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Sumrio
O Eletrobras Cepel e a eficincia energtica: uma atuao destacada na evoluo do setor - Albert Melo . 4 Eficincia energtica, imperativo da sustentabilidade - Jos da Costa ................................................... 5 Pesquisa, investimento e regulao: os segredos do sucesso ................................................................. 8 Rio de Janeiro: lindo, simptico e aconchegante .................................................................................... 10 Programao ........................................................................................................................................... 14 EEMODS chega ao Brasil ......................................................................................................................... 15 Resumos aprovados ................................................................................................................................ 16

Expediente
Coordenao: George Alves Soares, Carla Castelo Branco e Ftima Guedes Redao: Ivson Alves, Rafael Maia, Elaine Lemgruber, Renata Olivieri e Lissa Alves Projeto Grfico: Jos Carlos Ferreira, Rodrigo Meirio, Rozemberg Gomes Fotos: Acervo Eletrobras

O Eletrobras Cepel e a eficincia energtica:


uma atuao destacada na evoluo do setor
Grandes eventos cientficos, muitas vezes, so o ponto de partida de iniciativas que se consolidam ao longo do tempo pelo exerccio e pelo amadurecimento das ideias ali concebidas. A atuao do Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eltrica (Eletrobras Cepel), no cenrio nacional da eficincia energtica, um exemplo tpico deste processo, uma vez que, em suas instalaes, no ano de 1985, realizou-se o Primeiro Seminrio Nacional de Conservao de Energia Eltrica, que lanou as bases para a criao, em 30 de dezembro do mesmo ano, do Procel (Programa Nacional de Conservao de Energia Eltrica), coordenado pelo Ministrio de Minas e Energia (MME), e cuja Secretaria Executiva exercida pela Eletrobras. Desde o incio, o Cepel tem sido o brao tecnolgico da Eletrobras na execuo do Procel, mantendo-se em posio de destaque no cenrio nacional com iniciativas pioneiras na rea de tecnologias voltadas para o uso eficiente da energia eltrica, desde a certificao do primeiro laboratrio para etiquetagem de refrigeradores, at a criao do Centro de Aplicao de Tecnologias Eficientes (Cate), em 1996, na Unidade Fundo. Na rea de apoio institucional, o Cepel tem atuado junto aos programas setoriais do Procel para a indstria, saneamento, prdios pblicos e edificaes. Dessa cooperao, resultaram metodologias especializadas para diagnsticos energticos e uma srie de manuais e guias tcnicos, prticos e avanados, voltados para os setores industrial, comercial e de servios pblicos. Ainda no plano institucional, o Centro colabora com o MME, participando de grupos de trabalho para suporte tcnico-cientfico, no estabelecimento de ndices mnimos de eficincia energtica em equipamentos e no planejamento de aes de eficincia energtica de mbito nacional. Destaca-se ainda, no apoio ao MME, o acordo de cooperao com o governo norteamericano, para troca de experincias em indicadores e bases de dados no setor industrial, com a participao do US-Department of Energy (DOE) e do Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Na linha de treinamento e capacitao, podem ser citados os cursos desenvolvidos nas reas de conhecimento de iluminao, sistemas de ar-condicionado, motores, acionamentos eletrnicos e ar comprimido, entre outros. O diferencial da capacitao oferecida pelo Cepel tem sido a nfase no uso de instrumentao para medio e verificao de resultados, favorecida pelo acervo de equipamentos disponveis nos diversos laboratrios das instalaes da Ilha do Fundo e Adrianpolis. Na rea de sistemas motrizes, o Cepel implantou e opera importante laboratrio de ensaios de motores eltricos, referncia nacional para o Programa Brasileiro de Etiquetagem (PBE/ Inmetro). No tocante ao desenvolvimento tecnolgico de motores, uma grande contribuio do Cepel foi o desenvolvimento de mtodos para projeto otimizado de motores de induo e avaliaes do mercado de aos para motores de alto rendimento. No incentivo substituio de motores antigos por modelos de alto rendimento, o programa BDMotor, desenvolvido pelo Cepel, proporcionou significativo avano nesta rea, permitindo a avaliao de motores e a seleo de opes de alto rendimento, incluindo banco de dados com informaes dos principais fabricantes de motores no Brasil. Cumpre destacar que o objetivo maior da eficincia energtica em geral, e da associada a conjuntos motobombas de acionamento eltrico em particular, reduzir o desperdcio e a perda de energia com consequente impacto nas emisses de CO2. Dentro desta linha de pesquisa ampliada, o Cepel tambm tem atuado em diversas outras iniciativas como, por exemplo, as redes eltricas inteligentes que tm diversos objetivos de modernizao, eficincia e automao na operao das redes, destacando-se a reduo das perdas eltricas. Atravs de financiamento do Banco Mundial e do MME, por meio do Projeto META, o Centro implantar um Laboratrio de Redes Eltricas Inteligentes, no qual vai estudar diversas novas tecnologias, associando-as a uma viso de eficincia energtica nas redes de distribuio. Como se pode observar, so inmeros os caminhos j percorridos pelo Cepel em seus quase 40 anos de existncia, 28 destes atuando em eficincia energtica. No obstante, vislumbram-se ainda novos desafios na rea, e o EEMODS 2013 traz a oportunidade de discuti-las com a comunidade cientfica nacional e internacional. motivo de orgulho para o Cepel ter a responsabilidade de sediar este evento, a maior conferncia internacional sobre eficincia energtica de motores eltricos e sistemas motrizes.

Albert Cordeiro Geber de Melo


Diretor-geral do Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eltrica (Eletrobras Cepel)

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Eficincia energtica, imperativo da sustentabilidade


No mundo de hoje, cada vez mais as organizaes esto sendo desafiadas a serem mais eficientes. Eficincia em diversos aspectos. Desde eficincia operacional e econmica, que se traduz em baixos custos e retornos atrativos para seus acionistas, at mesmo eficincia no uso dos recursos humanos, sem falar, claro, dos naturais. Para que seja perene, a organizao precisa fazer da sustentabilidade o pilar de sua atuao. Eficincia, hoje, confunde-se, portanto, com sustentabilidade em uma equao na qual todas as dimenses se relacionam: sociedade, consumidores, acionistas, meio ambiente, operao etc. Dentre todos os aspectos, uma empresa sustentvel usa com eficincia a energia. Afinal trata-se de um bem escasso e cada vez mais difcil de ser obtido. A melhor energia, cada vez mais, no s a obtida de fontes limpas e renovveis, mas tambm aquela utilizada sem desperdcios. A Eletrobras tem conscincia dessa mxima h 27 anos, quando comeou a coordenar o Programa Nacional de Conservao de Energia Eltrica (Procel), criado pelo governo federal em 1985. Desde ento, a maior companhia de energia eltrica da Amrica Latina tem se aprimorado nos diversos aspectos de eficincia energtica, a ponto de hoje estar estruturando uma unidade de negcios que visa gerar receita e, portanto, dividendos para seus acionistas - sem deixar de levar progresso para a sociedade a sua volta. Com essa experincia acumulada, podemos afirmar, sem dvida alguma, que a pesquisa e a inovao tecnolgica so fundamentais para o aprimoramento da eficincia energtica. Investir em tecnologia garantir um futuro mais verde, com uma melhor utilizao, mais consciente, dos recursos naturais disponveis. Sem contar o barateamento de custos na produo e a garantia da independncia industrial do pas. Foi com o pensamento na evoluo tecnolgica do setor eltrico brasileiro que foi criado o Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eltrica (Eletrobras Cepel), em 1974. Desde ento o Cepel motivo de orgulho no s para o Sistema Eletrobras, mas tambm para todos os brasileiros. Graas a uma complexa estrutura de laboratrios e pesquisadores renomados, o Cepel ajudou o setor eltrico brasileiro a construir um dos mais robustos sistemas de transmisso do mundo, alm de uma matriz eltrica reconhecida como uma das mais limpas do planeta, sendo referncia no quesito desenvolvimento atrelado preservao ambiental. Graas ao incentivo da Eletrobras inovao e atuao do Cepel, o Brasil continuar inovando na gerao e transmisso de energia eltrica. Exemplo, no campo da transmisso, a implantao do Laboratrio de Ultra-Alta Tenso, uma tecnologia fundamental por permitir transportar enormes blocos de energia entre a Amaznia, a ltima fronteira energtica do pas, e os centros de carga espalhados por todo o territrio nacional. na Amaznia que o setor eltrico brasileiro tem aquele que , talvez, o maior desafio de sua histria. Como aproveitar o grande potencial de gerao hidreltrica da regio, mantendo ao mximo o seu delicado equilbrio ambiental? Como conjugar a gerao de energia, insumo bsico para o desenvolvimento do pas e o bem-estar de sua populao, com a conservao ambiental, garantindo que geraes futuras tambm possam ser beneficiadas pela preservao das florestas? Para vencer esse desafio, a Eletrobras, com o apoio do Cepel, est trabalhando para criar condies de aproveitar todo o potencial hidreltrico da Amaznia com o mximo de preservao possvel. Desenvolvimento com respeito ao meio ambiente o que norteia o planejamento de nossos negcios. em meio a tantos desafios estimulantes, que nos apontam o caminho da eficincia e da sustentabilidade, que recebemos, no Brasil, o 8 EEMODS, maior conferncia internacional sobre eficincia energtica de motores eltricos e sistemas motrizes. Trata-se de uma oportunidade nica de troca, aprendendo muito e tambm ensinando nossa experincia. Desejamos as boas-vindas a todos os participantes.

Jos da Costa Carvalho Neto


Presidente da Eletrobras
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Pesquisa, investimento e regulao: os segredos do sucesso


Brasil exemplo no setor de eficincia energtica de motores eltricos e sistemas motrizes

A realizao da maior conferncia internacional sobre eficincia energtica de motores eltricos e sistemas motrizes (8 EEMODS) coroa um trabalho rduo e srio realizado no pas nos trs aspectos envolvidos na rea: pesquisa, investimento e regulao. O Brasil entrou, em 2010, para o seleto grupo de sete pases que s comercializam motores de alto rendimento, graas, em grande parte, ao trabalho conjunto da Eletrobras, atravs do Programa Nacional de Conservao de Energia (Procel), do Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eltrica (Eletrobras Cepel) e do Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (Inmetro). O prximo passo de evoluo dos rendimentos em motores ser o estabelecimento da categoria conhecida mundialmente como Premium, com rendimentos superiores aos dos chamados motores de alto rendimento. A Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas (ABNT) j incluiu esta categoria na norma de especificao NBR 17094, com publicao prevista para o segundo semestre de 2013. A Eletrobras e o Cepel atuam fortemente na rea de eficincia energtica em motores de induo trifsicos desde 1986 e juntamente com o Inmetro, a partir de 1992, iniciaram um processo de melhoria do desempenho da tecnologia deste tipo de equipamento. O somatrio desses esforos possibilitou que o produto fosse o primeiro a ter nveis nominais mnimos de rendimentos obrigatrios para serem comercializados no pas. As primeiras tabelas de rendimentos mnimos foram discutidas e definidas, em 1998, dentro de um acordo voluntrio, desenvolvido no mbito do grupo de trabalho de motores do Programa Brasileiro de Etiquetagem (PBE), e serviram de base para o Selo Procel de economia de energia. O Cepel tem sido, ao longo de toda esta trajetria, o suporte tcnico para as aes nesta rea. Os pesquisadores e tcnicos do Centro participam de atividades que compreendem anlise dos processos de fabricao e de ensaios, anlise tcnica de projetos, realizao e acompanhamento de ensaios em motores eltricos nas instalaes de fabricantes e nos laboratrios da instituio. O Cepel tambm tem se dedicado ao estudo e anlise de novas tecnologias, tais como polos inscritos, mancais magnticos, acionamentos eletrnicos etc., que vm sendo aplicadas a motores eltricos de induo. Outro estudo conduzido pelo Centro, em parceria com o Inmetro, a avaliao da razo da incerteza de resultado de rendimento com a tolerncia aplicada ao processo

fabril de motores eltricos, de forma a dar maior garantia de que a medio dessas grandezas est sendo feita pelo fabricante de maneira contnua e com a qualidade tcnica requerida.

