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# 4.

Translation Theorems

45. For y  4y  = 6e3t 3et the transfer function is W (s) = 1/(s2 4s). The zero-input response is




s5
5 1 1
1
5 1

y0 (t) =
=
= e4t ,
s2 4s
4 s 4 s4
4 4
and the zero-state response is

y1 (t) =

=
=

6
3

## (s 3)(s2 4s) (s + 1)(s2 4s)

27
1
2
5 1 3
1

+
20 s 4 s 3 4 s 5 s + 1

27 4t
5 3
e 2e3t + et .
20
4 5

46. From Theorem 4.4, if f and f  are continuous and of exponential order,

{f  (t)} = 0 so

and

## For f (t) = cos kt,

lim sF (s) = lim s

## lim F (s) = f (0).

s
= 1 = f (0).
s2 + k 2

EXERCISES 4.3
Translation Theorems

1.

3.
5.
6.

7.
9.


te10t =


t3 e2t =

11.

2.

3!
(s + 2)4

 
2
t et + e2t
=



e2t (t 1)2 =


et sin 3t =

4.



te2t + 2te3t + te4t =


t2 e2t 2te2t + e2t =

3
(s 1)2 + 9



10.

1
(s 10)2


te6t =


t10 e7t =

1
(s + 6)2
10!
(s + 7)11

1
2
1
+
+
2
2
(s 2)
(s 3)
(s 4)2

2
2
1

+
(s 2)3
(s 2)2
s2
8.


e2t cos 4t =

## {cos 5t et cos 5t + 3e4t cos 5t} =

s+2
(s + 2)2 + 16

s1
3(s + 4)
s

+
s2 + 25 (s 1)2 + 25 (s + 4)2 + 25




4
t
5
t
9

e3t 9 4t + 10 sin
+
=
9e3t 4te3t + 10e3t sin
=
2
2
s 3 (s 3)2
(s 3)2 + 1/4




1
1
2
1
=
= t2 e2t
(s + 2)3
2 (s + 2)3
2

207

## 4.3 Translation Theorems


12.


1
(s 1)4


=

1
6


3!
(s 1)4



=

1 3 t
t e
6


1
1
= e3t sin t
=
s2 6s + 10
(s 3)2 + 12




1
2
1
1
= et sin 2t
=
2
2
2
s + 2s + 5
2 (s + 1) + 2
2




s
s+2
1
2
= e2t cos t 2e2t sin t
=
s2 + 4s + 5
(s + 2)2 + 12
(s + 2)2 + 12




2s + 5
5
1
1
(s + 3)
= 2e3t cos 5t e3t sin 5t

=
2
s2 + 6s + 34
(s + 3)2 + 52
5 (s + 3)2 + 52
5






s+11
1
s
1

=
=
= et tet
(s + 1)2
(s + 1)2
s + 1 (s + 1)2






5s
5(s 2) + 10
5
10
+
=
=
= 5e2t + 10te2t
(s 2)2
(s 2)2
s 2 (s 2)2




2s 1
5
1
4
2
5
3
3

=
= 5 t 5et 4tet t2 et
s2 (s + 1)3
s s2
s + 1 (s + 1)2
2 (s + 1)3
2




(s + 1)2
1
3!
2
1
1

+
=
= te2t t2 e2t + t3 e2t
4
2
3
4
(s + 2)
(s + 2)
(s + 2)
6 (s + 2)
6

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

## 21. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is

s
Solving for

{y} y(0) + 4

{y} =

1
.
s+4

{y} we obtain
{y} =

1
2
.
+
2
(s + 4)
s+4

Thus
y = te4t + 2e4t .
22. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
Solving for

{y}

{y} =

{y} we obtain
{y} =

1
1
1
1
1
= +
.
+
+
3
s(s 1) (s 1)
s s 1 (s 1)3

Thus

1
y = 1 + et + t2 et .
2

## 23. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is

s2
Solving for

1
1
+
.
s (s 1)2

{y} sy(0) y  (0) + 2 s

{y} y(0) +

{y} we obtain
{y} =

2
1
s+3
+
=
.
(s + 1)2
s + 1 (s + 1)2

Thus
y = et + 2tet .

208

{y} = 0.

4.3

Translation Theorems

s2

## {y} sy(0) y  (0) 4 [s

{y} y(0)] + 4

{y} =

6
.
(s 2)4

1
5!
1 5 2t
t e .
. Thus, y =
20 (s 2)6
20
25. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
Solving for

{y} we obtain

s2
Solving for

{y} =

{y} y(0)] + 9

{y} =

1
.
s2

{y} we obtain
{y} =

1
10
1
1 + s2
2 1 1 1
2
+
+
=

.
3)2
27 s 9 s2
27 s 3
9 (s 3)2

s2 (s

Thus
y=

2
1
2
10
+ t e3t + te3t .
27 9
27
9

s2
Solving for

## {y} sy(0) y  (0) 4 [s

{y} y(0)] + 4

{y} =

6
.
s4

{y} we obtain
{y} =

s5 4s4 + 6
13
1
3 1 9 1
3 2
1 3!
1 1
+

=
+
+
+
.
4
2
2
3
4
s (s 2)
4 s 8 s
4 s
4 s
4 s2
8 (s 2)2

Thus
y=

3 9
3
1
1
13
+ t + t2 + t3 + e2t te2t .
4 8
4
4
4
8

s2
Solving for

{y} = 0.

