-010304

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and the


measurement and payment criteria which, together with the requirements of item (S010301), GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum conditions to be
complied with for supplying the gate valves for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. For diameters 75 mm and smaller, the valves shall be of


bronze, with cast iron handwheel, and female threaded ends.
The general characteristics for manufactering the bronze valves shall comply with the
ABNT Standard design 04:07.007-007. For diameters of over 75 mm through 300
mm,the valves shall be of ductile iron with fixed or rising stem and direct actuation by
handwheel and with flanged ends.
For diameters of over 300 mm, the valves shall be ductile iron with fixed or rising stem
and actuation by handwheel and with flanged ends. They shall be equipped with reduction
gears and by-pass valve.
The general characteristics for manufacturing the ductile iron valves shall comply with
ABNT Standard PB-816. The construction aspects shall be as follows:
Body, lid and wedge: ductile iron;
Stem: stainless steel AISI-410;
Sealing rings: bronze ASTM B-62;
Seals: Neoprene synthetic rubber.
The valves shall meet the pressure requirements shown in the Technical Data Sheets.

3.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of gate valves will be measured as the number
of complete assemlies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
GLOBE VALVES

S-010305

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and the


measurement and payment criteria which, together with the requirements of item (S010301), GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum conditions to be
complied with for supplying the globe valves for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. For diameters 75 mm and smaller, the valves shall be


threaded, with bronze body, cap and disk; rolled brass stem and stuffing box gland;
graphitized asbestos gland and sealing gasket; and nodular iron handwheel.
The general characteristics for manufacturing the valves shall comply with the ABNT
Standard design,_____ or MSS- SP 80.
For diameters over 75 mm, the valves shall be flanged, with cast iron body, cap and
stuffing box gland, bronze disc, rolled brass stem, graphitized asbestos gland and sealing
gasket; and nodular iron handwheel.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

185

Standard Technical Specifications

The valves shall meet the pressure requirements shown in the Technical Data Sheets.
3.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of globe valves will be measured as the number
or complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.

S-010306

CHECK VALVES

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and the


measurement and payment criteria which, together with the requirements of item (S010301), GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum conditions to be
complied with for supplying the check valves for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. Check valves shall be of the WAFER type with split disk
(double- door disc) for installation between flanges with through bolts.
The general characteristics for manufacturing the valves shall comply with the API-594
or the MSS-SP-80 Standards.
The body and disk shall be of ductile iron; spring and shafts of AISI-304 or 316 stainless
steel; and sealed with BUNA-N rubber.
When perfurated disc-type valves are specified, the perfurated area shall be equal to
___% of the disc area.
The valves shall meet the pressure requirements shown in the Technical Data Sheets.

3.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of check valves will be measured as the number
of complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES

S-010307

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and the


measurement and payment criteria which, together with the requirements of item (S010301), GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum conditions to be
complied with for supplying the pressure relief valves for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. For diameters of less than 50 mm, the valves shall be of
the type with springs; ends with female threads; cast iron body; AISI-304 stainless
steel disk; phosphor bronze diaghragm; and 18-8 stainless steel seating ring; adjustable
for the pressures indicated in the Technical Data Sheets.
For diameters of 50 mm or more, the valves shall be of the type with springs; flanged
ends; with lever for manual opening; adjustable for the pressures indicated in the Technical
Data Sheets. The following characteristics shall be complied with:
Body and cover: cast carbon steel or ductile iron;
Spring: carbon steel or stainless steel;
Stem, disk and internal parts: stainless steel;
Lever: nodular iron.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

186

Standard Technical Specifications

3.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of pressure relief valves will be measured as
the number or complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
SURGE ANTICIPATOR VALVES

S-010308

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and the


measurement and payment criteria which, together with the requirements of item (S010301), GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum conditions to be
complied with for supplying the surge anticipator valves for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. The valves shall have the following functions:


To open automatically when the pressure drops below an adjustable predetermined
level;
To slowly close automatically, when the pressure reaches an adjustable
predetermined level.
The valve shall be constructed of the following materials:
Main valve body and cover - cast iron ASTM A48 or cast steel ASTM A216 or
carbon steel
Main valve trim - stainless steel
Pilot control system - cast bronze with stainless steel trim
Diaphragm - BUNA-N or neoprene
Seals - BUNA-N
The valve shall have flanged ends, shall be of the required pressure class, and shall meet
the physical and operational requirements shown on the List of Materials and Technical
Data Sheets except that any additional options indicated in these Specification paragraphs
may also be used.

3.

Description. This valve shall be hydraulically operated with pilot controls that will cause
the main valve to open on a low pressure wave. The low pressure pilot shall be set to
open the main valve at any pressure below its normal operating pressure. The low
pressure pilot shall allow the main valve to open to a preset amount as controlled by a
hydraulic limiter.
The main valve shall be a hydraulic operated, pilot-controlled, diaphragm-type, globe
valve. The valve stem shall be guided by at least two bearings. The main valve shall
have a single renewable seat and a renewable disc having a rectangular cross-section
and contained on three and one half sides. No external packing glands are permitted.
The diaphragm must not be used as a seating surface and there shall be no pistons
operating the main valve or any pilot controls. The pilot controls shall be direct acting,
adjustable, spring-loaded , diaphragm valves.

4.

The pilot system shall be furnished with isolation valves on the sensing lines and a flowclean (self-cleaning) strainer to prevent silt and debris from entering the pilot control
systems.
Measurement and Payment. The quantity of surge anticipatory control valves, including
the pilot control systems and accessories, will be measured as the number of complete
assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

187

Standard Technical Specifications

S-010309

MULTI-FUNCTION VALVES

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and the


measurement and payment criteria which, together with the requirements of item (S010301), GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum conditions to be
complied with for supplying the multi-function valves for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. The equipment, to be installed at the entrances of the


(blocks) (lots) shall have the following functions:
To reduce the pressure, and maintain a regulated, prefixed but adjustable
downstream value, irrespective of the upstream variations;
To sustain the upstream pressure above a minimum prefixed but adjustable value
by blocking the flow when the upstream pressure drops below the prefixed value
and opening again when the pressure rises;
To measure and totalize the flow;
To indicate the pressures upstream and downstream from the valves with pressure
gages mounted on the valve;
To limit the flow to a pre-fixed value.
The valves shall comply with the following characteristics:
Ends: flanged;
Control: hydraulic;
Body and cover: cast iron;
Diaphragm: Neoprene;
Internal parts: plastic/stainless steel/brass;
Seals - BUNA-N, or equal.
The valves shall be diaphragm-actuated globe type with pressure reducing and pressure
sustaining pilots.
The valve water meter shall be a turbine type with a measured accuracy of plus or
minus 2%. The control head shall include a flow indicator and digital register.

3.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of multi-function valves, including the pilot
control systems and accessories, will be measured as the number of complete assemblies
furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
PRESSURE REDUCING VALVES, GLOBE-TYPE

S-010310

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and the


measurement and payment criteria which, together with the requirements of item (S010301), GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum conditions to be
complied with for supplying the pressure reducing valves for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. The pressure reducing valve shall maintain a constant


downstream pressure regardless of varying inlet pressure. Tha valve shall have flanged
ends and shall be of the required pressure class as stated in the List of Materials and
Technical Data Sheets. The valve shall be a hydraulically operated, diaphragm-actuated,
globe valve. It shall contain a resilient, synthetic rubber disc, having a retangular crosssection, contained on three and one half sides by a disc retainer and forming a tight seal
against a single removable seat insert. The diaphragm assembly containing a valve stem

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

188

Standard Technical Specifications

shall be fully guided by at least two bearings . The diaphragm assembly shall be the only
moving part and shall form a sealed chamber in the upper portion of the valve, separating
the valve actuating pressure from the pressures in the pipeline. The diaphragm shall
consist of nylon fabric bonded with synthetic rubber and shall not be used as a seating
surface. Packing glands and/or stuffing boxes are not permitted and there shall be no
pistons operating the valve or pilot controls. All necessary repairs shall be possible
without removing the valve from the line.
The pilot control shall be a direct-acting, adjustable, spring-loaded, normally open,
diaphragm valve, designed to permit flow when controlled pressure is less than the
spring setting. The control system shall include a fixed orifice. The pilot shall have
opening and closing speed control.
The pilot system shall be furnished with isolation valves on the sensing lines and a flowclean (self-cleaning) strainer to prevent silt and debris from entering the pilot valve
system.
The valve shall be constructed of the following materials:
Main valve body and cover - cast iron ASTM A48 or cast .. steel ASTM A216 or
carbon steel
Main valve trim - stainless steel
Pilot control system - cast bronze with stainless steel trim
Diaphragm - BUNA-N or neoprene
Seals - BUNA-N.
The valve shall meet the physical and operational requirements shown on the List of
Materials and Technical Data Sheets except that any additional options indicated on these
Specification paragraph may also used.

3.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of pressure reducing valves, including pilot
control systems and accessories, will be measured as the number of complete assemblies
furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
AIR VALVES

S-010311

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and the


measurement and payment criteria which, together with the requirements of item (S010301), GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum conditions to be
complied with for supplying the air valves for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. The triple-function air valves shall perform the following
functions:
To adequately expel the air displaced by the water while the line is being filled at
a rate equal to the specified filling rate.
To admit a sufficient quantity of air while the line is emptied, in order to avoid
forming a vacuum and to avoid collapsing the pipeline.
To automatically expel air bubbles which may be formed with the line in operation.
The simple-type air valves shall perform only the first and last functions stated above.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

189

Standard Technical Specifications

The release of trapped air when the pipeline is under pressure shall be with the release
air directed downward. A bleeding petcock shall be furnished for each valve, located at
the top to permit checking the effectiveness of each air valve, unless the valve
effectiveness can be checked by pushing down on the float. Another petcock shall be
located at the bottom to allow the valve to be drained, when no other means to drain
the valve are available.
The valves shall be constructed of the following materials:
End: flanged for diameters larger than or equal to 50 mm and threaded for smaller
diameters;
Body and lid: cast iron equal to ASTM A48 or ductile iron equal to ASTM A536;
Floats: stainless steel or other corrosion resistant material;
Seals: natural rubber or BUNA-N
Pressure rated for up to 20 kg/cm2
The valves shall meet the physical and operational requirements shown on the List of
Materials and Technical Data Sheets except that any additional options indicated in
these Specification paragraphs may also be used.
3.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of air valves will be measured as the number
of triple-function type valves and simple-type valves furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
STANDARDIZED CAST OR DUCTILE IRON SLIDE GATES

S-010312

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and the


measurement and payment criteria which, together with the requirements of item (S010301), GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum conditions to be
complied with for supplying the standardized cast or ductile iron sllide gates for the
_______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. The two types of slide gates allowed are as follows:
With two-directional flow: these shall be manufactured in compliance with AWWA
Standard C501;
With single-direction flow: designed to work with the hydraulic pressure forcing
the frame against the seat.
With either style gate , the components shall have the following characteristics:
Frame, guides, slides, gear housing, yoke and pedestal : cast or ductile iron;
Seals - Natural or synthetic rubber;
Stem: AISI-304 stainless steel;
Seating faces: phosphor bronze;
Anchor bolts - Bronze or stainless steel.
Other materials than those specified may be proposed by the BIDDER, provided that:
All materials used or supplied will be of equivalent or superior quality to those
specified and will provide equal or better service under the environmental conditions
at its destination. . All materials used or supplied must be described in detail in the
proposal, in accordance with these specifications, and for each type of material,

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

190

Standard Technical Specifications

the Standard Specification of the Technical Standards which it meets must be


included.
Acceptance of substitute materials shall be exclusively at the discretion of the
PURCHARSER.
The gates shall be manually actuated, or motorized when indicated in the design, with a
suspension pedestal. The slide gates with motorized actuation shall also be provided
with an alternate manual actuation device.
Motorized slide gates must be equipped with torque switches and gate position limit
switches.
All the necessary components shall be supplied for their installation and operation, such
as suspension pedestals, extension stems, handwheels, etc.
The design pressure head shall be the vertical distance from the center of the gate to
the maximum water surface.
The stem diameter and the number of stem guides for the gate shall be selected so that
the unsupported length of stem shall not be greater than 200 times the radius of gyration
of the stem, either in the body or the threaded section. No portion of the stem shall have
a cross-sectional area smaller than the root area of the threaded portion of the stem.
The bottom end of the stem shall be threaded and screwed into the stem block. The
stem block shall be rigidly pinned or keyed to the stem. The stem guides shall be fully
adjustable.
3.

Motor-Operated Gate Lift. The motor-operated gate lift shall be supplied with stand,
motor, stem cover, gate position indicator, motor control equipment, and all parts required
and necessary for a complete installation. In addition to being motor-operated, the lift
shall be capable of being manually operated, and shall be supplied with a handwheel for
that purpose. The centerline of the handwheel of the lift shall be located at an elevation
no less than 750mm and not more than 1000mm above the structure on which the
operator will stand. The lift shall be equipped with a bronze lifting nut and provision shall
be made for lubrication of all sliding and rolling surfaces. The gate position indicator
shall be of the counter or dial type with positive mechanical drive to show the gate
opening in meters with divisions at the SUPPLIERs option. The lift shall be equipped
with a clear plastic stem cover. The lift shall be capable of opening and closing the gate
against the applicable face or back pressure head at an operating speed of 150 mm per
minute, plus or minus 10 percent. All electrical equipment enclosures shall be NEMA
type 4.
The motors shall be induction type, rated as shown on the List of Materials and Technical
Data Sheets and shall be designed for the required service. The motors shall be totally
enclosed and shall have a minimum time rating of 15 minutes continuous.
The torque switch mechanisms shall be an integral part of the motor operators and shall
function to protect the gate and motor operators in both the opening and closing
directions. The setting of the torque switches shall be adjustable, and the adjustment
shall be independent for the two travel directions.
The limit switches and associated gearing shall be an integral part of the motor operators.
Eight independent limit switches shall be provided, set to function in accordance with
the following schedule:

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

191

Standard Technical Specifications

Two
Two
Two
Two

contacts
contacts
contacts
contacts

Close at fully-open position.


Open at fully-open position.
Close at fully-closed position.
Open at fully-closed position.

The limit switches shall be heavy-duty type, adjustable to operate at any gate position.
All power and control conductors connections external to the gates shall terminate on
terminal blocks in one enclosure. All terminals shall be clearly marked with terminal
designations. The enclosure shall be provided with a connection suitable for a rigid steel
conduit.
A handwheel shall be provided for manual operation of the gate. The handwheel shall
not rotate during electric operation, and the motor shall not rotate during manual operation.
To place the operator in manual operation, a declutching lever shall be used to mechanically
disconnect the motor drive from the gear train.
Failure of the motor gearing shall not render the handwheel inoperative. The lift shall
automatically return to electric drive position after manual operation.
The wall thimble shall be made of cast iron and shall provide a rigid mounting designed
to prevent warping of the gate frame during installation.
4.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of standardized slide gates, including all pieces
and equipment necessary for a complete installation, will be measured as the number
furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.

S-010313

AUTOMATIC LEVEL CONTROL VALVES

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and the


measurement and payment criteria which, together with the requirements of item (S010301), GATES AND VALVES, GENERAL, establish the minimum conditions to be
complied with for supplying the automatic level control valves for the _______ (name)
Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. Automatic valves shall be of the floater articulated type


with the floater coupled to the lever by chain, and with flanged body.
The material utilized for components manufacturing shall comply with the following
characteristics:
Cover - Ductile iron
Body - Ductile iron
Floater - Fiberglass
Base - Ductile iron
Lever - SAE 1020 steel
Chain - SAE 1020 steel
Rod - AISI-410 stainless steel
Valve regulator - Brass
Valve disk - Brass
Seal joint - Natural rubber
Diaphram - Natural rubber

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

192

Standard Technical Specifications

Automatic valves will be installed at the lower part of the reservoirs and shall have
enough force to seal the reservoirs inflow at the established water level.
3.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of automatic level control valves shall be
measured as complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

193

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION - WATER
LEVEL CONTROL
GATES

S-010401

WATER LEVEL CONTROL EQUIPMENT FOR IRRIGATION CANALS

1.

Objective. The objective of these Technical Specifications is to define the minimum


technical conditions which shall be complied with for supplying the water level control
hydromechanical equipment for the _________(Name) Project.

2.

General Considerations. The general disposition of the hydromechanical equipment is


shown on the related drawings in subparagraph 16, Reference Drawings.
The main characteristics and quantities are indicated on the Technical Data Sheets.
The following types of equipment are included in these specifications:
Radial gates
Slide gates
Downstream control gates
Siphon wasteways
Disk-type self-centering valve
The application and the concept of each type of gate is described in the items referring
to the purposes and concepts of these equipment.
These Specifications, presented in the singular form for a particular type of equipment
apply equally to all equipment of the same type.
The SUPPLIER, based on his experience and knowledge, shall supply equipment which
complies with all the requirements of this Specification, regarding performance, operation,
safety, durability and ease of maintenance. Any deviation from these Specifications
shall be subject to prior approval by the PURCHASER.
Should the BIDDER, during the bidding process, wish to propose equipment of a different
concept, he should present a basic proposal corresponding to the concept defined in
this Specification and another alternative proposal containing detailed technical
specifications with technical explanations indicating the differences as related to the
basic proposal.
Alternative proposals shall also include installation drawing and civil works material
quantities, at detail levels sufficient for construction as determined by the PURCHASER.
Wherever the alternative proposal modifies any part of the Project, the BIDDER shall be
fully responsible for all necessary modifications and shall present new drawings and

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

194

Standard Technical Specifications

costs of the modified works, at detail levels sufficient for construction as determined by
the PURCHASER.
3.

Operating Conditions. In accordance with Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL


(S-010101).

4.

Scope of Supply

4.1

Equipment, Materials and Services Included in the Supply. The SUPPLIER shall be
responsible for supplying to the PURCHASER the complete items of equipment, with all
the material required for their adequate operation and full compliance with their planned
purposes.
The scope of the supply described herein is indicative, complementing the indications in
Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL (S-010101) and the SUPPLIER shall, at
his own discretion, increase same should he deem this necessary for the good performance
and fuctioning of the equipement, as this shall be entirely under his responsibility.
The following shall be included in the supply as applicable:
All design documents, including assembly, operation and maintenance manuals.
In a provisional sense, all the materials, equipment and measuring instruments
required for factory tests and inspections.
All oils and greases required for initial filling, with a sufficient additional quantity
to cover a six (6) month period of operation.
All special devices required for transporting, assembly and dismantling the
equipment;
An additional quantity of 10% (10 percent) of all screws, nuts, washers, pins,
studs, quick-fasteners, etc., required for on-site assembly;
Electrodes for welding to be done during on-site assembly;
All the paints required for on-site touching-up. The quantity to be supplied shall be
approximately 20% (twenty percent) of the total amount of each paint required
for factory painting, as well as that required for the final unapplied finish coat;
Spare parts for a period of operation of five (5) years, in accordance with a list to
be presented by the SUPPLIER and approved by the PURCHASER. The minimum
amount of spare parts required are as follows:
One sealing panel for gate;
One set of screws, nuts and washers for each gate;
One set of retainers for each gate;
One set of roller bearings for one drive mechanism;
One eletric motor of each type;
Protection, cleaning and factory painting as specified forthe corresponding item;
Preassembly in the factory;
Protective packing for transportation;
Factory tests;
Storage of the equipment at the factory up until the due shipping date, and loading
onto the transport vehicle.
Instruction to and training of the PURCHASERs operating and maintenance
personnel;
Equipment guarantee.

4.2

Equipment, Materials and Services not Included in the Supply.


The following items of equipment will not be included in the supply:
Parts for anchoring in primary concrete;

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

195

Standard Technical Specifications

Necessary paint to cover the equipment parts, which are in contact with
water and embedded parts;
Electric cables and accessories required for connecting the electric motors to
the electric panels;
Local and central electric control panels;
Instruments for controlling the opening position of gates;
Automatic supervisory control system for the gates.

4.3

Other Materials and Services. Depending on the PURCHASERs decision, the SUPPLIER
may also be required to furnish the following items:
Transportation and insurance of the equipment, from the factory to the delivery
site.
On-site assemby supervision, including the supervision of tests and the possible
supply, provisionally, of the apparatus and equipment required for conducting onsite tests and inspections.
Support beams for mounting the drive mechanisms of the radial gates for
automation of the irrigation canals.

5.

Recommended Technical Standards. Unless otherwise specified, the design, materials,


manufacture, painting, assembly and testing of the equipment shall comply with the
standards of the following organizations:
ABNT - Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas
IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission
ISO - International Organization for Standardization
DIN - Deutsches Institut fur Normung
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
ASME - American Society for Mechanical Engineers
AISI - American Iron and Steel Intitute
AISC - American Institute of Steel Construction
AISE - Association of Iron and Steel Engineers
AWWA - American Water Works Association
AWS - American Welding Society
HI (USA) - Hydraulic Institute
FEM - Fdration Europene de la Manutention
CMAA - Crane Manufacturers Association of America
API - American Petroleum Institute
AFBMA - Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association
NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association
IEEE - The Intitute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.
SSPC - Steel Structures Painting Council
AGMA - American Gear Manufacturers Association

It is not the PURCHASERs intention to restrict the SUPPLIER to these standards alone.
Should the SUPPLIER wish to adopt standards other than those mentioned, these will
be accepted providing their requirements are at least equal to the standards specified. In
such cases, the SUPPLIER shall submit a copy of the standard he plans to adopt, together
with a statement showing that the proposed standard is equivalent to or higher than, in
all significant aspects, the specified standard.
6.

Purpose. The specific purpose of each type of equipment is indicated in the Technical
Data Sheets and List of Materials.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

196

Standard Technical Specifications

Basically, the radial gates and slide gates with electromechanical actuation and provided
with appropriate seals, shall have the purpose of controlling the flow of water passing
through the water intakes to the compensating reservoirs, or along the irrigation canal.
Control for opening and closing these gates shall be done manually, at the gate itself or
from a central control center, or shall be provided by an Automatic Supervisory Control
System.
The downstream control gate will be used to automatically control the flow without
using an external Automatic Supervisory Control System by maintaining a constant
downstream water elevation under varying flow demand and upstream water level
changes.
The slide gates will be used to totally seal a canal reach, in case a total flow interruption
is required for maintenance or repair of the canal or equipment, when the gates are
installed together with downstream control gates, or to allow drainange of the canal,
when the gates are installed with canal bottom drains.
The slide gates may also be utilized for a number of other purposes. For these various
applications the slide gates may be motor-driven or hand-operated, depending upon
requirements.
The disk-type self-centering valve is a device located at the end of a pipeline, installed
inside a box or tank. The equipment maintains the box or tank water level almost constant,
independent of the downstream flow. This equipment is a downstream control device.
The siphon wasteways are hydraulic equipment located at the side of the canal to
evacuate all excess water which may cause damages if allowed to overflow.
7.

Manufacturing Requirements

7.1

Radial Gate

7.1.1

General. Each radial gate shall be constructed of welded sheet metal and comprised of
a cylindrical gate leaf reinforced by support beams, and two lateral arms.
The hydraulic thrust on the gate leaf shall be transmitted through the lateral arms to the
main support bearings embedded in the concrete side walls of the canal.
The radial gates shall be provided with at least three abutment shoes, on each side,
within the range of the respective embedded parts.
Actuation of the gate by an electromechanical hoist shall be effected by means of steel
cables. This hoist shall also permit manual operation by means of a crank.
All components of the radial gate shall comply, where applicable, to the DIN 19704 or
equivalent standard.
The BIDDER shall present in his bid, in the clearest manner possible, construction details
of the components and the gate, based on his experience with this type of equipment.

7.1.2

Gate leaf. The gate shall be of welded steel construction.


The lower edge of the watertight plate shall be provided with a bevel to ensure a perfect
fit on the embedded part of the sill.
Fastening of seals shall be by means of pressure plates, tightened whenever possible by
through-bolts.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

197

Standard Technical Specifications

The gate leaf shall be provided with eyes lets located symmetrically in relation to the
center of gravity, for lifting the gates by means of steel cables during handling and
assembly operations.
All areas that could retain water shall be provided with drainage holes.
The structure of each gate leaf shall be comprised of a curved plate perfectly centered
with the axis of rotation of the radial gate and reinforced with beams, forming a rigid
unit.
The reinforcing beams shall rest on the side arms, transmitting to the main bearings all
the forces resulting from hydraulic thrusts and actuating forces.
7.1.3

Side Arms and Main Bearings. The side arms shall consist of welded beams.
The ends of the arms shall be fastened to the gate leaf by means of fitted bolts through
connecting flanges.
The bearings to withstand the loads trasmitted by the arms shall be supported on
concrete side walls.
Each bearing shall be provided with a shaft and a bushing of self-lubricating material
such as Lubrite or similar material approved by the PURCHASER.

7.1.4

Abutment Shoes. The sides of the radial gate shall be provided with abutment shoes,
the quantity and location of which shall be such as to ensure that, with the radial gate
fully open, at least two shoes on each side shall remain within the range of the respective
lateral embedded parts.
The contact surface of the abutment shoe with the lateral embedded part shall be of
medium-hard bronze.

7.1.5

Seals. Seals shall comply with the design conditions established in the item referring to
materials and components.
Whenever feasible, water pressure shall assist in the sealing effect.
The concept of the seal fastening systems shall be such as to render any alteration in
the degree of compression to which the seals are subject unquestionalbly impossible
when the seals are in working position, the only admissible alterations being those
caused by wear or aging which may occur over normal periods of time.
Whenever applicable, seals shall be furnished with an excess in length of 20mm for
adjustment purposes during assembly. Seal fastening bars shall be of carbon steel.
Nuts and bolts employed for adjustment purposes shall be of stainless steel.

7.1.6

Embedded Parts. Embedded parts to be placed in secondary concrete shall be appropriate


to support the load transmitted by the radial gate.
Each unit shall be comprised of, at least, embedded parts for abutment and lateral
sealing, a sill, main bearings, and possibly a frontal seal, depending upon the main
characteristics indicated in the Technical Data Sheets and List of Materials.
All embedded parts shall be of welded steel construction.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

198

Standard Technical Specifications

All joints to be made during assembly shall be provided with fish plates, with nuts, bolts
and guide pins positioned during assembly in the factory.
Each embedded part shall be provided with studs which, being welded to the components
embedded in the primary concrete, shall serve only and exclusively the purposes of
aligning, leveling and adjusting its position, as well as to ensure this position after it has
been installed and during the secondary concreting.
A flat stainless steel bar shall be welded to the embedded abutment and lateral sealing
parts, along the path of travel of the abutment shoes and lateral seals.
The top end of the flat stainless steel bar shall be bent away from the opening, so as to
permit a progressive support to the seal, when the radial gate descends from its fully
open position.
A flat stainless steel bar shall also be welded to the embedded parts of the sill along the
seat of the seal.
7.1.7

Drive Mechanism. A central drive mechanism shall be installed upon a steel or concrete
support beam crossing the canal, whereas twin drive mechanisms shall be placed on the
concrete side walls.
Each drive mechanism shall be comprised of at least an electric motor, a normal brake,
a safety brake, reduction gearbox, flexible joints, shafts, winding drum, steel cables and
a base plate to permit the assembly of the drive mechanism components. Brakes may
be either of the electromagnetic or electrohydraulic type. The drive mechanism shall
have provision for mounting a sensor for the measurement and transmission of the
position of the gate opening.
The sensor for measuring and transmitting the position of the gate opening shall be of
the resistive type, with a variation of 0 to 500 ohms (500 ohms indicating a fully open
gate, and 0 ohms indicating a fully closed gate), rated at 4 W at 70 o C, tolerance of plus
or minus 5% and linearity not exceeding 1%.
The drive mechanism shall include reversible micro-switches to indicate the fully open
and fully closed positions of the gate.
The sensor and the micro-switches shall be housed in a weatherproof enclosure complying
with ABNT IP-65 and other applicable standards.
Cable shall be AISI 313 stainless steel, with 18% chrome and 8% nickel and a steel
core, of sufficient length to include two spare turns around the drum with the gate
closed. Connections of the cable to the gate leaf shall be made to the lower upstream
portion of the gate.
A safety manual drive shall be included for actuation in the case of electric power
failure. The crank shall be at a suitable height and the effort applied to the crank with a
radius of 35cm shall not exceed 180 N. The drive mechanism shall bear an indication of
the direction in which the crank is to be turned to open the gate.
An interlock shall be included in the manual drive system to prevent electrical actuation
when the crank is in place.
All necessary protective devices for weather and safety shall be provided.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

199

Standard Technical Specifications

The braking system shall operate upon any accidental or voluntary power failure.
A system shall be included to limit any overload to 150% of rated load on the cable or
120% of rated effort of the drive mechanism, by stopping the motor and applying the
brake.
Devices shall be included to permit the motor to be changed, with the drive mechanism
under load.
7.1.8

Support Beam. A support beam crossing the canal shall be used to fasten the drive
mechanism when a center drive unit is used.
The support beam may be of welded steel construction or of concrete; however a steel
support beam shall be given preference,depending upon the price difference between
the two alternatives. When of steel, the ends of the support beam shall be fixed to the
concrete side walls by means of embedded components.

7.2

Slide Gate.