Regulao auxilia planejamento


Pode-se dizer que o destaque obtido em cenrio internacional pelo pas comeou a ganhar forma quando foi sancionada, em outubro de 2001, a Lei n 10.295, que incumbiu o Poder Executivo de estabelecer nveis mximos de consumo especfico de energia ou mnimos de eficincia energtica de equipamentos. Sua regulamentao ocorreu com a assinatura, em dezembro de 2001, do Decreto n 4.059, que instituiu o Comit Gestor de Indicadores e Nveis de Eficincia Energtica (CGIEE), que tem como uma de suas atribuies a elaborao das regulamentaes especficas para cada tipo de equipamento, por meio da instituio de comits tcnicos. A Regulamentao Especfica de Motores se tornou realidade atravs do Decreto n. 4.508, de 11 de dezembro de 2002, e que estabeleceu dois patamares de rendimentos mnimos, um para motores da linha padro e outro, para motores de alto rendimento. A regulamentao abrangeu motores de induo trifsicos de 1 a 250 cv, para operao contnua (regime S1/ NBR 17094); 2, 4, 6 e 8 polos, tenso at 600 V, linhas padro e alto rendimento, sozinho ou parte de mquina de uso final, fabricados no pas ou importados. A regulamentao foi inovadora devido ao seu grau de abrangncia cerca de 80% do mercado superior norteamericana, e por instituir o Programa de Metas, dispositivo para o contnuo aperfeioamento dos rendimentos. O Programa de Metas deveria ser sancionado um ano aps a publicao da regulamentao tcnica. Para isto, uma comisso tcnica formada pelo Cepel, Eletrobras e Inmetro realizou processo de consulta que consistiu em visitas aos fabricantes nacionais de motores, buscando analisar, em conjunto, os resultados tcnicos e de comercializao alcanados com a regulamentao dos nveis mnimos de eficincia energtica. Alm disso, buscou-se, nestas reunies, obter dos fabricantes uma identificao de barreiras tcnico-financeiras e de implicaes comerciais no mercado interno, para um programa de metas centrado nos nveis mnimos vigentes para motores da linha alto rendimento.

A minuta fruto destas consultas foi discutida com fabricantes e diversos setores da sociedade, buscando indicar, para o consumidor e para os fabricantes de motores, mquinas, ferro, cobre e ao, como seria a evoluo dos rendimentos nominais e quais os impactos desta meta. O Programa de Metas tornou-se realidade por intermdio da Portaria Interministerial n 553, de 8 de dezembro de 2005, assinada pelos ministros de Estado de Minas e Energia, da Cincia, Tecnologia e Inovao, e do Desenvolvimento, Indstria e Comrcio Exterior. A Portaria deu um grande salto de qualidade na questo de eficincia energtica do setor ao estabelecer que, a partir de dezembro de 2009, somente motores de alto rendimento seriam fabricados ou importados pelo pas, concedendo mais seis meses para comercializao do estoque. Foi solicitada a extenso destes prazos por mais seis meses e, em meados de 2010, o Brasil se tornou um dos sete pases que s comercializam motores de alto rendimento.

O principal foco do Procel Indstria so os projetos de otimizao de sistemas motrizes (instalaes eltricas, motor eltrico, acoplamento, carga acionada, instalao mecnica e uso final), tendo em vista que estes sistemas so responsveis por 62% do consumo de energia eltrica no setor industrial ou 25% do consumo total de eletricidade no pas, consumo prximo ao do setor residencial. No mbito do Procel Indstria, foram realizados 12 convnios com federaes estaduais da indstria, tendo sido capacitados 206 multiplicadores e 2907 agentes, de 690 indstrias. O programa recebeu 141 relatrios de diagnsticos energticos em sistemas motrizes, dos quais 86 foram aprovados, com uma economia de energia estimada de 38,5 GWh/ano com tempo de retorno de investimento mdio de 15 meses para os empresrios. Atualmente, est em andamento um convnio com a Federao das Indstrias do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Fiergs), tendo sido capacitados 21 multiplicadores e 133 agentes de 83 indstrias. O Procel Indstria recebeu 36 relatrios de diagnsticos energticos, dos quais 30 foram aprovados, que apontam para uma economia de energia estimada de 4,2 GWh/ano, com tempo de retorno de investimento mdio de 13 meses por indstria. Ainda com relao a este convnio, 10 autodiagnsticos j foram implementados, com medies comprovando os benefcios estimados e a metodologia adotada pelo programa. Tais nmeros, bem como a realizao do 8 EEMODS no Brasil, so fruto do planejamento andando de mos dadas com investimentos em tecnologia e em um ambiente regulatrio propcio, que fizeram do pas um dos mais destacados no setor de eficincia energtica, a ponto de prestar consultoria para diversas organizaes, incluindo a Organizao das Naes Unidas (ONU), durante a conferncia Rio+20, realizada em junho de 2012, no Rio de Janeiro (RJ).

Procel Indstria estimula avanos


Alm da evoluo regulatria, o Brasil realizou diversas atividades para promover uma melhor utilizao de motores eltricos e suas cargas. Dentre elas, destacase a criao, em 2003, pela Eletrobras, do Procel Indstria Programa de Eficincia Energtica Industrial. Contando com a participao de agentes do setor, como a Confederao Nacional da Indstria (CNI), as federaes estaduais de indstrias e as associaes de classe, alm do Servio de Apoio s Micro e Pequenas Empresas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Sebrae-RJ), de universidades pblicas e concessionrias de energia, o programa tem por objetivo dar suporte aos segmentos industriais na melhoria do desempenho energtico de suas instalaes.

Rio de Janeiro:
lindo, simptico e aconchegante
Patrimnio Mundial da Humanidade, na categoria Paisagem Cultural Urbana, desde 2012, o Rio de Janeiro rene beleza natural, clima agradvel e diversas opes de lazer e cultura. Escolhida para sediar a Copa do Mundo, em 2014, e as Olimpadas, em 2016, a cidade faz jus seleo por seus atrativos naturais e servios de qualidade que oferece. Palco da beleza e sofisticao da cidade, a Zona Sul resume bem o estilo carioca. Suas belas praias so atrativas para prtica de esportes como ciclismo, corrida, stand up paddle, surf ou uma simples caminhada. A gastronomia tambm ganha cada vez mais importncia na vida do carioca. Com excelentes restaurantes, bares e bistrs, a Zona Sul permite uma volta ao mundo, em seus aproximados 8,8km de extenso. do estilo carioca. Para os que gostam de provar comidas tpicas, a rabada e a feijoada, com direito a chopp, representam bem a cozinha bomia da cidade. Dono de belezas naturais, o Rio de Janeiro tem lugares que merecem ser visitados. Comeando pela tradicional volta na Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas, seja de dia ou noite, a p, bicicleta ou de carro, o ponto turstico imperdvel. A poucos minutos dali, est o Jardim Botnico, com 143 hectares de natureza preservada e destinada a estudos na rea de botnica. Alm disso, o espao abriga o Museu do Meio Ambiente, sempre com exposies interessantes. Se a sua deciso for conhecer o Cristo Redentor, preparese! Seja de bondinho ou de carro, a passagem pela Floresta da Tijuca, associada bela vista da cidade, so pontos que justificam o Cristo ter sido eleito, em 2007, a stima maravilha do mundo moderno.

Como aproveitar a cidade


Pela manh, para o desjejum, nada melhor que o Cafena, com diversos tipos de caf e um cardpio que agrada a todos os gostos. O cappuccino uma boa opo, assim como os cafs completos que servem duas pessoas. Quem deseja uma vida mais light, tem como opes as lanchonetes Bibi Sucos ou a Big Polis, que oferecem sucos, vitaminas, sanduches naturais e refeies que do energia para o dia a dia. Para o almoo, o D.R.I. Ipanema uma boa opo de cozinha internacional. Com o toque da chefe Adriana Reis, que tem trs dcadas de experincia no ramo, conhecido por conjugar ambiente agradvel com pratos interessantes. Ainda nessa linha, o Astor, de frente para a praia de Ipanema, se aproxima muito 10

No estilo carioca
Para entrar no ritmo do Rio, o chopp de final de tarde, tradio na cidade, recomendado no Bar 20 ou no Chico & Alade, ambos no Leblon. Nos dois botecos, os petiscos so uma boa pedida. A caminhada pela Pista Cludio Coutinho, na Praia Vermelha, agradvel e proporciona uma vista privilegiada. Ver o pr do sol, no Bar Urca ou no Bar da Rampa, um passeio econmico e um show parte. No Po de Acar, um dos mais visitados e tradicionais cartes postais da cidade, o visitante experimenta seis minutos de deslumbramento no telefrico envidraado. Ao chegar ao topo, a vista panormica da Baa de Guanabara, Niteri e Centro da cidade de tirar o flego.

Arrume tempo para visitar


Como palco principal da Copa de 2014 e das Olimpadas de 2016, o Estdio Mrio Filho - mais conhecido pelo nome do bairro em que est localizado, o Maracan foi inaugurado em 1950, o ponto central de grandes momentos do futebol brasileiro. Dentro do estdio, encontra-se o Museu do Esporte, que retrata a trajetria da seleo brasileira e dos principais jogadores do pas.