{y} we obtain
{y} =

Thus

3
2
3
=
.
s2 6s + 13
2 (s 3)2 + 22
3
y = e3t sin 2t.
2

## 28. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is

2 s2 {y} sy(0) + 20 s
Solving for

{y} y(0)] + 13

{y} y(0) + 51

{y} = 0.

{y} we obtain
{y} =

2s + 20
2(s + 5)
10
4s + 40
=
=
+
.
2s2 + 20s + 51
(s + 5)2 + 1/2
(s + 5)2 + 1/2 (s + 5)2 + 1/2

Thus

s2

{y} y(0)] =

209

s1
.
(s 1)2 + 1

## 4.3 Translation Theorems

Solving for

{y} we obtain
{y} =

1 1 1
s1
1
1
1
=

+
.
s(s2 2s + 2)
2 s 2 (s 1)2 + 1 2 (s 1)2 + 1

Thus

1 1 t
1
e cos t + et sin t.
2 2
2

y=

s2
Solving for

## {y} sy(0) y  (0) 2 [s

{y} y(0)] + 5

{y} =

1
1
+ 2.
s s

{y} we obtain
{y} =
=

4s2 + s + 1
7 1 1 1
7s/25 + 109/25
=
+
+
2
2
2
s (s 2s + 5)
25 s 5 s
s2 2s + 5
7 1 1 1
s1
2
7
51
+

+
.
25 s 5 s2
25 (s 1)2 + 22
25 (s 1)2 + 22

Thus
y=

1
7
7
51
+ t et cos 2t + et sin 2t.
25 5
25
25

31. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the dierential equation and letting c = y(0) we obtain
{y  } +
s2

## {y} sy(0) y  (0) + 2s

2

{2y  } +

{y} = 0

{y} 2y(0) +

{y} = 0

{y} cs 2 + 2s

{y} 2c +

s2 + 2s + 1

{y} = 0
{y} = cs + 2c + 2
cs
2c + 2
{y} =
+
(s + 1)2
(s + 1)2
=c
=

Therefore,


y(t) = c

1
s+1


+ (c + 2)

1
(s + 1)2

s+11
2c + 2
+
(s + 1)2
(s + 1)2

c+2
c
+
.
s + 1 (s + 1)2

= cet + (c + 2)tet .

## To nd c we let y(1) = 2. Then 2 = ce1 + (c + 2)e1 = 2(c + 1)e1 and c = e 1. Thus

y(t) = (e 1)et + (e + 1)tet .
32. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the dierential equation and letting c = y  (0) we obtain
{y  } +
s2

{8y  } +

{20y} = 0

{y} y  (0) + 8s

{y} + 20

{y} = 0

{y} + 20

{y} = 0

(s2 + 8s + 20)

{y} = c

{y} c + 8s

{y} =

210

c
c
=
.
s2 + 8s + 20
(s + 4)2 + 4

4.3
Therefore,


y(t) =

c
(s + 4)2 + 4


=

Translation Theorems

c 4t
e
sin 2t = c1 e4t sin 2t.
2

To nd c we let y  () = 0. Then 0 = y  () = ce4 and c = 0. Thus, y(t) = 0. (Since the dierential equation
is homogeneous and both boundary conditions are 0, we can see immediately that y(t) = 0 is a solution. We
have shown that it is the only solution.)
33. Recall from Section 3.8 that mx = kx x . Now m = W/g = 4/32 =


1
8

## slug, and 4 = 2k so that k = 2 lb/ft.

Thus, the dierential equation is x + 7x + 16x = 0. The initial conditions are x(0) = 3/2 and x (0) = 0.
The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s2
Solving for

3
{x} + s + 7s
2

{x} +

21
+ 16
2

{x} = 0.

{x} we obtain

3s/2 21/2
3
s + 7/2
15/2
7 15

{x} = 2
=

.
s + 7s + 16
2 (s + 7/2)2 + ( 15/2)2
10 (s + 7/2)2 + ( 15/2)2

Thus

3 7t/2
7 15 7t/2
15
15
t
e
t.
cos
sin
x= e
2
2
10
2

## 34. The dierential equation is

d2 q
dq
+ 20 + 200q = 150,
dt2
dt
The Laplace transform of this equation is
s2
Solving for

{q} + 20s

q(0) = q  (0) = 0.

{q} + 200

150
.
s

{q} =

{q} we obtain
{q} =

3 1 3
s + 10
10
3
150
=

.
s(s2 + 20s + 200)
4 s 4 (s + 10)2 + 102
4 (s + 10)2 + 102

Thus
q(t) =

3
3 3 10t
e
cos 10t e10t sin 10t
4 4
4

and
i(t) = q  (t) = 15e10t sin 10t.
35. The dierential equation is

d2 q
dq
E0
+ 2 + 2 q =
,
dt2
dt
L
The Laplace transform of this equation is
s2
or

Solving for

{q} + 2s


{q} + 2

s2 + 2s + 2

q(0) = q  (0) = 0.

