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Dimetro externo

Dimetro do arame
Comprimento livre
Nmero de espiras
Extremidade
Nmero de espiras ativas
Mdulo de elasticidade
Coeficiente de Poisson
Mdulo de elasticidade transversal
Dimetro mdio
ndice de esbeltez
Fator de forma esttico
Fator de Wahl
Fator de forma dinmico
Rigidez
Passo
Comprimento slido
Resistncia do material ruptura por trao
Resistncia do material ruptura por cisalhamento
Resistncia do material ao escoamento por cisalhamento
Resistncias

Resistncia do material ao escoamento por trao


Resistncia do material fadiga por cisalhamento (amplitude carga)
Resistncia do material fadiga por cisalhamento (carga mdia)
Material SAE 9254
Carga de ensaio

Ensaio

Curso de ensaio
Rigidez de ensaio
Extremidade (ensaio)
Pr-carga (deformao inicial)

Pr-carga

Pr-carga (fora inicial)


Pr-carga (tenso inicial)
Curso operacional

Operacional

Carregamento operacional
Tenso operacional
Coeficiente de segurana esttico operacional
Curso total

Total

Carregamento total
Tenso total

Curso limite geomtrico


Geomtrico

Carregamento limite geomtrico


Tenso limite geomtrico
Coeficiente de segurana esttico geomtrico

Limite

Curso limite elstico


Carregamento limite elstico
Soderberg

Limite de fadiga

Goodman
Gerber
ASME

Soderberg
Goodman
Gerber

ASME
208.45
312.67
416.89
521.11
625.34
729.56
833.78
938.00
1042.23

Resistncia trao

Resistncia trao
1700.0

Resistncia (MPa)

1600.0

1500.0

1400.0

1300.0
0

10

dimetro (mm)

12

14

16

Mola
1

fDe (mm)
fd (mm)
l0 (mm)
N
e
Na
E (GPa)
n
G (GPa)
fD (mm)
C
Ks
Kw

97.00
9.00
159.00
6.50
2.00
4.50
207.00
0.30
79.92
88.00
9.78
1.05

67.50
11.00
233.00
13.50
2.00
11.50
207.00
0.30
79.92
56.50
5.14
1.10

S
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1618.7
1568.1
1525.5
1488.9
1456.9
1428.6
1403.2
1380.2
1359.3

Pr-carga
Deflexo (mm) Carga (N)
0.00
0.00
1.00
24.27
2.00
48.53
3.00
72.80
4.00
97.06
5.00
121.33
6.00
145.59
7.00
169.86
8.00
194.12
9.00
218.39
10.00
242.65
11.00
266.92
12.00
291.18
13.00
315.45
14.00
339.71
15.00
363.98
16.00
388.25
17.00
412.51
18.00
436.78

1.15

1.30

15

1340.1

19.00

461.04

Kc
k (N/mm)
p (mm)
ls (mm)

1.09
21.37
31.33
58.50

1.19
70.52
18.35
148.50

16

1322.3

20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00

485.31
509.57
533.84
558.10

Srt (MPa)

1488.90

1428.55

24.00

582.37

Src (MPa)

1171.04

1123.58

25.00

606.63

Sec (MPa)

1042.23

999.99

26.00

630.90

Se (MPa)

1325.12

1271.41

27.00

655.16

Sac (MPa)

398.00

398.00

28.00

679.43

Smc (MPa)
A (MPa)
m
Fe (N)

534.00
2342.10
0.2062
2295.50

534.00

29.00
30.00
31.00
32.00

703.69
727.96
752.23
776.49

le (mm)

94.60

33.00

800.76

ke (N/mm)

24.27

34.00

825.02

ee

35.00

849.29

li (mm)

40.00

11.00

36.00

873.55

Fi (N)

970.61

775.71

37.00

897.82

ti (MPa)

313.62

92.01

38.00

922.08

lo (mm)
Fo (N)
to (MPa)
co
lt (mm)
Ft (N)
tt (MPa)

1.76

54.60

54.50

39.00

946.35

1324.89

3843.30

40.00

970.61

444.92

492.57

41.00

994.88

2.34

2.03

42.00

1019.14

94.60

65.50

43.00

1043.41

2295.50

4619.02

44.00

1067.67

741.71

547.90

45.00

1091.94

lg (mm)

100.50

84.50

46.00

1116.21

Fg (N)