Pela noite
Vale a pena conhecer a Lapa! l que acontecem diversas manifestaes culturais e seu ponto turstico de destaque so os Arcos da Lapa. Sem contar que uma das boas pedidas da noite carioca o Rio Scenarium, localizado na rua do Lavradio. Admirado pela decorao antiga nos trs andares, a casa noturna embalada pelo mais carioca dos ritmos, o samba. Mas, se a vontade de apenas um drink, o Bar do Copa ou o Bar do Lado servem do tradicional ao inusitado. Ainda nessa linha, o Bar dos Descasados, em Santa Teresa, associa bom gosto tradio. Instalado num casaro antigo, com vista para a cidade, a cozinha e os drinks surpreendem os visitantes. 11

Endereos e telefones (lugares citados na reportagem) Astor Rio de Janeiro: Av. Vieira Souto, 110, Ipanema. (21) 2523-0085 (11h/2h). Bar 20: Av. Henrique Dumont, 85, Ipanema. (21) 2239-0546. Bar Urca: R. Cndido Gaffre, 205, Urca. 2295-8744. Bar da Rampa: Av. Reprter Nestor Moreira, 42, Botafogo. (21) 2542-1781. Bar do Copa: Av. Atlntica, 1702, Copacabana. (21) 2545-8790. Bar do Lado: Av. Delfim Moreira, 696, Leblon. (21) 2172-1100. Bar dos Descasados: R. Almirante Alexandrino, 660, Santa Teresa. (21) 3380-0240. Bibi Sucos: Av. Ataulfo de Paiva, 591 A, Leblon. (21) 22590000. Big Polis: Av. Nossa Senhora de Copacabana, 6795. (21) 22558000.

Cafena: Rua Constante Ramos, 44, Copacabana, (21) 25478651 (8h/23h 30min). Chico & Alade: R. Dias Ferreira, 679, Leblon. (21) 2512-0028 (11h/2h). Cristo Redentor: Informaes e vendas no www.corcovado. com.br D.R.I.: Rua Baro da Torre, 248, Ipanema, (21) 2513-1122 (200 lugares). 8h30/23h (sex e sb. at 1h). Estdio Jornalista Mrio Filho (Maracan): Rua Prof. Eurico Rabelo, s/n - Portes 15 ou 18. Bairro: Maracan. Tel.: (21) 2334-1705. Jardim Botnico: Rua Jardim Botnico, 920. 3874-1214 Po de Acar: Av. Pasteur, 520, Urca. (21) 2546-8400 Pista Cludio Coutinho: Praa General Tiburcio, s/n., Praia Vermelha. (21) 2271-7000 Rio Scenarium: R. do Lavradio, 20, Centro. (21) 3147-9000.

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Outras dicas
Mira!: Adorvel misto de caf e restaurante com comida, diverso e arte. Rua General Severiano, 159 (Casa Daros), Botafogo. (21) 2275-0737. Aprazvel: Com mesas distribudas por diversos ambientes, um dos mais belos cenrios da cidade. Rua Aprazvel, 62, Santa Teresa. (21) 2508- 9174. Zoz: Saladas e entradas frias muito bem apresentadas abrem o apetite para os pratos quentes. Ao lado do bondinho, o restaurante fica no p do Morro da Urca. Av. Pasteur, 520, Urca. (21) 2542-9665. Espao Lagoon: Charmoso centro gastronmico, s margens da Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas. O espao conta com salas de cinema e de espetculos. Av. Borges de Medeiros, 1424, Lagoa. (21) 2529-5300. Boteco Belmonte: Chope estupidamente gelado e petiscos de tirar o flego. Rua Teixeira de Melo, 53b, Praa General Osrio, Ipanema. (21) 2267-9909. Cobal do Humait: Polo gastronmico no corao da Zona Sul. Rua Voluntrios da Ptria s/ n, Humait. (21) 2537-0186. Boteco da Garrafa: O destaque da casa so os mais de 30 rtulos de cervejas nacionais e importadas. Rua Bolvar, 27, loja A, Copacabana. (21) 2255-1680. Desacato Bar e Restaurante: O carro-chefe da casa so os espetinhos. Com mais de 20 tipos de opes entre doces e salgados. Rua Conde de Bernadotte, 26 loja. A, Leblon. (21) 2512-7373. CCBB (Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil): O local abriga variadas exposies sobre diversos temas. Rua Primeiro de Maro, 66 - 5 andar, Centro. (21) 3808-2020. Centro Cultural Parque das Runas: O espao apresenta programao cultural variada. Rua Murtinho Nobre 169, Santa Teresa. (21) 2215-0621. Ateli da Imagem Espao Cultural: O local sinnimo de vdeo, cinema, artes visuais, mdias digitais, design, web e produo grfica. Avenida Pasteur, 453, Urca. (21) 2541-3314. Forte de Copacabana: O Forte abriga um pequeno centro cultural que mantm atividades de msica, teatro e recreao. Praa Cel. Eugnio Franco, 1, Copacabana. (21) 2521-1032. Museu de Arte do Rio (MAR): Inaugurado em 2013, um ponto de encontro da educao com a cultura local. Praa Mau, 5, Centro. (21) 2203-1235.

13

PROGRAMAO

Incio
08:30 09:00 11:00

Fim
09:00 11:00 11:30 13:00 14:00 15:30 16:00 17:30 10:30 11:00 13:00 14:00 15:30 16:00 17:30 10:30 11:00 13:00 14:00 15:30 16:00 17:30

Atividades
Credenciamento Plenria de Abertura Co ee-break Sesses Tcnicas Almoo Sesses Tcnicas Co ee-break Sesses Tcnicas Painel Tcnico Co ee-break Sesses Tcnicas Almoo Sesses Tcnicas Co ee-break Sesses Tcnicas Sesses Tcnicas Co ee-break Sesses Tcnicas Almoo Sesses Tcnicas Co ee-break Plenria de Encerramento

28 de Outubro
Segunda-feira

11:30 13:00 14:00 15:30 16:00 09:00 10:30

29 de Outubro
Tera-feira

11:00 13:00 14:00 15:30 16:00 09:00 10:30

30 de Outubro
Quarta-feira

11:00 13:00 14:00 15:30 16:00

OBS: Sesses Tcnicas 20 min para apresentao e 10 min para discusses.


14

EEMODS chega ao Brasil

A maior conferncia internacional sobre eficincia energtica de motores eltricos e sistemas motrizes chega ao Brasil em outubro. Nos dias 28, 29 e 30, o Rio de Janeiro recebe alguns dos mais renomados especialistas do mundo no uso eficiente de energia eltrica no 8 EEMODS (Energy Efficiency in Motor Driven Systems), organizado pela Eletrobras e pelo Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eltrica (Eletrobras Cepel), com suporte tcnico e cientfico da European Commission DG Joint Research Centre. O encontro promove debates sobre os temas mais relevantes da atualidade quanto eficincia energtica de motores eltricos e de sistemas motrizes, abordando

questes tcnicas, econmicas, de mercado, ambientais, governamentais e normativas. A primeira conferncia foi realizada em 1996, em Portugal. Desde ento, as edies aconteceram na Inglaterra, Itlia, Alemanha, China, Frana e Estados Unidos. Durante os trs dias de conferncia, a programao inclui sees plenrias e sees tcnicas paralelas. Para as plenrias, so convidados representantes de governos e organizaes, nacionais ou estrangeiros, para palestras. Nas sees tcnicas, os participantes assistem apresentao dos artigos inscritos pelos profissionais da rea e aprovados pelo comit do evento.

15 15

Resumos aprovados

AUTHOR
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Doppelbauer Martin.Doppelbauer@kit.edu

AFFILIATION
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Institute of Electrical Engineering (ETI), Germany

TITLE
Current developments in IEC standards for energy efficiency of electric motors and for the IECEE global motor labeling program (GMLP)

Due to the June 2010 mandate regarding standardization in the field of electric motors of the Directorate-General for Energy of the European Commission, work has been started in TC2/ WG31 to update the energy efficiency classification standard IEC 60034-30. It was decided to split the previous edition in two parts: Part 1 for all kinds of a.c. machines when fed from the grid and Part 2 for all other a.c. machines fed from a variable frequency power supply. The first part should be finished by the time of the conference. The second part will likely have been published as a first draft. The paper gives insight into the latest developments and changes compared to the previous edition.

In spring of 2012, IECEE (Worldwide System for Conformity Testing and Certification of Electrotechnical Equipment and Components) started a global efficient electric motor labeling program (GMLP). This program is designed to ensure highly energy efficiency motors meet the needs and applications of users and original equipment manufacturers based on a consensus definition of premium efficiency and use a newly designed IECEE E3 logo for premium products. The new logo will be registered with the WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) and can only be used by manufacturers in accordance with the IECee Rules and the License. In this paper, the normative requirements underlying the GMLP program will be detailed.

AUTHOR
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Doppelbauer Martin.Doppelbauer@kit.edu

AFFILIATION
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Institute of Electrical Engineering (ETI), Germany

TITLE
Line-Start permanent-magnet motors and their use in typical industrial applications

Line-start permanent-magnet motors have been known since the 1960s but their main field of application were group drives for spinning machines. In recent years, due to the increasing demand for high-efficiency motors, new line-start machines are being developed for standard industrial applications like pumps, fans, conveyors etc. The paper gives an overview of the development and technology of line-start permanent-magnet motors. Calculation methods, equivalent circuits and operational behavior are explained in detail. A comparison of motor sizes for the various output powers and efficiency classes in relation to shaft heights

of standardized asynchronous machines is presented. It can be seen that line-start synchronous motors are generally smaller than induction machines of standard efficiency (IE1) up to an efficiency class IE3. Even some IE4 line-start motors are smaller than IE1 standard motors. However, the start-up process of line-start synchronous motors is not without challenges. In addition to the question of the pull-in process other topics, like vibration and shock torques, must be addressed. The paper gives some measurements for these quantities and presents precautions to maintain proper start-up operation.

16

AUTHOR
Alex Chausovsky alex.chausovsky@ihs.com

AFFILIATION
IMS Research Austin, USA

TITLE
Industrial motors & drives: a global market update

The presentation will highlight the findings of IMS Researchs latest analysis of the global low voltage motors and drives markets. It will summarize how these markets are segmented by product type, geographic region, industry sector and power rating. In addition to presenting market data, the presentation will include an analysis the current competitive environment for these products, including market shares of the leading suppliers to these markets on a global level. A discussion of the projected impact of significant M & A activity that has occurred in recent years will also be included in the presentation. In addition to presenting detailed, reliable, impartial and current market statistics, the presentation will also discuss the major trends affecting these markets. Among the topics addressed will be the impact of various regional minimum motor efficiency legislations being enacted by governments around the world, and the realistic timetable for transition to

higher efficiency motors. The presentation will also include a discussion of the effect that more expensive higher-efficiency motors are likely to have on the repair vs. replace decisions facing motor users, and the apparent disconnect between these decisions and the consideration of the total cost of motor ownership, rather than its initial purchase price. It will also analyze the increasing penetration rate of motor drives, both in the install base and in annual sales, and highlight the different approaches to total system efficiency used in North America, Europe, and Asia. Furthermore, the presentation will include an evaluation of the market potential for permanent magnet motors, as well as some other non-traditional motor designs that claim to yield higher efficiencies than todays standard induction motors. The presentation will be largely quantitative in manner, and will not contain a significant amount of technical discussion.