{q} =

{q} =

E0 1
L s

E0 1
.
L s

## {q} and using partial fractions we obtain

E0 1/ 2
(1/ 2 )s + 2/ 2
s + 2
E0 1
{q} =
2

=
.
L
s
s + 2s + 2
L 2 s s2 + 2s + 2

211

## 4.3 Translation Theorems



For > we write s2 + 2s + 2 = (s + )2 2 2 , so (recalling that 2 = 1/LC)

1
s+

{q} = E0 C
.
s (s + )2 (2 2 ) (s + )2 (2 2 )
Thus for > ,







sinh 2 2 t .
q(t) = E0 C 1 et cosh 2 2 t
2 2


For < we write s2 + 2s + 2 = (s + )2 + 2 2 , so

1
s+

{q} = E0 C

.
s (s + )2 + ( 2 2 ) (s + )2 + ( 2 2 )
Thus for < ,







t
2
2
2
2

sin t .
cos t
q(t) = E0 C 1 e
2 2

For = , s2 + 2 + 2 = (s + )2 and

E0
1/2
1/
1

1
E0 1/2
E0 1
{q} =

=
=
.
L s(s + )2
L
s
s + (s + )2
L2 s s + (s + )2
Thus for = ,



q(t) = E0 C 1 et tet .

## 36. The dierential equation is

dq
1
+ q = E0 ekt , q(0) = 0.
dt
C
The Laplace transform of this equation is
R

Rs
Solving for

{q} +

1
C

{q} = E0

1
.
s+k

{q} we obtain
{q} =

E0 C
E0 /R
=
.
(s + k)(RCs + 1)
(s + k)(s + 1/RC)

## When 1/RC = k we have by partial fractions

E0 1/(1/RC k) 1/(1/RC k)
1
1
E0
1
{q} =

=
.
R
s+k
s + 1/RC
R 1/RC k s + k s + 1/RC
Thus
q(t) =


E0 C  kt
et/RC .
e
1 kRC

## When 1/RC = k we have

{q} =

1
E0
.
R (s + k)2

Thus
q(t) =
37.
38.




(t 1)
e2t

 es
(t 1) = 2
s


(t 2) =
e(t2)

E0 t/RC
E0 kt
te
te
=
.
R
R

e2s
(t 2) =
s+1

212

4.3

39.


(t 2) =

{(t 2)

(t 2) + 2

(t 2)} =

Translation Theorems

e2s
2e2s
+
s2
s

{t

40.


(t 1) = 3

(3t + 1)

2s

2s

{t + 2} = e

(t 2)} = e

(t 1)


(t 1) + 4

1
2
+
2
s
s

 3es
4es
(t 1) = 2 +
s
s

41.


(t ) =

cos 2t

{(3t + 1)

(t 1)} = e

{cos 2(t )

(t )} =

{3t + 4} = e

3
4
+
2
s
s

ses
s2 + 4

## Alternatively, (16) of this section could be used:

{cos 2t

42.


sin t


=
2

(t )} = es



cos t
2

{cos 2(t + )} = es

44.
45.
46.
47.
48.

e2s
s3

49. (c)
55.
56.
57.

{cos t} = es/2

s2

s
.
+1


1 2 2s
1
3e
= (t 2)2 (t 2)
2 s
2




(1 + e2s )2
1
2e2s
e4s
+
+
=
= e2t + 2e2(t2) (t 2) + e2(t4) (t 4)
s+2
s+2
s+2
s+2
 s 
e
= sin(t ) (t ) = sin t (t )
s2 + 1
 s/2 


se


 
t
= cos 2t
t
= cos 2 t
2
s +4
2
2
2




es
es
es

=
= (t 1) e(t1) (t 1)
s(s + 1)
s
s+1


 2s

e2s
e2s
e2s
e
+

= (t 2) (t 2) (t 2) + et2 (t 2)
s2 (s 1)
s
s2
s1

43.

s
.
s2 + 4

 ses/2
= 2
2
s +1

## Alternatively, (16) of this section could be used:



 


sin t
t
sin t +
= es/2
= es/2
2
2


{cos 2t} = es

50. (e)

51. (f )

52. (b)

 2 4
(t 3) = e3s
s s

 1 e4s
e5s
+
1 (t 4) + (t 5) =
s
s
s
2




2
t
(t 1) =
(t 1) + 2t 1
(t 1) =

2
2
1 s
=
+
+
e
s3
s2
s

53. (a)

54. (d)

24

213

(t 1)2 + 2(t 1) 1


(t 1)

## 4.3 Translation Theorems

Alternatively, by (16) of this section,
{t2

58.
59.
60.
61.
62.

sin t



tt

3
2


(t 2) =

(t 1)} = es

3
cos t
2

=



f (t) =


f (t) =

3
2


=

2
2
1
+ 2+
s3
s
s

se3s/2
s2 + 1


1
e2s
2e2s
(t 2) = 2 2
s
s
s
2s


e
1
sin t sin(t 2) (t 2) = 2

s + 1 s2 + 1

t (t 2)


(t 2) =

sin t sin t

{t2 + 2t + 1} = es

(t 2) 2

(t a)

 eas
ebs

(t b) =
s
s

(t 1) +

(t 2) +

 es
e2s
e3s
1 es
+
+
+ =
(t 3) + =
s
s
s
s 1 es

{y} y(0) +

s
Solving for

{y} we obtain

{y} =

5 s
e .
s

{y} =



1
5es
1
= 5es

.
s(s + 1)
s s+1

y=5

(t 1) 5e(t1)

Thus
(t 1).