7.2.1

General. The gate leaf of the slide gate shall be of welded steel construction in one
piece. Watertightness shall be ensured by special natural rubber or neoprene extruded
shapes in the form of a musical note. Smooth sliding action of the gate leaf shall be
provided by shoes.
Depending upon the main characteristics indicated in the Technical Data Sheets the
gate shall be provided with electromechanical actuation, which will also permit manual
operation by a crank, or it shall be required to be only operated by hand crank.
All components of the sliding gate shall, whenever applicable, comply with the DIN
19704 or equivalent standard.
The BIDDER shall present his bid, in the clearest manner possible, construction details
of the components and the gate, based of his experience with this type of equipment.

7.2.2

Gate Panel. The gate panel shall be of welded steel construction, in one piece. The
facing can be of smooth, reinforced or bent metallic plate.
Fastening of seals shall be by means of pressure plates, tightened whenever possible by
through-bolts.
All areas that could retain water shall be provided with drainage holes.

7.2.3

Sliding Shoes. The sides of the slide gates shall be provided with at least two (2) sliding
shoes.
The contact surfaces of the sliding shoes with the lateral embedded parts shall be of
medium-hard bronze.

7.2.4

Seals. Seals shall comply with the design conditions established in the item referring to
materials and components.
Whenever feasible, water pressure shall assist in the sealing effect.
The concept of the seal fastening systems shall be such as to render any alteration in
the degree of compression to which the seals are subject unquestionably impossible

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

200

Standard Technical Specifications

when the seals are in working position, the only admissible alterations being those
caused by wear or aging which may occur over normal periods of time.
Whenever applicable, seals shall be furnished with an excess in length of 20mm for
adjustment purposes during assembly. Seal fastening bars shall be of carbon steel.
Nuts and bolts employed for adjustment purposes shall be of stainless steel.
A brass to stainless steel sealing system could be acceptable, providing this complies
with leakage limitation requirements. Its concept shall be presented in detail in the bid,
with due justification for its advantages.
7.2.5

Embedded Parts. Embedded parts to be placed in secondary concrete shall be appropriate


to support the load transmitted by the gate.
Each unit shall be comprised of, at least, embedded parts for sliding, lateral sealing, and
guide sealing, a sill, guides, and possibly a frontal seal, depending upon the main
characteristics indicated in the Technical Data Sheet.
Embedded parts for sliding, lateral sealing and guiding shall have their minimum lengths
equivalent to twice the height of the slide gate opening.
All embedded parts shall be of welded steel construction.
All joints to be made during assembly shall be provided with fish plates, with nuts, bolts
and guide pins positioned during assembly in the factory.
Each embedded part shall be provided with studs which, being welded to the components
embedded in the primary concrete, shall serve only and exclusively the purposes of
aligning, leveling and adjusting its position, as well as to ensure this position after it has
been installed and during the secondary concreting.
In the case of small-size gates, the embedded parts shall be delivered assembled in the
form of frames provided with bracing to prevent misalignment and unlevelling during
transportation and concreting.
A flat stainless steel bar shall be welded to the embedded parts of the sill and the lateral
and frontal sealing parts along the path of the seals.

7.2.6

Drive Mechanism. The electromechanical drive mechanism for the sliding gate can be
single or double-type and shall be comprised of a motor, reduction gearbox and one or
more shafts with worm screws mounted on a pedestal(s) of suitable height, with mounting
provisions for the pedestal(s). The drive mechanism shall have provision for mounting a
sensor for the measurement and transmission of the position of the gate opening.
The sensor for measuring and transmitting the position of the gate opening shall be of
the resistive type, with a variation of 0 to 500 ohms (500 ohms indicating a fully open
gate, and 0 ohms indicating a fully closed gate), rated at 4 W at 70 o C, tolerance of plus
or minus 5% and linearity not exceeding 1%.
The drive mechanism shall include reversible micro-switches to indicate the fully open
and fully closed positions of the gate.
The sensor and the micro-switches shall be housed in a weatherproof enclosure complying
with ABNT IPW-65 and other applicable standards.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

201

Standard Technical Specifications

A safety manual drive shall be included for actuation in the case of electric power
failure. The crank shall be at a suitable height and the effort applied to the crank with a
radius of 35cm shall not exceed 180 N. The drive mechanism shall bear an indication of
the direction in which the crank is to be turned to open the gate.
The upper portion of the drive shaft shall be provided with a machined acme screw
thread, with a pitch selected to render the unit self-locking.
The shaft shall be of the rising type and its upper end provided with a ring to limit its
travel.
The shaft shall also be provided with a guide bearing with a bronze bushing in a support
permitting adjustment in two directions. The guide pin coupling the shaft to the gate
leaf shall be of stainless steel.
All necessary protection for weather and safety shall be provided.
7.3

Downstream Control Gate.

7.3.1

General. The NEYRTEC-type downstream control gate, or equivalent, shall be a totally


self-contained automatic water-level controlling gate that does not use any external
transmission or drive systems to open and close the gate.
The NEYRTEC-type downstream control gate, or equivalent, shall be equipped with
floats, counterweights, damping system and all other devices required to make it selfcontained and automatic.

7.3.2

Design. The NEYRTEC-type downstream control gate, or equivalent, shall be constructed


of welded steel plate, floaters and sections. The design, construction, and tests where
applicable shall meet the requirements of these specifications.

Any equivalent gate must use designs resulting in gates manufactured by an established
manufacturer showing succesful operation for five (5) or more years of service.
7.4.

Siphon Wasteway
General

The siphon wasteway shall be constructed of welded sheet metal painted and steel
beams and shall be:
Totally closed when not operating
Automatic
Of hydraulic operation, with no moving mechanical or electrical parts.
Of progressive operation, or suitable for evacuting flow

The siphon wasteway shall present a progressive flow from o to the normal flow indicated
in the Technical Data Sheets.
The maximun decrement between water levels between the begining flow discharge to
normal flow discharge operations is also indicated in the Technical Data Sheets.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

202

Standard Technical Specifications

7.5

Disk-Type Self-Centering Valve


General

All parts of the disk-type self-centering valve shall be made of welded steel and shall be
designed to comply with abrupt flow variations. The equipment shall consist of:
One
One
One
One

outletpiece for pipeli


sealing device
floater connected to the sealing device
articulated arm

The outletpiece shall be made of flanged steel with diameter and pressure class indicated
in the TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS.
The disk-type self centering valve shall be made of stell and shall shut off pipeline flow
at the service pressure innidicated in the Technical Data Sheets. The seal shall be made
of a plate of seal material (rubber or other material) fastened to the disk.
The disk shall be centralized on the pipe outletpiece by water pressure without any
other guides.
7.6

Seals. The sealing systems for the hydromechanical equipment shall be designed to employ
heat-resistant material, either natural rubber or a butadiene-styrene copolymer, or a mixture
of both, and shall contain carbon black, zinc oxide, accelerators, antioxidant, vulcanizing
agents and plasticizers, so as to ensure a seal that complies with the leakage limits
established in the specific technical specifications with the gates closed. Seals shall be
fastened in place by means of steel plates with no sharp edges, and stainless steel nuts
and bolts. It shall be possible to adjust the seals, taking into consideration the clearance
existing between the embedded parts and the moving parts.

Corner seals shall be made with a single molded part, which shall be vulcanized or
bonded with a suitable adhesive (such as Super Bonder) to the corresponding lateral
and frontal parts.
Seals shall not be accepted with splices other than those mentioned above, and vulcanizing
operations on the jobsite shall also not be acceptable.
Mounting holes in the seals shall all be executed in the factory, unless for shipping
reasons the equipment is designed and manufactured in parts, which shall have to be
welded together on-site. Drilling the rubber seals for the fastening bolts shall be done by
using the seal clamp bars as a template. The sealing set shall be preassembled at the
factory and then disassembled for transport.
Sealing components shall be packed separately for transportation purposes.
All other procedures differing from those described above shall be the object of agreements
between the SUPPLIER and the PURCHASER.
7.7

Gears. For normal working conditions the calculation for the strength of the teeth on all
gears shall consider a safety factor of not less than five (5), in relation to the breaking
stress of the material employed.
ABNT, ISO,AGMA,DIN or equivalent manufacturing standards shall be followed.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

203

Standard Technical Specifications

If crown-and-worm gears are used, the material for the worm gear shall be case-hardened,
tempered steel, ground and polished. The crown shall be of phosphor bronze or aluminum
bronze, in accordance with SAE specifications 65 and 68 or the like.
7.8

Pulleys. Pulleys for steel cables shall be of cast steel or spherodial cast iron with minimum
characteristics equal to those required by ASTM standard A27 grade 70-40 and DIN
1.693 type GGG-50 respectively, or the like.
According to DIN Standards 15.061 and 15.062, the grooves shall be machined to a
height of h = 1.5 d and lower radius = 0.53d. The hubs shall be provided with slide or
roller bearings.
All pulleys shall be balanced, and provided with suitable protection to prevent the cable
from escaping from its groove.

7.9

Cables. The strands of which the cables are comprised shall have a breaking strength
varying from 160 kgf/mm2 to 200 kgf/mm2.
Steel cables shall be dimensioned to withstand, before reaching their respective breaking
points, a load equivalent to six times the sum of the following components: the load
itself, weight of the maximum length of hanging cable, and system outputs.
When the raising system requires the use of several lifting cables, the strains on these
shall be equalized by means of compensating pulleys or a cable equalizer bar.
The cables shall be class 6x37.
Selection of the construction shall be in accordance with the diameter, in the following
manner:
For cable diameters equal to or less than 7/16 inch: Warrington 6x37 construction,
with artificial fibre core;
For cable diameters larger than 7/16 inch:
Filler or Warrington Seale 4x41 Construction with artificial fibre cores.
Terminals, wedges, supports and other devices for fastening the cables shall be capable
of withstanding ninety percent (90%) of the guaranteed breaking strength of the cables
to which they are fastened.
The SUPPLIER shall furnish the cables with sufficient length to permit cutting off samples
for testing.

7.10

Winding Drums. These shall be manufactured from structural steel sheet, rolled, welded
longitudinally and annealed before machining.
Longitudinal welds on the drum cylinders shall be X-rayed along one hundred percent
(100%) of their length.
Drums shall be machined in accordance with ABNT Standard 4130.
They shall have sufficient length to permit winding the entire length of the cable, and
with the load in its fully raised position one full turn of groove shall not be occupied by
cable.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

204

Standard Technical Specifications

With the load in its fully descended position, at least two full turns of groove shall be
occupied by cable.
7.11

Brakes. - The radial gate winch raising system shall be provided with an electromagnetic
and/or electrohydraulic type brake.

Breaking capacity in both directions of movement shall be of at least one hundred and
fifty percent (150%) of the full load torque of the corresponding motor. Brakes with
electric control shall be capable of performing at least fifteen (15) operations per minute.
7.12

Lubrication systems. All bearings, swiveling shafts and mechanisms, that do not contain
self-lubricating material, shall be provided with lubrication devices.
The lubrication of points that are difficult to reach shall be by means of tubing connected
to same. These tubes shall be fitted with grease nipples grouped in easily accessible
positions on the service walkways.
The tubes shall be of copper or copper-plated seamless tubing and on the moving parts,
and for those subject to displacement or vibration, high-pressure flexible tubing shall be
used.
Whenever the type of equipment so permits, and the difficulty or inconvenience of
point-to-point lubrication is apparent, the SUPPLIER shall funish a central automatic or
manual lubrication system for the group of points to be lubricated.
All reduction gearing shall be lubricated by oil bath, provided that the tangential velocities
do not surpass a value of 15m/s.
The temperature of the lubricating oil shall not rise more than 40o C above the ambient
temperature.
Forced lubrication shall be adopted for gears with tangential velocities equal to or higher
than 15m/s. In such cases, the forced oil flow shall be sufficient to conduct the heat
corresponding to the power loss in the gearing, and the volume of circulating oil shall be
sufficient to maintain the oil temperature within the above permissible limits.
Calculations to determine the volume of oil contained in reduction gearboxes and
calculations for dimensioning of the forced oil circulation shall be presented in detail.
Reduction gearboxes shall be provided with oil-level windows and air vents. If forced
lubrication is used, a pressure guage or other devices shall be provided to indicate that
the lubrication is operating. Devices for filling and draining the gearboxes shall be easily
accessible.
Gears that are lubricated with grease shall be covered by protective housings containing
trays to collect excess grease.
The SUPPLIER shall furnish a general lubrication plan for each item of equipment, including
the characteristics and commercial names of the lubricants, indicating equivalent brands.
This plan shall be presented in the Instruction Manuals.

7.13

Electric Induction Motors

7.13.1

General Conditions. Motors shall be installed in environments with the service conditions
indicated in Item ____ of the Instructions to Bidders, Chapter ___,Volume____.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

205

Standard Technical Specifications

Motors shall be induction, squirrel-cage rotor type. They shall be suitable for continuous
operation, outdoor installation and designed to handle the characteristics of the load.
All motors shall be designed, manufactured and tested in accordance with the latest
revisions of the applicable ABNT, ANSI, IEEE, NEMA and IEC standards.
Any divergencies between this specification and the above mentioned or the SUPPLIERs
standards shall be communicated to the PURCHASER, for enlightenment.
The SUPPLIER shall indicate the main characteristics of motors, by submitting the Data
Sheet Induction Motor, shown in the Technical Data Sheets for this Specification.
7.13.2

Voltages. The motors shall be designed to operate under an voltage of 380 V, threephase, 60Hz.

They shall operate satisfactorily under rated loads, provided the percentage of voltage
variation does exceed plus or minus 10% of rated voltage at a frequency of 60 Hz.
7.13.3

Housing and Ventilation. Motors shall be enclosed type with fan, ABNT degree of protection
IP (w) 54.

Housings shall have provision for lifting eyes.


Fans shall be suitable for operation in either direction of rotation and provided with
means for easy removal.
Covers shall be made of rolled steel, cast iron covers not being acceptable.
The principle dimensions of the motors shall comply with the requirements of ABNT
Standard NBR-5460, or NEMA Standard MG-1, where applicable.
7.13.4

Insulation and Temperature Rise. The insulation shall be of Class F, non-hygroscopic


material.

The temperature rise, based on an ambient temperature of 50o C and with a service
factor of 1.0, shall not exceed the following values:
Thermometricmethod:Class F insulation ...............................................100o C
Resistance method: Class F insulation .................................................. 90o C
Windings shall be protected from abrasion and shall be fungus resistant.
7.13.5

Rotation. The motors shall be designed to rotate in either direction.

Whenever the dirction of rotation is important for operating the equipment, a corrosionproof identification plate shall be provided, illustrating the direction of rotation.
7.13.6

Torques. The torques with locked rotors shall not be below those indicated in ABNTs
NBR-7094 and/or NEMAs MG-1-12.37.

Maximum torques shall not be below those indicated in NBR-7094 and/or NEMAs table
MG-1-12.38.
The motors shall be capable of starting and accelerating, without exceeding the specified
temperature rise, the moment of inertia loads listed in NEMAs table MG-1-20.42.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

206

Standard Technical Specifications

The ratio of the power drawn with a locked rotor, in kVA, to the rated power, in HP or
kW, shall correspond to the values in ABNTs NBR-7094.
All motors shall have thermal capacity to permit two successive starts under full voltage,
with the motor at ambient temperature accelerating a load whose acceleration time is of
up to 15 seconds.
7.13.7

Connection Boxes. Connection boxes shall be of reinforced construction, with neoprene


gaskets and threaded openings for conduits.

When viewed from the coupling end of the motor, they shall be assembled as indicated
in the Technica Data Sheet.
They shall be large enough to contain the power cables with pressure type copper
connectors. The material and the size of the terminal supplied with the motor shall be
compatible with the connectors on the motors copper power supply cables.
Separate boxes shall be supplied for heaters, if these are called for in Technical Data
Sheet.
7.13.8

Accessories. All motors shall be provided with heater resistors,when indicated in the
Technical Data Sheet.

All motors shall be provided with a terminal for connecting the housing to the ground
cable.
Nameplates shall be of durable corrosion resistant material, with the data engraved or
stamped, in such a manner that the information cannot be removed by abrasion, corrosion
or ageing.
Another plate of the screwed-on type, shall be furnished with the identification number
of the motor.
All motors shall have a terminal for a fourth conductor, connected to the housing, inside
the connection box, in addition to the external terminal for connection to the grounding
grid.
7.14

Spare Parts. All spare parts shall be interchangeable with and identical to the corresponding
original components installed on the equipment.

7.15

Painting Methods. The painting methods to be employed for radial and slide gates are
described below, for each particular case. The NEYRTEC downstream control gate, or
equivalent, the siphon wasteways, and the disk-type self-centering valve shall be furnished
painted with the manufacturers standard coating.

7.15.1

Structures. The gate structures will be painted at the jobsite, by the Installation Contractor,
the method to be employed being:

Cleaning to almost white metal by abrasive blast, as per SSPC SP-10 standard;
Primer painting with one (1) coat of coal-tar epoxy resin base paint, with high
resistance to abrasion features;
Finish painting with one (1) coat of the same paint as used for the primer painting.
The minimum final thickness of dry film for the two (2) coats will be 400 microns.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

207

Standard Technical Specifications

7.15.2

Embedded parts. The surfaces totally embedded in concrete shall not be painted and the
surfaces not embedded in concrete will be painted at the jobsite by Installation Contractor.
The painting method to be employed will be:

Cleaning to white metal by abrasive blast, as per SSPC-SP5 standard;


Primer painting with two (2) coats of epoxi resin paint with a high content of zinc.
The minimum final thickness of dry film for the two (2) coats will be 140 microns.
Finish painting with two (2) coats of coal-tar epoxy resin paint.The minimum final
thickness of dry film for the two (2) coats will be 300 microns.
7.15.3

Supporting Beams and Bases for Mounting of Actuating Mechanism. These parts shall be
painted at the factory with primer painting and one (1) coat of final painting, the final coat
of finish paint will be applied at the jobsite by the Installation Contractor in the PURCHASERs
standard color.

The painting method to be employed shall be:


Cleaning by commercial abrasive blast in compliance with SSPC-SP6 standard;
Primer painting with two (2) coats of iron oxide type primer with a base of
chlorinated, high thickness, unsaponifiable rubber. The minimum final thickness
of dry film for the two (2) coats shall be 140 microns.
Finish painting with one (1) coat of unsaponifiable chlorinated rubber. The minimum
final thickness of dry film for the coat shall be 105 microns.
7.15.4

Motors and Reducers. The motors and reducers shall be delivered with final primer and
finish painting, of the type resistant to oils, in the PURCHASERs standard color, painted
in accordance with the method usually employed for these components, duly approved by
the PURCHASER.

8.

Design Calculations. Calculations for parts and components of the hydromechanical


equipment shall be developed in accordance with DIN 1904, and other applicable
standards.
Allowable stresses under normal load shall be determined according to criteria in DIN
Standard 19704.
For the calculations, the most unfavourable combinations of the following forces shall
be considered:
Hydraulic load;
Equipment and accessories weight;
Frictional forces;
Anticipated actuation force.
Forces appearing when the gate is operated dry shall also be calculated.
Suspension points shall be dimensioned as a function of the actuation force. The rated
capacity of the drive mechanism shall be at least one hundred and ten percent (110%)
of the maximum calculated actuation force.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

208

Standard Technical Specifications

To calculate the force required for actuation, the dynamic friction coefficients in the
following table shall be adopted:
Maximum

Minimum

Rubber seals upon stainless steel

0.80

0.40

Brass or bronze upon stainless steel

0.40

0.20

Self-lubricating bearings (Lubrite)

0.15

0.04

Self-lubricating bearings (Fiberglide)

0.15

0.05

Pre-compression of the seals shall also be taken into consideration.


The maximum calculated force under normal actuating conditions shall be obtained
using the most unfavourable coefficients of friction.
The anticipated actuation force shall be the maximum calculated force, increased by ten
percent (10%) for safety reasons.
The embedded parts shall be calculated according to the loads transmitted by the
equipment and the drive mechanism.
Embedded lateral parts shall be submitted to forces transmitted by the abutment shoes
of the radial gates or the slide shoes of the sliding gates.
Stress on the concrete shall not be higher than admissible, according to the value
reached in the item 9, General Design Requirements.
9.

General Design Requirements

9.1

Design Stresses. All components parts of the hydromechanical equipment shall be


designed, based on the most unfavourable conditions to which they are to be subjected,
during operation and during assembly, on-site testing, or transportation.
Maximum stresses for the various load conditions to which the hydromechanical
equipement is to be subjected shall comply with the requirements of DIN Standard
19704.

9.2

Stresses on Concrete. The maximum stress in the concrete resulting from contact pressure
between equipment components and the concrete shall not be higher than 500 N/cm2.
Contact pressure shall be calculated, considering implicit components, by beams on
elastic foundations theory.
The maximum permissible rate of adherence of anchor bolts in the concrete shall be of
60 N/cm2.

9.3

Transportation, Assemby and Disassembly Facilities. The equipment shall be designed


in such a manner as to include facilities for transportation, assembly and disassembly,
for purposes of preventive maintenance or possible repairs. Access to the more delicate
parts or those subject to wear shall involve minimum disassembly.
All components which by virtue of their size, form, or other reason require means to
facilitate handling during operations such as transportation, assembly and disassembly,
shall be provided with hoisting eyes, threaded holes for attaching lifting rings, supports,

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

209

Standard Technical Specifications

etc. The SUPPLIER shall make provision for instances in which special device such as
guide pins should be used to attend to particular conditions of transportation, assembly
and dismantling, and include these in the supply of the corresponding equipment.
9.4

Standardization. The use of standard components, both mechanical and electrical, shall
be emphasized by the SUPPLIER in the Technical Data Sheets. Standard components
for the same application shall all be provided by the same manufacturer.

9.5

Leakage Limitation. For the radial and slide gates the maximum admissible leakage
around the seals between the gates and the corresponding embedded parts shall not
exceed 0.25 liters per second per linear meter of seal. For the NEYTRTEC-type
downstream control gate or equivalent, leakage shall be within the range allowed by the
manufacturer.

9.6

Speed Tolerance. - The permissible tolerance for the speed of any item of equipment shall
be of plus or minus 5% of the corresponding nominal value specified in the Technical Data
Sheets.

10.

Inspections and Tests

10.1

Preassembly in the Factory. The equipment and/or their parts shall be preassembled to
operating conditions at the factory and shall be checked by the ENGINEER.
Match marks shall be suitably made in a legible manner, by means of painting and
punching, to ensure a correct coupling during assembly at the jobsite. Special assemblies
shall be executed with the aid of guide pins.
The following preassemblies shall be made at the Factory:
Radial gates - preassembly of the gate leaf over a cradle and gate leaf with gate
arms and main bearings.
Slide-gates - preassembly of the gate leaf, in a horizontal position for checking
dimensions, leveling, alignment and coupling with drive mechanisms. The
uprightness of the gate leaf when suspended by their suspension points shall also
be checked.
Seals - see subitem 7.6.
Drive mechanism - complete assembly.
Embedded Parts - complete preassembly of the abutment embedded parts, and
side sealing of the radial gates, for which the construction of a suitable support
will be required with the tolerances of the drawing, required angles and reference
lines.
For the remaining gates, preassembly of the sealing chassis, shall be completed in a
horizontal position.
In all the preassemblies the dimensions, leveling, alignment and coupling shall be checked.

10.2

On-Site Tests and Inspections

10.2.1

General. All on-site tests will be conducted by the PURCHASER under the supervision of
the SUPPLIER.

The on-site inspections to be performed by the PURCHASER, shall not, under any
circumstances, free the SUPPLIER from any of his obligations or contractual
responsibilities.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

210

Standard Technical Specifications

The indication of the tests and inspections defined in the following items are for guidance,
and the PURCHASER may request an extension or other types of tests and inspections,
in addition to the ones indicated, if deemed necessary for checking the quality or
performance of the equipment, providing such tests do not affect its main characteristics.
Tests described for an equipment or part thereof are applicable to other equipment or
parts of the same type.
After the initial and final on-site tests and inspection, the respective reports shall be
prepared by the PURCHASER and the SUPPLIER, giving the values obtained in the
corresponding tests. A copy of these reports shall remain with the PURCHASER for his
analysis.
In general, the apparatus, devices and tests loads utilized during the tests and inspections
will be furnished by the PURCHASER. The SUPPLIER, however, shall accept the
responsibility of furnishing for use during the tests and inspections, the special apparatus
and devices required for the tests, when requested by the PURCHASER.
10.2.2

Initial On-Site Tests and Inspections.- All the equipment, after final assembly at the jobsite,
shall be submitted to no-load, rated load, and overload operation tests, when specified or
required by applicable technical standard.

All the operating characteristics required in the technical specification and Design
Documents shall be checked. It will be verified whether all the mechanical or electrical
components of the equipment operate under normal operating conditions, as defined in
these documents or in the applicable technical standards.
10.2.3

Final On-Site Tests and Inspections. - At the end of the guarantee period, the PURCHASER
shall have the right to conduct all the defined tests and inspections, whether to be conducted
at the factory or to be conducted at the jobsite, or other tests deemed necessary, and
may even, when the type of test so requires, dismantle part of the equipment for the
required verifications.

When excessive wear, alterations in operational characteristics, unacceptable differences


in relation to previous tests or in relation to the technical specifications are detected,
the SUPPLIER shall perform the design verification to determine the causes of the
irregularities, as well as proceed with the modifications and/or corrections in the
equipment, being responsible for all incurred costs, providing the irregularities are not
due to misuse of the equipment.
11.

Packaging, Storage, Transport, and Handling

11.1

Packing for Transportation. The supply shall be packaged in compliance with the best
established practices.
All threaded parts to be used in the final assemblies, shall be transported oil immersed.
Those used in other assemblies, i.e., embedded parts, shall only be dipped in oil.
Electric motors shall be sealed with impermeable tape or other suitable means. A protective
paper (grade A greaseproof or the the like) shall be inserted between the motor brushes
and collectors.
Spare parts shall be packed separately.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

211

Standard Technical Specifications

11.2

Factory Storage. Only the components which may be exposed to weather can be stored
in the yards. The remaining components, such as electrical material, mechanisms, etc.,
shall be placed in enclosed areas, sheltered from dust and humidity.

11.3

Transportation. The SUPPLIER shall furnish freight and insurance for the equipment to
the delivery location, if so requested by the PURCHASER and in accordance with the
specific proposal and contract. In the event such services are contracted, the SUPPLIER
shall be responsible for the loading of the parts to be shipped on the transporters trucks
or railroad cars.
The SUPPLIER shall be responsible for possible damages to the equipment during the
transportation to the delivery location, due to faulty packing, improper placing of the
parts on the vehicles and/or accidents that might occur during the transportation by
fault of the transporter.
In the event the SUPPLIER should subcontract these services, the subcontractor shall
have proven experience in the transportation of similar equipment, the PURCHASER
having the right to request a substitue if the subcontractor does not comply with the
requirements. In any case, the total responsibility shall continue to be of the SUPPLIER.

11.4

Storage at the Jobsite. The SUPPLIER shall inform the PURCHASER on the care to be
taken when the equipment must be stored at the jobsite before assembly. If, by any
reasons beyond the SUPPLIERs control, the assembly is delayed, the latter shall furnish
in writing, at the official request of the PURCHASER, the care and periodic maintenance
procedures to be taken for the equipment or part stored, ensuring its conservation.
Defects caused by non-compliance with the orientation for storage furnished by the
SUPPLIER shall be the PURCHASERs responsibility. If the defects are not a consequence
of faulty storage but are due to manufacture and/or design, the corrections shall be the
SUPPLIERs responsibility.

12.

Drawings and Data to be Furnished by the SUPPLIER.

12.1

Information required for the BID and before start of construction.


Shop drawings;
Commercial products data;
Design calculations

12.2

Complementary information required at time of delivery.3 sets of:


Dimensional drawings;
List of spare parts for five (5) years of operation;
Drawings showing the exact location with dimensions of the anchor bolts for
mounting by the Installation Contractor.
Reports of all tests required by these specifications which are performed in the
factory.
5 sets of:
Instruction Manuals

13.

Warranty. The SUPPLIER shall furnish an equipment and materials warranty in accordance
with the General and Special Conditions of the Contract. This warranty shall remain

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

212

Standard Technical Specifications

valid for 12 months after each piece of equipment is put into operation or for 24 months
after the date of delivery at the jobsite, whichever period concludes earlier.
14.

Technical Assistance. The SUPPLIER shall perform the supervision of assembly and testing
of the gates at the jobsite, if so requested by the PURCHASER and in accordance with the
General and Special Conditions of the contract. In the event such services are contracted,
the SUPPLIER shall provide assistance in the assembly, make adjustments, tests and
start-up of the equipment and accessories. It shall also be the SUPPLIERs responsibility
to instruct and assist the PURCHASERs personnel assigned for the operation and
maintenance of the equipment. The SUPPLIER shall provide a group of qualified, competent
and technically skilled persons that are to work at the installation site.

The supervisors shall act as the PURCHASERs consultants, in questions of methods,


practices and required precautions and shall be responsible for alignments, clearances
and other requirements pertinent to the assembly of his supplied equipment as well as
for the work relating to handling, storage,withdrawals from stock, removal of packagings,
assembly, cleaning and painting of surfaces, tests, confirmations, start-up and
commissioning of the other operations required before the preparation of the equipment
for their specific functions.
The SUPPLIER shall assume total and entire responsibility with respect to precision,
quality and range of performance of his equipment, provided the assembly services
have been performed in compliance with the instruction and recommedations of the
supervisors and providing the equipment to be assembled has been stored and handled
in accordance with the SUPPLIERs instructions.
15.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of water level control equipment units described
in this Specification will be measured as complete assemblies, expressed in units.
The payment for these units will be made at the applicable unit price established in the
Contract.

16.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
17.