2438.67

5958.88

47.00

1140.47

787.96

706.84

48.00

1164.74

tg (MPa)
cs

1.32

1.41

49.00

1189.00

lt (mm)

132.93

119.55

50.00

1213.27

Ft (N)

3225.58

8430.25

51.00

1237.53

SnS (MPa)

816.18

854.09

52.00

1261.80

SnGd (MPa)

731.62

758.48

53.00

1286.06

SnGb (MPa)

502.49

514.13

54.00

1310.33

SnA (MPa)

463.45

470.74

55.00
56.00
57.00
58.00
59.00
60.00
61.00
62.00
63.00
64.00
65.00
66.00
67.00
68.00
69.00
70.00
71.00
72.00
73.00
74.00
75.00
76.00
77.00
78.00
79.00
80.00
81.00
82.00
83.00
84.00
85.00
86.00
87.00
88.00
89.00
90.00
91.00
92.00
93.00
94.00
94.60

1334.59
1358.86
1383.12
1407.39
1431.65
1455.92
1480.18
1504.45
1528.72
1552.98
1577.25
1601.51
1625.78
1650.04
1674.31
1698.57
1722.84
1747.10
1771.37
1795.63
1819.90
1844.16
1868.43
1892.70
1916.96
1941.23
1965.49
1989.76
2014.02
2038.29
2062.55
2086.82
2111.08
2135.35
2159.61
2183.88
2208.14
2232.41
2256.68
2280.94
2295.50

0
1042.23
0
1171.04
0
117.10
234.21
351.31
468.42
585.52
702.63
819.73
936.83
1053.94
1171.04
0.00
104.22
208.45
312.67
416.89
521.11
625.34
729.56
833.78
938.00
1042.23

816.18
0
731.62
0
502.49
497.46
482.39
457.26
422.09
376.87
321.59
256.27
180.90
95.47
0.00
463.45
461.13
454.09
442.11
424.76
401.36
370.76
330.97
278.07
202.02
0.00

0
999.99
0
1123.58
0
112.3581
224.7162
337.0743
449.4323
561.7904
674.1485
786.5066
898.8647
1011.223
1123.581
0
99.9987
199.9974
299.9961
399.9948
499.9935
599.9922
699.9909
799.9896
899.9883
999.987

854.09
0
758.48
0
514.1308
508.9895
493.5656
467.859
431.8699
385.5981
329.0437
262.2067
185.0871
97.68486
0
470.7385
468.3789
461.2276
449.0559
431.4389
407.6715
376.5908
336.1745
282.4431
205.1901
0

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Diagrama de fadiga

Diagrama de fadiga
Amplitude de tenso (MPa)

Delexo inicial (pr

10

20

30

40

900
Diagramas de fadiga
Soderberg
Goodman
Gerber
ASME
Coeficiente de segurana - Soderberg
Coeficiente de segurana - Goodman
Coeficiente de segurana - Gerber
Coeficiente de segurana - ASME

800

700

18

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
0

200

400

Pr-carga
Tenso mnima (MPa)
0.00
7.84
15.68
23.52
31.36
39.20
47.04
54.88
62.72
70.56
78.40
86.24
94.09
101.93
109.77
117.61
125.45
133.29
141.13

Deflexo (mm) Carga (N)


94.60
2295.50
93.60
2271.23
92.60
2246.97
91.60
2222.70
90.60
2198.44
89.60
2174.17
88.60
2149.91
87.60
2125.64
86.60
2101.38
85.60
2077.11
84.60
2052.85
83.60
2028.58
82.60
2004.32
81.60
1980.05
80.60
1955.79
79.60
1931.52
78.60
1907.25
77.60
1882.99
76.60
1858.72

1
Carregamento varivel
Tenso mxima (MPa) Tenso mdia (MPa)
770.88
385.44
770.57
389.20
770.26
392.97
769.95
396.74
769.64
400.50
769.33
404.27
769.03
408.03
768.72
411.80
768.41
415.57
768.10
419.33
767.79
423.10
767.48
426.86
767.18
430.63
766.87
434.40
766.56
438.16
766.25
441.93
765.94
445.69
765.63
449.46
765.33
453.23

