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Captulo 5

Transistor Bipolar de Juno (BJTs)

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Transistor Bipolar de Juno - BJT

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Transistor Bipolar de Juno - BJT

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Transistor Bipolar de Juno - BJT

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Transistor Bipolar de Juno - BJT

ULSI - ultra large scale integration, 5


Transistor Bipolar de Juno - BJT
Escala de integrao de circuitos integrados
Abrev. Denominao Complexidade (nmeros de transstores)
Interpretao Tanenbaum[7] Texas
comum Instruments[8]
SSI Small Scale Integration 10 110 em baixo de 12
MSI Medium Scale Integration 100 10100 1299

LSI Large Scale Integration 1.000 100100.000 100999


VLSI Very Large Scale 10.000100.000 a partir de ab 1.000
Integration 100.000
ULSI Ultra Large Scale 100.0001.000.000
Integration
SLSI Super Large Scale 1.000.00010.000.000
Integration

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Transistor Bipolar de Juno - BJT

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Transistor Bipolar de Juno - BJT

Aplicaes:

1. Amplificadores de Rdio Frequncia

2. Circuitos lgicos de alta velocidade ECL

3. MOSFET + BIPOLAR BiCMOS

8
Estrutura fsica do dispositivo e operao

Transistor NPN

MODO J BE J BC
Corte Reversa Reversa OFF

Ativo Direta Reversa amplificador

Ativo reverso Reversa Direta No chaveamento

Saturao Direta Direta ON

9
Figure 5.1 A simplified structure of the npn transistor.
Estrutura fsica do dispositivo e operao

Transistor PNP

10
Figure 5.2 A simplified structure of the pnp transistor.
Operao do transistor npn modo ativo: amplificador
Correntes de difuso

Regio de emissor
muito dopada
Diretamente polarizada Reversamente polarizada

Lagunas injetadas (iB1) Eltrons


recombinados
(iB2)

Regio de base
pouco dopada

Figure 5.3 Current flow in an npn transistor biased to operate in the active mode. (Reverse current components due to drift of thermally 11
generated minority carriers are not shown.)
Operao do transistor npn modo ativo: amplificador

12
Operao do transistor npn modo ativo: amplificador

v BE / VT
n p ( 0) n p 0 e dn p ( x)
I n AE qDn
dx
n p (0)
np0 valor de equilbrio trmico da concentrao de AE qDn
portadores minoritrios na regio de base W
13
Figure 5.4 Profiles of minority-carrier concentrations in the base and in the emitter of an npn transistor operating in the active mode: vBE > 0 and vCB 0.
Operao do transistor npn modo ativo: amplificador
Corrente de coletor

14
Operao do transistor npn modo ativo: amplificador
Corrente de coletor

v BE / VT AE qDn n po
n p ( 0) n p 0 e Onde: IS
W
dn p ( x ) n p ( 0)
I n AE qDn AE qDn
dx W Substituindo npo em IS

ni2
n p0 Eq. 3.47
v BE NA
vT
iC I S e
AE qDn ni2
IS
WN A

IS corrente de saturao ou corrente de escala

a. Est na faixa de 10-12 A a 10-18 A.


b. inversamente proporcional (W) largura da base.
c. diretamente proporcional rea da seo da juno base emissor.
d. proporcional a (ni2) .
e. Dobra de valor para cada 5 oC de aumento da temperatura. 15
Operao do transistor npn modo ativo: amplificador
Corrente da base tem duas componentes:

IB1, devido as lagunas injetadas: corrente de difuso de lagunas da base para emissor
v BE
AE qD p ni2 N D - Concentrao de impurezas no emissor
iB1 e VT

N D Lp L p - Comprimento de difuso dos buracos no emissor

IB2, devido s lagunas da base fornecidas pelo circuito externo para repor as lagunas
perdidas na base pelo processo de recombinao na base