Technical Data Sheets.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

213

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION - STEEL
SUCTION PIPES,
DISCHARGE PIPES,
AND MANIFOLDS
S-010501

STEEL SUCTION PIPES, DISCHARGE PIPES, AND MANIFOLDS

1.

Objective. The objective of these specifications is to define the criteria and supply
conditions required of the steel suction pipes, discharge pipes, and manifolds for the
________(Name) pumping station of the ________(Name) Project.

2.

Operating Conditions. In accordance with Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL


(S-010101).

3.

Scope of Supply. The supply scope of these Specifications includes, but is not limited to
the following items:

3.1

Preparation of design drawings and calculation sheets and submittal for approval.

3.2

Tests of equipment and/or materials at factory, as required in these Specifications.

3.3

Transportation of the equipment from factory to jobsite, and unloading at the jobsite,
including necessary transportation insurance.
The SUPPLIER shall present a project schedule which ensures the supply of the equipment
in an orderly and continuous manner, thus allowing the sequential and complete assembly
of each pumping system.

4.

Technical Standards.. The latest revision of the following standards shall be adopted for
the manufacturing and supplying of materials.
ABNT - Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas
DIN - Deutsches Institut fur Normung
ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers
API - American Petroleum Institute
AISI - American Iron and Steel Institute
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
AWWA - American Water Works Association
ISO - International Organization for Standardization
SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
ANSI - American National Standards Institute

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

214

Standard Technical Specifications

5.

Manufacturing Requirements

5.1

Materials
Steel plate - ASTM designation: A 283, grade C or D, or ASTM designation: A 36.
Welding fittings - ANSI B16.5.
Electric-fusion (arc) -welded, spiral-seam steel pipe - ASTM designation: A 139,
grade B, C, or D.
Standard steel pipe - ASTM designation: A 53, grade A, galvanized for pipe less
than 4 inches in diameter and black for pipe 4 inches and larger in diameter.
Flexible joints. - Flexible joints shall be either Dresser type or Gibault type
with center sleeves and follower rings or flanges and without pipe stops.
The coupling gaskets shall be made of natural or synthetic rubber suitable for cold water
service and shall be triangular shaped for Dresser joints or square shaped for Gibault
joints. The center sleeves and follower rings or flanges shall be of solid-ring construction
which requires no field welding or bolting to form the center sleeves or follower rings or
flanges into circular rings. The thickness of the center sleeve shall be equal to or greater
than the adjoining pipe sections. Harnesses shall be furnished to prevent longitudinal
opening of the joint where shown on the drawings.
Flange gaskets - AWWA standard C207, full faced.
Grooved-end-type (Victaulic) couplings AWWA - C606.

5.2

Fabrication. The fabrication of suction pipes, discharge pipes and manifolds shall be in
accordance with these specifications and drawings and with the requirements of AWWA
standard C200.
The minimum wall thickness of the pipe shall be 6mm.
Pipe bends shall have a minimum radius of 3 pipe diameters.
Field joints shall be provided as necessary to facilitate lining or installation of the pipe.
Field joints shall be threaded couplings for pipe less than 100mm in diameter, flanged
for pipe from 100mm to 700mm in diameter, and welded for pipe larger than 700 mm in
diameter. Flanges shall be suitable for the working pressure of the adjacent pipe.

5.3

Painting.- Painting shall be done according to Standard SSPC-PS-11-01-68 T of The


Steel Structures Painting Council, the Technical Data Sheets and other Standards defined
therein, and as summerized below:
For exterior surfaces of exposed above ground pipe:

5.3.1

Base coat:
Two coats of red-lead type IV,
Final thickness (dry film): 80 micron.

5.3.2

Finish Coat:
Two coats of synthetic enamel (alkyd resin based).
Final thickness (dry film): 70 micron.
Colors of finishing paint shall be defined by the PURCHASER at the time of issuance of
the supply contract for this equipment.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

215

Standard Technical Specifications

For exterior surfaces of buried and non-exposed pipe and interior surfaces of pipe, coaltar epoxy, cement-mortar, or coal-tar enamel shall be applied.
Weld spatter, slag burrs, or other objectionable surface irregularities shall be removed or
repaired before cleaning. Any contaminants to the paint coating, from cleaning operations
or other sources, shall be removed before the surfaces are painted.
All oil and grease, if present, shall be removed from steel surfaces to be painted by the
use of clean solvent and clean, lint-free wiping material. Cleaning solvent shall be xylene.
Cleaning cloths and solvents shall be discarded before they become contaminated to
the extend that a greasy film would remain on the surface being cleaned.
Following the initial solvent cleaning, the surfaces shall be blast cleaned to base metal,
using dry, hard, sharp, sand or steel grit, to produce a near-white sandblasted surface
free of all foreign sustances. The surface shall be cleaned to equal or exceed NACE No.
2 or SSPC-SP10.
Coal-tar epoxy coating shall be mixed and applied according to the manufacturers
instructions, except as otherwise specified.
The first coat shall be applied by brush or roller and succeeding coats by brush, spray,
or roller. Prior to applying the first coat, all welds and rough or irregular surfaces shall be
given a vigorously brushed coat to ensure complete coverage free of pinholes; the first
general coat may then be applied over the wet brush coat. The second and any following
coats shall be applied after the preceding coat has become tack free, but time between
coats shall not exceed the firm-to-touch time by more than 50 percent. Air and metal
temperatures shall be above 10o C during application and the curing period. The minimum
final curing times shall be 5 days between 10o C and 16o C or 3 days above 16o C. The
complete coating shall be applied either in the shop or in the field.
Damaged areas or other areas requiring touchup coating shall be sanded to roughen the
surface, and thereafter the manufacturers special instructions regarding special solvent
wiping or other preparation for touchup repair shall apply; areas in which the specified
drying time between coats is exceeded shall be treated and prepared by the same
method.
Coal-tar enamel and coal-tar epoxi-coated metalwork shall be protected against exposure
to direct sunlight until permanent submergence or until installation under cover. Protection
may be by covering or shading, except that surfaces which will be exposed to sunlight
in their installed position and eventually will be submerged shall be protected by a heavy
coat of phenolic aluminum paint spray applied approximately 1 week after applying the
last coat of coal-tar epoxy. The reflective aluminum coating shall be renewed if necessary.
6.

Inspections and Tests. Each section of the suction pipes, discharge pipes, and manifolds
shall be hydrostatically tested to a test pressure which stresses the steel to 16,000 N/
cm2. Any section with nozzles shall be tested after the nozzles have been attached by
welding. Wye branches and miter bends shall be completely fabricated before testing.
Any sections cut for handling purposes after the hydrostatic tests shall be cut on planes
normal to the pipe axis and not at the cone-cylinder intersections. In case of failures all
defects shall be repaired and the complete test procedure repeated before lining or
coating are applied.
The SUPPLIER shall furnish all temporary supports, bulkheads, air vents and other
equipment necessary to perform the hydrostatic tests.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

216

Standard Technical Specifications

The PURCHASER shall be granted the right to have a representative present to observe
the tests. This representative may, at the PURCHASERs discretion, be from any agency.
The SUPPLIER will guarantee the PURCHASERs representative free access at any stage
of the process of manufacture or assembly of the equipment, and shall supply, free of
charge, any of the components to be tested, and offer all facilities necessary for the
tests themselves.
Any expense incurred to carry out the tests, whether for personnel or material, will be
the SUPPLIERs entire responsibility. The results of the tests shall be certified.
7.

Packaging, Transport,and Handling. The SUPPLIER shall provide the necessary supports
for the material to avoid its damage or deterioration during transit to its final destination
and during the storage period.
The supports shall be sufficient to resist violent handling during transit and storage.
During loading, transportation, unloading, and storage, every precaution shall be taken
to prevent damage to the coatings of the suction pipe, discharge pipe, and manifolds.
Trucks, trailers, or railway cars used for transporting coated pipe shall be provided with
padded bolsters curved to fit the outside of the pipe, and heavy padding shall be used
under ties. Open ends of pipe with an internal lining of shop-applied cement-mortar shall
be tightly closed with a plastic wrap consisting of at least two thickness of 0.15mm
sheet polyethylene plastic.
The plastic wrap shall be installed on the pipe ends immediately after lining of the pipe
unit is completed and will remain on the pipe until the time of installation.
Water shall be placed inside the pipe unit to maintain a continuously moist environment
to prevent drying and shrinkage of the mortar lining. The plastic wrap shall be removed
and replaced as required for the introduction of water.
Any damage to the lining or coating shall be repaired as directed if in the opinion of the
PURCHASER, a satisfactory repair can be made; otherwise the damaged section shall
be replaced at the expense of the SUPPLIER.
After cement-mortar-lining operations are completed and prior to handling and shipping,
internal supports shall be furnished and placed in the pipe to maintain circularity. The
differences between the maximum and minimum diameters, at any point along the pipe
shall not exceed 7mm for pipe sizes 600mm and smaller or 1 percent of the nominal
pipe diameter for pipe sizes larger than 600mm.
All internal supports shall remain in place through storage.
The delivery of the equipment shall be made by the SUPPLIER according to the terms of
the Contract. The SUPPLIER will be responsible until the delivery has been completed.
The supply will be considered as being completed after delivery of the material at the
storage site and after issuance of the respective acceptance form.
The transportation, including loading and unloading of the equipment, and until storage
at the site will be the exclusive responsibility of the SUPPLIER and its costs shall be
included in the price for the equipment.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

217

Standard Technical Specifications

The supplied equipment must be totally covered by insurance against loss and damages,
caused during manufacturing or to the purchasing, transportation, storage and supply
according to these specifications.
8.

Drawings and Data to be Furnished by the SUPPLIER

8.1

Before Start of Construction:


Checked shop drawings showing complete layouts, assembly details, dimensions,
weld sizes, and materials.
Design calculation sheets

8.2

Before Delivery:
3 sets of test reports

8.3

Modifications. The lay-out of equipment shown on the drawings may be taken as a


guide, allowing the SUPPLIER to make any suggestions and/or alterations which better
adapt to the equipment he is offering. Suggestions and/or alterations which include
technical aspects inferior to those here required, however, will not be accepted.
All specification requirements will be considered as included in the alternative offered.
Suggestions and/or alterations will not be accepted which alter dimensions of building.
Alterations which have been allowed above must be submitted to the ENGINEER in
sufficient time for approval in order to be implemented.
The SUPPLIER must provide detailed drawings of all the equipment in 04 (four) copies,
one of which must be a reproducible for heliographic copies.
The reproducible drawing must be on CRONAFLEX paper or similar, so as to be durable
and allow good reproductions.
The drawings must contain all the details of design, manufacture and assembly.
The modifications or information submitted cannot be altered without prior authorization
of the ENGINEER, and omissions will not exempt the SUPPLIER from his obligations
under these specifications.
Once the designs submitted are analysed, the changes by the ENGINEER, within the
scope of the present specifications, must be promptly carried out by the SUPPLIER
within the established schedule and without any additional charge.
The modified designs will be signed by both the ENGINEER and the SUPPLIER, each of
whom will keep a copy. No discrepancies shall exist between these copies.
The approval of a design by the ENGINEER will not make him responsible for errors or
omissions on the part of the SUPPLIER, who will remain responsible for compliance with
all provisions of the specifications.
The SUPPLIER will provide new drawings to replace the ones which were altered according
to the instructions in the items above.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

218

Standard Technical Specifications

9.

Warranty. The SUPPLIER shall furnish an equipment and materials warranty in accordance
with the General and Special Conditions of the Contract. This warranty shall remain
valid for 12 months after each piece of equipment is put into operation or for 24 months
after the date of delivery at the jobsite, whichever period concludes earlier.

10.

Technical Assistance. In accordance with the General and Special Conditions of the
Contract, the SUPPLIER may be required to furnish supervision during the assembly of
the steel suction pipes, discharge pipes, and manifold and during initial operation of the
system.

11.

Measurement and Payment.- The quantity of suction pipe, discharge pipe, and manifolds
described in this Specification, will be the quantity necessary to complete one pumping
station system, expressed in kilograms.
Payment for steel suction pipe, discharge pipe, and manifolds will be made at the applicable
price established in the Contract.

12.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings above listed.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words and symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
13.

Technical Data Sheet.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

219

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION - HANDLING
APPARATUS

S-010701

1.

HANDLING APPARATUS, GENERAL

Objective. The objective of this Specification is to establish the minimum required technical
conditions required for the cranes and hoists for the __________(Name) Project.
The handling apparatus is intended to assist in the assembly and maintenance of pump
and motor sets, valves and accessories, trashracks and stoplogs for the Pumping Stations.
The concepts and general arrangement of the equipment are shown on the design
drawings, and specific requirements and quantities are given in the Technical Data
Sheets.

2.

Operating Conditions. In accordance with Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL


(S-010101).

3.

Scope of Supply. The supply scope of these Specifications shall be in accordance with
Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL (S-010101).
The handling apparatus shall be supplied complete, with all the components required for
their installation and operation, such as anchor bolts, rails, stops, clips, washers and
nuts, electrical control equipment, etc.

4.

Technical Standards. Design and construction of the mechanical, electrical, and structural
parts of the mechanisms shall be in conformance with the requirements of the most
recent revisions of the following standards:
ABNT - Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
CMAA - Crane Manufacturers Association of America Inc. Especificao No. 70
DIN - Deutsches Intitute for Normung
EOCI - Electric Overhead Crane Institute
FEM - Fdration Europene de la Manutention
NEC - National Electric Code
NEMA - National Electric Manufacturers Association
SSPC - Steel Structurers Painting Council
AISI - American Iron and Steel Institute

5.

Manufacturing Requirements. The cranes and hoists shall conform to the requirements
of this specification and to the additional requirements contained in the respective
technical specifications for the specific item.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

220

Standard Technical Specifications

5.1

Materials. The materials of the main components shall be as required by the respective
specific Specifications, the Standards referenced, and/or as follows:
Gantry legs ASTM-A36 carbon steel section
Main beam (bridge girder) ASTM-A36 carbon steel I beam
Fixed and swivel wheels Steel hubs and rubber wheels
Mechanisms SAE-1020 carbon steel
Hook Forged steel
Chains SAE-1003 carbon steel
A factor of safety of 5 (five) based on the ultimate strength of the materials shall be
used in the design of all handling apparatus components (stress in components not to
exceed 20% of ultimate strength of the material).

5.2

Painting and Protection

5.2.1

Surface preparation. All surfaces for painting shall be cleaned of all foreign material
such as rolling scale, dirt, rust, grease and other substances, so that a clean and dry
surface is attained.
All sharp edges shall be ground or eliminated by other means in order to improve the
paint bonding.
Steel surfaces shall be sand-blasted to near-white metal. Sand-blast cleaning shall be
equal to or superior to the requirements of the Steel Structure Painting Council Surface
Preparation Specification SSPC-SP10-68 T for number 10 Near-White Blast Cleaning.

5.2.2

Painting. Painting shall be done according to Standard SSPC-SP-11-01-68 T of The


Steel Structures Painting Council and other Standards defined therein, and as summerized
below:
Base coat: Two coats of red-lead.
Final thickness (dry film): 80 micron.
Finish coat:
Two coats of synthetic enamel (alkyd resin based).
Final thickness (dry film)=70 micron.
Colors of finishing paint shall be defined by the PURCHASER at the time of issuance of
the supply contract for this equipment.

5.2.3

Other Types of Protection. Shaft surfaces, gears and other surfaces which clearly need
not be painted, shall be protected against corrosion with a thick coat of grease or other
approved type of rust-protection. Such protection shall be maintained throughout the
installation period at the site up to the end of the Provisional Acceptance Tests and shall
be inspected and approved by the PURCHASER.

6.

Packaging, Transport and Handling. Packaging, transport and handling shall be in


accordance with the provisions of Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL (S010101). Hoists and their components shall be duly packed in wooden boxes for shipment,
to protect their components against humidity, corrosion and other damages caused
during transportation. All parts should be duly marked to permit their identification.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

221

Standard Technical Specifications

7.

Drawings and Data to be Furnished by the SUPPLIER

7.1

Information required for the BID and before start of construction:


Commercial products data
The drawings and data listed in the specific technical specifications for the
respective equipment
Shop drawings of non-commercial equipment

7.2

Complementary information required before delivery data:


Instruction Manuals
3 copies of all test reports required in the specific technical specifications for the
respective equipment
3 copies of spare parts list

8.

Spare Parts. The SUPPLIER shall include in his proposal a complete list of spare parts,
including prices at the factory site and at the delivery site, valid for 1 (one) year from the
date of shipment of the goods. He must also include, in his proposal, a list of spare parts
recommended for 3 (three) years of operation.

9.

Warranty. The SUPPLIER shall furnish an equipment and materials warranty in accordance
with the General and Special Conditions of the Contract. This warranty shall remain
valid for 12 months after each piece of equipment is put into operation or for 24 months
after the date of delivery at the jobsite, whichever period concludes earlier.

10.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of handling apparatus described in this


Specification will be measured as complete assemblies, expressed in units, except when
specified otherwise.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
TRAVELING GANTRY CRANE, ELECTRIC

S-010702

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and other criteria
which, together with the requirements of item HANDLING APPARATUS, GENERAL (S010701), establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the electric
traveling gantry crane for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General. The traveling crane shall be for (indoor) (outdoor) installation, totally electrically
operated and equipped with a hoist mounted on a single beam that projects laterally
beyond both sides of the gantry as shown on the design drawings.

3.

Manufacturing Requirements. Trolley movement, crane run and hoisting by the gantry
shall be done from a push-button station hanging from the gantry trolley. The gantry
shall have an independent system of movement controlled from a push-button station
fastened to its structure.
The composition and physical properties of the materials used in the fabrication of the
equipment shall be appropriate for the intended service in accordance with good
engineering practice.
Materials for all components shall be of adequate class and grade, be free from defects
and be of recent manufacture. Components not manufactured by the SUPPLIER shall
come from a renowned manufacturer, acknowledged for his quality products. A list of

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

222

Standard Technical Specifications

these manufacturers, together with relevant information, shall be submitted to the


PURCHASER for approval.
All welding procedures shall be in accordance with P-MB 262 from ABNT: Qualification
Method for Welding Procedures, Welders, and Operators or corresponding standards
from American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
The cranes power supply will be 3 phase (220) (380) volt, 60 Hz, furnished through
bare electrical copper conductors provided with stand-off insulators, brushes, stretchers
and fastening materials. The electric hoist and trolley shall be fed through a cable carrying
reel system or similar equipment.
The SUPPLIER shall give all the necessary information for the placement of anchoring
bolts for rails, rail tracks, feeder busbars and accessories on his layout drawings.
Except for minor adjustments and alignments, machining at the assembly site will not
be allowed.
The overhead bridge crane steel structures shall be constructed of welded stell members
from ABNT standardized beams.
The overhead bridge crane runway shall be made up of rails fitted in the concrete beams
of each pumping station.
The travelling runway shall be comprised of parts installed in the first stage concrete,
anchor bolts, rail fish plates, rails, support plates for rails, clips, washers and nuts,
stops with respective fastening systems all other necessary accessories according to
the SUPPLIERs design drawings.
4.

Inspection, Assembly and Tests. The PURCHASER will inspect all equipment supplied.
At his own expenses and in his premises, the SUPPLIER shall provide for the performance
of the following minimum tests, in the presence of the PURCHASERs inspector:
Visual inspection of all parts and components to be supplied, including dimensional
checking.
All of the mechanisms shall be no-load operated in both directions, in the presence
of the PURCHASERs inspector. Any abnormal noise, heating or vibration shall be
checked.
The site assembly shall be made under the SUPPLIERs supervision. The SUPPLIER shall
supply all components, bolts and nuts required for assembly.
After the traveling gantry crane has been assembled, duly adjusted, lubricated, and is
ready to operate, the following tests shall be made, under SUPPLIER supervision:
The gantry, trolley and hoist shall be examined to check for possible defects, such
as: misalignment, strange noises, overheating, faults, etc.
The gantry, trolley and hoist shall be operated in each direction of travel, and in
hoisting and in lowering through the full range, at no-load.
The above test shall be repeated with a load 20 % greater than the hoists rated
load capacity.
With the gantry and trolley in motion, the range of maximum and minimum
limitations established in the Technical Data Sheets shall be checked,as well as
the correct operation of the Gantry limit switches.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

223

Standard Technical Specifications

The rail tracks of the Gantry and trolley shall be tested to check maximum bending
under rated loading.
5.

Data to be Submitted by the SUPPLIER. In addition to other items required to be submitted


with the bid documents, the SUPPLIER shall also submit the following documentation
with his bid:
Type and model of the electrical hoist
Required power for lifting (rated and maximum)
Required power for moving the trolley (rated and maximum)
Required power for moving the gantry (rated and maximum)
Hoist lifting speed
Trolley translation speed
Gantry translation speed
Maximum lifting height
Trolley and hoist clearances
Dimensions of the rail track (trolley and gantry)
Weight of hoist, trolley, and components
Total gantry weight

6.

Technical Assistance. The SUPPLIER shall provide supervision of the installation and
mounting of the gantry crane in the field. Technical assistance shall be in accordance
with the provisions of the General and Special Conditions of the Contract.

7.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this Specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as a general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
8.

Technical Data Sheets

9.

Measurement and Payment. The supply of traveling electric gantry cranes shall be
measured as complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment for traveling electric gantry cranes shall be made at the unit price established
in the Contract.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

224

Standard Technical Specifications

TRAVELING GANTRY CRANE, MANUAL

S-010703

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and other criteria
which, together with the requirements of item HANDLING APPARATUS, GENERAL (S010701), establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the manual
traveling gantry crane for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements

2.1

Mechanisms. The hoist, trolley and bridge mechanisms for raising and lowering and for
trolley and bridge travel shall be manually operated.
The directional travel of the gantry crane shall be in all directions when on swivel wheels
and supported by the Pump House floor. The wheels shall have locking devices for
immobilizing the crane, when necessary, as indicated on the Technical Data Sheets.
The gantry crane shall be sufficiently high to permit loading and unloading the pump and
motor units onto a conventional truck.

2.2

Metal Structures. The metal structure of the gantry crane shall be dismountable, in
order to permit transportation of the gantry crane from one Pumping Station to another.

3.

Inspections and Tests. The following tests and inspections shall be performed at the
factory, in the presence of the ENGINEER:
Dimensional check of the gantry crane and its components;
Working check on the crane;
Check on paintwork and other types of protection;
Operation of the hoist,trolley and bridge with a 20% overload showing their
operating capacity and proving them to be adequate for the proposed work.

4.

Data to be Submitted by the SUPPLIER. In addition to other items required to be submitted


with the bid documents, the SUPPLIER shall also submit the following documentation
with his bid:
Catalog Data Sheets.

5.

Reference Drawings.. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance


with the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
missplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

225

Standard Technical Specifications

requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the


drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
6.

Technical Data Sheets.

7.

Measurement and Payment. The supply of traveling manual gantry cranes shall be
measured complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment for traveling manual gantry cranes shall be made at the unit price established
in the Contract.
OVERHEAD TRAVELING CRANE, MANUAL

S-010704

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and other criteria
which, together with the requirements of item HANDLING APPARATUS, GENERAL (S010701), establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the manual
overhead traveling crane for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General. The overhead travelling crane shall be for indoor installation. The hoist, trolley
and bridge mechanics shall be of the hand operated type, chain-driven.
The apparatus for movement of the overhead traveling crane bridge shall be through
two directly opposite wheels coupled by means of a mechanical shaft to obtain
synchronism.
The SUPPLIER shall provide a crown-pinion manually operated gear mechanism for the
hoist, trolley and bridge movements, lockable in both directions. The torque needed for
all operations shall not exceed 6 kg.m, considering a 0.3 m crank radius.

3.

Design Requirements

3.1

Concrete Stresses. Pieces of equipment supported on concrete shall be designed as


beams on an elastic foundation, and the distribution of the pressures of the pieces on
the concrete shall be checked in both the longitudinal and transverse directions of the
piece by the SUPPLIER, such that the maximum compression pressure from the forces
being transmitted to the concrete surface shall be limited by the ultimate strength of the
concrete, incorporating a factor of safety such that the maximum compression pressure,
P(max)=0.40 times the ultimate stress of the concrete.
The concrete will be specified to have a characteristic compression strength, fck =
1800 N/cm2 .
The maximum bonding stress allowed between the concrete and steel shall be limited to
60 N/cm2 .

4.

Fabrication Requirements

4.1

Steel Structures. The overhead cranes steel structures shall be constructed of welded
steel members from ABNT standardized beams.

4.2

Traveling Ways. The overhead traveling crane runway shall be made up of rails fitted in
the concrete beams of each pumping station.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

226

Standard Technical Specifications

Traveling runways shall be comprised of parts installed in the first stage concrete,
anchor bolts, rail fish plates, rails, support plates for the rails, clips, washers and nuts,
stops with respective fastening systems and all other necessary accessories according
to the design drawings.
5.

Inspections and Tests

5.1

Factory Tests and Inspections. Tests and inspections will be formalized by the
PURCHASER according to an Inspections Guide to be worked up by mutual agreement
between the PURCHASER and the SUPPLIER in accordance with subparagraph 8 of
Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL (S-010101).
The following tests and inspections are expected to be performed in the presence of a
PURCHASERs representative:
Dimensional checking of crane and components.
Adequacy of the crane operation.
Adequacy of painting and other kinds of protective coatings.

5.2

On-Site Tests and Inspections. On-site tests and inspections shall include, but not
necessarily be limited to, the following:

5.2.1

Provisional acceptance tests. After the final installation with all components properly
assembled and lined up, the equipment shall be submitted to a complete performance
test, in the presence of a the PURCHASERs representative, to demonstrate the capability
of operating without vibrations.
While being tested, the equipment shall be observed for the detection of faulty equipment
and operation. Any faults shall be corrected at the SUPPLIER s expense and the tests
shall be repeated until satisfactory results are attained.
Should the SUPPLIER be unable to demonstrate to the PURCHASER that the equipment
will be able to perform satisfactorily the operation for which it has been designed, the
equipment can be rejected and the SUPPLIER shall disassemble it at his own expense
and proceed to make necessary repairs or replacement of defective components. After
being repaired the equipment shall be re-assembled and a new series of tests shall take
place until conditions of acceptance are finally reached.
The following tests and inspections shall be performed:
Visual inspection of components.
Dimensional checking of all components and traveling runway alignment.
Rated load and no-load bridge operation verification.
Rated load and no-load raising and lowering.
Hoist operation at 20% (twenty percent) overload.
Paint and coating inspection.
A Provisional Acceptance Letter will only be issued after Provisional Acceptance tests
have been satisfactorily passed.

5.2.2

Final Acceptance Tests. Before the warranty period expires, the PURCHASER shall have
the right to perform, in the presence of the SUPPLIER, the above provisional acceptance
tests, or other tests deemed necessary, and may also, if so required by the test,
disassemble part of the equipment for necessary inspection.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

227

Standard Technical Specifications

Should any alterations in the performance characteristics be found, or should unacceptable


discrepancies be verified in relation to the former tests or related to this Technical
Specification, the SUPPLIER shall review his designs in order to determine the causes
for the irregularities, and make modifications and/or necessary corrections in the
equipment at his own expense. The SUPPLIER shall subsequently repeat the tests until
the irregularities are corrected. Correction of irregularities due to equipment misuse will
not be required at SUPPLIERs expense.
Equipment shall be considered as fully accepted when the final acceptance tests have
been successfully accomplished.
6.

Data to be Submitted by the SUPPLIER. -In addition to other items required to be submitted
with the bid documents, the SUPPLIER shall also submit the following documentation
with his bid.
Maximum lifting height
Trolley and hoist clearances
Dimensions of the rail track (trolley and bridge)
Weight of hoist, trolley and components
Catalog data sheets

7.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as a general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
8.

Technical Data Sheets

9.

Measurement and Payment. The supply of overhead traveling manual cranes shall be
measured as complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units. Payment for overhead
traveling manual cranes shall be made at the unit price established in the Contract.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

228

Standard Technical Specifications

MONORAIL HOIST

S-010705

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and other criteria
which, together with the requirements of item HANDLING APPARATUS, GENERAL (S010701), establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the monorail
hoist for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General. The monorail hoist will be used in the pumping station for the servicing of
pumps and motors, and for placing and removing stoplogs and trashracks.
The hoist shall be a standard article in regular production by an established manufacturer
of such equipment.
The hoist shall be marked with its rated load. The markings shall by legible from the
loading stations.
The supply shall include the following monorail components:
Supporting catheads
I-steel beam monorail
Trolley
Stops
Hoists

3.

Design Requirements.- The design of the trolley and hoist shall be in accordance with
applicable provisions of ANSI B 30-11 code for underhung cranes and monorail systems.
The maximum stress in the mechanical and structural parts shall not exceed 20 percent
of the ultimate strength of the material.
The hoisting capacity shall be as shown in the Technical Data Sheets and List of Materials.

4.

Manufacturing Requirements

4.1

Hoist.- The hoist shall be hand-operated and suspended from the trolley. The hoist shall
be a low-headroom hand-operated type. The hook shall be a standard hook equipped
with a safety latch. The hoist shall be of the removable type, connected to the trolley by
means of safety latches.
The moving parts shall be prelubricated. Servicing requirements shall be clearly described
in the service manuals. The high-hook and low-hook positions and the hand operated
chain length shall be as shown in the Technical Data Sheets and List of Materials.