AUTHOR
Tom Bishop tbishop@easa.com

AFFILIATION
Electrical Apparatus Service Association (Easa), USA

TITLE
Electrical apparatus service center accreditation program

It has been proven that electric motor efficiency can be maintained during repair and rewind by following defined good practices. The Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA) has developed an international accreditation program for service centers based on the sources of these good practices, namely ANSI/EASA AR100 Recommended Practice for the Repair of Rotating Electrical Apparatus and the Good Practice Guide of the 2003 study, The Effect of Repair/Rewinding on Motor Efficiency. The intent of this groundbreaking accreditation program that will roll out in 2014 is to evaluate service centers for evidence

of compliance to assure that they are using prescribed good practices to maintain motor efficiency and reliability during electrical and mechanical repairs of electric motors. Repair processes that will be assessed include rewinding, core testing, bearing replacement, bearing journal rebuilding, dynamic balancing; and electrical testing, mechanical measurements and calibration. Conformance to the program will be verified by objective third-party audits. This paper will detail the EASA service center accreditation program and the third-party audit process that is an ancillary and key component of it.

17 17 17

AUTHOR
Yilcan Guzelgunler Yilcan.guzelgunler@regalbeloit.com

AFFILIATION
Regal Beloit EPC, USA

TITLE
Power de-rating scheme for power factor corrected variable speed pool pump drive

In this paper, a de-rating (power limiting) scheme, which has been developed for a pool pump drive (VGreen 270) and in production, will be discussed. The drive is sensorless PM Synchronous motor drive that includes power factor correction front end without mains AC voltage measurement and direct temperature sensor in the power factor correction circuit. This introduces a challenge of indirectly limiting the temperature of the power factor correction circuit since the power factor circuit is the hottest section of the drive. Overheating of electrical components can be influenced by air flow, ambient temperature, input voltage and load. Therefore, the de-rating scheme in this drive is activated beyond its operating limits, temperature, voltage, and load characteristic, to extend the life of the product as well as to provide functionality without loss of service. Two methods shall be introduced in this paper to

accomplish the goal that has been mentioned above. In either method, current limiting is used to limit the power, resulting in temperature limiting of components. Because the temperature inside the enclosure is needed in the implementation of the de-rating scheme, a temperature sensor mounted on the PCB is utilized for this purpose. The first method shall utilize the load characteristic to limit the speed of the motor, as a result limit the power. This method also prevents the misuse of the drive in the field. The second method shall introduce two different ways of de-rating based on the temperature of the enclosure alone or the temperature of the enclosure and the estimated mains voltage of the drive. Finally, how all the methods introduced can be used at the same time and how the resultant de-rating value determined shall be demonstrated. Test results will accompany the described methods.

AUTHOR
Rob Boteler rob.boteler@nidec-motor.com

AFFILIATION
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (Nema), USA

TITLE
Global warming potential propels NEMA motor section actions

The paper will address two key areas of climate change concern. The first half of the paper will document an in-depth carbon footprint study recently completed by MITs Material Systems Laboratory. The study, funded by NEMA, developed a scalable, quantitative methodology to estimate the global warming impact associated with electro-industrial products. Two key metrics to quantify the impact of a product on the environment are energy use and life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the latter often referred to as a products carbon footprint. Accurately calculating a products carbon footprint can be a challenging task due to the complexity inherent in most products. To that end, a methodology, called the Product Attribute to Environmental Impact Algorithm (PAIA), has been developed that relates the intrinsic attributes of electro-products to their GHG emissions. This approach reveals opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of products under review by

identifying the key drivers of GHG emissions. The assessment considers emissions throughout a products overall life cycle including materials acquisition, manufacturing, use, and final disposal. The study developed tools to apply the methodology to light bulbs and motors, which can be further expanded to other electrical products in the future. The second portion of this paper will be describe and document the most recent regulatory and advanced product development initiatives being taken by the members of the NEMA Motor Generator section to address the MIT reports findings. By teaming together, the overall impact being made by NEMA has been calculated to reduce annual energy requirements by over 4 Twh, while maintaining the necessary product utility of industrial and commercial polyphase motors in the USA required to deliver performance and fit to motor users and OEMs.

18

AUTHOR
Prakash Rao prao@lbl.gov

AFFILIATION
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA

TITLE
A framework for surveying installed motor system bases

While motors are ubiquitous throughout the globe and across sectors, there is insufficient data to properly assess their energy performance across corporate, state/provincial, and national boundaries. Furthermore, many of the existing data sets focus solely on motor efficiency and neglect the drive and system connected to it. The lack of pertinent information impedes policymakers at all levels of government, non government organizations, and energy managers when identifying where to invest resources for energy efficiency initiatives, when creating programs aimed at reducing electrical energy consumption, or when quantifying the impacts of such programs. Without a comprehensive survey of the installed motor system base, organizations and governments do not have access to information necessary to benchmark the performance of their current motor systems and to identify areas for improvement. This paper will outline a data collection framework for use when conducting a survey of the installed motor system base of a given region. The framework developed is intended to standardize the data ollected during such a survey ensuring consistency across various surveys. The data collected using

this framework can be used to characterize motor system energy performance by system type and industry within any given region or country. In creating the framework, relevant parameters of a profile characterizing a motor system were considered and an analysis of various motor driven systems, including compressed air, pumping and fan systems, was conducted. From this analysis, the key data necessary to assess motor system energy performance was identified. By creating a common framework, surveys conducted by various organizations can be leveraged against and compared to each other. A common framework will ensure the relevant information necessary to assess the energy performance of a motor system is collected. By standardizing the data collected, comparisons can be made across regional boundaries and benchmarks can be developed to assess motor system energy performance. A database using this common framework will be a valuable tool for policymakers and energy managers aiming to promote improvements to the energy use of motor driven systems by enabling them to better assess their installed motor system base with respect to other regions.

AUTHOR
Kris Szajdzicki kms@ndmeter.co.uk

AFFILIATION
ND Metering Solutions, UK

TITLE
How web-enabled meters allow remote monitoring of motor driven systems

ISO 50001 is based on the well known Plan Do Check Act principle. Applying it to a Motor Driven System, you need effective measurement Metering. ISO 50001 deals with Energy Management Systems, which is just a branch or form of overall management. Like all management systems, it needs the correct Inputs; without these, a management system cannot make the right decisions namely generate the correct Outputs. So if a financial management system cannot operate without detailed accounting for income & expenditure, how can an Energy Management System operate without the necessary metering & monitoring ?

The presentation will look at ISO 50001, its application to Motors and at how best to ensure that the input into the ISO 50001 system is the necessary valid data focussing predominantly on the application of electricity metering: - How web-enabled meters allow remote monitoring of Motor Driven Systems; - How a single Meter can monitor up to 60 FHP motors. The author has over 35 years experience in Energy Management, particularly in metering. He is a member of the European Committee that wrote EN 16001, and of ISO TC242 which is responsible for the ISO 5000x series of standards. He also acts as liaison between IEC & ISO on subjects related to Energy Management.

19

19

AUTHOR
Daniel Delaney Dan.Delaney@RegalBeloit.com

AFFILIATION
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (Nema), USA

TITLE
Global motor efficiency labeling program

The paper will present the efforts between NEMA and IECEE to jointly develop a Global Motor Efficiency Labeling Program. This joint proposal between NEMA and IECEE is intended to address the multitude of difficulties that motor manufacturers face when complying with the various global country regulations for motor efficiency. Many countries (US, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, European Union, India, China, Russia, Australia, Japan, Korea, etc.) have existing motor efficiency regulations but can vary greatly when it comes to the test standards, laboratory accreditation, certification process and labeling requirements. This joint proposal will determine consistencies in these requirements and establish a global set of harmonized requirements from the laboratory accreditation to the test standards and finally the certification process and the final motor labeling. The NEMA Premium License program is currently the leading global motor efficiency labeling program

and was the first such program to develop requirements for verification testing after initial certification. An international task force has been formed to convert the NEMA Premium License program into a IEC global motor labeling program. This international task force consists of members of both NEMA and IEC standards organizations along with an international list of motor manufacturers. This paper will also share its findings regarding the various national and regional differences for motor efficiency regulations around the globe. This paper will discuss how this new program will look to address these national differences and create one global program. The program success is defined by whether it can be readily adopted by each of the established country regulation bodies. It is expected by the time this paper is presented a draft of the joint proposal should be circulated among industry manufacturers.

AUTHOR
Marco Villani marco.villani@ing.univaq.it

AFFILIATION
University of LAquila, Italy

TITLE
IE3 high efficiency induction motors with aluminum and copper rotor cage: comparison

The new agreement of European Commission (Nr. 640/2009) has introduced two efficiency level: high efficiency IE2 and premium efficiency IE3 totally new for Europe, equal to the American Nema Premium. The new motors classification and the coming dates open new settings for electric motors Manufacturers, which will have to adapt their production cycle and invest on development strategies for innovative and high efficient motors. The improvement of induction motor efficiency requires the use of innovative technological solutions and an optimized motor design, keeping construction restrictions typically adopted for these motors classes. He use of copper for the rotor bars and end rings would result in attractive improvements in motor energy efficiency and could represent a valid alternative to traditional (and low cost) aluminium cage. New induction motor designs with Aluminum and Copper rotor specially developed to reach the IE3 efficiency level have been designed and compared. The motors designs have been optimized in order to reach the minimum efficiency level IE3 at lowest active material costs and satisfy the physical and performance constraints of the designs, that are the motor specifications. 20

A suitable Optimization Procedure has been used that has allowed to find the best design by chancing the geometric dimensions of the stator and rotor shape, the stator winding and the stack length, in order to obtain a final optimized design whose dimensions are consistent, when possible, with the standard commercial frames. Several sizes has been tested in the range 0.75-22 kW and the study has concerned squirrel-cage, TEFC, 400 V, 50 Hz, S1 duty motors only. Moreover, for the active material cost calculation, three different scenarios have been considered with different Cu/Al price ratio. The study does not take into account the costs for the diecasting and stamping processes, and the tooling cost. The final paper will present the results of the IE3 optimized designs, with Al and Cu cage, and these solutions will be compared in terms of performance, active material costs and advantage in size (diameter/stack length) and total weight. Moreover it will be possible to verify if the Al and Cu technologies allow to go beyond IE3 efficiency level and fit with standard dimensions compatible with commercial housings.

AUTHOR
Daniel Schmitz daniels1@weg.net

AFFILIATION
Weg Equipment Electric S.A., Brazil

TITLE
Development of a three-phase electromagnetic device for the evaluation of the magnetic losses in electric motors stators

Concerns about the environment, combined with the needs of meeting energy efficiency standards and obtaining lower costs in the manufacturing of electric motors, have made manufacturers more attentive to the performance of their products. One of the major factors affecting the efficiency of an electric motor is the loss portion that takes place in the magnetic core, which is typically constructed with laminated steel for electrical purposes. For the evaluation of magnetic losses in steel sheets, one of the most used methods is the Epstein frame test, because it is standardized, simple, fast and has good repeatability. But in some cases, the Epstein frame test results are incoherent with the actual motor core losses, because the best steel according to the Epstein frame may not always result in the lower motor core losses. In the Epstein frame test, the lamination samples consist of rectangular strips, not being faithful to the geometry of the laminations of an electric motor. Moreover, the magnetic flux generated in the

Epstein strips is only alternating, with no losses associated with the rotating field that exists in an electric motor. The proposed test device addresses the magnetic losses generated due to the geometry of the stator, which is formed by teeth and yoke. The power supply of the testing system enables the test specimen to experience the same flux characteristics of actual rotating electrical machines. The proposed testing method allows a better qualitative evaluation of the motor core losses, once that the testing conditions represent more closely a rotating machine. The test device also allows that the influence of the heat treatment and the stacking mode of the laminations (selfstacking, clamping, or welding) in the magnetic losses to be evaluated. The importance of this subject is the possibility of reliably evaluating the electric motor magnetic losses by means of tests accomplished with lamination samples, in a sounder way than the traditional Epstein frame method.