Qn B - Tempo de vida dos portadores minoritrios na base


iB2
b Qn - Eltrons na regio de base

16
Operao do transistor npn modo ativo: amplificador
Corrente da base:
v BE
Qn vT
iB2
Lembrando que: iC I S e
b
vBE
1 AE qWni2 VT
Qn AEW n p (0)q e
2 2N A
v BE
iC IS
1 AE qWn2 v BE
iB e VT

iB 2 i
e VT

2 bNA
o ganho de corrente em EC

iB iB1 iB 2 Onde:
1

Dp N A W 1 W 2

D p N A W 1 W 2 vVBE iC Dn N D L p 2 Dn b
iB I S e T
D N L
n D p 2 Dn b
17
Operao do transistor npn modo ativo: amplificador
Corrente de emissor:

1 1
vBE vBE
iC IS
i E iC i B iC iC iE ISe vT
e vT



1

iC iE iC i B

- Ganho de corrente em emissor comum (50 a 200) hfe

- Ganho de corrente em base comum (~ 0,99)

18
Operao do transistor npn modo ativo: amplificador

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Operao do transistor npn modo ativo: amplificador
Modelos equivalentes:

v BE
I VT
i E S e

20
Figure 5.5 Large-signal equivalent-circuit models of the npn BJT operating in the forward active mode.
Estrutura dos transistores reais

O transistor bipolar no um dispositivo simtrico

0,01 R 0,5 0,01 R 1 Ganhos na regio ativa reversa

F 1 50 F 200 Ganhos na regio ativa direta

21
Figure 5.6 Cross-section of an npn BJT.
Estrutura dos transistores reais

Op. no modo ativo reverso:


Op. no modo ativo direto
JCB diretamente polarizada
JEB reversamente polarizada

22
Figure 5.7 Model for the npn transistor when operated in the reverse active mode (i.e., with the CBJ forward biased and the EBJ reverse biased).
O modelo de Ebers-Moll

iC i DC F i DE

i B (1 F )i DE (1 R )i DC

i E i DE R i DC

23
Figure 5.8 The Ebers-Moll (EM) model of the npn transistor.
O modelo de Ebers-Moll

v BE

i DE I SE (e VT
1) iC i DC F i DE

v BC i B (1 F )i DE (1 R )i DC
VT
i DC I SC (e 1) i E i DE R i DC

v BE v BC
IS F
iC I S (e VT
1) (e VT
1) F
R 1F
v BE v BC
I R
i E S (e VT
1) I S (e VT
1) R
F 1R
v BE v BC
IS IS
i B (e VT
1) (e VT
1)
F R
24
O modelo de Ebers-Moll

IS
v BE
1
iE e VT
I S (1 )
F F

1
v BE

iC I S e VT
I S 1
R

1 1
v BE
IS
iB e VT
I S
F F R

25
O modelo de Ebers-Moll

O transistor opera na regio ativa direta mesmo


com tenso vCB ligeiramente negativa.

26 for
Figure 5.9 The iC vCB characteristic of an npn transistor fed with a constant emitter current IE. The transistor enters the saturation mode of operation
vCB < 0.4 V, and the collector current diminishes.
Operao no modo saturao equivale a regio de triodo MOSFET

I S vBC
iC I S e vBE VT
e VT

Como a JBC est polarizada diretamente, a


concentrao de eltrons na borda da base
junto ao coletor no igual a zero.
A inclinao da reta de concentrao diminui, e
a corrente de coletor diminui.

27
Figure 5.10 Concentration profile of the minority carriers (electrons) in the base of an npn transistor operating in the saturation mode.
O transistor pnp

Figure 5.11 Current flow in a pnp transistor biased to operate in the active mode. 28
Caractersticas tenso-corrente
Smbolos do BJT

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Figure 5.13 Circuit symbols for BJTs.
Caractersticas tenso-corrente
Convenes de sinais BJT

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Figure 5.14 Voltage polarities and current flow in transistors biased in the active mode.
Caractersticas tenso-corrente

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Caractersticas tenso-corrente

Resumo das relaes corrente-tenso para um TBJ


modo ativo

IMPORTANTE!!