## 64. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is

s
Solving for

{y} we obtain
{y} =

{y} y(0) +

{y} =

1 2 s
e .
s s



1
1
2es
1
1
1

=
2es

.
s(s + 1) s(s + 1)
s s+1
s s+1

Thus



y = 1 et 2 1 e(t1) (t 1).

s
Solving for

Thus

{y} y(0) + 2

{y} =

1
s+1
es 2 .
2
s
s

{y} we obtain



1
1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
s s + 1
s 1 1
{y} = 2
e
=
+
e
+
+

.
s (s + 2)
s2 (s + 2)
4 s 2 s2
4 s+2
4 s 2 s2
4 s+2


1 2t
1 2(t1)
1 1
1 1
+ (t 1) e

(t 1).
y = + t+ e
4 2
4
4 2
4

s2

## {y} sy(0) y  (0) + 4

214

{y} =

1 es

.
s
s

4.3
Solving for

Translation Theorems

{y} we obtain
{y} =



1
1 1 1 s
1 2
1 s
1s
s
s 1 1

e
=

.
s(s2 + 4)
s(s2 + 4)
4 s 4 s2 + 4 2 s2 + 4
4 s 4 s2 + 4

Thus
y=



1 1
1
1 1
cos 2t sin 2t
cos 2(t 1) (t 1).
4 4
2
4 4

s2
Solving for

## {y} sy(0) y  (0) + 4

{y} we obtain

1
.
s2 + 1



s
1
1 2
2s 1
+
e

.
s2 + 4
3 s2 + 1 6 s2 + 4

{y} =
Thus

{y} = e2s


y = cos 2t +

1
1
sin(t 2) sin 2(t 2)
3
6

(t 2).

s2
Solving for

## {y} sy(0) y  (0) 5 [s

{y} y(0)] + 6

{y} =

es
.
s

{y} we obtain
1
1
+
s(s 2)(s 3) (s 2)(s 3)


1 1
1 1
1
1
s 1 1

+
+
.
=e

6 s 2 s2 3 s3
s2 s3

{y} = es

Thus

1 1 2(t1) 1 3(t1)
e
+ e
6 2
3

y=

(t 1) e2t + e3t .

s2
Solving for

## {y} sy(0) y  (0) +

{y} we obtain
s

{y} = e

{y} =

e2s
es

.
s
s




1
s
s
1
2s 1

.
e
+ 2
s s2 + 1
s s2 + 1
s +1

Thus
y = [1 cos(t )]

(t ) [1 cos(t 2)]

(t 2) + sin t.

## 70. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is

s2
Solving for

{y} sy(0) y  (0) + 4 s

{y} y(0) + 3

{y} we obtain

{y} =

e4s
e6s
1 e2s

+
.
s
s
s
s



1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
2s 1 1
{y} =

+
e

+
3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3
3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3




1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1

+
+ e6s
.
e4s
3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3
3 s 2 s+1 6 s+3

215

## 4.3 Translation Theorems

Thus
y=



1 1 t 1 3t
1 1 (t2) 1 3(t2)
e + e
e

+ e
(t 2)
3 2
6
3 2
6




1 1 (t4) 1 3(t4)
1 1 (t6) 1 3(t6)

e
e
+ e
+ e
(t 4) +
(t 6).
3 2
6
3 2
6

71. Recall from Section 3.8 that mx = kx + f (t). Now m = W/g = 32/32 = 1 slug, and 32 = 2k so that
k = 16 lb/ft. Thus, the dierential equation is x + 16x = f (t). The initial conditions are x(0) = 0, x (0) = 0.
Also, since


f (t) =

20t, 0 t < 5
t5

0,

## and 20t = 20(t 5) + 100 we can write

f (t) = 20t 20t

(t 5) = 20t 20(t 5)

(t 5) 100

(t 5).

## The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is

s2
Solving for

{x} + 16

{x} =

20 20 5s 100 5s
e .
2e

s2
s
s

{x} we obtain
20
100
20

e5s
e5s
s2 (s2 + 16) s2 (s2 + 16)
s(s2 + 16)



25 1 25
5 1
4
s
5
2
2
1 e5s

2
=
e5s .
4 s
16 s + 16
4 s
4 s + 16

{x} =

Thus





5
25 25
5
5
5
sin 4t (t 5)
sin 4(t 5)
(t 5)

cos 4(t 5)
(t 5)
x(t) = t
4
16
4
16
4
4
=

5
5
5
t
sin 4t t
4
16
4

(t 5) +

5
sin 4(t 5)
16

(t 5) +

25
cos 4(t 5)
4

(t 5).

72. Recall from Section 3.8 that mx = kx + f (t). Now m = W/g = 32/32 = 1 slug, and 32 = 2k so that
k = 16 lb/ft. Thus, the dierential equation is x + 16x = f (t). The initial conditions are x(0) = 0, x (0) = 0.
Also, since


f (t) =

sin t, 0 t < 2
0,
t 2

## and sin t = sin(t 2) we can write

f (t) = sin t sin(t 2)

(t 2).