4.2

Trolley.- The trolley shall be of a capacity that is equal to, or greater than, the rated load
of the hoist. The trolley shall be integral with the hoist and be a chain-operated geartype trolley.
The trolley shall be suitable for use of the AISC beam shown on the List of Materials and
Technical Data Sheets. (The beam will be furnished by others.) Wheels shall be drop
forged with a tread heat treated to a minimum hardness of 425 Brinell.

4.3

Cathead.- Catheads shall be constructed of ASTM A 36 carbon steel I beams with the
dimensions as indicated in the reference drawings. Hanging arms, simple or double,
shall be fastened to columns by welding, as specified in item _____ Mechanical Equipment
- General (S-010101), and with cantilever type supports. The monorail shall be fastened

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

229

Standard Technical Specifications

to the hanging arms by proper bolts. The columns shall be welded to steel plates,
together with installation support members. Base plates shall have 4 holes for anchor
bolts. Anchor bolts and nuts shall be furnished with the catheads.
4.4

Monorail.- The monorail shall be constructed of ASTM A572 carbon steel I beams, and
shall be sized to withstand hoist loads at the indicated spans. The monorail shall be one
continuous beam with no splices allowed. Each monorail shall have 2 stops, one at each
end.

4.5

Paint. The monorail hoist shall be furnished painted with the manufacturers standard
paint system. Non- painted surfaces shall be coated as required under HANDLING
APPARATUS, GENERAL (S-010701)

5.

Inspections and Tests. The PURCHASER will inspect all equipment supplied. At his own
expenses and in his premises, the SUPPLIER shall provide for the performance of the
following minimum tests, in the presence of the PURCHASERs inspector:

5.1

Visual inspection of all parts and components to be supplied, including dimensional


checking.

5.2

The hoist shall be no-load operated in both directions, through the full range, in the
presence of the PURCHASERs inspector. Any abnormal noise, heating or vibration shall
be checked.

5.3

The above test shall be repeated with a load 20% greater than the hoists rated load
capacity. The range of maximum and minimum limitation, established in the Technical
Data Sheets shall be checked.

6.

Data to be Submitted by the SUPPLIER. In addition to other items required to be submitted


with the bid documents, the SUPPLIER shall also submit the following documentation
with his bid:
Type and model of the hoist
Maximum lifting height
Trolley and hoist clearances
Dimensions of the rail track

Weight of hoist, trolley, and components

7.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:

Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

230

Standard Technical Specifications

responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
8.

Technical Data Sheets.

9.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of hoist, supporting catheads and trollies shall
be measured in units furnished.
The monorail shall be measured in linear meters.
Payment for monorail hoists shall be made at the unit price established in the Contract.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

231

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION STRUCTURAL
EQUIPMENT

S-010801

STOPLOGS

1.

Objective. The objective of this Specification is to establish the minimum technical


conditions which shall be complied with for supplying the stoplogs for the _________
(name) Pumping Station of the __________ (name) Project.

2.

General. The stoplogs will be used to allow for inspection and maintenance routines on
the pumps installed in each chamber of the pumping station.
They must be furnished in modules (sections), unless otherwise specified, to avoid large
dimensions and to facilitate installation, storage and transportation.
The stoplogs shall be furnished to the specified dimensions shown on the drawings.

3.

Operating Conditions. In accordance with Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL


(S-010101).

4.

Scope of Supply. The stoplogs shall be supplied complete to the jobsite with all
components required for their installation and operation, such as lifting eyes, hoisting
beam, guides, sills, rubber seals, anchor bolts, etc.
Spare parts shall be supplied as specified in subparagraph 12 of this Specification.
Included are the services of a technical expert to orient the assembly of guides, sills and
stoplogs, as well as to assist in the commissioning and tests of the equipment.

5.

Technical Standards.. Stoplogs and lifting devices shall be designed and manufactured
in accordance with the following standards:
ABNT 14 - Calculation and execution of Welded Steel Structures
DIN 19704 - Basis of Calculations for Hydraulic Structure Equipment.
AISC - Manual of Steel Construction

6.

Design Requirements. The maximum water level at the top of the channel shall be
adopted as the normal loading case according to DIN 19704 standard. The allowable
steel working stresses used in the design shall be the smallest that result from applying
safety coefficients of 1.8 on the yield stress and 2.8 on the ultimate tensile stress.
The load transmitted by guides and sills to the concrete taken as beams on an elastic
foundation shall not exceed 120 kgf/cm2.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

232

Standard Technical Specifications

7.

Manufacturing Requirements

7.1

Guides and Sills. Guides and sills shall be constructed of welded carbon steel shapes,
provided with aligning and anchoring devices, installed within the slots of the first stage
concrete shown in the drawings.
The surfaces on the guides and sills which the rubber seals of the stoplog will contact
shall be plates of carbon steel welded to the guides and sills.
The guides and sills shall be fixed to the first stage concrete by expansion anchor bolts
supplied by the SUPPLIER.
Guides and sills shall be straight and smooth pieces, in a common plane and aligned to
a flatness of plus or minus 1.5 mm and a perpendicular tolerances of plus or minus 3.0
mm.
The guides and sills shall be suitable for the installation of trashracks when it is indicated
on the drawings that the same slot will be used for both trashrack and stoplog installation.

7.2

Stoplogs. Stoplogs shall be of welded carbon steel with seals on the downstream face.
Stoplogs subject to heads greater than ______ meters of water shall have a by-pass
valve in the lower module to allow equalizing of the upstream and downstream hydraulic
pressure.
Seals shall be neoprene compounded, of the music-note type which will seal by bending,
on the sides and top, and shall be a flat rubber strip on the bottom, which will seal by
compression.
The corners of the music-note type rubber seals shall be premolded at the factory.
Gluing at the work site is unacceptable.
All splices required for joining sections of seals together shall be done by vulcanizing in
molds using heat and pressure. Each splice shall have sufficient strength to allow for 50
percent elongation over an element of seal strip containing the splice, with no visible
splice separation.
Rubber seals shall have a type A Shore durometer hardness of 60 to 70 as per ASTM
D2240. Hardness of the rubber shall be determined by the SUPPLIER to take care of the
water head to be sealed.
Drilling the rubber seals for the fastening bolts shall be done at the factory by using the
seal clamp bars as a template. The sealing set shall be preassembled at the factory and
then disassembled for transport.

7.3

Hoisting Beams. Hoisting beams will be employed for placement and removal of stoplogs
and trashracks. Hoisting beams shall be constructed of carbon steel beams with suitable
dimensions to fit within the guides and with enough weight for coupling to the pieces to
be hoisted. Hoisting beams shall have efficient coupling mechanisms, and shall have,
when specified, devices for actuating the stoplog bypass valve.

7.4

Painting and Antirust Treatment. Painting shall be done at the SUPPLIERs plant to give
complete corrosion protection. The SUPPLIER should submit for the PURCHASERs
approval his painting scheme, supplying paint characteristics and their respective coat
thicknesses.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

233

Standard Technical Specifications

In addition to the requirements mentioned in sub-item _____ of item GENERAL


REQUIREMENTS, painting and anti-rust treatment shall comply with the following
characteristics.
7.4.1

Surface Preparation

All surfaces to painted shall be clean and free of foreign materials such as crust, debris,
rust, grease and other substances, in order to obtain clean and dry surfaces.
Steel surfaces shall be sand blasted to white metal. Cleaning with sand blast shall be
equal to or superior to the requirements in The Steel Structure Painting Council Surface
Preparation Specification SSPC-SP-68T for No. 10 Near White Blast Cleaning.
7.4.2

Painting

Painting shall be in accordance with the SSPC-SP11-01.68T Standard and other applicable
standards summarized as follows:
Basic painting
Two coats of red oxide lead paint, final thickness - 80 microns
Finishing paint
Two coats of resin base synthetic enamal, final thickness - 70 microns
8.

Packaging, Transport, and Handling. In accordance with Section MECHANICAL


EQUIPMENT, GENERAL (S-010101).

9.

Drawings and Data to be Furnished by the SUPPLIER.

9.1

Before start of fabrication:


Shop drawings including lifting arrangement
Commercial products data
Dimension drawings
Guides and sills fixing details
Weights of pieces
Coupling mechanism details
Stoplogs, bypass device details . Materials used for antirust treatment and painting

9.2

Before delivery date:


3 sets of spare parts list

10.

Warranty. The SUPPLIER shall furnish an equipment and materials warranty in accordance
with the General and Special Conditions of the Contract. This warranty shall remain
valid for 12 months after each piece of equipment is put into operation or for 24 months
after the date of delivery at the jobsite, whichever period concludes earlier.

11.

Technical Assistance. The SUPPLIER must provide supervision of the installation of the
stoplogs in the field in accordance with the General and Special Conditions of the Contract.

12.

Spare Parts. The SUPPLIER shall supply spare parts in the amount of 1 (one) set of
rubber seals, including molded corners, clamp bars, bolts and nuts for every 4 (four)
stoplog sections furnished with a minimum of 1 (one) set required.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

234

Standard Technical Specifications

13.

Measurement and Payment. The supply of stoplogs will be measured as complete


assemblies, furnished, including hoisting beam, expressed in units.
A supplied complete assembly shall be defined to mean the equipment needed to block
off one chamber of the pumping plant, including the required spare parts.
Payment will be made at the applicable price established in the Contract. No separate
payment will be made for furnishing the required spare parts. Their cost shall be included
in the bid price for furnishing the stoplog assemblies.

14.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:

Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings above listed.
Any error in the reference drawings, or specifications be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
15.

Technical Data Sheet


TRASHRACKS

S-010802

1.

Objective. The objective of this specification is to establish the minimum technical


conditions which shall be complied with for supplying the trashracks for the pumping
plants of the ______(Name) Project.

2.

General. The trashracks will be installed in front of each intake chamber in order to
prevent foreign elements or debris, from entering the pumps. Trashrack cleaning
equipment must be provided , its mode of operation will be the BIDDER s choice, unless
otherwise shown on the drawings.

3.

Operating Conditions. In accordance with Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL


(S-010101).

4.

Scope of Supply. The trashracks shall be supplied complete to the job site with all
components required for their installation and operation, such as hoisting beams, pins,
locks, cleaning apparatus, etc.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

235

Standard Technical Specifications

5.

Technical Standards. Trashracks and lifting beams shall be designed and manufactured
according to the following standards:
ABNT NB 14 - Calculation and Execution of Welded Steel Structures
DIN 19704 - Basis of Calculations for Hydraulic Structure Equipment.
AISC - Manual of Steel Construction
SSPC - Steel Structures Painting Council

6.

Manufacturing Requirements

6.1

Fabrication. - Trashracks shall be manufactured of flat bars welded to the steel angle bars
of the frame, supported and braced in the transverse and diagonal directions as required
to avoid vibrations. For purposes of mechanical dimensioning, the criteria of a 50%
maximum blocked area during operation shall be followed.

The trashracks shall be dimensioned as shown on the design drawings and shall be
suitable for installation in the stoplog slot when it is indicated on the drawings that the
same slot will be used for both trashrack and stoplog installation.
6.2

Hoisting Beams. Hoisting beams will be employed for placement and removal of stoplogs
and trashracks. Hoisting beams shall be constructed of carbon steel beams with suitable
dimensions to fit within the guides and with enough weight for coupling to the pieces to
be hoisted. Hoisting beams shall have efficient coupling mechanisms for lifting the
trashracks.

6.3

Painting and Antirust Treatment. In addition to the requirements mentioned in Mechanical


Equipment - GENERAL (S-010101), painting and anti-rust treatment shall comply with
the following requirements:

6.3.1

Surface Preparation
All surfaces to painted shall be clean and free of foreign materials such as crust, debris,
rust, grease and other substances, in order to obtain clean and dry surfaces.
Steel surfaces shall be sand blasted to white metal. Cleaning with sand blast shall be
equal to or superior to the requirements in The Steel Structure Painting Council Surface
Preparation Specification SSPC-SP-68T for No. 10 Near White Blast Cleaning.

6.3.2

Painting
Painting shall be in accordance with the SSPC-SP11-01.68T Standard and other applicable
standards summarized as follows:
Basic painting
Two coats of red oxide lead paint, final thickness - 80 microns
Finishing paint
Two coats of resin base synthetic enamal, final thickness
70 microns

7.

Packaging, Transport, and Handling. In accordance with item MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT,


GENERAL (S-010101).

8.

Drawings and Data to be Furnished by the SUPPLIER.

8.1

Before Start of Construction:

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

236

Standard Technical Specifications

Shop drawings including hoisting beam and cleaning device.


Dimension drawing . Guides and sills fixing details
Weights of pieces
Coupling mechanism details
Materials used for antirust treatment and painting
9.

Warranty. The SUPPLIER shall furnish an equipment and materials warranty in accordance
with the General and Special Conditions of the Contract. This warranty shall remain
valid for 12 months after each piece of equipment is put into operation or for 24 months
after the date of delivery at the jobsite, whichever period concludes earlier.

10.

Measurement and Payment. The trashracks described in this specification, will be


measured as complete assemblies furnished, including hoisting beam, expressed in units.
A complete supplied assemby shall be defined to mean the equipment needed to screen
foreign elements or debris from one intake chamber of a pumping plant.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.

11.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings above listed.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
12.

Technical Data Sheets.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

237

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION - SUMP
PUMP

S-011001

SUMP PUMP

1.

Objective. The objective of this Specification is to establish the minimum technical


conditions wich shall be complied with for supplying the sump pump for the __________
(name) Pumping Station of the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General. The sump pumps will be installed in pumping station sumps and shall have the
capacities to pump the required quantity of water when operating against the total head
shown on the Technical Data Sheets. The pumps shall be submersible type and be
equipped with motor and control system.

3.

Operating Conditions. In accordance with Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL


(S-010101).

4.

Scope of Supply. The supply of these specifications includes, but is not limited to the
following items:

4.1

Preparation of commercial products data and submittal for approval.

4.2

Furnishing instruction manuals.

4.3

Manufacturing and supplying of sump pump in accordance with these Specifications


and approved data.

4.4

Packing, transportation of the equipment from factory to jobsite, and unloading at the
jobsite, including necessary transportation insurance.

4.5

Equipment and/or materials guarantee.

5.

Technical Standards. The sump pumps shall be manufactured in accordance with ANSI
B58.1 of the American National Standards Institute and with the requirements of this
Specification.

6.

Manufacturing Requirements

6.1

Pump. The pump case, impeller, and strainer shall be made of cast iron or bronze. The
impeller shall be direct connected to the motor shaft. A mechanical seal having seal
faces of ceramic and carbon and stainless steel parts shall be used to positively seal
water from the motor chamber. All parts of the pump shall be designed for easy
dissassembly and maintenance. Replacement parts shall be readily available from the
manufacturer.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

238

Standard Technical Specifications

6.2

Motor. The motor shall be of the submersible type with a cast iron case completely
sealed against water leakage and moisture. The motor shaft shall be stainless steel. The
motor casing shall be filled with a rust-preventive insulating fluid and grounded through
the power cable. The motor shall be rated as shown on the Technical Data Sheets and
List of Materials (phase, voltage, power).

6.3

Controller. The control equipment for the sump pump shall consist of three float-switch
assemblies and a control panel.
The switches shall be independently adjustable over the entire depth of the sump. A
support or mounting bracket shall be provided for the switches. The float switches shall
initially be set to turn the pump on when the water level in the sump rises 600mm above
the sump floor, energize a remote alarm and an indicator light when the water level in
the sump rises to 750mm above the sump floor, and turn the pump off when the water
level in the sump drops to 150 mm above the sump floor. The indicator light shall remain
on until the controls are manually reset. The remote alarm shall be deenergized when
the water level drops below 750 mm above the sump floor and the pump shall be turned
off then the water level drops to less than 150 mm above the sump floor.
The control equipment shall conform to applicable requirements of the latest series of
NEMA publication No. ICS. Liquidtight, flexible metal conduit shall be provided for insulated
conductors.
The waterproof conduit shall be interlocked galvanized steel with an extruded, oil-resistant
PVC cover. The SUPPLIER shall furnish the required insulated conductors and complete
electrical connections between the motor starter, motor, and float switch. The insulated
conductors furnished shall be of the proper type and size for the application and shall be
rated for 600 volts.
The control panel enclosure shall be a NEMA type 3R with all operating and indicating
devices mounted on the door. The control panel shall include:
Strip heaters
Provisions for padlocking of panel door.
Combination motor starter, horsepower rated for the pump and provided with a
molded-case air circuit breaker, control circuit transformer, magnetic contactor,
and hand reset overload relay(s).
Manual-off-Automatic selector switch
Lamps for running and trouble indication
Terminal blocks with marking strips
Switchboard wiring
Nameplate
Each float-switch assembly shall consist of a mercury switch embedded in a float made
of lightweight, corrosion-resistant material, with the electric cable an integral part of the
float, such that the assembly is watertight. The cable shall be of sufficient length to
mount the floats in the sump as specified and to connect to the magnetic motor starter.
The cable-mounting clamps shall be made of corrosion-resistant material.

6.4

Painting. Painting shall be the SUPPLIERs standard coating.

7.

Packaging, Transport and Handling. In accordance with Section MECHANICAL


EQUIPMENT, GENERAL (S-010101).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

239

Standard Technical Specifications

8.

Drawings and Data to be Furnished by the SUPPLIER

8.1

Drawings and Data to be furnished at time of Bid and before start of construction:
Complete identifying data giving the manufacturers name, type, model, size, and
characteristics of the equipment.

8.2

Complementary data to be furnished at the time of delivery:


Instruction Manuals

9.

Warranty. The SUPPLIER shall furnish an equipment and materials warranty in accordance
with the General and Special Conditions of the Contract. This warranty shall remain
valid for 12 months after each piece of equipment is put into operation or for 24 months
after the date of delivery at the jobsite, whichever period concludes earlier.

10.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of sump pumps described in this Specification
will be measured as complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the contract.

11.

Reference Drawings.. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance


with the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings, or specifications be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
12.

Technical Data Sheets.


COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL

S-011101

1.

Objective. The objective of these Technical Specifications is to define the criteria and
supply conditions required of the commercial equipment for the_________ (name) Project.

2.

Operating Conditions . The equipment shall be designed for external use in operating
conditions in accordance with Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL (S-010101).

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

240

Standard Technical Specifications

3.

Scope of Supply. The supply scope of these specifications shall be in accordance with
Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL (S-010101) and as further specified in
the respective technical paragraphs for the specific items.

4.

Technical Standards. The latest revision of the following standards and others listed in
the specific Technical Specifications shall be adopted for the manufacturing and suppling
of materials,and the dimensioning and tests of the commercial equipment.
ABNT - Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas
DIN - Deutsches Institut fur Normung
ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers
API - American Petroleum Institute
AISI - American Iron and Steel Intitute
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
AWWA - American Water Works Association
ISO - International Organization for Standardization
SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
HIS - Hydraulic Institute Standards
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE - The Intitute of Electrical and Electronic Enginners, Inc.
NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

5.

Manufacturing Requirements. The commercial equipment shall conform to the


requirements of this paragraph and to the additional requirements contained in the
respective technical paragraphs for the specific items.

5.1

Painting. Painting shall be done according to Standard SSPC-PS-11-01-68 T of The


Steel Structures Painting Council, the Technical Data Sheets and other Standards defined
therein, and as summarized below:
For interior and exterior surfaces of line meters - Fusion epoxy (to produce minimum
200 micron thickness).
For exterior and interior of water-level device brackets, supports and mounting
materials - coal-tar epoxy (2 coats to produce minimum 400 micron thickness).
Weld spatter, slag, burrs, or other objectionable surface irregularities shall be removed
or repaired before cleaning. Any contaminants to the paint coating, from cleaning
operations or other sources, shall be removed before the surfaces are painted.
All oil and grease, if present, shall be removed from steel surfaces to be painted by the
use of clean solvent and clean, lint-free wiping material. Cleaning solvent shall be xylene.
Cleaning cloths and solvents shall be discarded before they become contaminated to
the extent that a greasy film would remain of the surface being cleaned. Following the
initial solvent cleaning, the surfaces shall be blast cleaned to base metal, using dry,
hard, sharp, sand or steel grit, to produce a near-white sandblasted surface free of all
foreign sustances. The surface shall be cleaned to equal or exceed NACE No. 2 or
SSPC-SP10.
Coal-tar epoxy coating shall be mixed and applied according to the manufacturers
instructions, except as otherwise specified. The first coat shall be applied by brush or
roller and succeding coats by brush, spray, or roller. Prior to applying the first coat, all
welds and rough or irregular surfaces shall be given a vigorously brushed coat to ensure
complete coverage free of pinholes; the first general coat may then be applied over the
wet brush coat. The second and any following coats shall be applied after the preceding
coat has become tack free, but time between coats shall not exceed the firm-to-touch

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

241

Standard Technical Specifications

time by more than 50 percent. Air and metal temperatures shall be above 10o C during
application and the curing period. The minimum final curing times shall be 5 days between
10o C and 16o C or 3 days above 16o C. The complete coating shall be applied either in
the shop or in the field.
Damaged areas or other areas requiring touchup coating shall be sanded to roughen the
surface, and thereafter the manufacturers special instructions regarding special solvent
wiping or other preparation for touchup repair shall apply; areas in which the specified
drying time between coats is exceeded shall be treated and prepared by the same
method.
Coal-tar, epoxy-coated metalwork shall be protected against exposure to direct sunlight
until permanent submergence or until installation under cover. Protection may be by
covering or shading, except that surfaces which will be exposed to sunlight in their
installed position and eventually will be submerged shall be protected by a heavy coat of
phenolic aluminum paint spray applied approximately 1 week after applying the last
coat of coal-tar epoxy. The reflective aluminum coating shall be renewed if necessary.
6.

Inspections and Tests

6.1.

General. The commercial equipment shall be submitted to the tests specified in the specific
technical specification and as listed below.

The PURCHASER shall be granted the right to have a representative present to observe
the tests as specified in Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL (S-010101),
and as established in the General and Special Conditions of the Contract.
The results of the tests for each unit must be presented in separate, specific certificates.
6.2

Tests
Line meters - Test reports showing the operating index for each meter propeller
and volumetric test results at the maximum and minimum flow and at least one
intermediate flow.
Pressure switches - Pressure proof tests
Water - level devices - None required
Manometers - None required
Flow Switches - None required.
Sprinklers- SeespecificTechnicalSpecification

7.

Packaging, Transport, and Handling. The SUPPLIER shall provide necessary packing of
the equipment to avoid its damage or deterioration during transit to its final destination
and during the storage period.
All the equipment must be submitted to a cleaning and washing process, internally and
externally, with an anti-corrosive product. The non painted machined parts, such as
threads, must be protected against corrosion.
All the existing holes in the equipment must be closed by plugs or flanges of wood or
other similar material.

8.

Drawings and Data to be Furnished by the SUPPLIER

8.1

Drawings and data to be furnished for the BID and before start of construction:

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

242

Standard Technical Specifications

Commercial products data


The drawings and data listed in the specific technical paragraphs for the respective
equipment.
8.2

Complemetary data to be furnished before delivery date:


Instruction Manuals
3 copies of list of spare parts being furnished.
3 copies of reports of tests performed in the factory.

9.

Warranty. The commercial equipment warranty will be valid for 12 (twelve) months
from the beginning of start-up, or 24 (twenty four) months from the date of supply to
the destination site whichever comes first. Except that for line meters the period will be
3 years and 4 years respectively.

10.

Technical Assistance. The SUPPLIER may be required to provide training of the personnel
for operation, maintenance and/or repairs of the line meters in accordance with the
General and Special Conditions of the Contract.

11.

Reference Drawings.. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance


with the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specification:
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings, or specifications be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
12.

Technical Data Sheets.


LINE METERS

S-011102

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and other criteria
which, together with the requirements of item COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL
(S-011101), establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the
line meters for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General. The line meter equipment shall include meter tubes; flow-straightening devices,
mounting for the meter unit, meter unit with propeller and drive mechanism, transmitting
device with analog converter and watertight receptacle (where specified in the Technical
Data Sheets for specified pumping stations), totalizing registers, temporary covers (for
each meter), bolts, rubber gaskets, and all other necessary accessories.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

243

Standard Technical Specifications

The meter register shall be impelled by the propeller and shall measure the flow of water
by registering the revolutions of the propeller. The equipment shall be so arranged that
the meter assembly, propeller and drive mechanism can be easily installed and removed
for inspection and maintenance.
For specified pumping stations listed on the Technical Data Sheets,a transmitting device
will be installed on the line meter. The transmitter will transmit a pulse rate signal to a
analog converter. The analog converter will convert the signal into a 4 to 20 milliampere,
direct-current signal which is transmitted to a programmable controller. The programmable
controller then will start and stop the pumping units to control the flow to the various
farm units.
During the normal irrigation season, the meter will operate at maximum flow and the
meter installation will receive limited attention.
3.

Manufacturing Requirements

3.1

Meter Tube. The meter tube shall be either fabricated steel construction or cast
construction, suitable for operation at the pressure shown in the Technical Data Sheets.
The meter tube shall have flow-straightening vanes immediately ahead of the propeller.
The mounting for the meter assembly shall be flanged. The manufacturers serial number
shall be stamped on the tube.

3.2

Meter Assembly. The meter assembly shall consist of a meter base with propeller and
drive mechanism. The meter base shall be either fabricated steel construction or cast
construction suitable for the pressure specified and shall support the drop pipe with
propeller and drive mechanism. The totalizing register shall match the mounting flange
of the meter tube, and shall be complete with gasket and bolts.
The meter propeller shall be made of plastic, molded and cured to prevent internal
stresses, cracking and fracture due to impact, and shall be designed to minimize the
collection of waterborne materials. The propeller shall rotate on two bearings. Bearings
shall be either stainless steel ball bearings or ceramic bearings. The drive mechanism
shall operate from the propeller by means of a magnet molded into or firmly attached to
the propeller. The magnetic coupling shall be such that the drive mechanism is completely
sealed from the water pressure.
The drive mechanism may be a direct-connected shaft, shaft and gearing, or a flexible
drive line between the propeller drive magnetic coupling and the register. All shafts shall
be of stainless steel and shall be supported on both ends by stainless steel ball bearings.
The drop pipe and drive mechanisms shall be completely assembled, lubricated and
sealed at the manufacturers shop and shall require no further field lubrication.

3.3

Totalizing Register. The totalizing register shall operate from the drive mechanism shaft,
either directly or through a magnetic coupling by means of change or ratio gears.
The totalizing register shall be suitable for mounting on the meter assembly.
The register shall be of the straight reading, six-digit counter type to totalize the quantity
of water delivered in units of cubic meters or decimals thereof, and shall have the rateof-flow indicator to show instantaneous rate of flow directly in liters per second. The
register shall be equipped with a test hand to check the accuracy of the rate of flow
indicator. The decimal factors for totalizing the quantity of water delivered in cubic
meters shall be stamped on the totalizer, meter base, and meter tube.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

244

Standard Technical Specifications

In lieu of change gears, changes in calibration may be made by exchanging the register
assembly, where this service is offered by the Supplier at no charge.
The register shall be protected by a glass or polycarbonate face and shall be housed in
a hermetically sealed weather-resistant metal or plastic enclosure with hinged cover and
padlock hasp. Plastic enclosure shall be of ABS plastic.
3.4

Transmitting Device. The transmitting device shall be mounted on the base and shall be
arranged to support the totalizing register. The transmitter shall electrically transmit a
pulse rate output signal proportional to the rate of flow to a analog converter.

3.5

Analog Converter. The analog converter shall be housed in a weatherproof enclosure.


The analog converter shall accept a pulse rate signal from the transmitter and convert it
into a 4 to 20 milliampere, direct-current signal proportional to the pulse rate. The 4 to
20 milliampere output signal will then be transmitted to the programmable controller.

3.6

Temporary Cover. The temporary cover designed for maximum head on the meter shall
be furnished by the SUPPLIER. After the meter is installed, the temporary cover shall be
turned over to and shall become the property of the PURCHASER.

4.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of line meters will be measured as complete
assemblies furnished expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
PRESSURE SWITCHES

S-011103

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and other criteria
which, together with the requirements of item COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL
(S-011101), establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the
pressure switches for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General. The pressure switches will be installed on the suction pipe or discarge pipe at
the pumping stations with the pressure settings shown on the Technical Data Sheets.
Pressure switches for pumping plants will either shut down the pumping units when a
pre-set pressure head is reached or will be connected to separate programmable controllers
for controlling the operation of various pumping units.

3.

Manufacturing Requirements.

3.1

Pressure Switches. Each pressure switch shall consist of one internal, single-pole, doublethrow, snap-action microswitch rated at 125 volts, 10 amperes, and pressure proof
tested at 20 kgf/cm2. The pressure switch shall have an approximate actuation value
differential of 161 gf/cm2 to 422 gf/cm2.

3.2

Painting. The pressure switches shall be coated with the Suppliers standard paint system.

4.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of pressure switches will be measured as


complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

245

Standard Technical Specifications

WATER-LEVEL DEVICES

S-011104

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and other criteria
which, together with the requirements of item COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL
(S-011101), establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the
water-level devices for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General. The water-level devices will be either probe unit assemblies or float-operated
types. Each probe unit assembly shall include suspension wire, probe tips with molded
plastic tip shields, a cast flanged electrode holder, flanged probe pipe and a probe
control relay.
Each float-operated type shall include a steel float, corrosion-resistant operating chain
or tape, counterweight, and electrically independent, adjustable, enclosed, mercury type
contacts.

3.