32
Exemplo 5.1
Projete para o amplificador para: IC = 2 mA; VC = 5V. = 100; vBE = 0,7 V para IC = 1 mA.

33
Figure 5.15 Circuit for Example 5.1.
Exemplo 5.1

34
Exerccio 5.10
Para: VE = -0,7V e = 50. Determine: IE , IB , IC e VC

35
Figure E5.10
Exerccio 5.11
Para: VB = 1 V e VE = 1,7 V. Determine: , e VC.

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Figure E5.11
Operao de um TBJ

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Caractersticas grficas do TJB

iC I S e vBE VT

38
Figure 5.16 The iC vBE characteristic for an npn transistor.
Efeito da temperatura sobre a caracterstica iC x vBE

-2,2 mV/oC

39
Figure 5.17 Effect of temperature on the iCvBE characteristic. At a constant emitter current (broken line), vBE changes by 2 mV/C.
Caracterstica iC x vCB para vrios valores de iE

40
Figure 5.18 The iCvCB characteristics of an npn transistor.
Efeito Early - dependncia de iC da tenso de coletor

VCE= VBE+ VCB

iC I S evBE vT

V
ro A
IC

Com o aumento de vCE, para a vBE constante, vCB aumenta.


Aumenta a largura da regio de depleo, diminuindo a largura AE qDn ni2
IS
efetiva da regio de base, W. Consequentemente, IS aumenta e iC WN A
aumenta.
41
Figure 5.19 (a) Conceptual circuit for measuring the iC vCE characteristics of the BJT. (b) The iC vCE characteristics of a practical BJT.
Modelo equivalente para grande sinal de um TJB regio ativa com rO

42
Figure 5.20 Large-signal equivalent-circuit models of an npn BJT operating in the active mode in the common-emitter configuration.
Caracterstica iC x vCE em funo de iB
Ganho de corrente emissor comum
I CQ
cc hFE
iBQ
Grandes sinais

iC
ac h fe ac e cc diferem de 10% a 20%
iB VCE cte
Incremental ou ca.
43
Figure 5.21 Common-emitter characteristics.
Dependncia de com IC e com a temperatura

Figure 5.22 Typical dependence of on IC and on temperature in a modern integrated-circuit npn silicon transistor intended for operation 44
around 1 mA.
Zoom da regio de saturao - VCEsat

I Csat
forado
IB

forado < F

45
Figure 5.23 An expanded view of the common-emitter characteristics in the saturation region.
Regio de saturao - VCEsat

vCE
RCEsat
iC iC I Csat / iB I B

VCEsat VCEoff I C RCEsat

46
Figure 5.24 (a) An npn transistor operated in saturation mode with a constant base current IB. (b) The iCvCE characteristic curve corresponding to
iB = IB. The curve can be approximated by a straight line of slope 1/RCEsat.
Regio de saturao - VCEsat

VCEsat VCEoff I C RCEsat

47
Figure 5.24. (c) Equivalent-circuit representation of the saturated transistor. (d) A simplified equivalent-circuit model of the saturated transistor.
Regio de saturao - VCEsat

F
VCEsat VT ln
R

Figure 5.25 Plot of the normalized iC versus vCE for an npn transistor with F = 100 and R = 0.1. This is a plot of Eq. (5.47), which is derived 48
using the Ebers-Moll model.
Exerccio 5.18
Qual a tenso de sada Vo se o transistor tem BVBCO = 70 V?