AUTHOR
Guilherme Filippo gfilippo@feg.unesp.br

AFFILIATION
State University of Sao Paulo (Unesp), Brazil

TITLE
Efficiency in boiler feed pumps for industrial steamgeneration

The efficiency of boiler feedwater pumps is ongoing concern for large size boilers (>1000 t / h), commonly found in power plants. For intermediate size, like boilers of refineries, petrochemicals and a few others facilities, this concern is not a constant. For the most of small size boilers in industrial steam generation (<150 t/h), this type of care is often forgotten. Boilers with a steam production less than 150 t/h are very common in many industrial sectors in Brazil, including: food and beverage, chemical, pharmaceutical, rubber products, weaving and others. The steam produced in these plants is generally saturated with pressure below 40 bar. Watertube boilers are the most used, with natural gas, oil and, more rarely, biomass as fuel. Usually it is used multistage horizontal centrifugal pumps driven by three-phase induction motors. As a rule, steam production is variable along the day and furthermore, it is very common to seasonal variation throughout the year. Some

plants may require different levels of steam pressure (10 bar and 18 bar, for example). The variation in the steam production is obtained by throttling valve located between the pump and the steam drum. In some installations can be found pumps operating in parallel. This study analyzed steam production facilities in three distinct chemical plants. Facilities like these are common in Brazilian industrial sectors described above. The pumps have powers between 30 cv and 100 cv. It was identified the points of energy inefficiency and introduced proposals of improvement for each case. The energy savings were calculated together with the cost reduction. In one of the facilities was identified that energy inefficiency was involved in mechanical degradation of the pump, which required regular intervention of maintenance staff. We discuss care with the application of frequency inverters due to the load curve characteristic of these systems.

21 21

AUTHOR
Colin Debruyne Colin.Debruyne@howest.be

AFFILIATION
Howest, Belgium

TITLE
Harmonic effects on induction and line start permanent magnet machines

Economic and ecological incentives have resulted in an increased awareness of the efficiency ofInduction Machines(IM). Energy efficiency of IM can be increased by optimizing the design, by correct dimensioning or by accurately controlling the IM. Efficient control of the machine generally implies the use of power electronics (PE). PE adversely affect the supply voltage, resulting in an decrease of the supply voltage quality. IM supplied directly from the grid are very susceptible to voltage distortion. Voltage distortion can result in additional losses which imply both a reduction of efficiency and consequently additional operating costs and heating of the machine. In this paper a general review is presented concerning the efficiency of DOL IM supplied from a distorted supply. The research starts with an estimation of the maximum distortion level of the voltage at end user. This will result in maximum limits of the distortion ratio, which will be proven to be approx. 12%. These limits are higher than the limits currently used for testing. Because an IM is a nonlinear device, it will be stated that at this moment there is a significant under estimation of its impact. As the maximum level of voltage distortion is known, the influence of the distortion on the overall efficiency of the IM will be highlighted by both measurements and modeling. It will be illustrated that the losses are nearly independent of

the loading ratio, and even at no-load these losses result in additional heating. The key parameters to the susceptibility of the IM to this voltage distortion will be deducted, being the rotor resistance, total leakage inductance and the thermal frame-to-ambient resistance. After a technical evaluation, an economical assessment will be presented. As these losses are constant present, possible harmonic mitigation could prove to be economically beneficial. Although in this abstract the focus is placed towards standard IM operation, several niche aspects concerning the voltage distortion will discussed, such as the influence on induction generator (IG) operation and the influence of distortion on Line Start Permanent Magnet Machines (LSPMM). Although construction wise IG and LSPMM are similar to IM, it will be pointed out on both a theoretical basis as by measurement that straight forward comparison is wrong. The influence of saturation for both IG as LSPMM will result in a discard of the current harmonic loss models. From a designer point of view, the focus is usually placed on increasing machine efficiency, although it will be shown that reducing the supply voltage distortion could result in similar energy savings. Current harmonic loss models are only valid for standard induction motors, however, if generators or LSPMMs are to be evaluated,

AUTHOR
Daniel Liang daniel.liang@copperalliance.asia

AFFILIATION
International Copper Association (ICA), USA

TITLE
A new method to improve installed motor efficiency

The paper will introduce a new method to improve installed induction motor efficiency. The method could improve induction motor efficiency from 1 to 2 grades by replacing current aluminum rotors with copper rotors, and not changing the stators. The prototypes have been developed and tested. The test esults proved the method is workable. The prototypes test results and

the computer simulation results of whole series small motors (< 30KW) efficiency improvement potential by this method will be introduced. A polite project has been established and this work will be also presented. The total energy saving potential and the possibility to develop a new efficiency standard for the motor rebuilt will be discussed.

22

AUTHOR
Jorge Estima jestima@ieee.org

AFFILIATION
University of Coimbra, Portugal

TITLE
Super premium synchronous reluctance motor evaluation

Electric motors are widely used in a great variety of industrial applications and are responsible for a significant part of the worldwide electrical energy consumption. Therefore, electric motors efficiency has become an important research topic since higher efficient electric motors can lead to a noticeable decrease of energy consumption, having simultaneously a positive environmental impact. Accordingly, this paper presents a detailed performance evaluation of a synchronous reluctance motor that was recently introduced in the market and which also achieves the IEC super premium efficiency level (IE4). A comparative study is also performed with an equivalent IE4 permanent magnet synchronous motor. With the aim to perform a detailed analysis, several key parameters are evaluated such as the motor efficiency, the drive overall efficiency (power converter plus motor efficiency), motor power factor and its supply current values. In order to fully characterize these parameters, a great number of experimental tests were performed for a

considerable combination number of motor speed and load torque values, allowing to evaluate all the drive operating range through the presentation of three-dimensional maps. All the results were obtained by using an advanced electric motor test bench comprising a high performance dynamometer and controller, together with a high precision digital power analyzer. Taking into account the obtained efficiency results, a comparative analysis is performed for some typical load profiles such as a quadratic load (typical of pumps and fans), a constant load torque profile (typical of elevators and conveyor belts) and a linear load (typical of calenders and extruders), covering this way, the majority of industrial applications. Furthermore, some results are also presented considering the motor thermal profile evaluation, by measuring the stator temperature with a dedicated data acquisition board. Finally, some economical considerations are also discussed considering the investment cost and payback time.

AUTHOR
Steve Dereyne Steve.Dereyne@howest.be

AFFILIATION
Technical University College of WestFlanders, Belgium

TITLE
Construction of an energy efficiency measuring test bench for belt drives

Due to forced regulations and more social awareness, over the last years a lot of research has been done on energy efficiency. New concepts of electrical motors with promising efficiency are entering the market. However, when the coupling between electrical motor and mechanical machine is considered, there is a lack of information on energy efficiency of these components. In comparison to electrical motors and drives, there is very few mandatory regulation on these components. Information on efficiency can be found in catalogues but the reliability of these numbers is often doubtful. This paper focusses on the efficiency of belt drives. This type of mechanical transmission is frequently used in industry in a wide variety of applications. During the assembly of such a belt drive system special care is required to the good alignment and belt tension for optimal performance in term of energy efficiency. During long time operation, the belt tension tends to drop, resulting in suboptimal performance of the system. Therefore regular maintenance is suggested by most vendors but often not implemented in industry.

In order to characterize the energy efficiency of a belt drive in its entire operating range, a dedicated test bench has been constructed for testing different technologic solutions such as synchronous belts, V-belts, with different pulley ratios up to 15 kW. The test bench also provides the possibility to adjust the alignment of the pulleys and the belt tension in order to characterize the impact of these parameters on the efficiency of the belt drive. The technical specifications of the test bench and a detailed measurement procedure based on the direct measurement principle is discussed in the paper together with an analysis of a measurement campaign carried out in 2012. Furthermore the scope of belts which can be tested with regards to power range, pulley ratio and technology is discussed. Influences such as effect of room temperature on test equipment and the tested belt are debated and possible solutions are proposed. Finally a test procedure was developed to ensure reliable and reproducible results. The first results obtained by this procedure are presented and discussed.

23 23

AUTHOR
Steve Dereyne Steve.Dereyne@howest.be

AFFILIATION
Technical University College of WestFlanders, Belgium

TITLE
Energy efficiency optimization of a dust extractor: An industrial case study

This paper describes the retrofit of an industrial dust extractor unit performed during 2012. The original system, dating from 19?? consisted of an old low efficiency direct on line induction motor (30 kW, 1460 rpm, EFF3), a V-belt mechanical transmission to allow slip during startup and a centrifugal fan. A first quick assessment indicated the poor maintenance of the belt tension and an oversized induction motor. During production stops, the dust extraction was kept running although no action is required by the process at that time. A first logic actions was the integration of a simple control to stop the motor during production stops. Inquiries on the suction force of the dust extraction indicated that a reduction of the speed fan could be considered. A step by step optimization was carried out to illustrate the energy efficiency improvement of every single action in order to provide a motivating example for other industrial partners.

The following steps were considered and will be illustrated in the final paper both by calculations, measurement results and an economic evaluation of the required investments in terms of the pay back time: Mounting of new belts with correct belt tension Correct sizing of the induction motor (22 kW instead of 30kW) Replacement of the low efficiency motor with an IE3 DOL induction motor Application of a variable speed drive and synchronous belt drive Adjustment of the ventilator speed without degradation of the process performance Elimination of the belt drive

AUTHOR
Steve Dereyne Steve.Dereyne@howest.be

AFFILIATION
Technical University College of WestFlanders, Belgium

TITLE
An energy efficiency measurement test bench for gearboxes

The last decade, forced regulations and a growing social awareness with respect to energy efficiency have resulted in a renewed interest in the research for high efficiency electrical machines. New concepts of electrical motors with promising efficiency are entering the market. However, when the coupling between electrical motor and mechanical machine is considered, theres a lack of information on energy efficiency of these components. In comparison to electrical motors and drives, theres very few mandatory regulation on these components. Information on efficiency can be found in catalogues but accepted test procedures are not available. As a result, the reliability of these efficiency values islow and comparison between brands and technologies is impossible. Regulation on energy efficiency on the other hand evolves to a total system approach. The new European fan directive 327/2011 is an example of such an approach where overall efficiency is considered. Information on the efficiency of mechanical transmission components such as gearboxes and belt drives will be required to optimize the overall system efficiency.