148.97

75.60

1834.46

765.02

456.99

156.81
164.65
172.49
180.33

74.60
73.60
72.60
71.60

1810.19
1785.93
1761.66
1737.40

764.71
764.40
764.09
763.78

460.76
464.52
468.29
472.06

188.17

70.60

1713.13

763.48

475.82

196.01

69.60

1688.87

763.17

479.59

203.85

68.60

1664.60

762.86

483.36

211.69

67.60

1640.34

762.55

487.12

219.53

66.60

1616.07

762.24

490.89

227.37
235.21
243.05
250.89

65.60
64.60
63.60
62.60

1591.81
1567.54
1543.27
1519.01

761.93
761.63
761.32
761.01

494.65
498.42
502.19
505.95

258.73

61.60

1494.74

760.70

509.72

266.58

60.60

1470.48

760.39

513.48

274.42

59.60

1446.21

760.08

517.25

282.26

58.60

1421.95

759.78

521.02

290.10

57.60

1397.68

759.47

524.78

297.94

56.60

1373.42

759.16

528.55

305.78

55.60

1349.15

758.85

532.31

313.62

54.60

1324.89

758.54

536.08

321.46

53.60

1300.62

758.23

539.85

329.30

52.60

1276.36

757.93

543.61

337.14

51.60

1252.09

757.62

547.38

344.98

50.60

1227.83

757.31

551.14

352.82

49.60

1203.56

757.00

554.91

360.66

48.60

1179.29

756.69

558.68

368.50

47.60

1155.03

756.38

562.44

376.34

46.60

1130.76

756.07

566.21

384.18

45.60

1106.50

755.77

569.97

392.02

44.60

1082.23

755.46

573.74

399.86

43.60

1057.97

755.15

577.51

407.70

42.60

1033.70

754.84

581.27

415.54

41.60

1009.44

754.53

585.04

423.38

40.60

985.17

754.22

588.80

431.22
439.06
446.91
454.75
462.59
470.43
478.27
486.11
493.95
501.79
509.63
517.47
525.31
533.15
540.99
548.83
556.67
564.51
572.35
580.19
588.03
595.87
603.71
611.55
619.39
627.24
635.08
642.92
650.76
658.60
666.44
674.28
682.12
689.96
697.80
705.64
713.48
721.32
729.16
737.00
741.71

39.60
38.60
37.60
36.60
35.60
34.60
33.60
32.60
31.60
30.60
29.60
28.60
27.60
26.60
25.60
24.60
23.60
22.60
21.60
20.60
19.60
18.60
17.60
16.60
15.60
14.60
13.60
12.60
11.60
10.60
9.60
8.60
7.60
6.60
5.60
4.60
3.60
2.60
1.60
0.60
0.00

960.91
936.64
912.38
888.11
863.85
839.58
815.32
791.05
766.78
742.52
718.25
693.99
669.72
645.46
621.19
596.93
572.66
548.40
524.13
499.87
475.60
451.34
427.07
402.80
378.54
354.27
330.01
305.74
281.48
257.21
232.95
208.68
184.42
160.15
135.89
111.62
87.36
63.09
38.82
14.56
0.00

753.92
753.61
753.30
752.99
752.68
752.37
752.07
751.76
751.45
751.14
750.83
750.52
750.22
749.91
749.60
749.29
748.98
748.67
748.37
748.06
747.75
747.44
747.13
746.82
746.52
746.21
745.90
745.59
745.28
744.97
744.67
744.36
744.05
743.74
743.43
743.12
742.82
742.51
742.20
741.89
741.71

592.57
596.34
600.10
603.87
607.63
611.40
615.17
618.93
622.70
626.46
630.23
634.00
637.76
641.53
645.30
649.06
652.83
656.59
660.36
664.13
667.89
671.66
675.42
679.19
682.96
686.72
690.49
694.25
698.02
701.79
705.55
709.32
713.08
716.85
720.62
724.38
728.15
731.91
735.68
739.45
741.71

Diagrama de fadiga - Mola 1

Diagrama de fadiga - Mola 1


Coeficiente de segurana

Delexo inicial (pr-carga) (mm)


50

60

70

80

90

100
1.70

1.63

1.56

1.49

1.42

1.35

1.28

1.21

1.14

600

800

1000
Tenso mdia (MPa)

1.07
1200

Mola

to varivel
Amplitude de tenso (MPa)
385.44
381.36
377.29
373.21
369.14
365.07
360.99
356.92
352.84
348.77
344.69
340.62
336.55
332.47
328.40
324.32
320.25
316.17
312.10