Manufacturing Requirements

3.1

Probe unit Assembly

3.1.1

Probe Tips. Each probe tip shall be of the single-probe type, made of stainless steel
metal, provided with a molded plastic shield, and provided with a terminal connection so
that the suspension wire can be readily detached for replacement purposes.

3.1.2

Suspension Wire. The suspension wire shall be stranded copper or stainless steel and
shall be insulated. The length of the wire shall be as required by the Technical Data
Sheets, and the wire shall be continuous from the probe tip on the outlet body.

3.1.3

Electrode Holder. The electrode holders shall be cast-flanged type suitable for use with
suspension wire electrodes. The holders shall have flanges that meet the requirements
for 150-psi steel flanges in accordance with ANSI B16.5.

3.1.4

Flanged Probe Pipe. The pipe length shall be as required in the Technical Data Sheets.
The end connection and gasket shall match the electrode holder flange.
Control Relay. The relays shall be a solid-state type with the voltage, current, and number
type of contacts in agreement with the requirements of the Technical Data Sheets.

3.1.5

3.2

Float-Operated Assembly. The float switches shall be furnished in a NEMA type 4


watertight enclosure for mounting on a pedestal or bracket.
Each float switch shall be complete with a stainless steel float, suitable pipe guides,
corrosion-resistant operating chain or tape, counterweight, and electrically independent,
adjustable, enclosed, mercury-type contacts. The contacts shall be suitable for use on a
control circuit voltage up to and including 230 volts alternating current. The shaft furnished
as part of each float switch shall be stainless steel and shall be completely suspended in
oil-retaining porous bronze bearings. The range of float travel shall be as required by the
Technical Data Sheets. Supports for each shaft shall be adequately braced to withstand
the force of the counterweight and float when the float is unsupported by water. The
mechanism used to trip the mercury contact shall be such that any misalinement of any
part of the float switch within the limits of mechanical motion from water fluctuations
will not cause false operation of the switch.
Differential gearing or sheaves shall be provided where required to maintain free
counterweight travel above the floor.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

246

Standard Technical Specifications

3.3

Painting. Brackets, and mounting or support materials shall be coated with coat-tar
epoxy. Other materials shall be coated with the manufacturers standard paint system.

4.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of water-level devices will be measured as


complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
MANOMETER

S-011105

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and other criteria
which, together with the requirements of item COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL
(S-011101), establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the
manometers for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements.

2.1

General. The manometers shall be an indicator type with a minimum 100 mm dial and a
bourdon tube-type gauge. The dial range and units, the operating pressure, the accuracy,
the colors for background and indicator, and the materials of construction shall be as
required by the Technical Data Sheets.

2.2

Painting. Painting shall be the manufacturers standard coating system.

3.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of manometers will be measured as complete


assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
FLOW SWITCH

S-011106

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and other criteria
which, together with the requirements of item COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL
(S-011101), establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the
flow switches for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements.

2.1

General. The flow switch shall be either a paddle or piston type as required by the
Technical Data Sheets.
The materials of construction, pressure, size, flow actuation point, and electrical
characteristics shall be as required by the Technical Data Sheets.

2.2

Painting. Painting shall be the manufacturers standard coating system.

3.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of flow switches will be measured as complete
assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

247

Standard Technical Specifications

SPRINKLERS

S-011107

1.

Objective. This Specification defines the manufacturing requirements and other criteria
which, together with the requirements of item COMMERCIAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL
(S-011101), establish the minimum conditions to be complied with for supplying the
sprinklers for the _______ (name) Project.

2.

Operating Conditions. In accordance with Section MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL


(S-010101).

3.

Manufacturing Requirements

3.1

General. The sprinklers shall be rotary percussion type, propelled by the force of the
water being discharged, with diameters conforming to the Technical Data Sheets, with
complete 360-degree rotation, one or more nozzles and with vertical axis, for application
of water above the crops.
The riser pipe to which the sprinkler will be connected will have a nominal diameter of
____ mm (____ inches) and a threaded end conforming to the Reference Drawings.
The sprinkler inlet shall be threaded to connect to the riser pipe as shown on the drawings.
Alternatively, the BIDDER may propose to furnish sprinklers with either male or female
threads, provided that suitable connecting pieces, as required for connecting to the riser
pipes, are also furnished if the sprinkler threads are not compatible with those shown
for the riser pipe.
All the parts for a given type and size of sprinkler shall be interchangeable.
All the sprinklers and nozzles shall be permanently and clearly marked with the name of
manufacturer, designation of sprinkler type and year of manufacture. The nozzles shall
show their diameter in millimeters.

3.2

Materials. The materials used in the fabrication of the sprinklers shall be as follows:
The body of the sprinkler shall be of cast brass, cast bronze, or other material with
physical characteristics at least equal to those of brass.
The impact arm shall be of cast brass, cast bronze, or other material with physical
characteristics at least equal to those of brass.
The nozzle(s) shall be of brass or other material with physical characteristics at
least equal to those of brass.
The bearing sleeve (bushing) shall be of brass or other material with physical
characteristics at least equal to those of brass.
The spring shall be stainless steel.
The washers shall be of brass or other wear-resistant material.
NOTE: Due to the high ambient temperatures, the body, impact arm, and the nozzles of
the sprinklers shall not be proposed in plastic or similar materials.

4.

Qualification Tests

4.1

General Considerations. The selection of the sprinklers will be made based on the results
of performance tests which each BIDDER shall provide, at his costs. Only the three
laboratories listed below will be acceptable to perform the performance tests on the
sprinklers.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

248

Standard Technical Specifications

CEMAGREF, Le Tholonet, Aix-En-Provence, France


Center for Irrigation Technology, California State University, Fresno, California, USA
Israel Center of Waterworks Appliances - ICWA, Israel

The BIDDER shall furnish 5 samples of each proposed model of sprinkler and 5 samples
of each nozzle, or combination of nozzles, of the proposed diameters.
The samples for the tests shall be randomly selected by a representative of the CLIENT
from among the sprinklers that comprise part of the assembly line of the fabricator.
The referenced samples shall be submitted to the laboratory tests described in subitems 4.2 through 4.4. The CLIENT reserves the right to observe, at any moment, the
partial or total execution of the tests.
In addition to the results of the above-referenced tests, the BIDDER shall also furnish
one sample of each proposed model of sprinkler with his proposal.
Any BIDDER who does not comply with any one of the requirements established herein
shall be considered disqualified.
4.2

Performance

4.2.1

In a New State. The five samples of each model shall be submitted to performance tests
in a new state with all of the proposed combinations of nozzles and models, considering
the spacing specified for each combination.
The performance tests in the new state shall consist of, at least, tests of the sprinkler
discharge, diameter of coverage, rotation, Christiansen s coefficient of uniformity and
the statistical coefficient of uniformity.
For each sample, results will be presented for each proposed combination of nozzles. A
nozzle and model combination will be disqualified whenever more than one sample of
the five with the same nozzle combination does not meet one or more of the requirements
for the above-mentioned parameters.
When only one sample, among the five of the same nozzle combination, does not meet
one or more of the requirements established herein, that sample shall be discarded for
that nozzle combination, and only the results for the four remaining samples shall be
considered for the later analyses. In case no sample is eliminated, the results of the five
samples will be utilized in the later analyses.
The sprinklers shall meet the following requirements after being tested for two hours at
the design operating pressure shown on the Technical Data Sheets:

4.2.1.1

Discharge. The sprinkler discharge shall be within plus or minus 5% of the nominal design
flow.

4.2.1.2

Diameter of Coverage. Reference is made to the Technical Data Sheets. In a laboratory


test without the presence of wind, the diameter of coverage shall provide the following
relationship:

e/D = 55%
Where:
e = the design spacing between the sprinklers, in meters

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

249

Standard Technical Specifications

D = diameter of coverage, in meters.


4.2.1.3

Rotation. The rotation of the sprinklers shall be between 1 and 3 revolutions per minute.

4.2.1.4

Christiansen s Coefficient of Uniformity (CUC). The sprinklers shall have a Christiansen


s coefficient of uniformity greater than 87% when tested as described below.
The uniformity of distribution of the sprinklers, operating at the design operating pressure
shown on the Technical Data Sheets, with zero wind conditions, shall be calculated in
accordance with the Christiansen method and expressed in the following manner:
CUC = 100 [1 - (SUM(X)/MN)]
Where:
CUC = Coefficient of Uniformity in %
N = Number of readings
M = Arithmetical average of all the readings
SUM(X) = Sum total of the absolute deviations of the individual readings from the
arithmetical average of all of the readings.

The readings are the depths of the water collected in vessels regularly spaced over the
irrigated area.
The tests shall be conducted in a closed shed which shall have a level floor and shall be
free from any obstacle which might interfere with the distribution of the water. The
sprinklers shall be mounted vertically at a height of 0.5 m above the plane the collector
vessels.
The equipment used to measure the discharge of the sprinklers shall have a precision of
1% of the volume of the collector vessel used for this purpose, and the equipment used
for pressure measurements shall have a precision of 0.05 kgf/cm2.
The vessels utilized for measuring the water collected during the tests shall have a
height of 2 to 3 times the average depth of the water collected, a diameter of 0.5 to 1
times its height, and shall be placed vertically with a deviation of not more than 3
degrees. All the upper surfaces of the vessels shall be on a horizontal plane with deviations
not in excess of plus or minus 2 cm. The vessels shall be spaced at intervals of 2 x 2 m
between each other with a tolerance of not more than 5 cm. The volumes of water in
the vessels shall be measured with a precision of plus or minus 1.0 cm3 for the purpose
of calculating the depth of water collected.
The radial method of test to determine the coefficient of uniformity will also be acceptable,
provided that it is performed in a closed shed without the presence of wind and that the
procedure is in conformance with ISO standard No. 7748-2, Irrigation Equipment-Rotating
Sprinklers, PART 2: Uniformity of Distribution and Tests Methods. Other requirements
of these specifications shall be maintained.
The pressure shall be measured at a point immediately prior to the entry of the water in
the sprinkler.
During performance of the test, the pressure shall not vary more than plus or minus
0.05 kgf/cm2.
Duration of the test shall be 2 hours.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

250

Standard Technical Specifications

4.2.1.5

Statistical Coefficient of Uniformity (CUE). The sprinklers shall have a statistical coefficient
of uniformity greater than 82% when tested as described in sub-item 4.2.1.4 for the
Christiansen s coefficient of uniformity and considering the design spacing of the sprinklers.

The statistical coefficient of uniformity is expressed by the equation:


CUE = 100 [1 - (S/M)] = 100 - CV
Where: CUE = Coefficient of Uniformity in %
S = Standard deviation of the precipitation readings
M = Arithmetical average of all of the readings
CV = Coefficient of variation of the readings.
4.2.2

After 1500 Hours of Continuous Operation. The sprinkler models classified in one or
more proposed nozzle combinations in the performance tests in the new state shall be
submitted to tests of 1500 hours of continuous operation without interruption, at the
operating pressure shown on the Technical Data Sheets.
This test shall be done on three samples of each model of sprinkler. When one model of
sprinkler is proposed with more than one combination of nozzles, the particular model
and nozzle combination to be used for the 1500-hour continous operation test shall be
the one that provides the greatest sprinkler discharge.
The three samples to be submitted to the 1500-hour continuous operation test shall be
selected from those sprinklers meeting the requirements of sub-item 4.2.1. The three
samples shall be those with discharges closest to the average discharge for the nozzle
combination to be tested, as determined from the results of the tests performed in
accordance with sub-item 4.2.1. The sample with a discharge closest to the average
discharge shall be considered as the representative sample. The other two samples
shall be considered supplementary samples.
After the three samples have been operated for 1500 hours, as specified herein, the
representative samples of each model shall be submitted to the same tests as required
in sub-item 4.2.1. That is, for each combination of proposed nozzle sizes, values of the
discharge, diameter of coverage, velocity of rotation, precipitation Christiansen s
coefficient of uniformity, and the statistical coefficient of uniformity shall be determined.
The same requirements for these parameters, as stated in sub-item 4.2.1, shall apply
for qualification purposes.
If the representative sample does not meet the specified requirements for one or more
of the parameters with a specific nozzle combination, the representative sample shall
be disqualified for that nozzle combination. In this case, the two suplementary samples
shall be tested with the same nozzle combinatination. If either one of the supplementary
samples fails to meet one or more of the stated requirements, that model shall be
disqualified for that proposed nozzle combination.

4.3

Watertightness Tests

4.3.1

Hydrostatic Pressure Test.- This test shall be performed with a representative sprinkler
selected as specified in sub-item 4.2.2. The sprinkler shall be installed on a pipe equivalent
to the riser pipe with a torque of 3.2 kg.m, after having the nozzle(s) replaced with an
appropriate cap. The cap shall be screwed on with a torque of 0.5 kg.m. The sprinkler
shall be connected to a supply of water and all air evacuated from the system. The
pressure shall be raised from 0 (zero) to 10 kgf/cm2 in increments of 1 kgf/cm2. At each
increment, the pressure shall be maintained for 1 (one) minute. At the pressure of 10
kgf/cm2, the pressure shall be maintained for 10 (ten) minutes.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

251

Standard Technical Specifications

The sprinkler shall present no evidence of leakage during this test.

4.3.2

Test Under Operating Conditions.- The representative sprinkler selected as specified


in sub-item 4.4.2 shall be connected to a source of water with a torque of 3.2 kg.m.
The pressure shall be gradually raised in increments of 0.5 kgf/cm2 between 1 and 6
kgf/cm2. At each increment, the pressure shall be maintained for one minute and the
sprinkler shall be inspected for leakage. Leakage during this test shall not exceed 5% of
the sprinkler discharge.

4.4

Wear Test - 1500 Hours. The sprinkler selected as provided in sub-item 4.2.2 must
operate continually for 1500 hours under the design operating pressure shown on the
Technical Data Sheets. As additional information, during the 1500-hour continous
operation test, the average time in seconds for full circle rotation and the maximun and
minimum times to rotate through each 90-degree quadrant of the circle shall be recorded
at the start of the test and every 500 hours thereafter.
After the conclusion of the 1500-hour continous operation test, all impact surfaces and
friction surfaces, as well as all washers, shall be inspected for evidence of deformation,
bending, and wear. All changes and/or anomalies encountered shall be recorded so that
a comparison can be made of the conditions before and after the 1500-hour test.
This test shall be applied only to the sprinkler models previously qualified under the
performance tests in the new state and after completion of all performance tests done
after 1500 hours of operation.
The outcome of this test will not result in disqualification of the sprinkler model; however,
it will be a parameter to be considered at the time of contract negotiations.

5.

Drawings and Data to be Furnished by BIDDER with the BID:


Drawings of each model of the proposed sprinklers, showing all of the components
and indicating materials, dimensions and an exploded view.
Number and diameter(s) of the nozzle(s) of the proposed model(s).
Information or catalogs of commercial products, which shall include technical
specifications of the models proposed, as well as detailed illustrations identifying
the component pieces.
Five copies of the report of the test results, duly certified. The report shall contain,
in addition to results of the qualification tests required in sub-item 4., data on the
average, minimum, and maximum precipitation for each sprinkler spacing considered
in the Technical Data Sheets for tests in the new state and after 1500 hours of
operation.
Spare parts - The BIDDER shall include with his Bid, a list of spare parts necessary
for 5 years of operation and maintenance, indicating separately the respective
unit price for each part.

6.

Measurement and Payment. The quantity of sprinklers will be measured as complete


assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract for furnishing
sprinklers. No separate payment will be made for furnishing the required spare parts.
Their cost shall be included in the bid price for furnishing sprinklers.

7.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specified equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this specifications:

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

252

Standard Technical Specifications

Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The above mentioned drawings serve as a general orientation for the preparation of the
proposals and show the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The
design and the elaboration of the detailed fabrication drawings are a part of the supply
and they are therefore, a responsibility of the SUPPLIER who will note and comply with
the main dimensions and the characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.
8.

Technical Data Sheets.


HYDROPNEUMATIC TANKS

S-011201

1.

Objective. This Specification establishes minimum technical conditions together with


the requirements of item (S-010101 - MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL) which
shall be complied with for supplying hydroneumatic tanks utilized for regulation and
water hammer protection for the pumping stations of the _______ (name) Project.

2.

General Considerations - The hydropneumatic tanks shall be of the membrane type.


Tanks without membrane may be acceptable if furnished with one electric drive air
compressor per tank or per group of tanks, as approved by the ENGINEER. The compressor
shall have the capacity of supplying daily air volume requirements. The air compressor
supply shall include an electric motor, electric cables, control cabinet, interconnection
piping and valves.
The tanks shall be installed vertically.

3.

Manufacturing Requirements.

3.1

General - The tanks shall be of carbon steel sheet.


The tanks shall be supported by 3 or 4 steel legs welded to the tank, as shown in the
drawings. The tanks shall consist of the following components:
One air/water separation membrane
One flanged bottom outlet, with diameter indicated in the Technical Data Sheets
One water level indicator
Two level contacts for alarm
One pressurestat 0-15 kg/cm2
One air inlet installed at an adequate height for human operation, equipped with a
valve for connecting a portable air compressor
One manhole

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

253

Standard Technical Specifications

3.2

Painting - The hydropneumatic tanks shall be delivered painted according to the applicable
requirements of item (S-010101 - MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL), and the
following:
Cleaning with abrasion treatment
Base paint with a coat of zinc paint or equivolent (minimum thickness of 30
microns)
One finishing paint coat (minimum thickness of 100 microns)

4.

Transportation and Handling - In accordance with item (S-010101 - MECHANICAL


EQUIPMENT, GENERAL).

5.

Guarantee - The supplier shall present a guarantee for tanks and equipment according to
the General and Special Conditions of the Contract. This guarantee shall be valid for a
period of 12 months starting on the date the equipment is put into operation.

6.

Measurement and Payment. Supply of the hydropneumatic tanks will be measured as


complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
SURGE STANDS

S-011202

1.

General

1.1

Objective - This Specification establishes minimum technical requirements, together


with the requirements of item (S-010101 - MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL) which
shall be complied with in the design, manufacturing, transportation, assembly, installation,
testing and sizing for surge stands, utilized to protect facilities and equipment of the
_______ (name) Project from damages due to hydraulic transients.

1.2

Scope - The surge stand shall consist of a steel cylinder, coated internally and externally
as specified by the AWWA C-203 Standard, and fittings for pipeline tap, anchoring
plate and other accessories needed for the complete installation and operation.
The surge stand shall have a diameter of ___ m and a height of ____ m.
All necessary accessories for transporting to the jobsite, unloading, installation and
testing of equipment shall be furnished. These accessories could include pipe telescoping
parts, shipping spiders, reinforcing, installation supports and supports for testing
equipment.

1.3

Modifications - In case of discrepancies between the requirements of this Specification


and standards, parameters and drawings herein mentioned, the Specification contents
will prevail. Hoever, the SUPPLIER shall communicate these discrepancies to the
PURCHASER, in writing, for clarification.

2.

Recommended Standards - The equipment specified herein shall be designed in accordance


with the Standards of the following entities, wherever applicable:
Associao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas (ABNT)
American National Standard Institute (ANSI)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
American society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)
American Water Works Association (AWWA)
Deutsche Industrie Normen (DIN)

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

254

Standard Technical Specifications

If the supplier elects to prepare his design in accordance with standards of an entity not
listed above, he shall submit complete information of the respective proposed alternative
standards. Such standards shall only be used for manufacturing, after the PURCHASERs
written approval.
3.

Manufacturing Requirements.

3.1

Pipe and Fittings - Manufacturing shall be in accordance with item (S-030101, PIPELINES
GENERAL) and item (S-030201, STEEL PIPE AND FITTINGS).

3.2

Flanges - Pipe ends shall be provided with flanges as specified in the ABNT PB-15
Standard, with diameters as indicated on the drawings.

4.

Installation - During installation, each pipe section shall be handled using adequate
equipment when moving them into place, to prevent distortions or variations of the pipe
diameter. Special pieces for internal shoring should be placed prior to the pipe installation
without damaging the internal coating of the pipe. The shoring shall remain in place until
the installation is completed.
The SUPPLIER shall include in his proposal, dimensions, materials, and shoring methods
to be used, as well as capacity, dimensions and main characteristics of the equipment
to be used in the installation of the surge stand.
The intallation CONTRACTOR shall present , together with his proposal, a description of
the installation schedule and hydrostatic testing, in order to allow the PURCHASER to
coordinate with other construction and installation activities being performed by others.
After assembly and installation, the equipment and accessories shall be hydrostatically
tested for a period of 24 hours. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish all necessary equipment
for the test.

5.

Reference Drawings. The supply of the specific equipment must be in accordance with
the following drawings, which are an integral part of this Specification.
Drawing number

Title
*

* Insert pertinent drawing numbers and titles.

The drawings listed above are intended as general orientation in preparing bids, and
indicate the main characteristics and dimensions of the equipment. The design and
elaboration of detailed drawings for manufacturing are part of the supply and the
responsibility of the SUPPLIER, who will note and comply with the main dimensions and
characteristics presented in the drawings listed above.
Any error in the reference drawings or specifications, be it omission, addition or
misplacement of words or symbols, will not be cause for lack of compliance with the
requirements of the drawings and/or specifications. In case of discrepancy between the
drawings and the specifications, the latter will govern. The SUPPLIER shall bring to the
attention of the ENGINEER any error in the specifications or reference drawings.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

255

Standard Technical Specifications

6.

Technical Data Sheets.

7.

Measurement and Payment. The supply of surge stands shall be measured in units
supplied.
Payment for surge stands shall be made at the unit price established in the Contract.

S-011203

FILTERING EQUIPMENT

1.

General

1.1

Objective - This Specification establishes the minimum technical conditions, together


with the requirements of item (S-010101 - MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL) which
shall be complied with for supplying filtering equipment for pumping stations of the
_______ (name) Project.

1.2

General Conditions - Filters shall stop passage of particles, of bigger size than that
indicated in the Technical Data Sheets, capable of plugging the sprinklers.
These filters shall operate automatically, with automatic cleaning mechanisms by filtered
water jet, activated by a loss of head device, adjustible to a maximum value, as indicated
in the Technical Data Sheets.

1.3

Scope of Supply - The filters shall be furnished complete with all necessary components
for installation and operation, such as motors, automation and protection systems,
pumps for cleaning, control panel, mud collecting system, joints, etc.
The scope of supply shall include the services of a qualified technician for installation
supervision, as well as testing assistance and personnel training.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements.

2.1

General - All parts of the equipment shall be designed to withstand stresses and pressures
which occur during normal operation, with an added safety coefficient as recommended
by the ABNT Standards.

2.2

Filter - The filter shall be of the rotative type, actuated by an electric motor.
The maximum rotation velocity of the filter shall be ____ m/s.
The maximum water velocity through the filtering elements shall be lower than _____ m/
s.
The maximum water velocity at the filter exit shall be lower than ___ m/s.
The filter screen shall be made of stainless steel wires and the filter structure of carbon
steel.
Bearings shall be of the self-lubricating type, Railko, or equivalent.

2.3

Rotation System - The rotation system shall consist of an electric motor and a transmission
mechanism. The motor shall have protection class IP-55 Class B, or equivalent.

2.4

Cleaning System - The cleaning system shall consist of an electric motor and pump and
a device to spray water on the filter. All necessary piping shall be of stainlees steel.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

256

Standard Technical Specifications

A device for the collection and evacuation of the cleaning water shall be provided.
2.5

Control and Automation System - The control and automation system shall consist of
the following:
Motor protection, by thermal relay
Loss of head detector
Control panel with, at least, the following three functions:
Automatic operation
Programmable sequences operation
Continuous operation

2.6

Painting and Protection - The equipment shall painted in accordance with item (S-010101
- Mechanical Equipment - GENERAL) and the following procedures:
One coat of zinc base paint, or equivalent (minimum thickness, 30 microns)
One coat of finishing paint (minimum thickness, 125 microns)
Gear boxes may be furnished without the finishing paint.

3.

Transportation and Handling - In accordance with item (S-010101 - MECHANICAL


EQUIPMENT, GENERAL).

4.

Guarantee - The SUPPLIER shall present a guarantee for the filtering equipment according
to the General and Special Conditions of the Contract. This guarantee shall be valid for
a period of 12 months starting on the date the equipment is put into operation.

5.

Spare Parts - The SUPPLIER shall furnish, as spare parts, a set of parts subject to
wearing out during a 5-year period of normal operation. The spare parts list is subject to
the approval of the ENGINEER.

6.

Measurement and Payment. Supply of the filter equipment will be measured as complete
filtering assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract. No separate
payment will be made for spare parts. The costs of the spare parts shall be included in
the filter prices.
EMERGENCY DIESEL MOTOR-GENERATOR UNITS

S-011204

1.

General

1.1

Objective - This Specification establishes the manufacturing requirements and other


criteria, together with the requirements of item (S-010101 - MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT,
GENERAL), which shall be complied with for supplying emergency diesel motor-generator
units for the _______ (name) Project.

1.2

General Conditions - Emergency motor-generator units shall be furnished for indoor


installation, with automatic starting when failure occurs in the power system, and
automatic stopping when the power supply is re-established.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements.

2.1

Diesel Motor - The diesel motor shall be 4-cycle, adequate for use with commercial
diesel oil of 10,000 hCal/kg, with direct combustible injection, and natural aspirator.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

257

Standard Technical Specifications

Maximum net power, without overload, available at the wheel, shall be approximately
54 CV at 1000 RPM.
The air filter shall be the dry type, with a changeable paper element, and equipped with
an alarm device indicating Filtro Exige Manuteno.
The cooling system shall consist of a closed water circuit, circulated by centrifugal
pump and cooled by fan, equipped with a bypass-type thermostat, light for over-heating
signal contact, and a sensor thermometer. The radiator shall have adequate contact
surface for heat exchanging, and shall be equipped with a pressure relief device.
The injector pump shall be equipped with an oil filter, and a shut-down solenoid.
The diesel motor shall have an automatic speed regulator, of the mechanical centrifugal
industrial type, with a micro manual regulating device. Static and dynamic regulating
ranges shall be from 3 to 4% and from 8 to 10%, respectively.
The lubricating system shall be a forced oil type, actuated by a geared pump, and
equipped with changeable paper element oil filter, pressure switch for defective lubrication
signal, and manometer type sensor.
The electrical system of the diesel motor shall consist of a starter, and a 12 Vdc leadacid type battery with a capacity of 88 Ah and capable to provide power for at least 10
consecutive starts. An alternator, utilized to charge the battery, will not need to be
furnished.
Defective lubrication and cooling water over heating shall be prevented by a protection
system for the diesel motor, with an automatic shut down of the motor, by means of a
blocking relay connected to the shut down solenoid.
2.2

Generator - The generator shall be a three-phase syncronous alternator with the following
characteristics:
Static excitation
Manufacturing and tests in accordance with ABNT and ANSI Standards
Rated voltage; 380/220V, 60 Hz
Minimum inductive power factor of 0.8
Stator winding connection: wye with an accessable neutral
4 poles
ABNT Standard, Class F insulation
Hot varnished winding, polar shoes, with dumper
Dynamic balancing, executed by the nominal rotation of the generator
Static exciter, mounted on a panel with an automatic voltage regulator with a fine
adjustment of +/-10% of rated voltage and a response of less than one second to
accomodate an instantaneous variation of up to 100% of rated load
A lamenated steel sheet casing electrically welded with watertight protection

2.3

Control Board - The control board shall be a self-supporting panel, mounted on a concrete
base, with the cables entrance at the bottom. The panel shall be made of steel sheet,
with a minimum thickness of No. 14 USG, and provided with a front door with a lock
and a rubber seal, and with antirust base paint and a synthetic enamal finish.
The panel shall have the following components:
One 0-500V voltmeter with voltswitch for voltage reading of three phases

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

258

Standard Technical Specifications

One 0-100 A ammeter with ampswitch for current reading of three phases
Three 100/5A dry-type current transformers
One three-pole molded case circuit breaker for power circuit
Molded case circuit breakers for control circuits
One slow-charging-type battery charger, with 380v, three-phase or 220V singlephase input, at the SUPPLIERs discretion
One automatic voltage regulator for static excitattion system with fine voltage
adjusting button and a gain adjusting button.
Automatic unit starting equipment
Interconnection terminal blocks
Indicating lights
2.4

Oil Tank - The diesel oil tank shall have a capacity of 200 liters, mounted on a frame and
equipped with a level indicator.

2.5

Coupling and Base - The motor and generator shafts shall be connected by an elastic
coupling. The assembly will be mounted directly on a base made of steel beams, welded
electrically. The SUPPLIER shall furnish anchor bolts, soleplates and other hardware to
anchor the unit onto a concrete base.

2.6

Lubricating Bearings - Bearings shall be heavy-duty-type or roller-type, when required.


Roller bearings shall be equipped with adequate devices for grease replacement and
with double-sealed joints to prevent the entrance of dust and water.
Bushing bearings, when utilized, shall be of the ring-and-disk-type, including self-cooled
oil reservoirs and an inspection hole.

2.7

Connection Box - The connextion box shall be of reinforced construction with neoprene
gaskets and threaded connections for the conduits.
The connection box shall be of an adequate size to accomodate the feeder cables, with
pressure-type copper connectors, or pot heads.

3.

Testing - Emergency motor-generator units shall be subjected to the following tests, in


the presence of a PURCHASERs representative, at the factory, prior to shipment.