During a two year project started in January 2012, the efficiency of the mechanical transmission components is investigated. The project focusses on gearboxes and belt drives since these components take a major part of the market of mechanical transmissions. Due to the lack of reliable information on energy efficiency of these components, the need for a test bench emerged. This paper discusses the test bench build for testing gearboxes up to 15kW in their entire working area. In the first part of the paper different measurement techniques to determine the efficiency of gearboxes are discussed. The theoretical and practical advantages and disadvantages of the different possible test setups are reviewed. Secondly the practical construction of the test bench based on the direct measurement principle is discussed. The scope of gearboxes which can be tested with regards of power range, gear ratio and technology are also handled. The impact of room temperature on the overall performance of the test bench for gearboxes is discussed. Finally a test procedure will be proposed to ensure reliable and reproducible results. The first results obtained by this procedure are presented and discussed.

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AUTHOR
Jukka Tolvanen jukka.tolvanen@fi.abb.com

AFFILIATION
ABB Finland, Finland

TITLE
Efficient energy use needs a system approach

The programme on efficient energy use (EFEU) within the Finnish CLEEN consortium has been running for over two years. The program is geared at providing methods, tools and technologies to enable a gradual increase in energy efficiency beyond what can be achieved by constant improvement and application of Best Available Techniques (BAT). The generic target of the EFEU research programme is to develop methods and tools to measure, model, analyse and optimise energy efficiency. The basic idea is to use a system level (top-down) approach in different scales instead of optimising individual system components. The main focus of the program is on energy conversion and distribution and process industry. The industry is the most important individual energy end user in Finland with a share of 47 percent. Also, energy conversion and distribution are seen as a key element in improving energy efficiency. The developed methods, tools and services for improving energy efficiency provide participating companies means to improve both the energy efficiency and the economic efficiency of their products and processes. One of the guiding principles of CLEEN is that the companies and academic institutions work together on the research problems. This also means that even competing companies are

involved in the same projects. This approach has proved to be fruitful as it combines the minds to a common objective. The work in the EFEU programme has been divided in several tasks. One of these is called energy efficient fluid handling systems. The importance of this line of research is underlined by the fact thatsome 22 percent of industrial electric energy is used in pumping applications. Due to losses in the energy conversion chain a saved joule close to the end use location may result tosavings of up to ten joules in the primary energy. This means that by improving end use efficiency the amount of delivered energy decreases leading to less capital investments in the energy conversion chain. The initial findings of this task suggest that while energy efficiency is increased also the system reliability enjoys a boost. An analysis on the efficiency at the system level has also been developed within the programme. A wider adoption of system thinking necessarily leads to fewer possibilities for sub-optimisation. This can be achieved when systems are more adaptive and widen their optimal operation region.

AUTHOR
Heikki Kervinen heikki.j.kervinen@fi.abb.com

AFFILIATION
ABB Finland, Finland

TITLE
Tools to move towards better energy efficiency

Energy efficiency and therefore energy savings in different kinds of applications can be achieved in various methods. This paper describes how energy efficiency can be handled during the whole life cycle and how electrical equipment manufacturers can assist in the process. The examples are mainly fan and pump applications where the energy saving potential during the whole life cycle is highest. Exact dimensioning gives a good starting point for energy efficiency in every application. Designers can use a tool for dimensioning and selection for the transformer, motor and variable speed drive (VSD) when the basic rotating equipment and the needed motor shaft power are known. The tool also calculates current and voltage harmonics, motor losses, VSD losses and can easily be used to compare different combinations of the main electrical components. The energy efficiency can be calculated from the losses of the different components in the dimensioned system. There is a separate tool available for motor selection depending on the country regulations, required IE class or the application in hands.

Other tools can be used to evaluate the energy efficiency of applications during the life cycle when the process is operation. Concrete tools for estimating energy savings in various centrifugal applications between existing control methods versus VSD control are introduced. Those tools have been developed together with other equipment manufacturers to get the best available information into use. VSDs continuously collect information about the running applications. There are for example integrated energy calculators for estimating the energy consumption and savings, data lockers to help to tune the application to better or more energy efficient running mode or information available even to prevent failure or damage in the system. After several decades of development and improvement, the tools are proven to be quite reliable. As global trends continue to move more and more towards energy efficiency in all areas, these tools can be further developed with running equipment manufacturers to gain and maintain control over the whole process. Therefore, there is actually a seamless way to monitor the energy efficiency of applications throughout the whole life cycle. 25 25

AUTHOR
Ari Tammi ari.tammi@fi.abb.com

AFFILIATION
ABB Finland, Finland

TITLE
Utilization of synchronous reluctance motor technology for improved motor and system efficiency in variable speed industrial applications

Synchronous reluctance motors feature a new kind of rotor combined with a conventional induction motors stator. The rotor has no windings unlike traditional motors, which means that rotor power losses are virtually nonexistent. This not only increases efficiency but also ensures that the rotor runs cool, which keeps the bearing temperature low and improve bearing reliability. This is important because bearing failures cause about 70 percent of unplanned motor outages. With its advanced rotor technology, a magnet-free synchronous reluctance motor delivers the characteristics of a typical permanent magnet motor but is as easy to service and cost-efficient as an induction motor. These motors are designed exclusively for variable speed applications. In addition to having good efficiency at nominal load the partial load efficiency is much better compared to traditional induction motors. This is particularly important in variable speed applications where the whole idea is to save energy by speed control when full output of a device is not needed. This paper presents two different motor ranges utilizing synchronous reluctance technology. One of the ranges emphasizes compactness and another one IE4 efficiency and replaceability with traditional induction motors. Characteristics

will be compared mainly against traditional induction motors but also against typical permanent magnet motors in order to understand how energy efficiency can be improved by utilizing new motor technologies. Equally important topic is the standardization of the efficiency classes of these new solutions. Presently only motor efficiency with sinusoidal supply at nominal speed and power and associated IE classes are standardized. In variable speed applications however the efficiency of the whole motor-drive package is more important. This package efficiency data is now available for SynRM motor-drive packages for the first time in the industry. Hopefully this can help the standardization process of the package efficiency so that users could compare also different motor-drive combinations. This paper will initiate discussions on two major topics: 1. Could SynRM technology challenge the traditional induction motors in main stream industrial variable speed applications? 2. Could the availability of motor-drive package efficiency speed-up standardization of motor-drive package efficiency classification?

AUTHOR
Carlos Martins carlosm@weg.net

AFFILIATION
WEG Equipment Electric S.A., Brazil

TITLE
PM motors for high efficiency applications

This paper presents a comparison between various types of PM motors, and the advantages of the use of PM motors in different applications. Introduction According to recent studies [1], electric motor-driven systems (EMDS) account for between 43% and 46% of all global electricity consumption. Induction motors have been the most used drives in industry, due to its robustness, reliability and simple operation (direct connection to the mains, without electronic control). However, in many applications variablespeed drives offer significant energy saving potential [2]. In this scenario, permanent magnet motors are competing technologies for the induction motors, because they present higher efficiency and do not need forced ventilation neither over sizing. Permanent Magnet Motors PM motors offer the highest efficiency of all motors, due to the absence of joule losses in the rotor, and high power factor 26

due to the excitation flux of the permanent magnets (resulting in smaller currents). They can be one frame size smaller than induction motors (up to 43% reduction in volume and 35% in weight). They have a significant higher efficiency in low speeds than the Induction motors, and do not need forced ventilation, neither over sizing for constant torque operation. Since PM motors have no Joule losses in the rotor, bearing temperature is lower, and life time is increased. There are several topologies, and the applicability of each one depends on the application requirements. Applications for PM Motors PM motors are suitable for nearly all applications, like pumps, elevators, compressors, blowers, extruders, generators, electric vehicles, servodrives, cooling towers, household appliances, etc. This paper will present some applications where the use of PM motors allowed for enhancements in energy efficiency and process quality, as shown in the figures below.

AUTHOR
Tobias Fernandes tobias@dee.ufc.br

AFFILIATION
Federal University of Cear (UFC) Darmstadt University of Technology, Brazil

TITLE
Short primary linear drive with induction or synchronous operation applied in automated handling applications

The idea of a flexible industrial manufacturing system for the transfer of material, processing/filling, etc., in which several vehicles can travel with high speed, high degree of independency and high precision is proposed in this paper. Such flexible systems show a meaningful economic potential for modern manufacturing systems. The basic concept is that a linear motor has the secondary part fixed to the track while the primary (moving windings) travels along the track. The concepts implementation involves technical issues, such as: the position measurement, the energy and information transfer, the individual position and speed control of the vehicle, and the smooth transition between different types of the secondary. Finally, vehicles traveling at high speed, high positioning repeatability and rapid acceleration rates increase the production throughout and the reliability compared to conventional conveyor systems. Although such solutions often need higher investment costs, the lack of mechanical coupling parts and wearing elements in these motors greatly increases

their reliability. Short primary linear drives on passive track are advantageous in material handling applications, where high precision, moderate dynamic, very long track and closed paths are required. In this paper a combined operation of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) and linear induction motor (LIM) is applied to operate the primary as vehicle, avoiding adjustment or releasing of the material during the drive cycle. A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to assess the feasibility of employing the short primary linear motor for a flexible manufacturing system, in which a contactless energy transmission provides the basic power and an ultracapacitor storage system provides the peak power. An experimental setup composed by software and hardware, was implemented to perform a smooth transition between the different sections of the track (processing section and transporting section). Finally, the obtained experimental data confirm the feasibility of the proposed system.

AUTHOR
Sandie Nielsen sbn@dti.dk

AFFILIATION
Danish Technological Institute, Department of Energy & Climate, Denmark

TITLE
The motor systems tool the continued development

After the successful presentation of the Motor Systems Tool at the EEMODS 11 Washington D.C. and following the presentation and workshop held at Motor Summit 12 in Zrich Switzerland, December 2012, it would be a great pleasure to present the latest developments of the Motor Systems Tool at the EEMODS 13 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The main goal of the task: Capacity Building in the 4E EMSA project is to upgrade the capacity of motor system users all over the world, by utilizing tools and guides etc. making everything easy accessible as online content. This is done by the Motor Systems Tool. The Motor Systems Tool. The task has, in corporation with Danish public means, produced a new, impartial calculation tool in which the

efficiency of complete motor systems is calculated. The aim was to create a tool which can be easily handled, gives good technical support for choosing the optimal motor system and is available for a broad audience. Since EEMODS 11 a lot of development of the tool has taken place. Of the more vital improvements developed a few should here be mentioned: Fully implemented models for gears (worm, bevel and helical), fully integrated interface for dynamical application (table input etc.) and not least optimized models for both motors and/or converter driven systems (Asynchronous, PM and reluctance motors). The presentation will show and demonstrate the Motor Systems Tool with a few calculation examples combined with discussions of the models used.