## The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is

s2
Solving for

{x} + 16

{x} =

1
1

e2s .
s2 + 1 s2 + 1

{x} we obtain
1
1

e2s
(s2 + 16) (s2 + 1) (s2 + 16) (s2 + 1)


1/15
1/15
1/15
1/15
+ 2
2
+ 2
= 2
e2s .
s + 16 s + 1
s + 16 s + 1

{x} =

216

4.3
Thus
x(t) =

=

1
1
1
sin 4t +
sin t +
sin 4(t 2)
60
15
60
1
60
sin 4t +

1
15

(t 2)

1
sin(t 2)
15

Translation Theorems

(t 2)

sin t, 0 t < 2
t 2.

0,
73. The dierential equation is
2.5

dq
+ 12.5q = 5
dt

(t 3).

{q} + 5

2 3s
e .
s

s
Solving for

{q} =

{q} we obtain
2
{q} =
e3s =
s(s + 5)

Thus
q(t) =

2
5

2 1 2
1

5 s 5 s+5

2
(t 3) e5(t3)
5

e3s .

(t 3).

## 74. The dierential equation is

dq
+ 10q = 30et 30et (t 1.5).
dt
The Laplace transform of this equation is
10

s
Solving for

{q} we obtain
{q} =

Thus

q(t) =

q0
3
q0
2

{q} q0 +

3
2

{q} =

3e1.5 1.5s
3

e
.
s 1 s 1.5

3
1
1
+
3e1.5
s+1 2 s1

2/5
2/5
+
s+1
s 1.5



3
6
et + et + e1.5 e(t1.5) e1.5(t1.5)
2
5

e1.5s .

(t 1.5).

## 75. (a) The dierential equation is

3
di
3
+ 10i = sin t + cos t
t
,
dt
2
2

i(0) = 0.

## The Laplace transform of this equation is

s
Solving for

{i} + 10

{i} =

1
se3s/2
+
.
s2 + 1
s2 + 1

{i} we obtain
1
s
+
e3s/2
(s2 + 1)(s + 10) (s2 + 1)(s + 10)

1
s
10
10
10s
1
1
1
2
+ 2
+ 2
+ 2
=
+
e3s/2 .
101 s + 10 s + 1 s + 1
101 s + 10 s + 1 s + 1

{i} =

Thus
i(t) =


1  10t
e
cos t + 10 sin t
101

1
3
3
3
+
10e10(t3/2) + 10 cos t
+ sin t
t
.
101
2
2
2

217

## 4.3 Translation Theorems

i

(b)

0.2
1

-0.2
The maximum value of i(t) is approximately 0.1 at t = 1.7, the minimum is approximately 0.1 at 4.7.
76. (a) The dierential equation is
1
dq
+
q = E0 [
dt
0.01

(t 1)

(t 3)],

q(0) = 0

dq
+ 100q = E0 [
dt
The Laplace transform of this equation is

(t 1)

(t 3)],

q(0) = 0.

50
or

50

{q} + 100

50s

{q} = E0

1 s 1 3s
e e
.
s
s

{q} we obtain





e3s
1
1
es
E0
1 1
E0 1 1

{q} =
=
es
e3s .
50 s(s + 2) s(s + 2)
50 2 s s + 2
2 s s+2

Solving for

Thus
q(t) =
(b)





E0 
(t 1) 1 e2(t3)
(t 3) .
1 e2(t1)
100

q
1

## The maximum value of q(t) is approximately 1 at t = 3.

77. The dierential equation is

d4 y
= w0 [1 (x L/2)].
dx4
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y  (0) = 0 we obtain

w0 1 
s4 {y} sy  (0) y  (0) =
1 eLs/2 .
EI s
Letting y  (0) = c1 and y  (0) = c2 we have

c1
c2
w0 1 
1 eLs/2
{y} = 3 + 4 +
5
s
s
EI s
so that



1
1
1 w0
L
L
2
3
4
y(x) = c1 x + c2 x +
x x
x
.
2
6
24 EI
2
2
EI

To nd c1 and c2 we compute

2
1 w0
L
x2 x
y (x) = c1 + c2 x +
2 EI
2


and

218

L
x
2

4.3
y  (x) = c2 +

Translation Theorems


L
L
w0
x x
x
.
EI
2
2

2 
L
1 w0
3 w0 L2
c1 + c2 L +
L2
=0
= c1 + c2 L +
2 EI
2
8 EI
c2 +

w0
EI

L
1 w0 L
= 0.
= c2 +
2
2 EI

## Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = 18 w0 L2 /EI and c2 = 12 w0 L/EI. Thus




1
1 4
1
w0 1 2 2
L
L
3
L x Lx + x
y(x) =
x
x
.
EI 16
12
24
24
2
2
78. The dierential equation is

d4 y
= w0 [ (x L/3) (x 2L/3)].
dx4
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y  (0) = 0 we obtain

w0 1  Ls/3
s4 {y} sy  (0) y  (0) =
e2Ls/3 .
e
EI s
EI

## Letting y  (0) = c1 and y  (0) = c2 we have

{y} =


c1
c2
w0 1  Ls/3
2Ls/3
e
+
+

e
s3
s4
EI s5

so that
1
1 w0
1
y(x) = c1 x2 + c2 x3 +
2
6
24 EI
To nd c1 and c2 we compute
1 w0
y (x) = c1 + c2 x +
2 EI


and
y  (x) = c2 +

w0
EI

L
x
3

L
x
3

L
x
3

L
x
3

2L
x
3

2L
x
3

2L
x
3

2L
x
3


.