3.1

Diesel Motor - The motor shall be submitted to visual, size and capacity checking.
Functional tests will be performed for the following factors:
Vibration
Regular noises
Overheating, checking essential parts of the motor
Pressure, checking essential parts of the motor

3.2

Generator - The generator, completely mounted shall be submitted to the following


tests:
Visual and size checking
Withstand voltage test
Voltage and frequency regulation
Connection and circuit continuity verification
Exciter winding short circuit tests
Dielectric tests
Stator and field windings resistance measurements

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

259

Standard Technical Specifications

3.3

Control Board - The control board shall be submitted to the following tests:
Visual and size checking
Components location and fastening checking
Manufacturing details checking
Connection and circuit continuity verification
Wiring insulation checking with Megger
General functioning checking
Operation sequence checking
Withstand voltage test
Instrument polarity checking

4.

Guarantee - The SUPPLIER shall present a guarantee for the equipment according to the
General and Special Conditions of the Contract. This guarantee shall be valid for a
period of 12 months starting from the date the equipment is put into operation, or for a
period of 24 months after the delivery date, whichever comes first.

5.

Packaging, Transportation and Handling - In accordance with item (S-010101 - Mechanical


Equipment - General).

6.

Drawings and Technical Documents - In addition to the requirements specified in item


(S-010101 - MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL), the supplier shall furnish the
following documents:
Performance curves of the motor-generator unit
Outline and dimension drawings of the unit, including approximate weights
A complete discription of the equipment to be furnished (Materials List) including
catalogs and standards utilized
Dimension drawings of the control board
Internal wiring and interconnection drawings
Component list
Operation manuals

7.

Measurement and Payment. Supply of the emergency motor-generator units will be


measured as complete furnished assemblies, including interconnections between the
units and the control boards, expressed in units.
Payment will be made at the applicable unit price established in the Contract.
ASSEMBLY JOINTS

S-011205

1.

General

1.1

Objective - This Specification establishes minimum technical conditions, together with


the requirements of item (S-010101 - MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL), which
shall be complied with for supplying assembly joints for the _______(name) Project.

1.2

Scope of Supply - The assembly joints shall be furnished complete with all necessary
components for the installation and operation, such as bolts and accessories for flanged
joints.

1.3

Recommended Standards - Except when otherwise indicated in the Technical Data Sheets,
equipment, materials and tests shall comply with ABNT Standards, and where these
standards are insufficient, the latest editions of the applicable standards of the following
institutions:

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

260

Standard Technical Specifications

AWWA - American Water Works Association


ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
AISC - American Institute of Steel Construction
ISO - International Standardization Organization

2.

Manufacturing Requirements. Equipment and materials shall be in accordance with the


applicable Specifications for the item to be furnished.

2.1

General - There shall be compatibility between assembly joints, pipes, fittings and special
corresponding parts relating to type, material, diameter, flange, etc.
In order to satisfy certain types of fittings or special pieces, and also the requirements
this Specification, composition of two or more pieces will be allowed.

2.2

Flanges - Flanges for assembly joints and components shall comply with the ABNT NBR
7675 Class PN-10 or PN-16 Standards or with the ISO 2531 Standard when compatible.
When the two Standards are not compatible, the ISO 2531 Standard will prevail. The
AWWA C 207 Standard will be used only for cases indicated in the drawings and in the
Technical Data Sheets.

2.3

Nominal Diameters - Assembly joints of the non-flanged flexible type (Dresser or Gibault
joints) shall have inner diameters compatible to the outer diameter of the pipes of either
carbon steel, ductile iron, or asbestos cement. Pipes are usually indicated with inside
nominal diameters.

2.4

Alternative Materials - Materials different from those specified herein may be offered,
when they comply with Project required pressures, and may be accepted as determined
by thye PURCHASER.

2.5

Anti-Coprrosion Coating - Anti-corrosion coating shall be in acordance with the applicable


requirements of item (S-010101 - MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL), and the
following.
All surfaces subject to corrosive action, except rubber rings and gaskets, shall
receive anti-corrsion coating after adequate preparation of the surfaces.
When no standards for coating are specified, coating shall be antirust painting,
consisting of, at least, two coats of antirust base, with a final minimum dry
thickness of 50 microns and one finishing coat with a minimum dry thickness of
30 microns.

3.

Inspection and Testing - The tests listed below shall be performed at the factory:
Visual and size checking
Seal and body hydrostatic tests.
The SUPPLIER shall repair all failures occuring during hydrostatic tests. Repairing methods
shall be submitted to the PURCHASER for approval. Whenever defects are excessive or
irreparable due to inadequate manufacturing, the assembly joints will be rejected.
All pieces which need repairs shall be re-checked.
After final factory tests and approval, the assembly joints shall be painted and after
painting inspection, the assembly joints may be prepared for shipping.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

261

Standard Technical Specifications

4.

Packing, Transportation and Handling - In accordance with item (S-010101 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL).

5.

Guarantee - Unless specified to the contrary, in the applicable Specifications for materials
or equipment to be furnished, the SUPPLIER shall present a guarantee for the equipment
and/or material, according to the General and Special Conditions of the Contract.

6.

Technical Assistance - According the requirements in item (S-010101 - MECHANICAL


EQUIPMENT, GENERAL), the supplier shall provide field supervision and training for the
PURCHASERs personnel in assembling and disassembling operations of the assembly
joints.

7.

Dresser Joints and Gibault Joints - Dresser joints (or Gibualt joints) shall be designed
and manufactured to absorb vibrations, to correct axial displacement, to withstand high
axial stresses, to seal the joints for operation pressures for classes PN-10 and PN-16 (10
Kgf/cm2 and 16 Kgf/cm2, respectively), and prinicipally, to facilitate assembly and
disassembly of piping. Fastening flanges and the middle cylinder shall be forged carbon
steel (or cast iron for Gibault joints in one piece). Acceptance of welded pieces will be at
the discretion of the PURCHASER.
Joints shall be of general use type, with reduced length. Fastening bolts and nuts shall
be of hot galvanized steel as specified by ASTM A-153 Class C Standard, or equivalent.
Seal rings shall be of ethylene propylene and of slow aging process and high abrasion
grade.
Joints to be installed on asbestos cement pipes shall have inner diameters compatible to
the pipe outer diameters and the seal rings shall be of natural rubber.
Middle cylinder extremities shall be bevelled in order to prevent damage to the fastening
flange coating, and seal rings.
Joints made of ductile iron may be accepted if they comply with the requirements of the
Specifications.

8.

Rod-Type Fixed Joints - Fixed joints shall be designed and manufactured to withstand all
hydraulic thrust stresses produced by pumps remain entirely rigid. Joints shall have
suitable sealing for operation pressure of _____ Kgf/cm2. Joints shall be of easy assembly
and disassembly. Joints referred to herein shall consist of a tube with two rigid fixed
flanges, and one sliding flange. The fixed flange at one end will be fastened to a flanged
pipe by short bolts. The second fixed flange, located between the two tube ends, will be
fastened to another flanged pipe by long worm-thread rod-type bolts. The sliding flange
has a sealing function which, upon being tightened against the pipe flange, will compress
the rubber ring to form a complete seal. Joints shall be made of carbon steel. The bolts
and nuts shall be of hot galvanized steel as specified by the ASTM A-153 Class C
Standard. Seal rings shall be of ethylene propylene.
Flanges shall comply with the requirements specified in subitem 2.2. The sliding flange
shall be designed and manufactured in such a manner to prevent damage to the coating
and the seal ring.

9.

Expansion Joints - Expansion joints shall be designed and manufactured to absorb axial
and lateral movements, in any direction.
Expansion joints shall consist of two bellows united by a middle cylinder, an internal
guide tube, and tightening unit fixed at the ends. Joints shall be designed to withstand

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

262

Standard Technical Specifications

operation pressures of ___ Kgf/cm2 and the tightening unit shall be designed to withstand
reaction stresses produced by the bellows.
The joints shall be flange type, and the flanges shall comply with the requirements
specified in subitem 2.2.
The joints shall be manufactured from ASTM A-572 carbon steel for tubes and flanges
and an adequate type of steel for the bellows. Bolts, nuts and the tightening unit shall
be of hot galvanized steel as specified by ASTM A-153 Class C Standard. Seal Gaskets
shall be of rubber.
The expansion joints shall be of the easy assemble-disassemble type.
10.

Measurement and Payment. The supply of the items described herein shall be measured
as complete assemblies furnished, expressed in units.
Payment will be made according to the applicable unit prices established in the Contract.
CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR PIPELINES

S-011206

1.

General

1.1

Objective - This Specification establishes minimum technical requirements for the supply
of rectifiers, sacrifice anodes and crush coke for impressed current cathodic protection
of buried steel pipe and fittings for the _______ (name) Project.
In addition to the requirements in item (S-010101 - Mechanical Equipment - GENERAL),
the materials furnished shall comply with the characteristics specified herein.

1.2

Technical Standards - To meet requirements of design, raw materials, manufacturing


standards, product quality and test criteria, the equipment and materials to be furnished
shall comply with this Specification and shall not contradict the following standards:
ABNT - Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas
CEI - Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
ANSI - American National Standards Association
NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association
ASTM - American Society for Testing Materials
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

2.

Manufacturing Requirements.

2.1

Rectifiers - In addition to the requirements of the above standards, rectifiers and


accessories shall be designed and manufactured according to the following characteristics:

2.1.1

Service - Outdoor installation, mounted on a post or on a concrete base.

2.1.2

Type - Static, with silicon diodes, tap changer for variable current and voltage output.
2.1.3 Voltage Supply - 380 V, three phase, 60 Hz, tolerance +/- 15%.

2.1.4

Power - Adjustable with minimum of 7.5 kVA

2.1.5

Output - Adjustable up to 30 Adc

2.1.6

Efficiency - Equal to or higher than 80%

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

263

Standard Technical Specifications

2.1.7

Power Factor - Equal to or higher than 0.7 inductive,measured with maximum output
voltage, rated output current and rated input voltage

2.1.8

Enclosure - Rectifiers shall be furnished assembled in closed cabinets to be mounted on


a post or on a concrete base. Access to the components shall be provided by means of
a door with a lock, or metal sheet fixed by screws. An aperture with a transparent glass
cover shall be provided to allow reading of the metering instruments. The cabinets shall
have a ground terminal for a 50 mm copper cable for grounding of all metal parts. The
cabinet shall house the rectifier and all accessories.

2.1.9

Transformer - The transdormer shall be dry-type, three-phase, equipped with a tap


changer capable of operating in the three phases simultaneously.

2.1.10

Rectifier - The rectifier shall be composed of silicon diodes forming 3 rectifying bridges
of 4 diodes each, with inputs connected to the three-phase transformer secondaries,
and the outputs connected in parallel.

2.1.11

Protection - The input shall be protected by a three-pole, thermo-magnetic molded case


circuit breaker, and the output shall be protected by a bi-pole circuit breaker.

2.1.12

Accessories The following accessories shall be furnished with the cathodic protection
system equipment:
Bi-pole and three-pole thermo-magnetic molded case circuit breakers for output
and input protection
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Lighting or surge protection (AC and DC sides)
Automatic potential control for the protected structure
Undervoltage relay for AC supply fault alarm
AC source indicating light

2.2

Sacrifice Anodes - The sacrifice anodes shall be of the iron silicon type and shall comply
with the following characteristics:

2.2.1

Chemical Composition Silicon ............................................................................................ 14.5%


Manganese ..................................................................................... 0.75%
Carbon ........................................................................................... 0.95%
Chromium ......................................................................................... 4.5%
Iron ................................................................................................ 79.3%

2.2.2

Physical, Electrical and Mechanical Characteristics Tensil Strength ........................................................................ 1000 kg/cm 2
Compression Strength .............................................................. 7000 kg/cm 2
Hardness ................................................................................... 520 Brinel
Specific Weight .............................................................................. 7 g/cm 3
Specific resistivity at 20 oC .............................................. 72 micro ohms/cm
Expansion coefficiency .............................................................. 13.2 x 10-6

2.2.3

Connection Point - Each anode shall have a pig tail for connection. The pig tail shall be
made of copper and molded to the anode body. The connection shall be made by welding
the pig tail to the feeder cable.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

264

Standard Technical Specifications

2.2.4

Anodes - The anodes shall have the following minimum dimensions:


Length ............................................................................................. 75 cm
Diameter .......................................................................................... 1 inch

2.3

Activated Coal - Activated coal shall be steel-mill coke or recalcinated petroleum coke,
crushed, and furnished in bags suitable for transportation and storage

2.3.1

Chemical Composition Moisture ............................................................................... 9.5 to 14.7 %


Volatile matter ..................................................................... 3.00 to 3.14 %
Coal ............................................................................... 78.22 to 78.40 %
Fly ash 18.6 %
Sulfur ................................................................................maximum 1.2 %

2.3.2

Physical Characteristics Gardation .................................................................... 1/2" maximum 15 %


3/8" maximum 85 %

2.4

Nameplate - The rectifiers nameplate shall comply with the requirements specified in
item (S-010101 - Mechanical Equipment - General), and shall contain the following
additional information:
Input voltage in V
Power in kVA
Power Factor
Output current in A dc
Output voltage in V dc
Efficiency

2.5

Painting and Antirust Treatment - Surface preparation, antirust treatment and painting
of the rectifiers shall comply with item (S-010101 - Mechanical Equipment - GENERAL).
Finishing paint shall be light gray, ANSI-70 Notation Munsell No. 5 gloss range 70 to 73.

3.

Inspection and Testing at the Factory - In addition to the requirements specified in item
(S-010101 - Mechanical Equipment - GENERAL), the material covered by this specification
shall be submitted to the following tests and checks.

3.1

Rectifiers
Visual check
Dimensional check
Dialectric tests
Transformer ratio check
Measurement of rectified current by oscilloscope and recorder
Circuit breaker functioning check
Transformer losses check

3.2

Sacrifice Anodes - Inspection and tests shall be made by sampling. At least 10% of the
anodes shall be inspected and tested. The following tests shall be performed on the
sacrifice anodes:
Dimensional and visual check

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

265

Standard Technical Specifications

Resistivity test
Mechanical and thermal shock test
Moisture absorption test
Connection point check
4.

Measurement and Payment. Supply of the cathodic protection system will be treated as
a unit, and payment will be made at the lump sum price established in the Contract for
the completed system.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

266

Standard Technical Specifications

SECTION ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENT, GENERAL

S-020200

1.

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, GENERAL

Objective. These Specifications establish the general requirements for furnishing electrical
equipment and materials for the _____________ Project.
The CLIENT assumes that prior to the submittal of the Bid, the contents of the Bidding
Documents were reviewed in detail by the BIDDER, who will be fully responsible for all
obligations resulting from lack of knowledge or misinterpretation of any of the
requirements contained therein.

2.

Supply Scope. The supply scope of each package includes, but is not limited to the
following items:

2.1

Preparation of designs, drawings, data, and calculation sheets and submittal for approval
where applicable.

2.2

Furnishing Instruction Manuals for assembly, operation and maintenance of equipment


and/or materials.

2.3

Manufacturing and furnishing of equipment and/or materials in accordance with the


respective Specification and approved drawings.

2.4

Supply of special tools required for assembly maintenance and operation of the equipment.

2.5

List of spare parts as specified in the General and Special Conditions of the Contract,
Chapters _____ and _____ , Volume _____. The respective equipment Specifications may
require furnishing spare parts for one or more years of operation at no additional cost.

2.6

Tests of equipment and/or materials at the factory, as indicated in these Specifications


and in the respective equipment Specification.

2.7

Packing, transportation and insurance of equipment from factory to the delivery site, in
accordance with the Bidding Documents.

2.8

Supervision of equipment and/or material assembly and installation, when requested by


the CLIENT, as established in the Bidding Documents and in accordance with the specific
equipment Specification.

2.9

Test of equipment at jobsite and operation start-up, whenever the CLIENT requests
installation supervision at the jobsite.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

267

Standard Technical Specifications

2.10

Training of the CLIENTs operation and maintenance personnel in accordance with the
Bidding Documents.

2.11

Equipment and/or materials guarantees in accordance with the Bidding Documents.

2.12

The CONTRACTOR shall perform any additional electrical design as required; furnish all
electrical materials and equipment required and not included in the List of Materials; and
make the electrical supply complete, as shown on the drawings and as described in
these Specifications.

3.

Identification

3.1

General. Unless otherwise specified,the CONTRACTOR shall mark all electrical equipment
to be designated, other than disconnecting switches, with the assigned designations,
by nameplate, with letters approximately 38 mm high. Fuse and disconnecting switch
identification signs are provided for elsewhere in the Specifications.

3.2

Nameplates. A nameplate shall be installed on each ________, ______ and _______ . The
nameplates shall be made of stainless steel, at least 1 mm thick. All information on the
nameplate shall be in Portuguese and in the metric system.
The nameplate shall be located so as to be visible from the front of the equipment after
it is placed in its permanent operating position.
Each nameplate shall contain at least the following applicable information:
The words (type of equipment);
Manufacturers name and place and year of manufacture;
Manufacturing serial number;
Type (Manufacturers);
Dimensions of dismountable components and overall dimensions;
Weight of dismountable components and total weight;
Manufacturing standards used.

4.

Equipment and Materials. Electrical equipment and materials shall be as specified on the
drawings and in accordance with these Specifications and the applicable recommended
standards listed in subitem 5.
If the CONTRACTOR-furnished electrical equipment and materials are of such size, type,
ratings, or other physical properties that changes are required in the designs in these
Specifications, it shall be the responsibility of the CONTRACTOR to effect all changes
necessary as required and approved by the ENGINEER without additional compensation,
unless the CONTRACTOR can show that the changes are necessary regardless of the
Manufacturer.
Other materials may be proposed by the BIDDER, provided that:
All the materials used or furnished must be of equivalent or superior quality than
those specified and shall be apropriate to work under the environmental conditions
at its destination;
All materials used or furnished must be described in detail in the Proposal and, for
each type of material, the Standard which it meets must be included.
Acceptance of substitute materials shall be exclusively at the descretion of the
CLIENT.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

268

Standard Technical Specifications

All designs and materials not specifically covered in these Specifications or in the
recommended standards shall be subject to the approval of the ENGINEER.
All weldings necessary in the manufacturing and/or assembly of the equipment shall be
made in accordance with item (S-020256 - Welding).
The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for and shall replace, at his expense, any insulating
oil which may have been contamined by faulty handling.
The definitions considered in these Specifications are in accordance with the terminology
of ABNT-NBR-5356, ABNT-NBR-5458, ANSI.C57.12.80 and CEI-76.1.
The CONTRACTOR shall furnish all miscellaneous materials which are required for making
electrical wire, cable, conduit, and grounding connections to the equipment.
Special tools and appliances furnished by the Manufacturer for maintenance and
adjustment of the Manufacturers electrical equipment shall become the property of the
CLIENT. The CONTRACTOR shall furnish all additional tools and equipment as necessary
to properly install, adjust, and check the operation of the electrical equipment.
The drawings and data to be furnished by the CONTRACTOR are specified in item (S020260 - Drawings and Technical Data to be Furnished by the CONTRACTOR).
5.

Recommended Standards. For purposes of design, raw materials, quality, tests and
manufacturing, the equipment and materials shall comply with the requirements in these
Specifications, and when not in conflict, with the latest editions of the following standards.
The standards listed below do not exclude other recognized standards, provided they
ensure quality levels equal to or higher than those listed. In any case, the BIDDER shall
reference in his Bid the standards, or applicable portions thereof, adopted. The CLIENT
may require the BIDDER to supply copies of the adopted standards.
In the event of conflicting requirements between referenced standards, the recommended
standards and/or code and these Specifications, these Specifications shall govern,
followed by the recommended standards and finally those standards adopted by the
BIDDER.
The acronyms below refer to:
ABNT - Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas;
ANSI - American National Standards Institute;
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials;
CEI - Commission Eletrotechnique Internationale;
NBR - Normas Brasileiras Registradas;
NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association;
CPN - Conselho Nacional de Petrleo;
NEC - National Electrical Code.
General

ABNT-NBR-5032 - Isoladores de Porcelana ou Vidro para Linhas Areas e Subestaes


de Alta Tenso - Especificao.
ABNT-NBR-5034 - Buchas para Equipamento Eltrico acima de 1 kV. Especificao.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

269

Standard Technical Specifications

ABNT-NBR-5032 - Isoladores de Porcelana ou Vidro para Linhas Areas e Subestaes


de Alta Tenso - Especificao.
ABNT-NBR-5034 - Buchas para Equipamento Eltrico acima de 1 kV. Especificao.
ABNT-NBR-5051 - Buchas para Equipamento Eltrico Acima de 1 kV - Mtodo de
Ensaio.
ABNT-NBR-5389 - Tcnicas de Ensaios Eltricos de Alta Tenso - Padronizao.
ABNT-NBR-5435 - Buchas para Transformadores sem Conservador de leo - Tenso Nominal de 15 kV e 25,8 kV.
ABNT-NBR-5437 - Bucha para Transformadores sem Conservador de leo - Tenso
Nominal 1,3 kV.
ABNT-NBR-5915 - Chapas Finas a Frio de Ao-carbono para Estampagem Especificao
ABNT-NBR-6323 - Ao de Ferro Fundido - Revestimento de Zinco por Imerso a
Quente - Especificao
ABNT-NBR-6334 - Ensaios de Galvanizao.
ABNT-NBR-6529 - Ensaios de Vernizes Utilizados para Isolamento Eltrico - Mtodo
de Ensaio.
ABNT-NBR-6546 - Transformadores para Instrumentos - Terminologia.
ABNT-NBR-6649 - Chapas Finas a Frio de Ao-carbono para Uso Estrutural Especificao.
ABNT-NBR-6663 - Chapas Finas de Ao-carbono e de Ao de Baixa Liga e Alta
Resistncia - Requisitos Gerais.
ABNT-NBR-6869 - Determinao de Rigidez Dieltrica de leos Isolantes.
ABNT-NBR-7034 - Materiais Isolantes Eltricos - Classificao Trmica.
ABNT-NBR-7397 - Produto de Ao ou Ferro Fundido - Verificao do Revestimento
de Zinco - Determinao da Massa por Unidade de rea.
ABNT-NBR-7398 - Produto de Ao ou Ferro Fundido - Verificao do Revestimento
de Zinco - Verificao da Aderncia.
ABNT-NBR-7399 - Produto de Ao ou Ferro Fundido - Verificao da Espessura por
Processo No Destrutivo.
ABNT-NBR-7400 - Revestimento de Zinco - Verificao da Uniformidade do Revestimento.
ABNT-NBR-7876 - Linhas e Equipamento de Alta Tenso. Medio de Radio Interferncia da Faixa de 0,15 MHz a 30 MHz.
Mtodo de Ensaio
ABNT-NBR-8159 - Ferragens Eletrotcnicas para Redes Areas, Urbanas e Rurais
de Distribuio de Energia Eltrica, Formatos e Tolerncia.
ABNT-EB-157 - Nveis de Tenso de Rdio-Rudo em Transformadores de Fora e
Distribuio.
ABNT-EB-171 - Medidores de Rdio-Rudo e de Intensidade de Campo de 0,015 a
30 Mc/s.
ABNT-MB-271 - Medio de Tenso e de Campo Rdio-Rudo de 0,015 a 30 Mc/s
em Equipamentos Eltricos de Tenso at 600 Vcc ou CA e Equipamentos No
Eltricos.
ABNT-MB-272 - Medio de Tenso e Rdio-Rudo em Transformadores de Fora e
Distribuio.
ANSI-C-57.92 - Guide for Loading Oil - Immersed Distribution and Power
Transformers.
ANSI-C-59-131 - Acceptance and Maintenance of Insulating Oil in Equipment.
ANSI-C-68.1 - Techniques for Dielectric Tests.
ANSI-C-76.1 - Requirements and Test Code for Outdoor Apparatus Bushings.
ANSI-Z-55.1 - Gray Finishes for Industrial Apparatus and Equipments.
ASTM-A-90 - Methods of Test for Weight of Coatings on Zinc-Coated (Galvanized)
Iron or Steel Articles.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

270

Standard Technical Specifications

ASTM-A-123 - Specification for Zinc (Hot-Galvanized) Coatings on Products


Fabricated from Rolled, Pressed and Forged Steel Shapes, Plates, Bars and Strip.
ASTM-A-153 - Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware.
ASTM-A-239 - Test for Locating the Thinnest Spot in a Zinc (Galvanized) Coating
on Iron or Steel Articles by the Preece Test.
ASTM-A-794 - Practice for Determining Permanent Effect of Heat on Plastics.
ASTM-A-877 - Tests for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Liquids Using
Disk Electrodes.
NEMA CC1 - Eletric Power Connectors.
CEI-85 - Classification of Materials for the Insulation of Electrical Machinery and
Apparatus in Relation to their Thermal Stability in Service.
CEI-137 - Bushing for Alternating Voltages above 1000 V.
CEI-243 - Methods of Test for Electric Strength of Solid Insulating Materials at
Power Frequencies.
TEC PUB-76 - Power Transformers.
CIS-PR-16 - Specification for Radio-Interference Measuring Apparatus And
Measurements Methods.
CNP-16 - Resolues 6/72 e 15/81, do Regulamento Tcnico 06/81 - Rev.1.
Transformers
ABNT-NBR-5336 - Transformador de Potncia - Especificao.
ABNT-NBR-5356 - Transformador de Potncia - Especificao.
ABNT-NBR-5380 - Transformador de Potncia - Mtodo de Ensaio.
ABNT-NBR-5415 - Guia para Recebimento, Instalao e Manuteno de Transformadores de Fora e Distribuio em Lquido Isolante.
ABNT-NBR-5416 - Aplicao de Cargas em Transformadores de Potncia - Procedimento.
ABNT-NBR-5440 - Transformadores para Redes Areas de Distribuio - Padronizao.
ABNT-NBR-5458 - Eletrotcnica e Eletrnica - Transformadores - Terminologia.
ABNT-NBR-6146 - Invlucros de Equipamentos Eltricos - Proteo.
ABNT-NBR-6546 - Transformadores para Instrumentos - Terminologia.
ABNT-NBR-6820 - Transformadores de Potencial - Especificao.
ABNT-NBR-6821 - Transformadores de Corrente - Mtodo de Ensaio.
ABNT-NBR-6855 - Transformadores de Potencial - Especificao.
ABNT-NBR-6856 - Transformadores de Corrente - Especificao.
ABNT-NBR-7036 - Recebimento, Instalao e Manuteno de Transformadores de
Distribuio, Imersos em Lquido Isolante -Procedimento.
ABNT-NBR-7277 - Medio do Nvel de Rudo de Transformadores e Reatores.
ABNT-NBR-7731 - Guia para a Execuo de Servios de Medio de Rudo Areo e
Avaliao de seus Efeitos Sobre o Homem.
ABNT-NBR-8125 - Transformadores para Instrumentos - Descargas Parciais Especificao.
ANSI-C-57-12.00 - Distribution, Power and Regulating Transformers
ANSI-C-57-12.10 - Requirements for Transformers, 138,000 Volts and Below, 501
through 10,000/13,333/16,667 kVA, Single-Phase, 501 through 30,000/40,000/
50,000 kVA, Three-phase.
ANSI-C-57-12.20 - Requirements for Overhead-Type Distribution Transformers
67,000 Volts and Below; 500 kVA and Smaller.
ANSI-C-57-12.70 - Terminal Markings and Connections for Distribution and Power
Transformers.
ANSI-C-57-12.80 - Terminology.
ANSI-C-57-12.80a - Supplement to C-57-12.80.
ANSI-C-57-12.90 - Test Code for Distribution, Power and Regulating Transformers
ANSI-C-57-13 - Requirements for Instrument Transformers.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

271

Standard Technical Specifications

ANSI-C-57-15 - Requirements, Terminology and Test Code for Step-Voltage and


Induction-Voltage Regulators.
ASTM-A-90 - Methods of Test for Weight of Coatings on Zinc-Coated (Galvanized)
Iron or Steel Articles.
ASTM-A-123 - Specification for Zinc (Hot-Galvanized) Coatings on Products
fabricated from Rolled, Pressed and Forged Steel Shapes, Plates, Bars and Strip.
ASTM-A-153 - Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware.
CEI 60 - Tension Rise Test
CEI 76.1 - Power Transformers - General.
CEI 76.2 - Power Transformers - Temperature Rise.
CEI 76.3 - Power Transformers - Insulating Levels and Dielectric Tests.
CEI 76.4 - Power Transformers - Tappings and Connections.
CEI 76.5 - Power Transformers - Ability to Withstand Short-Circuit.
CEI 296 and CEI 296A - Specification for New Insulating Oils for Transformer and
Switchgear.
NEMA-TR1 - Transformers, Regulators and Reactors.
Circuit Breakers
ABNT-NBR-7118 - Disjuntores de Alta Tenso.
ABNT-NBR-7102 - Ensaios Sintticos em Disjuntores de Alta Tenso.
ABNT-NBR-TB-26 - Terminologia de Disjuntores.
ANSI-C37.03 - Definitions for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers.
ANSI-C37.04 - Rating Structure for AC High-Voltage Circuit
Breakers.
ANSI-C37.06 - Preferred Ratings and Related Required Capabilities
for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a
Symmetrical Current Basis.
ANSI-C37.07 - Interrupting Capability Factors of Reclosing
Service for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers.
ANSI-C37.09 - Test Procedure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers.
ANSI-C37.073 - Requirements for Capacitance Current Switching for
AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a
Symmetrical Current Basis.
ANSI-C37.721 - Application Guide for Transient Recovery Voltage
for High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a
Symmetrical Current Basis.
ANSI-C37.722 - Schedules of Preferred Transient Recovery Voltage Ratings and
Related Required Capabilities for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a
Symmetrical Current Basis.
CEI-56.1 - General and Definitions.
CEI-56.2 - Nominal Characteristics.
CEI-56.3 - Design and Construction.
CEI-56.4 - Type and Routine Tests.
CEI-56.5 - Rules for Selection of Circuit Breakers.
CEI-56.6 - Information to be Given in Specifications, Transport Rules, Installation
and Maintenance.
CEI-60 - Tension Rise Test.
CEI-137 - Bushing for Alternating Voltages above 1000 V.
CEI-267 - Guide to the Testing of Circuit Breakers with Respect
to Out-of-Phase Switching.
CEI-376 e CEI-376 A e B - Specification and Acceptance of New
Sulphur Hexafluoride.
NEMA SG-1 - Connectors.
NEMA SG-4 - Alternating Current High-Voltage Circuit Breakers.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