Coeficiente de segurana
Soderberg Goodman Gerber
1.19
1.17
1.12
1.19
1.17
1.13
1.19
1.17
1.14
1.19
1.18
1.14
1.20
1.18
1.15
1.20
1.18
1.16
1.20
1.19
1.16
1.20
1.19
1.17
1.20
1.19
1.18
1.21
1.20
1.18
1.21
1.20
1.19
1.21
1.20
1.20
1.21
1.21
1.20
1.21
1.21
1.21
1.22
1.22
1.21
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.23
1.22
1.23
1.23
1.22
1.23
1.24

ASME
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.27
1.28
1.29

Pr-carga
Deflexo (mm) Carga (N)

308.02

1.23

1.23

1.25

1.30

303.95
299.88
295.80
291.73

1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23

1.24
1.24
1.24
1.25

1.25
1.26
1.26
1.27

1.31
1.32
1.33
1.34

287.65

1.24

1.25

1.28

1.35

283.58

1.24

1.25

1.28

1.36

279.50

1.24

1.26

1.29

1.37

275.43

1.24

1.26

1.29

1.38

271.35

1.24

1.27

1.30

1.39

267.28
263.21
259.13
255.06

1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25

1.27
1.27
1.28
1.28

1.31
1.31
1.32
1.32

1.40
1.41
1.42
1.43

0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00

0.00
70.52
141.04
211.56

250.98

1.26

1.28

1.33

1.44

4.00

282.08

246.91

1.26

1.29

1.34

1.45

5.00

352.60

242.83

1.26

1.29

1.34

1.46

6.00

423.12

238.76

1.26

1.30

1.35

1.47

7.00

493.64

234.69

1.26

1.30

1.35

1.48

8.00

564.15

230.61

1.27

1.30

1.36

1.49

9.00

634.67

226.54

1.27

1.31

1.36

1.50

10.00

705.19

222.46

1.27

1.31

1.37

1.51

11.00

775.71

218.39

1.27

1.32

1.38

1.52

12.00

846.23

214.31

1.28

1.32

1.38

1.53

13.00

916.75

210.24

1.28

1.32

1.39

1.54

14.00

987.27

206.16

1.28

1.33

1.39

1.54

15.00

1057.79

202.09

1.28

1.33

1.40

1.55

16.00

1128.31

198.02

1.28

1.34

1.40

1.56

17.00

1198.83

193.94

1.29

1.34

1.41

1.57

18.00

1269.35

189.87

1.29

1.35

1.41

1.58

19.00

1339.87

185.79

1.29

1.35

1.42

1.59

20.00

1410.39

181.72

1.29

1.35

1.42

1.59

21.00

1480.91

177.64

1.30

1.36

1.43

1.60

22.00

1551.43

173.57

1.30

1.36

1.43

1.61

23.00

1621.94

169.49

1.30

1.37

1.44

1.62

24.00

1692.46

165.42

1.30

1.37

1.44

1.62

25.00

1762.98

161.35
157.27
153.20
149.12
145.05
140.97
136.90
132.83
128.75
124.68
120.60
116.53
112.45
108.38
104.30
100.23
96.16
92.08
88.01
83.93
79.86
75.78
71.71
67.63
63.56
59.49
55.41
51.34
47.26
43.19
39.11
35.04
30.97
26.89
22.82
18.74
14.67
10.59
6.52
2.44
0.00

1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.32
1.32
1.32
1.32
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.33
1.34
1.34
1.34
1.34
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.36
1.36
1.36
1.36
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.38
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40
1.41

1.38
1.38
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.40
1.40
1.41
1.41
1.42
1.42
1.43
1.43
1.44
1.44
1.45
1.45
1.46
1.46
1.47
1.47
1.48
1.48
1.49
1.49
1.50
1.50
1.51
1.51
1.52
1.52
1.53
1.54
1.54
1.55
1.55
1.56
1.56
1.57
1.58
1.58

1.45
1.45
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.47
1.47
1.48
1.48
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.51
1.51
1.52
1.52
1.52
1.53
1.53
1.53
1.54
1.54
1.54
1.54
1.55
1.55
1.55
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.56
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.57
1.58
1.58
1.58

1.63
1.63
1.64
1.65
1.65
1.65
1.66
1.66
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.68
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.67
1.66
1.66
1.65
1.65
1.64
1.64
1.63
1.63
1.62
1.61
1.61
1.60
1.59
1.58
1.58