L
L
2L
2L
x
x
x
x
.
3
3
3
3



2 
2
2L
L
1 w0
1 w0 L2
c1 + c2 L +
=0
= c1 + c2 L +

2 EI
3
3
6 EI
c2 +

w0
EI


2L L
1 w0 L

= 0.
= c2 +
3
3
3 EI

## Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = 16 w0 L2 /EI and c2 = 13 w0 L/EI. Thus




4
1 2 2
L
1
1
w0
L
2L
3
L x Lx +
x
y(x) =
x
x
EI 12
18
24
3
3
3
79. The dierential equation is
EI



d4 y
L
2w0 L

x
+
x

=
dx4
L
2
2

219

L
2


.

2L
x
3


.

## 4.3 Translation Theorems

Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y  (0) = 0 we obtain


1
2w0 L
1 Ls/2
4


s

## {y} sy (0) y (0) =

+ 2e
.
EIL 2s s2
s
Letting y  (0) = c1 and y  (0) = c2 we have



L
c1
c2
2w0
1
1 Ls/2
{y} = 3 + 4 +
6+ 6e
s
s
EIL 2s5
s
s

so that


1
2w0 L 4
1 5
1
L
1
L
2
3
x
x +
x
y(x) = c1 x + c2 x +
x
2
6
EIL 48
120
120
2
2



5L 4
1
w0
L
L
1
x x5 + x
x
= c1 x2 + c2 x3 +
.
2
6
60EIL 2
2
2

To nd c1 and c2 we compute

3
w0
L
y (x) = c1 + c2 x +
30Lx2 20x3 + 20 x
60EIL
2

L
x
2



and

2
w0
L
2
60Lx 60x + 60 x
y (x) = c2 +
60EIL
2



L
x
2


.

## Then y  (L) = y  (L) = 0 yields the system



w0
5
5w0 L2
c1 + c2 L +
=0
30L3 20L3 + L3 = c1 + c2 L +
60EIL
2
24EI
w0
w0 L
c2 +
[60L2 60L2 + 15L2 ] = c2 +
= 0.
60EIL
4EI
Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = w0 L2 /24EI and c2 = w0 L/4EI. Thus

5

w0 L2 2
5L 4
w0 L 3
w0
L
5
y(x) =
x
x +
x x + x
48EI
24EI
60EIL 2
2

L
x
2

## 80. The dierential equation is

d4 y
= w0 [1 (x L/2)].
dx4
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y  (0) = 0 we obtain

w0 1 
s4 {y} sy  (0) y  (0) =
1 eLs/2 .
EI s
EI

## Letting y  (0) = c1 and y  (0) = c2 we have

{y} =
so that


c1
c2
w0 1 
+ 4+
1 eLs/2
3
5
s
s
EI s

4
w
1
1
1
L
0
2
3
4
x x
y(x) = c1 x + c2 x +
2
6
24 EI
2

L
x
2

To nd c1 and c2 we compute

2
w
1
L
0

2
x x
y (x) = c1 + c2 x +
2 EI
2

220

L
x
2


.


.


.

4.3

Translation Theorems

## Then y(L) = y  (L) = 0 yields the system

4 
L
1
1
1 w0
1
5w0
1
2
3
4
c1 L + c2 L +
L
L4 = 0
= c1 L2 + c2 L3 +
2
6
24 EI
2
2
6
128EI


2 
L
1 w0
3w0 2
L2
L = 0.
= c1 + c2 L +
c1 + c2 L +
2 EI
2
8EI

9
57
w0 L2 /EI and c2 = 128
w0 L/EI. Thus
Solving for c1 and c2 we obtain c1 = 128



9 2 2
19
1
1
L
w0
L
L x
Lx3 + x4
x
y(x) =
x
.
EI 256
256
24
24
2
2

81. (a) The temperature T of the cake inside the oven is modeled by

where Tm

dT
= k(T Tm )
dt
is the ambient temperature of the oven. For 0 t 4, we have
Tm = 70 +

Hence for t 0,


Tm =

300 70
t = 70 + 57.5t.
40

70 + 57.5t,
300,

0t<4
t 4.

## In terms of the unit step function,

Tm = (70 + 57.5t)[1

(t 4)] + 300

(t 4).

## The initial-value problem is then

dT
= k[T 70 57.5t (230 57.5t)
dt
(b) Let t(s) =

or

(t 4)],

T (0) = 70.

{T (t)}. Transforming the equation, using 230 57.5t = 57.5(t 4) and Theorem 4.7, gives

70 57.5 57.5 4s
st(s) 70 = k t(s)
2 + 2 e
s
s
s
t(s) =

70k
57.5k
57.5k
70

+
e4s .
s k s(s k) s2 (s k) s2 (s k)

## After using partial functions, the inverse transform is then

1
1
1
1
+ t ekt 57.5
+ t 4 ek(t4)
T (t) = 70 + 57.5
k
k
k
k

(t 4).