272

Standard Technical Specifications

Lightning Arresters
ABNT-NBR-5287 - Pra-Raios para Sistema de Distribuio (Pra-Raios de Resistor
No-Linear).
ABNT-NBR-5309- Pra-Raios para Sistema de Transmisso e Distribuio - Mtodo
de Ensaio.
ABNT-NBR-5424 - Guia de Aplicao de Pra-Raios de Resistor No-Linear em Sistemas de Potncia.
ANSI-C-62.1 - Surge Arresters for Alternating Current Power Circuits.
CEI-99.1 - Lightning Arresters (Non-Linear Resistor Type Arresters AC Systems).
NEMA LA-1 - Surge Arresters.
Automatic Reclosers
ANSI-C-37.60 - Automatic Circuit Reclosers for Alternating Current Systems.
NEMA SG-13 - Automatic Circuit Reclosers, Automatic Line Secionalizers and OilFilled Capacitor.
Insulators
ABNT-NBR-5049 - Isoladores de Porcelana ou Vidro para Linhas Areas e Subestaes
de Alta Tenso.
ABNT-NBR-5417 - Tolerncia para Peas de Cermica para Eletrotcnica.
ABNT-NBR-5472 - Isoladores e Buchas - Terminologia.
ABNT-NBR-6248 - Isoladores de Porcelana Tipo Castanha - Padronizao.
ABNT-NBR-6249 - Isoladores de Porcelana ou Vidro Tipo Roldana - Padronizao.
ABNT-NBR-7107 - Cupilha para Conchas de Engates Concha-Bola - Especificao.
ABNT-NBR-7108 - Vnculos de Ferragens Integrantes de Isoladores para Cadeia Padronizao.
ABNT-NBR-7109 - Isolador Tipo Disco - Padronizao.
ABNT-NBR-7110 - Isolador Tipo Pino - Padronizao.
ABNT-NBR-8159 - Ferragens Eletrotcnicas para Redes Areas, Urbanas e Rurais
de Distribuio de Energia Eltrica, Formatos e Tolerncia.
ANSI-C-29.1 - Test Methods for Electrical Power Insulators.
ANSI-C-29.2 - Wet-Process Porcelain Insulator (Suspension Type).
ANSI-C-29.5 - Wet Process Porcelain Insulators - Low Medium Voltage Pin Type.
ANSI-C-29.6 - Wet Process Porcelain Insulators - High Voltage Pin Type.
ANSI-C-29.8 - Wet-Process Porcelain Insulator (Apparatus, Cap and Pin Type).
CEI-120 - Recommendations for Ball and Socket Coupling of String Insulator Units.
CEI-274 - Test on Insulators of Ceramic Material or Glass for Overhead Lines with a
Nominal Voltage greater than 1000 volts.
CEI-305 - Characteristics of String insulator Units of the Cap and Pin Type.
CEI-383 - Test on Insulators of Ceramic Materials or Glass for Overhead Lines with
Rated Voltage Greater than 1000 V.
NEMA 140 - Wet Process Porcelain Insulators (Suspension Type).
ASTM-D-116 - Testing Vitrified Ceramic Materials for Electrical Applications.
Disconnecting Switches
ABNT-NBR-6935 - Seccionador, Chaves de Terra e Aterramento Rpido Especificao.
ABNT-NBR-7571 - Seccionadores - Caractersticas Tcnicas e Dimensionais - Padronizao.
CEI-265 - Dielectric Tests - Correction Factors and Tolerances.
NEMA SG6-31 - Apparatus Insulators for Use with High-Voltage Air Switches.
ASTM-A-36 - Material Quality Control Tests - Carbon Steel Sheets.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

273

Standard Technical Specifications

ASTM-B-193 - Resistivity of Electrical Conductor Materials.


ASTM-B-236 - Material Quality Control Tests - Aluminum.
ASTM-B-498 - Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Core Wire for Aluminum Conductors,
Steel Reinforced (ACSR).
ASTM-E-10 - Material Quality Control Tests - Copper.

The CLIENT shall be informed in writing of any doubts which may arise during the
performance of any phase of the Contract due to errors or conflict between related
technical documents.
In these cases the SUPPLIER shall adopt the solution indicated in writing by the CLIENT.
6.

Equipment Acceptance at Factory. The equipment shall be considered accepted if the


final acceptance tests at the factory lead to satisfactory results. In this case, The
ENGINEER shall affix an inspection seal next to the nameplate, and after approving the
packing, shall issue a Certificate of Liberation for the material.
The acceptance of the equipment at the factory by the ENGINEER shall not affect the
conditions in subitem 10 (Provisional and Final Acceptance), and shall not in any way
exempt the SUPPLIER from his responsibilities to furnish the equipment in conformity
with the Contract/Purchase Order, or anull or jeopardize any future claims by the CLIENT
based on equipment which is unsuitable, faulty or in conflict with the Specifications.

7.

Equipment Rejection at Factory. The equipment shall be rejected if, in the course of
inspection, any equipment failure or deficiency in relation to the Specifications and/or
approved drawings is detected.
Equipment rejection shall not exempt the SUPPLIER from its responsibilities regarding
the delivery dates of the equipment.
If, in the CLIENTs opinion, it is determined that the SUPPLIER is incapable of complying
with the requirements of the Specifications, or if the rejection makes the planned
equipment delivery date impracticable, the CLIENT retains the right to cancel all its
obligations and purhase the equipment from another source, the SUPPLIER thus being
considered as breaking the Contract and subject to penalties applicable to the case.

8.

Installation Supervision. In accordance with the Bidding Documents, the CLIENT may
request the services of Erecting Engineers to supervise the assembly, installation, testing
and final inspections of the equipment at jobsite.
The Erecting Engineers shall act as consultants for the CLIENT as regards to practical
methods and required precautions and shall be responsible for alignments, clearances
and other requirements inherent to the equipment installation, as well as providing
guidance to the CLIENT with respect to handling, checking, start-up and other functions
required for the effective installation and operation of the equipment.

9.

Personnel Training. The SUPPLIER shall provide training for the CLIENTs personnel,
providing them with instructions and information to qualify them for operation and
maintenance of the equipment. Training shall be completed 30 days before the normal
start-up of operation or the acceptance tests of the system and/or equipment, and shall
comply with the provisions contained in the following paragraphs.
Training shall be of sufficient scope and duration to ensure the complete preparation of
the personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the system and/or

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

274

Standard Technical Specifications

equipment, using instructive facilities as well as equipment or similar units already installed
in order to define and implement the preventative and corrective maintenance programs.
The training shall be comprised of a study of the theory of operation of the equipment,
with an analysis of schematic diagrams, a determination of the instruments and devices
required for adjustment and/or maintenance work, and practical exercises in preventive
and corrective maintenance. An overall understanding of the operation and installation
of the system shall be achieved.
The SUPPLIER shall submit, for approval by the ENGINEER, a general training plan
containing all the specifications of the training to be furnished, including programs,
instruction material, instructors curricula, training locations and other information.
The SUPPLIER shall furnish all the material required for the training process. The CLIENT
will be responsible for the participants travel and lodging expenses, including all related
legal obligations. Travel and lodging expenses of the instructors shall be at the expense
of the SUPPLIER.
Evaluation of the training program criteria shall be established by common accord between
the CLIENT and the SUPPLIER, including the list of participants and the minimum
qualifications required for same, in sufficient time to ensure that training is completed
before the normal operation of the system.
10.

Provisional and Final Acceptance

10.1

Provisional Acceptance. General checking and operation tests shall be carried out after
the completion of the installation at the jobsite, in the presence of the ENGINEER.
Once the conditions imposed by the recommended standards and set forth by this
Specification are complied with, and the equipment is put into operation, it shall be
considered delivered and installed and a Provisional Acceptance Certificate will be issued
by the CLIENT, without detriment to the guarantees stipulated in the Bidding Documents.

10.2

Final Acceptance. When the guarantee period ends, with no pending Contract item
outstanding, the Contract is terminated and a certificate of FINAL ACCEPTANCE of the
equipment relative to the supply will be issued by the CLIENT.

11.

Packing and Guarantee. The packing of and guarantee for the equipment and spare
parts shall be in accordance with item (S-020258 - Packing).

12.

Payment. Payment for the various items of electrical equipment and materials will be
made as specified in item ______ of the Bidding Documents, Chapter _____ , Volume
________ , which prices shall include the costs of the following:
Performing required designs.
Furnishing drawings, data and Instruction Manuals.
Furnishing equipmentnecessary to perform required tests.
Testing and providing assistance for CLIENT testing as required.
Transporting and storing equipment and material.
Performing all welding and modifying equipment as required.
Painting equipment and materials.
Furnishing all brackets, fastenings, bolts, nuts, lockwashers and other accessories,
as required for mounting or installing electrical equipment and materials.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

275

Standard Technical Specifications

Furnishing materials for marking assigned designations on all electrical equipment


to be designated. .Furnishing, transporting and handling insulating oil for all electrical
equipment requiring insulating oil.
Furnishing filtering equipment and storage tanks, and filtering insulating oil as
required.
Furnishing spare parts to electrical equipment which require spare parts.
Furnishing to the CLIENT all special tools and appliances supplied by each
Manufacturer for maintenance and adjustment of the Manufacturers equipment.
Providing equipment installation supervision if required.
Providing training to the CLIENTs personnel in operation and maintenance of the
equipment, if required.
Making all control, metering, instrumentation relaying testing and furnishing all
miscellaneous materials which are required for making connections to electrical
equipment. The CONTRACTOR shall estimate the number of connections to be
made to the equipment based on prior knowledge or experience with similar
equipment. No additional compensation will be allowed the CONTRACTOR in the
event that actual connections exceed the number estimated by the CONTRACTOR
at the time of Bidding.
POWER TRANSFORMERS MAXIMUM VOLTAGE UP TO 15 kV

S-020201

1.

Objective. This Specification establishes the minimum technical requirements for


furnishing power transformers, maximum voltage up to 15 kV, three-phase, with two
windings, for outdoor installation.

2.

Nominal Characteristics. The transformer shall have the following nominal characteristics:

2.1

Rated Power. The transformer shall be designed and constructed for the continuous
service power specified in the Technical Data Sheets and items ____, _____ and ___ in
the List of Materials.

2.2

Rated Voltages. -The rated voltages are the following:


Primary: ......................................................................................... _____ V
Secondary: .................................................................................... _____ V

2.3

Taps. The transformer shall be furnished with a no load tap changer on the primary
voltage side. The tap changer shall allow the following voltages: ____ / _____ / _____ /
_____ /_____ kV.

2.4

Frequency. The rated frequency shall be 60 Hz.

2.5

Windings. The nominal characteristics of the windings shall be as shown in the Table
below:

Full

Chopped

At 60 Hz, 1 minn
Applied Voltage (kV,
effective)

0.600

10

Rated Voltage (kV)

Maximum Voltage kV (rms)

0.38/0.220

Atmospheric Impulse (kV, crest)

2.4

7.2

60

66

19

4.16

7.2

60

66

19

13.8

15

110

121

34

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

276

Standard Technical Specifications

3.

Operating Characteristics. The transformer shall have the following operating


characteristics:

3.1

Temperature Rise. The temperature rise allowable limits shall be in accordance with
standard ABNT-NBR-5356.

3.2

Overload and Short-Circuit. The transformer shall be designed to withstand short duration
overloads as well as forces caused by short-circuits, in accordance with standard ABNTNBR-5356.
The component equipment such as bushings, changer, etc. shall withstand overloads
corresponding to up to one and one-half times the rated power of the tranformer.

3.3

Short-Circuit Impedance. The positive sequence impedance percentage for the transformer
shall be ______ %.

3.4

Excitation Current. The excitation current shall be the lowest possible, consistent with
an economic analisis. The no-load excitation current, at rated frequency and voltage,
shall not exceed 1.2% of the rated current. The excitation current with 110% of the
rated voltage shall not exceed 2.5% of the rated current measured at 100% of the rated
frequency and voltage, with the changer in the rated position.
A tolerance of +/- 7.5% of the impedance value at 75o C determined by the tests, in
relation to the specified value, will be allowed.

3.5

Cooling. The transformer shall be constructed to operate under natural cooling (selfcooling) with insulating mineral oil.

3.6

Operation in Parallel. All the transformers in the same item of the Order shall be designed
to operate in parallel with each other. When the transformer is designed to operate in
parallel with another already existing transformer, the CLIENT shall furnish the
characteristics of the existing transformer.
A transformer is considered suitable to operate in parallel when the number of coils,
voltages, resistances, reactances and grounding connections ratios are suitable for such
operation. The impedance of the tranformer shall agree with those of the transformers
with which it is to operate in parallel, with a maximum difference of 7.5%. This tolerance
is also applicable to the voltage taps with the same ratio of turns.

3.7

Connections and Angular Displacement


Connection : wye - delta.
Angular displacement : 30o .
Group (ABNT) : DY1.
Neutral accessible and grounded through grounding resistor.

4.

Manufacturing Characteristics

4.1

Design and Construction. The transformer design shall be modern in all respects and
constructed to operate satisfactorily and comply with this Specification. The transformers
shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with approved practices and with
new materials of the best quality, incorporating, when possible, the improvements
indicated by modern technology, even when not explicitly mentioned in this Specification.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

277

Standard Technical Specifications

The transformer shall be manufactured to withstand transportation by sea or land so


that, upon arrival at its destination, the transformer will be ready to be put into permanent
operation without requiring internal inspection or adjustment.
Whenever possible, the transformer shall be manufactured to permit the interchange of
parts with similar units, including units of different manufacturers.
4.2

Tank. The tank shall be constructed to withstand full vacuum at sea level as well as
overpressures resulting from possible internal short-circuits, without leakage or
deformations. Side walls, cover and the bottom of the tank shall be of steel plate of 3
mm minimum thickness.
The cover shall be fixed to the tank with a minimum of eight bolts or undetachable
clamps.
The tank shall be manufactured (without a breather, to operate hermetically sealed))
(with a breather equipped with a pressure relief valve).
Joints and seams shall be welded where possible. All joints subject to being opened
periodically during operation and/or maintenance shall be designed to permit easy leakproof
reassembly.
The tank shall have a manhole and an inspection port, in accordance with standard
ABNT-NBR-5350.
The gasketed joints of the manholes and inspection ports, of the bushings and other
bolted connections, shall be designed to avoid the gaskets being exposed to the weather
and shall be provided with spacers to avoid crushing the gaskets by excessive tightening.
The gaskets shall be protected from rainwater falling on the cover and ponding.

4.3

Oil Reservoir. The power transformers shall be furnished with oil reservoirs mounted on
the transformer tank and provided with a special rubber gasket to prevent the oil from
coming in contact with the environment.
The reservoir shall have sufficient volume to allow for an oil temperature variation of 75o
C over the ambient reference temperature. The reservoir shall be strong enough to
safely support the weight of the oil and other forces exerted upon it.

4.4

Radiators. The oil shall be cooled by permanent-type radiators mounted on the side of
the transformer. The radiators shall be fastened to the tank by welding.
The radiator walls shall have a minimum thickness of 3 mm for tubing and 1.2 mm for
steel plate construction.

4.5

Windings. The transformer windings shall be of copper. The windings shall be designed
and constructed to withstand, without damage, the mechanical and thermal effects
caused by external short-circuits, as specified in subitem 3.
All of the fastening (tigntening) shims of the coils shall be of special permawood type
wood.

4.6

Core. The core shall be constructed of cold rolled oriented grain laminated steel sheets,
of reduced losses and high permeability. Mechanical means shall be provided to prevent
the loosening of the sheets due to vibration.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

278

Standard Technical Specifications

The core shall be provided with eyelets or other devices suitable for lifting the core-coils
assembly. For grounding purposes, the core shall be electrically connected to the tank
of the transformer at a single point easily accessible through the inspection port (handhole).
The parts and/or devices for fastening the core/windings shall be such as to avoid the
formation of closed circuits where parasitic currents might occur.
4.7

Bushings. The windings terminals, including the neutral, shall exit the tank by means of
oil-proof bushings, impermeable to moisture and unalterable by the normal operating
conditions of the transformer.
The insulation levels of the bushings shall not be lower than the insulation levels of the
windings to which they are connected.
The rated current of each bushing shall be adequate to transmit the rated power of the
transformer as well as the specified overloads and additional power, within the allowable
limits of temperature rise.
The bushings, for each level of insulation, shall comply with this Specification and shall
be designed to withstand momentary arcing or discharge without damage to the sealing
joints or any other part.
The bushings shall be installed on the side of the tank away from the radiators, with the
____ kV bushings on the opposite side of the ____ kV and neutral bushings. The bushings
shall be installed in steel sheet boxes welded to the tank, with openings at the bottom
for cable entrance. The boxes shall be provided with screw-fixed front covers to facilitate
connections and maintenance.

4.8

Terminal Connectors. The terminal connectors shall adapt to all of the terminal bushings
and shall be tinned to permit the use of aluminum or copper conductors.
(The transformers shall be furnished with pothead cable terminals for connection of
high voltage insulated cables to the bushings. The potheads shall be suitable for 95 mm2
for the 15 kV cables and ____ mm2 for the 6 kV cable sizes.)
(The dimensions of the high voltage connectors shall correspond to the gages of 6 to 50
mm2 conductors.)
(The terminals of the low voltage bushings shall be of flat bar type with NEMA standard
holes and the line and neutral connectors shall be suitable for the connection of the
conductors specified in the Technical Data Sheets.)

4.9

Tap Changer. The alignment device shall preferably be placed next to the nameplate in
a position directly accessible to the operator from ground level. The tap changer shall
have an external position indicator and means of locking it in any position with a padlock.

4.10

Insulating Medium. The transformer shall be oil insulated. The oil required for completely
filling the transformer shall be included with the furnished transformer.
The insulating oil shall comply with the requirements of standard CNP-06/85 of the
Conselho Nacional do Petrleo.

4.11

External Oil Level Indicator. An external oil level indicator shall be furnished with the
transformer and shall be placed in a visible position on the transformer on the low
voltage side, whenever possible. The indicator shall have reference marks for the minimum,
maximum and at 25o C oil levels.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

279

Standard Technical Specifications

4.12

Safety Valve. The transformers shall be provided with a spring type automatic pressure
relief device for protection against damage caused by a sudden increase in internal
pressures.
The safety device shall be turned outward so that the discharged oil does not fall on the
transformer.

4.13

Drainage and Filtering of the Insulating Oil. A 2" to 3" diameter drainage valve shall be
provided, installed on the bottom of the tank and equipped with a valve for adapting a
filter-press. This valve shall allow the total drainage of the oil from the tank.
An oil filtering valve shall be provided close to the top of the tank and on the side
opposite the drainage valve. This valve shall have a deflector to prevent oil from dripping
on the windings.

4.14

Buchholz Relay. The power transformers shall be provided with oil pressure relays and
Buchholz type gas detectors, with two sets of contacts, one for an alarm, and the
other to disconnect the circuit breaker.

4.15

Installation of the Oil Thermometer. A leakproof recess suitable for the installation of a
thermometer shall be provided. The thermometer shall be installed at a point where it
will register the highest temperature of the oil.

4.16

Oil Temperature Indicator. The power transformer shall be provided with an oil temperature
indicator, graduated from 0o C to 120o C, with a maximum temperature indicator, and
two adjustable contacts in the range of at least 55o C to 110o C.

4.17

Grounding Terminals. For grounding purposes, two flat, smooth, stainless steel plates
suitable for the connection of grounding connectors for 70 to 120 mm2 copper cables
shall be welded to the base of the transformer.

4.18

Terminal Box. A weather-proof terminal box shall be furnished, mounted on the tank
and accessible from the ground, which shall contain the transformer controls, alarm and
protection terminal blocks. The terminal box shall have a door provided with a latch and
a Yale type or equivalent lock. The base of the box shall be provided with welded
sleeves for connecting conduits for control cables arriving at the transformer. (The box
shall be removable, to allow moving the transformer without having to disconnect the
attached conduits.)
All control, alarm and transformer protection conductors shall be led to the control box
through rigid steel conduits. All conductors to be used shall be of special type, flexible
copper cable, with a minimum gage of 2.5 mm2, used for controls, with insulation for
600 V, fire-and-water-proof, and shall be identified (by the color of the insulation or) by
unperishable labels attached at the ends. Terminal blocks, accessory terminals and the
wiring shall be visible and easily accessible. The door shall be easy to remove to allow
free access to wiring and terminals. Should the wiring be run behind the panel, the panel
should be mounted on hinges or other device to allow turning it around sufficiently to
allow easy access to the wiring and terminals behind it.

4.19

Means for Lifting the Active Part, the Completely Mounted Transformer and the Cover.
Means (lugs, eyelets, hooks, etc.) shall be provided for lifting the completely assembled
transformer, including the oil; means shall also be provided for lifting the active part and
the cover.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

280

Standard Technical Specifications

4.20

Means for Moving the Transformer. The transformers shall be provided with means for
locomotion, such as a base with bi-directional wheels and means for attaching cables
and chains. The base shall also be provided with 4 slots for raising the transformer with
a jack.

4.21

Paint and Anti-Corrosion Treatment. Paint and anti-corrosion treatment shall comply
with the requirements specified in item (S-020248 - Paint and Anti-Corrosion Treatment).
The paint applied to the internal part of the tank shall be resistant to the effects of the
insulating oil, without contaminating the oil. The external finishing paint shall be light
grey color, ANSI 70, notation Munsell No.5, gloss range 73 to 77.
The transformer frame and all metal parts and hardware subject to corrosive action shall
be hot-dip galvanized in accordance with standards ASTM A-123 and -153, Class C.

4.22

Nameplate. The nameplate shall comply with the requirements of subitem 3 of item (S020200 - Electrical Equipment) and shall include the following additional information:
Rated power, in kVA
Rated frequency, in Hz
Rated voltages, in kV
Impedance percentage
Connection diagram
Phase diagram
Type and volume of insulating oil
Basic impulse level

5.

Tests

5.1

Type Tests. The type tests listed below shall be performed in accordance with the
ABNT standards or equivalent approved technical standards, in the presence of the
ENGINEER.
Temperature Rise Test.
Impulse Test.
Measurement of the Power Factor of the Insulation.
Noise Level - The noise level produced by the transformer shall not exceed the
limits established in Table 22 of standard ABNT-NBR-5356; the tests shall be
performed in accordance with standard ABNT-NBR-5380.
Radio Influence Voltage Level for rated voltage Test, in accordance with standard
ABNT-NBR-5380.

5.2

Acceptance and Routine Tests. The tests listed below shall be performed on all of the
units, in accordance with the ABNT standards and in the presence of the ENGINEER.
Electrical resistance of the windings.
Measurement of the transformation ratio at all taps.
Verification of the polarity.
Angular displacement and phase sequence.
Measurement of the no-load losses and of the excitation currents.
Measurement of the losses under load.
Tests with applied induced voltages.
Resistance of the insulation of each winding to ground and between windings,
hot and cold.
Watertightness and pressure resistance.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

281

Standard Technical Specifications

Voltage applied to the wiring.


Visual and dimensional inspection.
Checking of the adhesion and thickness of the paint.
TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS GUARANTEED BY THE BIDDER FOR POWER
TRANSFORMERS - MAXIMUM VOLTAGE UP TO 15 kV

The BIDDER shall include in his Bid, Technical Data Sheets with information in accordance
with the following form, for each transformer Type, Class and Voltage included in the
List of Materials.
1 - EQUIPMENT

Power transformer with two windings, rated power of ________/_______ kVA in _______/
________ cooling type, _____ kV rated primary voltage, with no-load and no-voltage
change-over, with taps of + _______ x _______ % and - _______ x _______ %, secondary
voltage of __________ kV, 60 Hz rated frequency, manufacured by ____________
______________________________________________________.
2 - WINDINGS INSULATION LEVEL
CHARACTERISTICS
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

PRIMARY VOLTAGE

SECONDARY VOLTAGE

Rated voltage
(kV, effective)
__________________
_____________________
Maximum voltage
(kV, effective)
__________________
_____________________
Atmospheric impulse withstand voltage, full wave
(kV, crest)
__________________
_____________________
Atmospheric impulse withstand voltage, with chopped wave
(kV, crest)
__________________
_____________________
Withstand voltage, 60 Hz,
1 min. (kV, effective)
__________________
_____________________
Induced voltage
(kV, effective)
__________________
_____________________

3 - NEUTRAL TERMINAL INSULATION LEVEL


a.
b.

Rated withstand voltage at industrial frequency (kV, effective) ...................... kV


Rated atmospheric impulse withstand voltage (crest) ................................... kV

4 - NO LOAD TIME LOSSES AND EXCITATION CURRENT

The values listed below shall not be surpassed when measured after the impulse test:
No-Load Losses
Excitation Current
(in % of rated current)
a.
At rated voltage ___________________ W ____________________________ %
b.
At 110% of rated voltage ___________ W ____________________________ %
c.
Tolerance for each unit _____________ W ____________________________ %
d.
Tolerance for the average values
of all units in the Order _____________ W ____________________________ %

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

282

Standard Technical Specifications

5 - SHORT-CIRCUIT LOSSES, AT 75o C


POTNCIA NOMINAL
(kVA)

RATED VOLTAGE
(kVA)

ENROLAMENTOS
PERDAS EM CURTOCARREGADOS
CIRCUITO (W)
(kV)
LOADED WINDINGS SHORT-CIRCUIT
LOSSES (kV)
(W)

OA __________________________

______ x _______

_________________

6 - SHORT-CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE, AT 75o C


POTNCIA NOMINAL
(kVA)

BASIC VOLTAGE
(kVA)

ENROLAMENTOS
IMPEDNCIA %
CARREGADOS
(kV)
LOADED WINDINGS IMPEDANCE %
(kV)

OA __________________________

______ x _______

_________________

Tolerance for each unit in the Order ............................................................ %


Tolerance for the difference in the values measured in
any two units in the Order ......................................................................... %
7 - TOTAL LOSSES, AT 75o C
POTNCIA NOMINAL
(kVA)

ENROLAMENTOS
PERDAS EM W, PARA
CARREGADOS
CARGA PERCENTUAL DE
(kV)
100% 75%
50%
RATED VOLTAGE LOADED WINDINGS LOSSES IN W FOR
PERCENTAGE OF LOADS
(kVA) (kV) 100% 75% 50%

OA __________________________

______ x _______

_________________

Tolerance for each unit in the Order ............................................................ %


Tolerance for the average values of all
the units in the Order ................................................................................ %
8 - PERCENTAGE OF OUTPUT

Minimum guaranteed values for maximum loss taps, at rated voltage OA of _______ and
windings loaded with _______ kV to _______ kV:
PERCENTAGE OF LOAD 125%
OUTPUT
____%

Irrigation Manual

100%
____%

70%
___%

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

50%
___%

283

Standard Technical Specifications

9 - PERCENTAGE REGULATION, AT 75o C


POTNCIA NOMINAL
(kVA)

ENROLAMENTOS
REGULAO PARA
CARREGADOS
FATOR DE
(kV)
100% 80%
RATED VOLTAGE LOADED WINDINGS REGULATION FOR
FACTOR OF
(kVA) (kV) 100% 80%

OA __________________________

______ x _______

_________________

Tolerance .............................................. _____% _____%


10 - BUSHING CHARACTERISTICS

CHARACTERISTIC
a.
a.
b.
c.
d.

e.
f.
g.

PRIMARY VOLTAGE

Tenso nominal (kV):


__________________
Rated voltage (kV)
__________________
Impulse Level (kV, crest) _________________
Rated current (A)
__________________
Creepage minimum
distance (mm)
__________________
Type
__________________
Catalogue reference
__________________
Manufacturer
__________________

SECONDARY VOLTAGE
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________

11 - TRANSFORMER TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS

a.

Core
Weight .................................................................... kg
Magnetic flux (tesla) ................................................... T
b.
Windings
HV
LV
Current density (A/mm2)
___________
________________
Weight (kg)
___________
________________
Copper wire used (mm2)
___________
________________
c.
Tank
Weight .................................................................... kg
Dimensions: Length ................................................. mm
Width .................................................................... mm
Height ................................................................... mm
d.
Creepage distance (mm)
HV
LV
Between the phase terminals
of the transformer
___________
________________
Between the phase terminals and
the grounded part of the
transformer
___________
________________
12 - INSULATING OIL
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Irrigation Manual

Type
Manufacturer
Mixing with other manufacturers oil ( ) Yes ( ) No
If Yes, specify:
Total quantity .......................................................................................... 1
Weight ................................................................................................. kg

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

284

Standard Technical Specifications

13 - TRANSFORMER DIMENSIONS
a.
b.
c.