27 27

AUTHOR
Rene B. Ribeiro rribeiro@tenaris.com

AFFILIATION
TenarisConfab, Brazil

TITLE
Energy saving in hydraulic systems with VSP technology (variable speed pump) combined with re-feeding energy

Objective: Reduce energy consumption, restore energy to the source and provide higher overall efficiency with new VSP technology in the hydraulic pump drives. Development: For greater overall efficiency in the hydraulic systems, it is necessary to manipulate the flow and torque provided by the hydraulic pump, thus determining the energy consumed by the system, adjusting the better operating point within the machine cycle, avoiding energy losses. This work was develop together a external company (Rexroth), Maintenance Department and engineering, that proposes hydraulic pumps driven by servo drive combined with volumetric displacement adjustment, whereby a dedicated control system, provide full control of flow and torque on the system, as well restore energy to the source. Another advantage is the hydraulic circuit simplification being unnecessary proportional valve control. Friction and heating losses caused by rigid systems (flow and volumetric displacement constant) are reduced too. The first step was to study the basic system requirements (power installed, cycle time, flow and pressure), the second step was

the hydraulic project and finally define the equipments (pumps, motor, drive, etc) and the kind of the control (VSP technology). The project is under development. Results: The project is under development and the conclusion is: - Reduction around 30% in energy consumption. - Demand reduction due to lower power than conventional system. - Power factor close to unit value, thus reducing the reactive power and reduction or elimination of power factor correction. Could be reach 0.98. - Reduction in maintenance costs due to soft start, eliminating stress on the motor for high starting torque. - Lower MTTR due to circuit simplification. - Provides the best operating point of the system. - Enables better dynamic response against load variations and therefore greater accuracy in regulation. - For special applications, the system can restore energy to the network through the operation in regenerative mode of frequency inverters.

AUTHOR
Hesham Abdou heshamaabdou@gmail.com

AFFILIATION
Petroleum Co., Egypt

TITLE
Deducing efficiency of an electric submersible pump function in wellhead pressure and reservoir parameters

Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) is one of the most important artificial lifting systems used in oil and water wells, its operational parameters are followed up to take the necessary action to avoid damage for either motor and/or pump assembly. This paper presents a method to follow up pump overall efficiency (o) which reflects on overall performance of ESP assembly. In spite that motor is followed up by observing amperage chart, there is no direct method to follow up o, as this important pump parameter determines whether pump is working properly within operating range or there are problems as flow rate decreases under operating range causing impeller down thrust or increases over maximum operating range causing impeller upper thrust, leads to excessive motor loading ends to be burnt out. As o is a relation between hydraulic power (function of pump flow rate & total dynamic head) and brake power derived by pump motor. So, its value is an indication for well flow rate if confirmed that motor is working properly as observed from surface electric measurements. For example, if pump flow rate goes down extremely, hence some damage may happens in reservoir formation leads to drop in its potential. Also, if it goes

up extremely, this may be referred to increase of weight of pumped liquid due to water flooded out. Application 1 - Present work presents new mathematical model, easy applied at different well sites and gave results,too closed to the practical obtained ones. 2 - o is deduced by knowing wellhead pressure and the recorded flow rate received at surface, with other reservoir parameters, well data and motor loading chart . Technical Contributions 1 - Developing new mathematical model gives ESP performance as a function of reservoir parameters and well data. 2 - ESP performance and reservoir condition are checked frequently by easy deducing for o. Economical Contribution The subject paper presents the method by which, driving ESP motor can be saved from burning out by stopping the system at the proper time.

28

AUTHOR
Alberto Jos Fossa afossa@mdj.com.br

AFFILIATION
International Copper Association (ICA), Brazil

TITLE
Implementing ISO 50001: case study of UNIDOs EnMS program in latin america

The purpose of ISO 50001 energy management standard is to enable organizations to establish the systems and processes necessary to improve energy performance, including energy efficiency, use, and consumption. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20% or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is developing a program of energy management system (EnMS) in 12 developing countries to support an integrated approach to industrial energy efficiency propose and the implementation of the ISO 50001. Despite the increasing use of ISO 50001 (mainly in Europe) and the many certified organizations in several countries, the number is still very timid in the face of expectations and/or needs to effectively increasing of energy efficiency in industrial sector. The paper first presents a review of the literature which establishes the major reasons for, and the benefits of, the introduction of ISO 50001, including improve of energy productivity and enhance competitiveness. It also details the principles of the UNIDOs program for implementation of EnMS. The purpose of this empirical study is to examine the various barriers and misconceptions that impede ISO 50001

implementation in the industrial sectors. In order to identify these factors a structured survey was conducted using a sample of organizations participating of UNIDOs EnMS program in Latin America. The analysis of the survey revealed five important factors that hinder the implementation of the standard; absence of effective gains or government incentives heads the list. In addition, five misconceptions were identified by this study, including the need for measurement of all equipment for deployment of energy management. The study suggested the need to formulate a local strategy to meet the emerging ISO requirements which will enable industry organizations to achieve benefits by maximizing the use of its energy sources and energy-related assets, thus reducing both energy cost and consumption. This study contributes to the body of knowledge in the area of energy management systems with particular interest on Latin America, promoting the development of policies for increasing the energy efficiency systems (including motors) and their uptake in industry. The findings of this work are limited by the sample surveyed and the geographical limits, however, the findings reached carry many implications for policy- makers around world.

AUTHOR
Roberto de Oliveira raholiveira@ufrj.br

AFFILIATION
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brazil

TITLE
Energy regeneration in a magnetically levitated vehicle for urban transportation

The fully electric levitation train MagLev-Cobra for urban transportation presents unique features of energy consumption, construction costs and efficiency, addressing sustainability issues and creating innovation in science and technology. The added ability to regenerate energy contributes to improve the efficiency. The superconducting magnetic levitation method (SML), based on the diamagnetic property of superconductors in the presence of permanent magnets, dispenses feedback control loops and electrical energy supply, which makes the technique more advantageous when compared to electromagnetic levitation (EML) or electro dynamic levitation (EDL) methods. A Single Sided Linear Induction Motor (SLIM) with a differentiated construction geometry and patented by UFRJ, which increases the carrying capacity of the vehicle using the force of attraction between primary and secondary, an intrinsic

feature of induction machines, gives the traction. The selfcooled SLIM machine has the following nominal values: 420Vac, 53A, 25Hz, 6 poles, developing a speed of up to 8m/ s. A regenerative braking system uses a back-to-back converter, which allows bidirectional power flow. It operates with a supply voltage of 380Vac, 500Vdc on the intermediate loop and two SLIMs. The electricity generated by the deceleration of linear motors can be used by the auxiliary systems of the vehicle or returned to the grid, eliminating the use of resistive load to dissipate energy. The efficiency of the linear induction motor is the object of analysis of this paper. The longitudinal force and the force of attraction between primary and secondary, depending on the air gap, are investigated. The energy generated during braking and the uphill-downhill operation will be presented

29 29

AUTHOR
Jack Claxton jclaxton@pattersonpumps.com

AFFILIATION
Patterson Pump Company Toccoa, USA

TITLE
Estimating pump internal wear ring clearance leakage losses and the impact on pump efficiency

Rotodynamic pumps as designed and manufactured typically have relatively tight internal clearances between rotating and non-rotating parts at what is known as the wear ring areas. These clearances serve to separate pump higher pressure areas from lower pressure ones, in order to restrict the internal circulation of pumped fluid back to the suction side of the impeller. With respect to pump performance, this circulation is a leakage loss that affects volumetric efficiency and therefore

the pump efficiency. While performance characteristics of a new pump determined by test reflect the design clearances, as pumps operate, wear in these clearances can occur that causes increased internal leakage loss and reduced pump efficiency. A relatively straightforward approach is provided to estimate the leakage loss of a pump due to increased wear ring clearances, and the resulting impact on pump efficiency.

AUTHOR
Lassi Aarniovuori lassi.aarniovuori@lut.fi

AFFILIATION
Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland

TITLE
PWM effect on motor losses and temperature rise

In this paper totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) 37 kW class 130 (B) temperature rise induction motor loss measurement results during the heat run tests with the sinusoidal and PWMsupply are presented. The heat run tests are performed with 25 Hz, 40 Hz and 50 Hz points with 92 per cent of the load and with different switching frequencies. Heat run tests performed on electrical machines are extremely important both for manufacturers and users. A manufacturer would like to have an optimally designed machine so that the product is competitive, while a user wants to be sure that the motor temperature at full load does not exceed the thermal limits of the insulation and thus have a negative impact on the motor lifetime. The catalogue value of the efficiency for this motor is 93.6 % with a full load and 93.4 % with a 75 % load in a sinusoidal supply. Two equal-power frequency converters were used in the test, one with DTC control and another with the vector control. At each operating point, the motor was running 540 minutes to obtain thermal equilibrium and correct slip. The sinusoidal supply tests were carried out with 25 Hz, 40 Hz and 50 Hz frequencies. A synchronous generator was used to supply the motor with 25 Hz and 40 Hz sinusoidal voltages. The motor was measured with vector controlled frequency converter twice in the 50 Hz point with field-weakening operation and with overmodulation.

In addition to the heat run measurement points, the drive efficiencies were also measured using torque speed matrix of 16 measurement points. The motor temperature rise, losses as well as measurement accuracy with sinusoidal supply and PWM supply are analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that the motor temperature rise is very good indicator of motor losses and be considered as more reliable loss indicator than the losses obtained with input-output method. Extra care should be pointed to the operating temperature of the motor under test and to the effect of temperature to the mechanical losses.

30

AUTHOR
Victor Aguiar victor@ufersa.edu.br

AFFILIATION
Federal University of the Semi-Arid (Ufersa), Brazil

TITLE
Three-phase induction motor design assisted by CAD software based on brazilian standards

Energy efficiency of electric motors is a challenge for the national industry in many countries, although their efficiency has been increased gradually over the years. This paper deals a computer-aided tool for the design of a N-type (similar NEMA B-type) three-phase Induction Motor (IM). Such tool will bring flexibility for the design engineer during the project development. The software has main objectives: 1) to analyze the input data parameters of the IM project, according to Brazilian standards regulated (NBR) 17094-1:2008 and 156231:2008, printed by the Brazilian Standards Organization (ABNT); 2) to design an IM with all electrical specificity, based on a known project method (BOLDEA, I., NASAR, S.A.); 3) to evaluate the designed motors performance with the same method. The program has a friendly graphical user interface

(GUI) and it was developed by using the GUI development environment tool from MATLAB. This paper also presents the logical and execution through flowcharts, graphs and equations all of them important to the work. The softwares main purpose is to produce a computeraided tool for designing IM at the first conception step. It will evaluate the performance of the project (no built) and seek alternatives to improve its efficiency before the motor`s assembly. Knowing that the Brazilian standards requirements induce the better design of an IM design to achieve higher levels of efficiency (the same those other national standards), their technical features will be taking into account, and probably it may change the previously used IM design method. Changes on the methods shall be highlighted in the paper.