Figure E5.18

49
Resumo do formulrio

50
Simbolos e convenes

51
Table 5.3
Resumo

Relaes corrente tenso

52
Resumo
Modelo equivalente do transistor - circuito para grandes sinais

53
Resumo
Modelo de Ebers-Moll

54
Table 5.3 (Continued)
Resumo: Operao no modo saturao

55
Resumo: Operao no modo saturao

56
O TBJ como amplificador e como chave

57
O TBJ como amplificador

1. Determinar o ponto de polarizao cc (IC)


2. Calcular os parmetros de pequenos sinais:
gm I C VT ; r gm e re VT I E 1 gm
3. Substituir as fontes de tenso cc por curtos circuitos e as
fontes de corrente cc por circuito aberto. Cap. curto circuito e
Ind. circuito aberto.
4. Substituir o TBJ pelo seu modelo equivalente.
5. Analisar o circuito resultante para determinar as grandezas de
interesse.

58
O TBJ como amplificador
Caracterstica de Transferncia

vi

vo VCC RC I S e VT

vo vCE VCC RC iC

iC I S evBE vT

59
Figure 5.26
O TBJ como amplificador
Ganho do amplificador

No ponto Q:

VBE

IC I S e VT

VCE VCC RC I C

dv 1 VBE

Av o I S e VT RC
dvI v I VBE
VT

I C RC VCC VCE
Av
VT VT

60
O TBJ como amplificador e como chave: anlise grfica

vCE VCC RC I C

VCC 1
iC vCE
RC RC

61
Figure 5.27 Circuit whose operation is to be analyzed graphically.
O TBJ como amplificador: anlise grfica

62
Figure 5.28 Graphical construction for the determination of the dc base current in the circuit of Fig. 5.27.
O TBJ como amplificador: anlise grfica

63
Figure 5.29 Graphical construction for determining the dc collector current IC and the collector-to-emitter voltage VCE in the circuit of Fig. 5.27.
O TBJ como amplificador: anlise grfica

64
Figure 5.30 Graphical determination of the signal components vbe, ib, ic, and vce when a signal component vi is superimposed on the dc voltage VBB
(see Fig. 5.27).
O TBJ como amplificador: anlise grfica

Excurso do sinal

Figure 5.31 Effect of bias-point location on allowable signal swing: Load-line A results in bias point QA with a corresponding VCE which is too
close to VCC and thus limits the positive swing of vCE. At the other extreme, load-line B results in an operating point too close to the saturation 65
region, thus limiting the negative swing of vCE.
O TBJ como chave

Limiar para saturao VCE~0,3V

VCC 0,3
I C ( EOS )
RC

I C ( EOS )
I B ( EOS )

VI ( EOS ) I B ( EOS ) RB VBE


vI VBE
iB VCC VCEsat
RB I Csat
RC
iC iB
I Csat
for
vC VCC RC iC IB

Figure 5.32 A simple circuit used to illustrate the different modes of operation of the BJT. 66
O TBJ como chave

Fator forado de 10

67
Figure 5.33 Circuit for Example 5.3.
Circuitos com TBJ em CC
Exemplo 5.4

Figure 5.34 Analysis of the circuit for Example 5.4: (a) circuit; (b) circuit redrawn to remind the reader of the convention used in this book to 68
show connections to the power supply; (c) analysis with the steps numbered.
Exemplo 5.5

IE=IC+IB

69
Figure 5.35 Analysis of the circuit for Example 5.5. Note that the circled numbers indicate the order of the analysis steps.
Exemplo 5.6

70
Figure 5.36 Example 5.6: (a) circuit; (b) analysis with the order of the analysis steps indicated by circled numbers.
Exemplo 5.7

Figure 5.37 Example 5.7: (a) circuit; (b) analysis with the steps indicated by circled numbers. 71
Exemplo 5.8