Of course, the obvious question is: What is k? If the cake is supposed to bake for, say, 20 minutes, then
T (20) = 300. That is,

1
1
1
1
300 = 70 + 57.5
+ 20 e20k 57.5
+ 16 e16k .
k
k
k
k
But this equation has no physically meaningful solution. This should be no surprise since the model predicts
the asymptotic behavior T (t) 300 as t increases. Using T (20) = 299 instead, we nd, with the help of a
CAS, that k 0.3.
82. In order to apply Theorem 4.7 we need the function to have the form f (t a)
rewrite the functions given in the forms shown below.

221

## 4.3 Translation Theorems

(a) 2t + 1 = 2(t 1 + 1) + 1 = 2(t 1) + 3

## (c) cos t = cos(t )

(d) t2 3t = (t 2)2 + (t 2) 2
{tekti } = 1/(s ki)2 . Then, using Eulers formula,

{tekti } =

{t cos kt} + i

{t sin kt}

1
(s + ki)
s k
2ks
= 2
= 2
+i 2
.
2
2
2
2
2
(s ki)
(s + k )
(s + k )
(s + k 2 )2

{t cos kt} =

s2 k 2
(s2 + k 2 )2

{t sin kt} =

and

2ks
.
(s2 + k 2 )2

s2
Solving for

{x} + 2

{x} =

s2

s
.
+ 2

{x} we obtain

EXERCISES 4.4

10t

d
}=
ds

1.

{te

3.

d
{t cos 2t} =
ds

5.
6.
7.
8.

1
s + 10

s
2
s +4

1
=
(s + 10)2

s2 4
(s2

+ 4)

2.

d3
{t e } = (1)
ds3

4.

d
{t sinh 3t} =
ds

3 t

1
s1

3
s2 9

6
(s 1)4

6s
(s2

1
d2
6s2 + 2
{t sinh t} = 2
=
3
ds
s2 1
(s2 1)



2s s2 3
s
1 s2
d2
d
2
{t cos t} = 2
=
=
3
ds
s2 + 1
ds (s2 + 1)2
(s2 + 1)

 2t

6
d
12(s 2)
te sin 6t =
=
2
ds (s 2)2 + 36
[(s 2)2 + 36]

 3t

s+3
d
(s + 3)2 9
te
cos 3t =
=
2
ds (s + 3)2 + 9
[(s + 3)2 + 9]
2

## 9. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is

s
Solving for

{y} +

{y} =

2s
.
(s2 + 1)2

{y} we obtain
{y} =

1 1
1 s
1
2s
1 1
s

+
+
=
+ 2
.
(s + 1)(s2 + 1)2
2 s + 1 2 s2 + 1 2 s2 + 1 (s2 + 1)2
(s + 1)2

222

9)

4.4
Thus

1
y(t) = et
2
1
= et +
2

1
1
1
1
sin t + cos t + (sin t t cos t) + t sin t
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
cos t t cos t + t sin t.
2
2
2

## 10. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is

{y}

s
Solving for

{y} =

2(s 1)
.
((s 1)2 + 1)2

{y} we obtain
{y} =

2
.
((s 1)2 + 1)2

Thus
y = et sin t tet cos t.
11. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s2

{y} =

s
.
s2 + 9

{y} =

{y} we obtain

## 2s3 + 5s2 + 19s 45

5
s
2s
+
+
= 2
.
(s2 + 9)2
s + 9 s2 + 9 (s2 + 9)2

Thus

5
1
sin 3t + t sin 3t.
3
6

y = 2 cos 3t +
12. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s2
Solving for

## {y} sy(0) y  (0) +

{y} =

1
.
s2 + 1

{y} we obtain
{y} =

s3 s2 + s
1
1
s

+
= 2
.
(s2 + 1)2
s + 1 s2 + 1 (s2 + 1)2

Thus

y = cos t sin t +

1
1
sin t t cos t
2
2

= cos t

1
1
sin t t cos t.
2
2

s2

{y} =

{cos 4t cos 4t

(t )}

## or by (16) of Section 4.3 in the text,

(s2 + 16)

s
es
s2 + 16
s
es
=1+ 2
s + 16

{y} = 1 +

Thus
{y} =
and
y=

{cos 4(t + )}
{cos 4t} = 1 +

s
s

es .
s2 + 16 s2 + 16

s
1
s
+
2
es
s2 + 16 (s2 + 16)2
(s + 16)2

1
1
1
sin 4t + t sin 4t (t ) sin 4(t )
4
8
8

223

(t ).

14. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s2

## {y} sy(0) y  (0) +

(s2 + 1)

or

Thus

{y} =


1




+ sin t
t
2
2

 

1 1 s/2
sin t +
e
+ es/2
s s
2
1 1 s/2
=s+ e
+ es/2 {cos t}
s s
s
1 1
es/2 .
= s + es/2 + 2
s s
s +1

{y} = s +

1
1
s
s
+

es/2 + 2
es/2
s2 + 1 s(s2 + 1) s(s2 + 1)
(s + 1)2

1
1
s
s
s
s
+

= 2
es/2
es/2 + 2
s + 1 s s2 + 1
s s2 + 1
(s + 1)2

1
s
1
s

=
es/2
es/2 + 2
s
s s2 + 1
(s + 1)2

{y} =

and

15.