26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
31.00
32.00
33.00
34.00
35.00
36.00
37.00
38.00
39.00
40.00
41.00
42.00
43.00
44.00
45.00
46.00
47.00
48.00
49.00
50.00
51.00
52.00
53.00
54.00
55.00
56.00
57.00
58.00
59.00
60.00
61.00
62.00
63.00
64.00
65.00
65.50

1833.50
1904.02
1974.54
2045.06
2115.58
2186.10
2256.62
2327.14
2397.66
2468.18
2538.70
2609.22
2679.73
2750.25
2820.77
2891.29
2961.81
3032.33
3102.85
3173.37
3243.89
3314.41
3384.93
3455.45
3525.97
3596.49
3667.00
3737.52
3808.04
3878.56
3949.08
4019.60
4090.12
4160.64
4231.16
4301.68
4372.20
4442.72
4513.24
4583.76
4619.02

Diagrama de fadiga

Diagrama de fadiga

Amplitude de tenso (MPa)


0
900

10

20
Diagramas de fadiga
Soderberg
Goodman
Gerber
ASME
Coeficiente de segurana - Soderberg
Coeficiente de segurana - Goodman
Coeficiente de segurana - Gerber
Coeficiente de segurana - ASME

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

200

400

Pr-carga
Tenso mnima (MPa)

2
Carregamento varivel
Deflexo (mm) Carga (N) Tenso mxima (MPa) Tenso mdia (MPa)

0.00
8.36
16.73
25.09

65.50
64.50
63.50
62.50

4619.02
4548.50
4477.98
4407.46

591.99
591.31
590.64
589.97

295.99
299.84
303.69
307.53

33.46

61.50

4336.94

589.29

311.38

41.82

60.50

4266.42

588.62

315.22

50.19

59.50

4195.90

587.95

319.07

58.55

58.50

4125.38

587.28

322.91

66.92

57.50

4054.86

586.60

326.76

75.28

56.50

3984.34

585.93

330.61

83.65

55.50

3913.82

585.26

334.45

92.01

54.50

3843.30

584.58

338.30

100.38

53.50

3772.78

583.91

342.14

108.74

52.50

3702.26

583.24

345.99

117.11

51.50

3631.75

582.56

349.84

125.47

50.50

3561.23

581.89

353.68

133.84

49.50

3490.71

581.22

357.53

142.20

48.50

3420.19

580.54

361.37

150.57

47.50

3349.67

579.87

365.22

158.93

46.50

3279.15

579.20

369.07

167.30

45.50

3208.63

578.53

372.91

175.66

44.50

3138.11

577.85

376.76

184.03

43.50

3067.59

577.18

380.60

192.39

42.50

2997.07

576.51

384.45

200.76

41.50

2926.55

575.83

388.30

209.12

40.50

2856.03

575.16

392.14

217.49
225.85
234.22
242.58
250.95
259.31
267.68
276.04
284.41
292.77
301.14
309.50
317.87
326.23
334.60
342.96
351.33
359.69
368.06
376.42
384.79
393.15
401.52
409.88
418.25
426.61
434.98
443.34
451.71
460.07
468.44
476.80
485.17
493.53
501.90
510.26
518.63
526.99
535.36
543.72
547.90

39.50
38.50
37.50
36.50
35.50
34.50
33.50
32.50
31.50
30.50
29.50
28.50
27.50
26.50
25.50
24.50
23.50
22.50
21.50
20.50
19.50
18.50
17.50
16.50
15.50
14.50
13.50
12.50
11.50
10.50
9.50
8.50
7.50
6.50
5.50
4.50
3.50
2.50
1.50
0.50
0.00

2785.51
2714.99
2644.47
2573.96
2503.44
2432.92
2362.40
2291.88
2221.36
2150.84
2080.32
2009.80
1939.28
1868.76
1798.24
1727.72
1657.20
1586.68
1516.17
1445.65
1375.13
1304.61
1234.09
1163.57
1093.05
1022.53
952.01
881.49
810.97
740.45
669.93
599.41
528.89
458.38
387.86
317.34
246.82
176.30
105.78
35.26
0.00

574.49
573.81
573.14
572.47
571.80
571.12
570.45
569.78
569.10
568.43
567.76
567.08
566.41
565.74
565.07
564.39
563.72
563.05
562.37
561.70
561.03
560.35
559.68
559.01
558.33
557.66
556.99
556.32
555.64
554.97
554.30
553.62
552.95
552.28
551.60
550.93
550.26
549.59
548.91
548.24
547.90