=100

IE=IC+IB

72
Figure 5.38 Example 5.8: (a) circuit; (b) analysis with the steps indicated by the circled numbers.
Exemplo 5.9

73
Figure 5.39 Example 5.9: (a) circuit; (b) analysis with steps numbered.
Exemplo 5.10

Figure 5.40 Circuits for Example 5.10. 74


Exemplo 5.11

75
Figure 5.41 Circuits for Example 5.11.
Ex. 5.30

76
Figure E5.30
Exemplo 5.12

77
Figure 5.42 Example 5.12: (a) circuit; (b) analysis with the steps numbered.
Polarizao de circuitos amp. TJB

I C I B

V VBE I E I B ( 1)
I B BB
RB

Figure 5.43 Two obvious schemes for biasing the BJT: (a) by fixing VBE; (b) by fixing IB. Both result in wide variations in 78
IC and hence in VCE and therefore are considered to be bad. Neither scheme is recommended.
Polarizao de circuitos amp. TJB

Figure 5.44 Classical biasing for BJTs using a single power supply: (a) circuit; (b) circuit with the voltage divider 79
supplying the base replaced with its Thvenin equivalent.
Polarizao de circuitos amp. TJB: duas fontes de alimentao

Figure 5.45 Biasing the BJT using two power supplies. Resistor RB is needed only if the signal is to be capacitively
coupled to the base. Otherwise, the base can be connected directly to ground, or to a grounded signal source, resulting in 80
almost total -independence of the bias current.
Polarizao de circuitos amp. TJB: com resistncia de realimentao

81
Figure 5.46 (a) A common-emitter transistor amplifier biased by a feedback resistor RB. (b) Analysis of the circuit in (a).
Polarizao de circuitos amp. TJB: com corrente constante

IC I S e VBE vT

82
Figure 5.47 (a) A BJT biased using a constant-current source I. (b) Circuit for implementing the current source I.
Operao em pequenos sinais e modelos do TBJ

X X2
eX 1 ...
1! 2!

Figure 5.48 (a) Conceptual circuit to illustrate the operation of the transistor as an amplifier. (b) The circuit of (a) with the 83
signal source vbe eliminated for dc (bias) analysis.
Operao em pequenos sinais e modelos do TBJ

iC I S evBE vT

Figure 5.49 Linear operation of the transistor under the small-signal condition: A small signal vbe with a triangular
waveform is superimposed on the dc voltage VBE. It gives rise to a collector signal current ic, also of triangular waveform, 84
superimposed on the dc current IC. Here, ic = gmvbe, where gm is the slope of the iCvBE curve at the bias point Q.
Corrente de base e resistncia de base vista pela base

Figure 5.50 The amplifier circuit of Fig. 5.48(a) with the dc sources (VBE and VCC) eliminated (short circuited). Thus only the signal 85
components are present. Note that this is a representation of the signal operation of the BJT and not an actual amplifier circuit.
Corrente de emissor e resistncia de base vista pelo emissor

86
Ganho de tenso

87
Modelo hibrido -

iC iB

iC iB

iC iB

Figure 5.51 Two slightly different versions of the simplified hybrid- model for the small-signal operation of the BJT. The equivalent circuit
in (a) represents the BJT as a voltage-controlled current source (a transconductance amplifier), and that in (b) represents the BJT as a current- 88
controlled current source (a current amplifier).
Modelo T

IE=IC+IB

Figure 5.52 Two slightly different versions of what is known as the T model of the BJT. The circuit in (a) is a voltage-controlled
current source representation and that in (b) is a current-controlled current source representation. These models explicitly show 89
the emitter resistance re rather than the base resistance r featured in the hybrid- model.
Aplicao do circuito em pequenos sinais

1. Determinar o ponto de polarizao cc (IC)


2. Calcular os parmetros de pequenos sinais:
gm I C VT ; r gm e re VT I E 1 gm
3. Substituir as fontes de tenso cc por curtos circuitos e as
fontes de corrente cc por circuito aberto. Cap. curto
circuito e Ind. circuito aberto.
4. Substituir o TBJ pelo seu modelo equivalente.
5. Analisar o circuito resultante para determinar as grandezas
de interesse.