 
 1 


y = 1 1 cos t
t
+
t
sin t
2
2
2
2
2




 1 

t
cos t
t
.
= 1 (1 sin t)
t
2
2
2
2
y

16.


2

y
4

0.5

2
1

-2

-0.5

-4

-1

17. From (7) of Section 4.2 in the text along with Theorem 4.8,
dY
d
d
{y  } = [s2 Y (s) sy(0) y  (0)] = s2
2sY + y(0),
ds
ds
ds
so that the transform of the given second-order dierential equation is the linear rst-order dierential equation
in Y (s):
4
4
3
s2 Y  + 3sY = 3
or
Y+ Y = 5 .
s
s
s
The solution of the latter equation is Y (s) = 4/s4 + c/s3 , so
{ty  } =

y(t) =

{Y (s)} =

2 3 c 2
t + t .
3
2

## 18. From Theorem 4.8 in the text

dY
d
d
{y  } = [sY (s) y(0)] = s
Y
ds
ds
ds
so that the transform of the given second-order dierential equation is the linear rst-order dierential equation
in Y (s):

3
10
Y+
2s Y = .
s
s
{ty  } =

224

4.4

## Using the integrating factor s3 es , the last equation yields

5
c 2
+ 3 es .
s3
s
But if Y (s) is the Laplace transform of a piecewise-continuous function of exponential order, we must have, in
Y (s) =

view of Theorem 4.5, lims Y (s) = 0. In order to obtain this condition we require c = 0. Hence
 
5
5
y(t) =
= t2 .
s3
2
19.
21.

 1 3!
6
1 t3 =
= 5
s s4
s


et et cos t =


23.

29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

{et } =

e cos d


0
t

1
s


et d

1
s

1
s


e2t sin t =

2
s3 (s 1)2
1
(s 2)(s2 + 1)

s
1
= 2
+ 1)
s +1

s(s2

 1
s+1
s+1
et cos t =
=
s (s + 1)2 + 1
s (s2 + 2s + 2)

1
1
2
d
1 2s
{t sin t} =
=

=
2
2
s
ds s2 + 1
s (s2 + 1)2
(s + 1)
{et } =

{t}
=

1
1)

s2 (s


sin cos(t ) d


t2 tet =


=

22.

1
s(s 1)

{cos t} =

sin d


28.

s1
(s + 1) [(s 1)2 + 1]

1
s


27.


26.

cos d


25.

e d


24.

20.

{sin t}

{cos t} =

s
(s2

+ 1)

  t


 t

d
d 1 1
3s2 + 1
t
sin d =
sin d =
=
2
2
2
ds
ds s s + 1
s (s2 + 1)
0
0
  t



 t

1
d
d 1
3s + 1
t
e d =
e d =
= 2
ds
ds s (s + 1)2
s (s + 1)3
0
0



  t
1
1/(s 1)
e d = et 1
=
=
s(s 1)
s
0



  t
1
1/s(s 1)
(e 1)d = et t 1
=
=
s2 (s 1)
s
0



  t
1
1/s2 (s 1)
1
(e 1)d = et t2 t 1
=
=
3
s (s 1)
s
2
0


1
Using
= teat , (8) in the text gives
(s a)2

  t
1
1
ea d = 2 (ateat eat + 1).
=
s(s a)2
a
0

## 35. (a) The result in (4) in the text is

F (s) =

{F (s)G(s)} = f g, so identify
(s2

2k 3
+ k 2 )2

and

225

G(s) =

4s
.
s2 + k 2

Then
f (t) = sin kt kt cos kt
so

8k 3 s
(s2 + k 2 )3

and

g(t) = 4 cos kt


{F (s)G(s)} = f g = 4

=


=4
0

f ( )g(t )dt

## Using a CAS to evaluate the integral we get



8k 3 s
= t sin kt kt2 cos kt.
(s2 + k 2 )3
(b) Observe from part (a) that

and from Theorem 4.8 that


t(sin kt kt cos kt) =

8k 3 s
,
+ k 2 )3

(s2


tf (t) = F  (s). We saw in (5) in the text that
{sin kt kt cos kt} = 2k 3 /(s2 + k 2 )2 ,

so


2k 3
d
8k 3 s
t(sin kt kt cos kt) =
=
.
ds (s2 + k 2 )2
(s2 + k 2 )3

## 36. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is

s2

{y} +

2s
1
{y} = 2
.
+
(s + 1) (s2 + 1)2

50

Thus
2s
1
+ 2
2
+ 1)
(s + 1)3
and, using Problem 35 with k = 1,
{y} =

(s2

y=

50

1
1
(sin t t cos t) + (t sin t t2 cos t).
2
4

## 37. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

{f } +
Solving for

{f } we obtain

{f } =

{t}

{f } =

{t}.

1
. Thus, f (t) = sin t.
s2 + 1

## 38. The Laplace transform of the given equation is

{f } =
Solving for

{f } we obtain

{2t} 4

{sin t}

{f }.

2s2 + 2
5
2 1
8
=
.
+ 2
{f } = 2 2
2
s (s + 5)
5 s
5 5 s +5

Thus
f (t) =
39. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
{f } =

2
8
t + sin 5 t.
5
5 5



tet +

226

{t}

{f }.

10

15