395.99
399.83
403.68
407.53
411.37
415.22
419.06
422.91
426.76
430.60
434.45
438.29
442.14
445.99
449.83
453.68
457.52
461.37
465.21
469.06
472.91
476.75
480.60
484.44
488.29
492.14
495.98
499.83
503.67
507.52
511.37
515.21
519.06
522.90
526.75
530.60
534.44
538.29
542.13
545.98
547.90

Diagrama de fadiga - Mola 2

Diagrama de fadiga - Mola 2


Coeficiente de segurana

Deflexo (pr-carga)

30

40

50

60

Diagramas de fadiga

Coeficiente de segurana - Soderberg


Coeficiente de segurana - Goodman
Coeficiente de segurana - Gerber
Coeficiente de segurana - ASME

600

800

1000
Tenso mdia (MPa)

to varivel
Amplitude de tenso (MPa)

Coeficiente de segurana
Soderberg Goodman Gerber
ASME

295.99
291.47
286.96
282.44

1.56
1.56
1.56
1.57

1.53
1.54
1.54
1.55

1.47
1.49
1.50
1.51

1.47
1.48
1.50
1.52

277.92

1.57

1.55

1.52

1.53

273.40

1.57

1.56

1.53

1.55

268.88

1.58

1.57

1.54

1.57

264.36

1.58

1.57

1.56

1.59

259.84

1.58

1.58

1.57

1.60

255.32

1.59

1.59

1.58

1.62

250.80

1.59

1.59

1.59

1.64

246.28

1.60

1.60

1.60

1.66

241.77

1.60

1.60

1.61

1.67

237.25

1.60

1.61

1.62

1.69

232.73

1.61

1.62

1.64

1.71

228.21

1.61

1.62

1.65

1.73

223.69

1.61

1.63

1.66

1.75

219.17

1.62

1.64

1.67

1.77

214.65

1.62

1.64

1.68

1.79

210.13

1.63

1.65

1.69

1.80

205.61

1.63

1.66

1.70

1.82

201.09

1.63

1.67

1.71

1.84

196.58

1.64

1.67

1.72

1.86

192.06

1.64

1.68

1.73

1.88

187.54

1.65

1.69

1.74

1.90

183.02

1.65

1.69

1.76

1.91

178.50
173.98
169.46
164.94
160.42
155.90
151.39
146.87
142.35
137.83
133.31
128.79
124.27
119.75
115.23
110.72
106.20
101.68
97.16
92.64
88.12
83.60
79.08
74.56
70.04
65.53
61.01
56.49
51.97
47.45
42.93
38.41
33.89
29.37
24.85
20.34
15.82
11.30
6.78
2.26
0.00

1.65
1.66
1.66
1.66
1.67
1.67
1.68
1.68
1.69
1.69
1.69
1.70
1.70
1.71
1.71
1.71
1.72
1.72
1.73
1.73
1.74
1.74
1.74
1.75
1.75
1.76
1.76
1.77
1.77
1.78
1.78
1.79
1.79
1.79
1.80
1.80
1.81
1.81
1.82
1.82
1.83

1.70
1.71
1.72
1.72
1.73
1.74
1.75
1.75
1.76
1.77
1.78
1.79
1.79
1.80
1.81
1.82
1.83
1.84
1.84
1.85
1.86
1.87
1.88
1.89
1.90
1.91
1.92
1.93
1.94
1.94
1.95
1.96
1.97
1.98
1.99
2.00
2.01
2.02
2.03
2.05
2.05

1.77
1.78
1.79
1.80
1.81
1.81
1.82
1.83
1.84
1.85
1.86
1.87
1.88
1.89
1.89
1.90
1.91
1.92
1.93
1.93
1.94
1.95
1.96
1.96
1.97
1.97
1.98
1.99
1.99
2.00
2.00
2.01
2.02
2.02
2.03
2.03
2.04
2.04
2.04
2.05
2.05

1.93
1.95
1.97
1.98
2.00
2.02
2.03
2.05
2.06
2.07
2.09
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.16
2.17
2.17
2.17
2.18
2.18
2.18
2.18
2.17
2.17
2.17
2.16
2.15
2.15
2.14
2.13
2.12
2.11
2.10
2.08
2.07
2.06
2.05

Coeficiente de segurana
70
2.30

2.20

2.10

2.00

1.90

1.80

1.70

1.60

1.50

1.40
1200

Tenso mdia (MPa)