90
Aplicao do circuito em pequenos sinais: Exemplo 5.14

91
Figure 5.53 Example 5.14: (a) circuit; (b) dc analysis; (c) small-signal model.
Aplicao do circuito em pequenos sinais: Exemplo 5.15

92
Figure 5.54 Signal waveforms in the circuit of Fig. 5.53.
Aplicao do circuito em pequenos sinais: Exemplo 5.16

93
Figure 5.55 Example 5.16: (a) circuit; (b) dc analysis; (c) small-signal model; (d) small-signal analysis performed directly on the circuit.
Aplicao do circuito em pequenos sinais: Exemplo 5.16

Figure 5.56 Distortion in output signal due to transistor cutoff. Note that it is assumed that no distortion due to the transistor
nonlinear characteristics is occurring.

94
Aplicao do circuito em pequenos sinais: Exemplo 5.16

Figure 5.57 Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Fig. 5.55. Observe that this amplifier is noninverting, a property of
the common-base configuration.

95
Modelo hibrido - ; considerando o efeito de Early

96
Figure 5.58 The hybrid- small-signal model, in its two versions, with the resistance ro included.
Ex. 5.40

97
Figure E5.40
Modelos em pequenos sinais

98
Table 5.4
Modelos em pequenos sinais

99
Amplificadores de um estgio

100
Figure 5.59 Basic structure of the circuit used to realize single-stage, discrete-circuit BJT amplifier configurations.
Amplificadores de um estgio: Exerccio 5.41

Figure E5.41

101
Parmetros caractersticos de um amplificador
O circuito

102
Table 5.5
Parmetros caractersticos de um amplificador: definies

103
Parmetros caractersticos de um amplificador: Circuitos equivalentes

104
Parmetros caractersticos de um amplificador: relaes

105
Amplificador Emissor comum

Figure 5.60 (a) A common-emitter amplifier using the structure of Fig. 5.59. (b) Equivalent circuit obtained by replacing the transistor 106
with its hybrid- model.
Amplificador Emissor comum: anlise

107
Amplificador Emissor comum com resistncia Re

108
Figure 5.61 (a) A common-emitter amplifier with an emitter resistance Re. (b) Equivalent circuit obtained by replacing the transistor with its T model.
Amplificador Emissor comum com resistncia Re

109
Amplificador Base comum

110
Figure 5.62 (a) A common-base amplifier of Fig. 5.59. (b) Equivalent circuit obtained by replacing the transistor with its T model.
Amplificador Base comum: anlise

111
Amplificador Coletor comum ou seguidor de emissor

Figure 5.63 (a) An emitter-follower circuit based on the structure of Fig. 5.59. (b) Small-signal equivalent circuit of the emitter follower with the
transistor replaced by its T model augmented with ro. (c) The circuit in (b) redrawn to emphasize that ro is in parallel with RL. This simplifies the112
analysis considerably.
Amplificador Coletor comum ou seguidor de emissor: anlise 1

Rib re ro RL ( 1)
Rin RB Rib

Rin RB re ro RL ( 1)

RE vistas pela base

113
Figure 5.64 (a) An equivalent circuit of the emitter follower obtained from the circuit in Fig. 5.63(c) by reflecting all resistances in the emitter to
the base side. (b) The circuit in (a) after application of Thvenin theorem to the input circuit composed of vsig, Rsig, and RB.
Amplificador Coletor comum ou seguidor de emissor: anlise 2

RB vistas pelo emissor

114
Figure 5.65 (a) An alternate equivalent circuit of the emitter follower obtained by reflecting all base-circuit resistances to the emitter side. (b) The
circuit in (a) after application of Thvenin theorem to the input circuit composed of vsig, Rsig / ( 1 1), and RB / ( 1 1).
Amplificador Coletor comum ou seguidor de emissor: anlise 3