Total height ........................................................................................... mm


Height up to the cover ............................................................................ mm
Height for core lifting .............................................................................. mm

14 - LARGEST CRATE FOR SHIPMENT


a.
b.
c.

Height ................................................................................................... mm
Width .................................................................................................... mm
Length .................................................................................................. mm

15 - CRATES READY FOR SHIPMENT


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
S-020202

Number of crates .........................................................................................


Total weight ........................................................................................... kg
Bulk volume ........................................................................................... m3
Transformer weight shipped with oil .......................................................... kg
Transformer weight shipped with gas ......................................................... kg
Accessories weight shipped separately ....................................................... kg
Number of oil drums: __________ of __________ kg each.
POWER TRANSFORMERS - MAXIMUM VOLTAGE UP TO 72.5 KV

1.

Objective. This Specification establishes the minimum technical requirements for


furnishing three-phase power transformers, maximum voltage up to 72.5 kV, with two
windings, for outdoor use.

2.

Nominal Characteristics

2.1

Windings
Primary-Voltage winding: rated voltage of 69 kV, connected in delta, 69 kV
insulation class, 350 kV impulse level, taps for 72450/70725/69000/67275/65550
V and full insulation.
Secondary-Voltage winding: rated voltage of 13.8 kV or 4.16 kV, connected in
wye, with accessible neutral, 15 kV or 7.2 kV insulation class, impulse level of
110 kV or 60 kV (phase) and 95 kV or 60 kV (neutral), respectively, and full
insulation.

2.2

Power. The specified power shall be the rated power in kVA, under continuous duty, at
the transformer output, under rated secondary voltage and frequency, and the transformer
shall be capable of supplying this power from any tap, without exceeding the temperature
rise limits in subitem 3.1.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

285

Standard Technical Specifications

All transformers shall be specified for a given power with natural cooling (self-cooling by
natural circulation of oil). Additional stages of cooling may also be specified, according
to the following table, and the contingency of one of the cooling units going out.

Transformer Power Natural Cooling %

Power Increase Over Natural Cooling kVA

1st. Stage

2nd. Stage

5,000

25

10,000

25

15,000

33 1/3

66 2/3

20,000

33 1/3

66 2/3

Transformers specified with additional cooling stages, shall be capable of operation


with the power indicated for natural cooling, without the temperature rise exceeding
the values of subitem 3.1, when fans are disconnected.
The first additional transformer cooling stage shall be done by installing fans (to blow air
over the tank and radiators). The second stage may be effected by additional fans and/
or by increasing the battery of radiators.
2.3

Voltages. The rated voltages are:


Primary ......................................................................................... ______ V
Secondary .................................................................................... ______ V

2.4

Taps. The transformer shall be furnished with no-load tap changers on the primary
voltage side. The tap changer shall allow the following voltages: _____/_____/_____/
_____ kV.

2.5

Frequency. The rated frequency shall be 60 Hz.

3.

Operating Characteristics. The transformer shall have the following operating


characteristics:

3.1

Temperature Rise. The transformers shall be capable of supplying the continuous rated
powers defined in this Specification without showing an average temperature rise in the
windings greater than 55o C for an ambient air temperature of 40 o C, and a temperature
rise at the hottest point of the windings greater than 65 o C, also taking into consideration
a 5% increase in the rated secondary voltage value, and a power factor greater than or
equal to 0.8.
The transformers shall not exceed the temperature rise limits indicated above, without
load and with secondary voltages 10% above the rated voltages.

3.2

Overloads. The transformers shall be designed to withstand daily overloads and shortduration overloads, in compliance with standards ABNT-NBR-5380 and NBR-5416 or
ANSI C57.92.

3.3

Rated Voltage Tolerances. The rated voltages of the transformers are considered for
transformers without load. Under these conditions, when applying a rated voltage to a
particular winding, the voltages obtained on the other windings shall be within +/0.5% of their respective rated voltages specified.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

286

Standard Technical Specifications

3.4

Regulation. Regulation shall be guaranteed for a temperature of 75 o C and power factors


of 1.0 and 0.80, and have a maximum tolerance in relation to declared values of +/7.5%.

3.5

Impedances. Percentual impedances at 75o C and 60 Hz, are as follows:


20 MVA Transformers: 10.5% at 20 MVA and connected for 69 kV;
15 MVA Transformers: 10.5% at 15 MVA and connected for 69 kV;
10 MVA Transformers: 7.5% at 10 MVA and connected for 69 kV;
5 MVA Transformers: 7.5% at 5 MVA and connected for 69 kV; For these
impedances a tolerance of +/- 7.5% is admissable.
Zero-sequence impedance shall have at least 80% of the impedance value of the positivesequence. Transformers where this does not occur shall be provided with a reactor or
reactors to raise the zero-sequence impedance value to at least this minimum. The
reactors shall have suitable electrical and mechanical characteristics and, preferably, be
located within the transformer tank. The price of the transformer shall include the supply
of these reactors.
If the impedances in the range of taps differ from the impedances at rated voltage, the
percentage of impedance variation for any tap shall not exceed the percentage of
difference between the voltage on this tap and the rated voltage. The impedance variation
between two adjacent taps shall not be greater than twice the percentage of variation
of the voltages between these two taps.
For any tap, should the tested impedance voltage vary by more than 2 1/2 percent of
the impedance voltage tested at rated voltage, the impedance voltage values that do
not meet this limit shall be decreased on the taps above the rated voltage and shall be
increased on the taps below the rated voltage.

3.6

Parallel Operation. Two transformers shall be considered to be suitable for parallel


operation when they have the same phase diagram and similar ratios of turns, voltages,
impedances and ground connections.
The impedance of the transformer shall match that of the transformers with which it is
to operate in parallel, with a maximum difference of 7.5%. This tolerance applies also to
the voltage taps with the same ratio of turns.
All transformers pertaining to one same order item shall be designed to operate in
parallel with each other.
When the transformer is designed to operate in parallel with another existing transformer,
the characteristics of this last transformer shall be included in the Bidding Documents.

3.7

Short-Circuit Requirements. The transformers shall be able to withstand, without damage,


the mechanical and thermal forces caused by short-circuits at the terminals of any of its
windings, with the rated voltage and frequency held constant at the terminals of the
other windings, providing the maximum effective value of the alternating current
component of the short-circuit current and its duration do not exceed the values specified
below:
Ratio Between the Maximum rms
Value of the AC Component, and the Current of the Windings

Maximum Short-Circuit Duration on the


Transformer Terminals Rated (s)

25

less than 25

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

287

Standard Technical Specifications

3.8

Dielectric Requirements. All transformers shall be insulated to withstand, with no signs


of deterioration, the induced voltage, rated frequency voltage and impulse voltage testes
applied to the dielectric, in compliance with standards ABNT-NBR-5356 and -5380, or
ANSI C57.12.00 and C57.12.90.
Rated frequency voltage tests applied to the dielectric and impulse voltage tests shall be
conducted in accordance with the following table.
DIELECTRIC TEST VALUES (kV)
Level Insulation

At Industrial
Frequency (1 minute)

Impulse Tests (Peak Values)


Chopped Wave

Full Wave

7.2

19

66

60

15

34

130

110

69

140

400

350

3.9

Excitation Current. The excitation current shall be as low as possible, and should not
exceed 12 times the current corresponding to the no-load loss at rated voltage and
frequency. The excitation current, at 110% of the rated voltage and at rated frequency,
shall not exceed twice its value at the rated voltage and frequency.

3.10

Noise and Radio Influence Level. The design and construction of the transformer shall
be such that the audible sound level does not exceed the values indicated in standards
ABNT-NBR-5336 or NEMA TR-1.
The radio influence levels shall nor exceed the limits indicated in standards ABNT-EB157 or NEMA TR-1.

3.11

Angular Displacement and Phase Diagram. Angular displacement shall be 30o with the
low voltages lagging behind the high voltage, as indicated in diagram no. 25, item 10.2,
of standards ABNT-NBR-5336, or Figure no. 2 of ANSI C57.12.00.

3.12

Insulating Oil. - The transformers shall be supplied with the required quantity of insulating
oil, plus a 10% reserve, and shall be free from inorganic acids, alkalis and corrosive
compounds, so as to preserve the insulation and conductors.

The SUPPLIER shall guarantee satisfatory performance with any oil, the basic
characteristics of which shall comply with the tests indicated in Table No. 1 Insulating
Oil Characteristics.
4.

Manufacturing Characteristics

4.1

Windings. The transformer windings shall be of copper, designed and constructed to


resist, without damage, the effects caused by short-circuits, as specified in item 3.7.
The insulating material shall be for Class 105o C.
All taps on the windings shall be designed for the rated power of the transformer.

4.2

Core. The core shall be manufactured of cold-rolled, laminated silicon-steel plates, with
low losses and high permeability, and shall be provided with mechanical means to prevent
loosening of the plates due to vibration.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

288

Standard Technical Specifications

The core shall be provided with lugs or other suitable devices for hoisting the core-andwindings assembly. For grounding purposes the core shall be electrically connected to
the transformer tank, at an easily accessible point.
4.3

Tank. The tank, including the cover, shall be of steel, preferably of a rust-proof steel
alloy, with a minimum thickness of 3mm. All joints and seams shall be carefully welded
to render the tank completely oil-tight throughout the life of the transformer.
The tank shall withstand over-pressures caused by possible internal short-circuits with
no leakage or deformation.
The tank, cover and radiators for all the transformers shall be manufactured to withstand
full internal vacuum pressures at sea-level (maximum 4 mm of mercury) with no apparent
distortion.
The transformer cover shall be securely fastened to the tank by means of bolts and
provided with suitable oil-tight gaskets. The cover shall not be welded to the tank. The
cover shall be provided with lifting lugs and a manhole with minimum dimensions of 45
cm diameter, or 24 x 40 cm. If there is not sufficient space for a manhole, an inspection
port (handhole) shall be provided, preferably circular in shape, with a minimum diameter
of 12 cm, and if not circular, with a minimum dimension of 10 cm. Non-circular openings
shall have rounded corners.
These openings shall provide quick access to the connections, without affecting the
bushings. All transformer openings shall have guard lips to avoid water accumulating
outside the gaskets.
The transformers shall be supplied with four suitably located supports, at a minimum
distance of 25 cm from ground level, to permit lifting with a hydraulic jack. The tank
shall be provided with hooks to permit lifting and moving the complete transformer
(including the oil) as a unit.
Each transformer shall have a drainage valve, 50.8 mm (2) in diameter, located so as
to allow the complete drainage of the tank and protected from damage by blows and
mishandling. The valve shall be globe-type and fitted with a shut-off valve for receiving
the press-filter and oil-sampling plug.
The transformers shall be provided with an oil-filtering valve located near the top of the
tank, opposite the drainage valve. This valve shall be threaded for a 38.1 mm (1 1/2)
pipe having an outside diameter of 48.3 mm and 11 1/2 threads per inch. The valve
shall be provided with a deflector to prevent oil from dripping on the windings.

4.4

Oil Reservoir. The transformers shall be provided with an oil reservoir mounted on the
transformer tank and provided with a special rubber membrane to avoid oil contact with
the environment.
The reservoir shall have sufficient volume for an oil temperature variation of 75o C over
the referenced ambient temperature. The reservoir shall be strong enough to support
the weight of the oil and other forces exerted upon it.
The reservoir shall be provided with an opening to allow internal inspection and cleaning
of the membrane.
The reservoir shall also be provided with the following accessories:

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

289

Standard Technical Specifications

Valves for connecting to the press-filter;


Two collecting wells, located beneath the reservoir at each end and provided with
drainage valves;
Weatherproof breather, protected by a corrosion-proof metal screen. Breathers
shall be filled with silica-gel.
The piping between the transformer and the reservoir shall include two shut-off valves
and flanges between the valves and the transformer tube to permit removal of the
Buchholz relay or to test same without draining the reservoir oil.
4.5

Wheels. Wheels for the transformer base shall be provided for movement in two orthogonal
directions, capable of supporting the weight of the completely assembled transformer,
including insulating oil, for movement in the yard. 4.6 Bushings. Bushings shall comply
with the requirements in standards ABNT-NBR-5034 or ANSI C76-1, and have the
following classes of insulation:
Rated primary voltage : 69 kV
Rated secondary voltage : 15 kV or 7.2 kV
Neutral : 15 kV or 7.2 kV
Conductors shall be of high-conductivity copper with cross-sections adequate for the
currents for which they are designed, without exceeding the temperature rise limits
stipulated in the standards.
Terminals for all the windigs, including the neutral terminal, shall be led to the outside of
the tank by means of bushings. Bushings for the same voltage class shall all be identical
and interchangeable among one another and between transformers of the same lot.
Bushings shall be of brown porcelain, completely oil-tight, damp-proof and unaffected
by ambient temperatures.
The 69 kV bushings shall be condensive type, filled with insulating compound or liquid.
Bushings filled with insulating liquid shall have magnetic type oil level indicators, visible
from the ground. Any proposal for supplying compound-filled bushings shall provide
proof that the characteristics of the compound are adequate for the proposed use.
The insulation level of the bushings shall not be below that of the winding taps for
which they are intended.
The 69 kV bushings shall be provided with arcing horns, adjustable in such a manner
that under overload conditions they will discharge before the bushings. The mounting of
these arcing horns shall be such that the bushings and other transformer parts will not
be damaged by discharges across them.
Available gaps and the factory-adjusted gap shall comply with the following table:
GAP Adjustment in Millimeters
Insulation class kV
72.5

Adjustable
From

To

254

457

Factory Adjusted to
305

The arcing horns shall have electrical discharge characteristics for 60 Hz, dry and wet,
practically equivalent to the standard spark gaps.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

290

Standard Technical Specifications

4.7

Terminal Connectors. The terminal connectors shall be mounted on the heads of the
bushings and should completely seal the bushing. Terminal connectors shall be
dimensioned to permit the passage of the rated current and momentary currents without
damage or excessive heating. The design of the terminal connectors shall be subject to
approval by the CLIENT.
Transformer Capacity (MVA)

Connectors
HV Bushings

LV Bushings

1/0 a 2/0 MCM

2/0 a 4/0 MCM

10

1/0 a 400 MCM

2 x 4/0 a 2 x 400 MCM

15

400 MCM a 636 MCM

2 x 400 MCM a 2 x 636 MCM

20

400 MCM a 1000 MCM

2 x 400 a 2 x 1000 MCM

4.8

Grounding Terminals. Transformers shall be provided with grounding terminals in


compliance with standards ABNT-NBR-5356 or ANSI C-57.12.10, item 7.2.8.

4.9

Markings. The windings, terminals and their respective connections shall be identified
by means of markings comprised of numbers and letters, which shall be accurately
shown on the transformer schematic diagram.
The windings terminals shall be marked with the letters H and X.
Letter H is reserved for the higher voltage windings and letter X for lower voltage
windings. These letters shall be accompanied by the numbers 0,1,2,3 etc., to indicate
the neutral terminal and the various phases and taps.
The marking character height shall not be less than 30 mm.

4.10

Splices and Connections. All terminal blocks shall have their live parts immersed in oil
and located in such a manner to permit any reconnections to be made through the
inspection opening, upon removal of a limited amount of oil. A minimum quantity of
removable parts shall be provided, so as to practically eliminate the risk of parts becoming
loosened and falling on the windings.

4.11

Transformer Cooling. Oil cooling shall be done by removable type radiators mounted on
the side of the transformers and connected with flanges.
Each radiator shall be provided with upper and lower plugs for draining oil. Two-position
(open and closed) oil shut-off valves shall be installed between the tank oil ports and the
radiator coupling flanges, to permit removal of the radiators without the necessity of
draining or lowering the tank oil level. Each valve shall have a clearly visible position
indicator (open and closed). All the valves shall be capable of withstanding the oil
pressure of the full tank without leaking.
For forced ventilation, fans and deflectors shall be supplied, to increase the cooling
effect. The fans shall be protected by means of galvanized steel grating made from bars
with a minimum diameter of 6 mm (1/4).
Characteristics of the power supply for the ventilators are specified in the Technical
Data Sheets.
The fan motors shall be shielded, protected against dust and water sprays, in accordance
with class IP55, defined in standard ABNT-NBR-6146.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

291

Standard Technical Specifications

Operation of the forced ventilation shall be controlled by the temperature of the oil or
the windings, or manually.
When windings temperature control is specified, a base shall be included, with a recess
for installing the temperature sensor.
When oil temperature control is specified, a base shall be included with a recess for
installing the control thermostat.
The system shall be designed to comply with the stages of forced ventilation described
in subitem 4.12. Even if the transformer is specified to operate initially with only natural
cooling, a provision shall be included for mounting conduits, connection boxes and
terminal boxes, including the supports required for mounting fans.
The cooling system shall be designed with sufficient reserve capacity to permit one of
the fans in any of the banks to be removed from service and still allow the transformer
to operate at its rated power with forced ventilation, without exceeding the allowable
temperature rise.
A system of automatic controls and alarms shall be supplied, including all accessories,
whether or not listed herein.
The circuits shall be designed to permit both manual and remote control. Fans shall be
statically and dynamically balanced.
The proposed system shall be submitted for approval by the CLIENT and shall include at
least the following components:
Banks of fans, with starting switches and devices for overload and short-circuit
protection;
Device for phase-failure protection if the motors are three-phase;
Timed protection against undervoltage;
Two-position control switch, Manual-Automatic;
Switch for Local-Remote control;
Supervisory and alarm devices in accordance with the Manufacturers standards
and in compliance with this Specification.
4.12

Thermal Supervision. All transformers shall be provided with a dial type thermometer,
with mercury contacts, located in accordance with Manufacturers standards to indicate
temperature at the surface of the oil.
The thermometer shall read temperatures between 20o C and 120o C and shall be provided
with a pointer indicating maximum temperature, and contacts to operate an alarm and
a circuit breaker, with high temperature settings independent from one another.
If the forced ventilation control is by means of oil temperature, the thermometer shall be
provided with contacts for controlling the fans.
Unless otherwise indicated, all transformers shall be provided with a recessed resistor
type temperature sensor on one phase of each winding.
The sensor component shall be adequately insulated from the transformer windings,
and its wiring and terminals shall be insulated for 600 volts.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

292

Standard Technical Specifications

Sensor component terminals shall be connected to the teminal block in the transformer
terminal box.
The sensors indicated above shall be accompanied by the following test results:
Calibration curve, showing the temperature of the internal part of the heat sensor,
as a function of the current in the element and the oil surface temperature. During
this test the heat sensor shall be immersed in an oil bath, so as to simulate
temperature and circulation conditions in the transformer;
Curves for the current transformers, showing the primary current and the currents
corresponding to the various secondary taps.
Thermometers shall have an accuracy of +/- 1o C throughout the scale and the
transformers shall be provided with an additional recess for the thermometer bulbs, as
well as protectors for the capillary tubes.
4.13

Oil Level Indicator. The transformers shall be provided with a magnetic type visible oil
level indicator, with alarm contacts for both high and low levels, and the indicator face
marked with the word Nvel relative to the level at 25 o C. The indicator shall be
mounted on the oil reservoir chamber, in such a position to be visible from the ground.

4.14

Buchholz Relay. The transformers shall be provided with oil pressure relays and Buchholz
type gas detectors, with two sets of contacts, one for an alarm, and the other to
disconnect the circuit breaker.

4.15

Safety Valve. The transformers shall be provided with a diaphragm-type safety device
for protection against damage caused by a sudden increase in internal pressure. The
device shall be oriented sideways, to the outside of the transformer, to avoid spillage of
vented oil onto the transformer. The diaphragm shall be of glass, bakelite or mica. There
shall be a screen or deflector beneath the diaphragm to prevent particles from coming in
contact with the windings.
A device, provided with an oil level indicator, contacts and oil-filter plug, located above
the diaphragm, shall be included to signal, both local and remote, if rupture of the
diaphragm occurs.

4.16

Tap Changers. All transformers shall be provided with rotating, no-load, no-voltage tap
changers, with simultaneous switching for all three phases.
The tap changers shall be of sturdy mechanical and electrical construction, mounted
within the transformer tank, immersed in oil and provided with an external mechanism
for manual operation. The tap changers shall be located on the high-voltage side and
installed at a height of 1000 mm +/- 200 mm.
The tap changers shall be designed and constructed, including the arrangement of
connections and cable terminals, to withstand conditions caused by transient voltages.
The external mechanism shall be protected with a padlock against unauthorized operation,
and shall have a position indicator near the actuator, clearly visible without having to
unlock the padlock.
The positions of the tap changer shall be designated by means of numbers, exactly
corresponding to the voltages indicated on the schematic diagrams. These positions
shall be in low-relief indelible printing with oil-proof paint, in a color that presents a clear
contrast with the surrounding material and can be read in daylight, even when immersed
in insulating oil.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

293

Standard Technical Specifications

4.17

Terminal Box. A weather-proof terminal box shall be furnished, mounted on the tank
and accessible from the ground, which shall contain the transformer control, alarm and
protection terminal blocks. The terminal box shall have a door provided with a latch and
a yale-type or equivalent lock. The base of the box shall be provided with welded
sleeves for connecting conduits for control cables arriving at the transformer. The box
shall be removable to allow moving the transformer without having to disconnect the
attached conduits.
All control, alarm and transformer protection wiring shall be led to the control box
through rigid steel conduit. All wires to be used shall have a minimum gage of 2.5 mm2,
of flexible stranded copper, of the special type used for controls, with insulation for 600
V, fire-and-water-proof, and shall be identified (by the color of the insulation or) by
unperishable labels attached to their ends.
Terminal blocks, accessory terminal and the wiring shall be visible and easily accessible.
The door shall be easy to remove to allow free access to wiring and terminals. Should
the wiring be run behind the panel, this should be mounted on hinges or other devices to
permit it to be turned sufficiently to allow easy access to the wiring and terminals
behind the panel.
The same terminal box may be used for the connections for the power supply and
cooling equipment controls, or another box with the same characteristics may be used.

4.18

Gaskets. Due to the rapid deterioration of cork gaskets bonded with lacquer when in
contact with oil, they will not be accepted as gasket material. Gaskets shall be of nitrile
rubber or equivalent. The BIDDER shall indicate the material to be used, certifying that
it is oil-resistant.
The tank, inspection cover and bushings gasket-fitted joints and other bolted connections
shall be designed to avoid the exposure of gaskets to the weather. Joints shall be
provided with spacers to avoid crushing the gaskets by excessive tightning. The joints
shall be water and oil-tight.
The SUPPLIER shall furnish, at no extra cost, tank and cover gaskets to replace those
that cannot be re-used after transportation and assembly.

4.19

Paint and Anti-Corrosion Treatment. Paint and anti-corrosion treatment shall comply
with the requirements specified in item (S-020248 - Paint and Anti-Corrosion Treatment)
and the following requirements.
The paint applied to the internal part of the tank shall be resistant to the effects of the
insulating oil without contaminating the oil.
The external finishing paint shall be synthetic enamel of light gray color, ANSI 70,
notation Munsell No. 5, gloss range 73 to 77.
The transformer frame and all metal parts and hardware subject to corrosive action shall
be hot-dip galvanized in accordance with standards ASTM A-123 and -153, Class C.

4.20

Nameplate. The nameplate shall comply with the requirements of subitem 3 of item (S020200 - Electrical Equipment) and shall include the following additional information:
Rated power, in kVA
Rated frequency, in Hz . Rated voltages, in kV
Impedance percentage

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

294

Standard Technical Specifications

Connection diagram
Phase diagram
Type and volume of insulating oil
Basic impulse level
5.

Tests

5.1

Routine Tests. Routine tests, for the purpose of checking the quality and uniformity of
the labor and materials used in manufacturing the transformers, shall be conducted on
all the units in the presence of the ENGINEER.
The methods and equipment used in performing routine tests shall be in accordance
with standards ABNT-NBR-5380 or ANSI C57.12.90.
If any transformer fails or does not satisfy the routine tests, it shall be rejected, and the
SUPPLIER shall correct the faults encountered and submit the unit again to all the
specified tests.
Only transformers that have had all their routine tests duly approved by the ENGINEER
shall be accepted.
The cost of all routine tests and repetitions of same shall be included in the power
transformer price.
The routine tests are the following:
Measurement of the Ohmic Resistance of the Windings.
This test shall be conducted cold, at a temperature of 70o C.
Measurement of the Transformation Ratio on all Taps.
An error of 0.5% shall be permissible in the required ratios, based on primary and
secondary voltages.
Checking of Voltage Vector Diagrams
Measurement of No-Load Losses and Excitation Current.
This test shall be conducted before and after the impulse test. Currents and losses
measured after the impulse test shall be used to check the guarantees.
Measurement of Short-Circuit Losses and Short-Circuit Voltage.
This shall be conducted with full-load current circulation, for the end taps.
Applied Voltage and Induced Voltage.
These tests shall be conducted after the impulse test.
Resistance to Pressure and Tightness.
This tests shall be performed on the complete transformers, with all acessories,
filled with insulating liquid, and after the dielectric tests. The transformers shall
withstand a monometric pressure of 0.5 kgf/cm2 during 36 hours.
Insulation Resistance.
The resistance of the insulation of each winding to ground, and between windings
shall be measured. The Meggers used for these measurements shall have a scale
suitable for reading values of up to 50,000 megaohms, shall be motorized, and
shall be of at least 2,500 V. . Visual and Dimensional Inspection

5.2

Type Tests. At the discretion of the CLIENT these tests may be dispensed with, when
reports of the same tests on identical transformers are required to be furnished by the
SUPPLIER. Acceptance of the tests reports by the CLIENT shall be at the SUPPLIERs
risk and cost.
The type tests are the following:

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

295

Standard Technical Specifications

5.2.1

Temperature Rise Test. The temperature rise test shall be performed in accordance with
standards ABNT-NBR-5380 or ANSI C57.12.90, using the short-circuit method for the
temperature rise in the windings over the oil temperature at the top of the tank.
The temperature of various metal parts of the transformer points near the terminals
shall be measured and recorded, as well as oil temperature differences at the top and
bottom of the transformer.
The temperature rise test shall be conducted with each comutator connected to the tap
corresponding to the maximum loss, and before the impulse test.
The test shall also be performed with the cooling system in operation and with the total
losses and currents corresponding to the power under forced ventilation, with one of
the fans disconnected during the test.

5.2.2

Impulse Tests. Impulse tests shall be conducted in compliance with standard ABNTNBR-5380 or ANSI C57.12.90, in accordance with the following requirements:
No impulse voltage shall be applied to the transformers before the tests officially
witnessed by the Engineer, or without prior approval from same;
The tests shall be applied successively to all the winding terminals to be tested,
unless otherwise specified;
The Buchholz type or pressure relay shall, if possible, be connected;
During the application of impulse voltages, the transformer spark gaps shall be
temporarily removed from the terminals to be tested.
The tests shall be conducted at ambient temperature and in the following sequence,
except for the neutral terminals:
Two reduced full waves;
Two chopped waves;
One full wave;
One reduced full wave;
The following tests shall be applied to the neutral terminals:
One reduced full wave;
Two full waves;
One reduced full wave.
For the reduced wave test, the impulse voltage shall have a form of 1.2 x 50 microseconds
and shall have a crest value between 50 and 70 percent of the full-wave value, without
discharge across the bushings or the gaps of the test equipment. For the chopped wave
tests, the impulse voltage applied shall be chopped at the extremity by a discharge
across an appropriate gap. The crest voltage and discharge time shall not be less than
those required by the ABNT or ANSI standards for the insulation class specified.
For the full-wave tests, the impulse voltage shall have a form of 1.2 x 50 microseconds
and a crest value not less than specified, without discharges across the bushings or the
gaps of the test equipment.
A cathode-ray oscillogram shall be taken of each impulse voltage and current applied to
the transformer, including those applied during preliminary and calibration tests. Cathoderay oscillograms shall be taken of the currents at the grounded terminals of the windings
submitted to reduced waves and full waves.
The test equipment shall include an electro-acoustic detector capable of recording
oscillations and noise in the transformer.

Irrigation Manual

Copyright Bureau of Reclamation

296

Standard Technical Specifications

The SUPPLIER shall keep a record of all the impulse voltages applied to the transformer
terminals, including these applied during preliminary and calibration tests, and final tests.
This record shall include the nature of each test, the reference of the oscillograms and
the electro-acoustic detector, calibration of the gaps, connections of all the transformer
terminals, atmospheric conditions, number of waves and voltages applied, curve times,
and a record of any evidence of discharges from gaps, bushings, test circuit protectors,
and any malfunction or fault in the internal and external testing of the transformer.
The impulse test record and drawings of test circuits shall be fully accessible to the
CLIENT at any time.
5.2.3

Radio Influence Test. The radio influence test shall be conducted in compliance with
standards ABNT-NBR-5380 or NEMA TR-1. Levels shall be in accordance with those
specified in subitem 3.12.

5.2.4

Noise Level Test. Noise levels shall comply with those specified in subitem 3.10.

5.3

Acceptance Tests. All the routine tests listed in subitem 5.1, as well as the type tests
listed in the Bidding Documents, shall be performed in accordance with subitem 5.2.
The following tests shall also be conducted:
Thickness and adhesion of paint and galvanizing;
Insulating oil tests. Galvanization tests shall be conducted in accordance with
standards ABNT-NBR-6334 or ASTM-A90, A123, A153 and A239.
The acceptance tests shall be conducted in the presence of the ENGINEER, on selected
samples in each group of transformers with the same characteristics.
Except for galvanization tests, sampling shall be conducted on 10% of the number of
units, with a minimum of two units, for each group of transformers presented for
inspection.
Should any unit fail any of the tests or checks desc