RL

Figure 5.66 Thvenin equivalent circuit of the output of the emitter follower of Fig. 5.63(a). This circuit can be used to find vo and hence the 115
overall voltage gain vo/vsig for any desired RL.
Resumo das caractersticas dos amplificadores com BJT - 1

116
Resumo das caractersticas dos amplificadores com BJT - 2

117
Resumo das caractersticas dos amplificadores com BJT - 3

118
Resumo das caractersticas dos amplificadores com BJT - 4

119
Capacitncias de juno e modelo em altas frequncias de um BJT - 1

120
Modelo -hibrido para altas frequncias

C Cde C je
C 0
C m
VCB
1 IMPORTANTE!!
V0c

121
Figure 5.67 The high-frequency hybrid- model.
Modelo -hibrido para altas frequncias frequncia de corte

I C g mV sC V
1
I C ( g m sC )V
(C C )r
Ib
V I b (r C C )
1 r sC sC T 0
gm
Ic g m sC T
h fe C C IMPORTANTE!!
I b 1 s (C C )r
0
gm
h fe fT
1 s (C C )r 2 (C C )
122
Figure 5.68 Circuit for deriving an expression for hfe(s) ; Ic/Ib.
Modelo -hibrido para altas frequncias frequncia de corte

gm
T
C C
gm
fT
2 (C C )

Figure 5.69 Bode plot for |hfe|

I C VT
fT
2 (C C )

Figure 5.70 Variation of fT with IC. 123


Resumo do modelo -hibrido para altas frequncias

124
Table 5.7
Resposta em frequncia do amplificador EC

Figure 5.71 (a) Capacitively coupled common-emitter amplifier. (b) Sketch of the magnitude of the gain of the CE amplifier versus frequency. 125
The graph delineates the three frequency bands relevant to frequency-response determination.
Resposta em alta frequncia do amplificador EC

126
Resposta em alta frequncia do amplificador EC

127
Resposta em alta frequncia do amplificador EC

128
Resposta em alta frequncia do amplificador EC: EXERCCIO
Encontrar o ganho em frequncias mdias e a frequencia de corte superior do amp. EC para: Vcc=Vee=10V;
I=1mA; RB= 100k ; Rsig=8k ; RL=5k ; 0=100; VA=100V; C=1pF; fT=800mHz, rx=50

129
130
Mtodo das constantes de tempo de curto circuito
baixa freqncia
Resposta em Freqncia de amplificadores

s d1s .......
nL nL1
FL ( s) nL
s e1s nL1 .......

Ci so as capacitncias do circuito equivalente e


e1 P1 P 2 ... PnL
Ris so as resistncias vistas por cada
capacitncia com todas as outras em curto
circuito

nL
1
e1
i 1 Ci RiS nL
1
L
i 1 Ci RiS

131
Resposta em Freqncia de amplificadores Aplicando o mtodo para um amplificador com MOSFET baixas freqncias

nL
1
L
i 1 Ci RiS

132
Resposta em baixa frequncia do amplificador EC
Considerar anlise em
pequenos sinais
C1 para o cap. CC1:
Resistncia equivalente nos
terminais de CC1Vsig=0; CE
= CC2= curto circuito;
C1 =RC1.CC1

Figure 5.73 Analysis of the low-frequency response of the CE amplifier: (a) amplifier circuit with dc sources removed; (b) the effect of CC1 is 133
determined with CE and CC2 assumed to be acting as perfect short circuits;
Resposta em baixa frequncia do amplificador EC
Considerar anlise em
pequenos sinais
CE para o cap. CC1:
Resistncia equivalente nos
terminais de CCEVsig=0; C1
= CC2= curto circuito;
CE =RCE.CE

Figure 5.73 (Continued) (c) the effect of CE is determined with CC1 and CC2 assumed to be acting as perfect short circuits; (d) the effect of CC2 134
is
determined with CC1 and CE assumed to be acting as perfect short circuits;
Resposta em baixa frequncia do amplificador EC
Considerar anlise em
pequenos sinais
CE para o cap. CC2:
Resistncia equivalente nos
terminais de CC2Vsig=0; C1
= CE= curto circuito;
C2 =RC2.CC2

135
Resposta em baixa frequncia do amplificador EC

nL
1
L
i 1 Ci RiS

136
Figure 5.73 (Continued) (e) sketch of the low-frequency gain under the assumptions that CC1, CE, and CC2 do not interact and that their break (or
pole) frequencies are widely separated.
Inversor Lgico: caractersticas de transferncia de tenso

Transistor como inversor lgico


Modos de operao
Corte: Entrada baixa, iC nulo, vo=VCC, sada alta
Ativo direto: Ganho EC V0/VI=-gmRC
RC RC
AV
RB r RB
Saturao: Entrada alta, sada baixa em
VCEsat 0.2 V

IB
IC

VCC VCEsat RC

Transistor fortemente saturado:

forado
VCC VCEsat RC
VOH VBE RB

137
Figure 5.74 Basic BJT digital logic inverter.
Inversor Lgico

Figure 5.75 Sketch of the voltage transfer characteristic of the inverter circuit of Fig. 5.74 for the case RB 5 10 k, RC 5 1 k, 5 50, and VCC 5 138
5 V. For the calculation of the coordinates of X and Y, refer to the text.
Concentrao de portadores minoritrios na base de um transistor npn
Modo ativo

139
Figure 5.76 The minority-carrier charge stored in the base of a saturated transistor can be divided into two components: That in blue produces the
gradient that gives rise to the diffusion current across the base, and that in gray results from driving the transistor deeper into saturation.
Concentrao de portadores minoritrios na base de um saturado

Corrente de difuso

140
Figure E5.53

141
Configurao Ebers-Moll para um TBJ npn

Figure 5.77 The transport form of the Ebers-Moll model for an npn BJT.

142
Configurao Ebers-Moll para um TBJ npn SPICE

143
Figure 5.78 The SPICE large-signal Ebers-Moll model for an npn BJT.
Exerccios e Problemas do Cap. 5

Necessrios de serem feitos e estudados!

144
Figure 5.79 The PSpice testbench used to demonstrate the dependence of dc on the collector bias current IC for the Q2N3904 discrete BJT
(Example 5.20).

145
Figure 5.80 Dependence of dc on IC (at VCE 5 2 V) in the Q2N3904 discrete BJT (Example 5.20).

146
Figure 5.81 Capture schematic of the CE amplifier in Example 5.21.

147
Figure 5.82 Frequency response of the CE amplifier in Example 5.21 with Rce = 0 and Rce = 130 .

148
Figure P5.20

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Figure P5.21

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Figure P5.24

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Figure P5.26

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Figure P5.36

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Figure P5.44

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Figure P5.53

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Figure P5.57

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Figure P5.58

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Figure P5.65

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Figure P5.66

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Figure P5.67

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Figure P5.68

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Figure P5.69

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Figure P5.71

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Figure P5.72

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Figure P5.74

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Figure P5.76

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Figure P5.78

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Figure P5.79

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Figure P5.81

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Figure P5.82

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Figure P5.83

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Figure P5.84

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Figure P5.85

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Figure P5.86

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Figure P5.87

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Figure P5.96

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Figure P5.97

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Figure P5.98

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Figure P5.99

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Figure P5.100

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Figure P5.101

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Figure P5.112

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Figure P5.115

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Figure P5.116

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Figure P5.124

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Figure P5.126

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Figure P5.130

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Figure P5.134

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Figure P5.135

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Figure P5.136

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Figure P5.137

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Figure P5.141

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Figure P5.143

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Figure P5.144

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Figure P5.147

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Figure P5.148

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Figure P5.159

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Figure P5.161

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Figure P5.162

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Figure P5.166

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Figure P5.167

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Figure P5.171

202