AUTHOR
Bonn Maguire bonn.maguire@climatechange.gov.au

AFFILIATION
Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, Australia

TITLE
Swimming pool pumps - voluntary energy rating labelling and demand response

Australia, 12% of households have a swimming pool, with ownership expected to rise to almost 15% (1.4 million pools) by 2020. Pool pumps can be responsible for over 15% of a households electricityconsumption. They are the single largest user of electricity in the home, or second if the home uses gridconnected electric storage water heating. The significant power usage stems from the fact that the pump is operated every day for quite long periods. In 2010, pool pumps in Australia consumed 1,474 GWh, which is over 2% of total household electrical energy use (66,556 GWh). Swimming pool energy use accounts for more than the combined electricity consumption of clothes washers, clothes dryers and dishwashers. Pool pumps present considerable energy savings opportunities through more efficient pumps and through pumping water through the filter at reduced flow rates. There has been a tendency to over-size pool pumps. The increasing use of multi-speed and variable speed pumps allow a much lower flow rate to be used for most of the time for filtration and then higher flow rates only when cleaning is required. Variable and multi-speed pumps can in some circumstances reduce operations costs by up to 80%.

In April 2010, a voluntary Energy Rating labelling program commenced with support from manufacturers and suppliers. The 10 largest manufacturers have tested and labelled over 30 of their more efficient pool pump-units. Industry has also undertaken significant research and development leading to increases in efficiency of single speed pumps and a shift to more energy efficient variable speed pumps. Work is progressing on analysing the benefits of mandatory labelling and MEPS for pool pumps. This includes amending Australian Standard AS 5102 in response to issues that have arisen in the operation of the voluntary energy rating labelling program. The latest progress on the European Energy Using Product Preparatory Study on pool pumps will also be presented. Standards are also being developed to specify the integration of demand response interfaces for swimming pool pumps and three other energy intensive products (air conditioners, water heaters and electric vehicle battery chargers. The costs and benefits of direct load control alternatives are being investigated, including the option of mandatory integration of a demand response interface in these products.

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AUTHOR
Dario Perez rpn@creara.es

AFFILIATION
Creara, Brazil

TITLE
International experience in energy management systmes ISO 50001

In recent years, energy management becomes one of the most important tools to increase the competitiveness of companies. To manage energy correctly, to promote the use of more energy efficient equipments or to develop the maximum potential deployment of renewable energy is a goal that the medium and large enterprise does not have to renounce. Therefore, in 2011 the International Standardization Committee (ISO) created the standard ISO 50001 Energy Management Systems. Prior to ISO 5001, worldwide there were more than half dozen similar regulations. Some of them are the european EN 16001 or the Spanish UNE 216301. The interest this standards have raised in their respective geographical areas was very high, but the interest for this new international ISO is bigger. Today, more than 500 Energy Management System were implemented all around the world.

From Creara, we are working on implementing this standard from large industrial companies such as refineries or paper mills, to small offices or facilities. We have already implemented more than the 13% of the EMS worldwide, we intend to cover the following objectives of the presentation: - Present the most important aspects in the implementation of the Standard - Present the basic phases of a deployment schedule - Present a case study of deployment Features of the conference: - Power Point presentation - Duration 20 minutes - Presentation

AUTHOR
Maarten van Werkhoven mvanwerkhoven@tpabv.nl

AFFILIATION
TPA bv, Netherlands

TITLE
Implementing efficient electric motor systems and ISO 50001: opportunities for a 3 way approach in the Netherlands

Research and pilots show that system optimization and best available technology can deliver reductions of 20 - 30% of the electricity use in heating, cooling and ventilation systems, and industrial production systems. Obstacles in the marketplace and a low awareness of best practices and technologies hamper market penetration in the Netherlands. Government and industry have started initiatives to overcome this along 3 lines of activity: energy management systems (EnMS) in voluntary agreements programs, EMSA-participation combined with an EMS knowledge network and a Green Deal EMS in Dutch industry. Large industrial companies work in voluntary agreements (VAs) with the government on increasing their energy efficiency. The companies have an EnMS in place, using a non-formal Dutch EnMS standard or ISO9001/14001. The newly developed ISO 50001 has a very good match with the Dutch standard. A yearly sample audit showed that some aspects of the EnMS systems in place are not well implemented. This mainly refers to the management support and the plan-do-check-act-cycle (e.g. the energy audit). It appeared also that some main aspects of EMS in the applied EnMS are not covered in a satisfactory manner. New projects are started to address these issues and to assist companies in their transition towards ISO50001 and support the implementation of EMS as well.

NL Agency and the motor systems industry operate a knowledge network to support the implementation of EMS and to provide knowledge transfer and guidance on systems performance. OEMs and pump suppliers will also join the network. A quickscan on EMS is being developed which will connect energy management principles to the potentials of motor systems. It will bring attention to procurement and management procedures (related to EMS) and support the use of LCC principles by industrial end users. And help the OEMs to make the steps towards applying LCC. The Netherlands is participating in the Electric Motor Systems Annex (EMSA) part of the IEA Implementing Agreement 4E. The joint experience of the 6 member countries is applied to provide technical guidance, capacity building and knowledge on performance and IEC/ISO systems standards. The Green Deal in efficient EMS is started by 25 companies from the motor systems industry. The project will focus on developing business cases based on systematic analysis applying best available technologies and life cycle costing principles. The projects will be made available for a larger group of industrial end users aiming at raising awareness and capacity building.

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AUTHOR
Samuel Borges samuelb@weg.net

AFFILIATION
WEG, Research and Technological Innovation Department, Brazil

TITLE
Influence of radial FAN efficiency in sound pressure level of electric motors

The objective of this work is to present, by means of experimental, analytical, and numerical techniques, that a logarithmical ratio exists between sound pressure level and radial fan efficiency of electric motor cooling systems. Electric motors are used to convert electric energy into mechanical energy. The losses generated in this process can be separated into electrical losses and mechanical losses. The mechanical losses are distributed in frictional losses and ventilation losses, which correspond to the power portion absorbed by the motor fan and comprise the focus of this work. Specific references estimate that electric motors were responsible for approximately 46 % of the global electricity demand in 2006 (15700 TWh/year). Considering that, on average, cooling fans alone consume around 0.5 % of the energy absorbed by the motor, this results in nearly 36 TWh/ year being consumed by the motor fans, what represents 38 % of the production record of Itaipu station, the worlds largest

hydroelectric power plant as regards the generation of electric energy. In general, two main reasons to pursue energy conservation are environmental sustainability and cost reduction. But in the case of electric motors, beyond these well known advantages, efficiency increasing also means noise decreasing. The effort to control the noise emitted by electric motors increases due to legislation requirements, industrial standards, and customer needs. Currently, to assure competitive products in the market, low noise levels are fundamental. In totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC) motors noise is generated by electromagnetic, mechanical and aerodynamic effects. Among these, the aerodynamic noise portion is paramount and is focused in this work. Aerodynamic noises are generated by rotation of fan rotor that induces the air flow over the motor. This work shows that the motor noise level can be related to the performance of the motor cooling fan.

AUTHOR
Pierre Angers angers.pierre@lte.ireq.ca

AFFILIATION
Hydro-Qubecs Research Institute, Canada

TITLE
Efficiency testing comparison of induction (IM), switched reluctance (SR), synchronous reluctance (SynR) and AC permanent magnet (PM) motors drive systems

Many industrial processes require precise and accurate control over system parameters such as flow, pressure, temperature, process speed, etc. The use of a variable frequency drive (or converter) to match the motor driven equipment speed and torque to the requirements of the process load can result in large energy savings particularly in variable torque or centrifugal loads. It is estimated that 30% of industrial motor system energy is candidate for converter application to control the speed and torque of a motor. It is however recognized that the energy efficiency of asynchronous three-phase induction systems (combination of converter and motor) varies significantly when they operate at different speed and torque points. Manufacturers of Switched Reluctance (SR), Synchronous Reluctance (SynR) and Permanent Magnet (PM) systems claim that the energy efficiency is at least as good as the best squirrel cage three-phase induction motors (IM) operating at their best efficiency and may also have higher efficiencies under a wider span of load conditions.

Apart of the energy efficiency aspect, each technology has its own advantages in regards of inertia, robustness, cost, etc. Considering these aspects, few independent laboratory evaluations have been performed up to now for comparison. The objective of the paper is to give the most recent testing results on energy efficiency over the entire speed and torque range of these emerging technologies that have recently become commercially available. It is believed that the results of this investigation bring a solid information base that can influence actions in promoting high efficiency and best choices in customer technologies. The proposed test protocol used for determination of efficiency of the converter, the motor supplied by converter or the combination of both converter and motor is based of draft standards CSA C838: Energy Efficiency Test Methods for Three-Phase Variable Frequency Drive Systems currently under development in Canada and EN528XX currently under development in Europe.

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AUTHOR
Pierre Angers angers.pierre@lte.ireq.ca

AFFILIATION
Hydro-Qubecs Research Institute, Canada

TITLE
Review of energy efficiency testing standards for motors in the context of IECEE global efficiency labelling initiative

As part of IEC System for Conformity testing and Certification of Electrotechnical Equipment and Components (IECEE) initiative, a new Certification Body (CB) Scheme is proposed for a global labeling for the efficiency classes of electric motors. A CB scheme is intended to reduce obstacles to international trade which arise from having to meet different national certification or approval criteria.Where national standards are not yet completely based on IEC standards, declared national differences will be taken into account; however, successful operation of the Scheme presupposes that national standards are reasonably harmonized with the corresponding IEC standards.

Actually for determining electric motor efficiency, the IEC international testing standard 60034-2-1 (2007) is currently under revision. Two testing standards from the Institute of Electrical Engineers, IEEE Standard 112 and from the Canadian Standards Association, CSA C390, are also applied globally and are either under revision (IEEE) or recently published (CSA). Standards from other countries also exist. In recent years, much effort has been done to harmonize these efficiency standards but still differences in the procedure or in the specifications exist. This paper makes an in-depth review of these standards and presents the outcomes in regards of

AUTHOR
Mohamed Benhaddadi mohamed.benhaddadi@polymtl.ca

AFFILIATION
Polytechnic Montral, Canada

TITLE
Is 60 Hz electric motor-driven System efficiency really always better than 50 Hz?

Nowadays, travelers from North America to four and a half continents of the Earth globe havent to bring with them personal appliances that require voltage increase from 110 V to 220 V and frequency adaptation from 60 Hz to 50 Hz. Even so, 60 Hz versus 50 Hz selection as standard power frequency continues to intrigue. Off course, its not suited to compare 60 Hz electric-motor driven systems efficiency with those of 50 Hz by means of just today eyes. The fact is that in the long race towards a standard frequency during the last decade of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, one must take into account those time constructional constraints, as well as advantages and impediments of every frequency, such as then understood. Nevertheless, motors rated for operation at frequencies 60 Hz and 50 Hz are nowadays classified in efficiency classes according to IEC standard 60034-30. As illustrated in IEC tables, the difference in efficiency between 60 Hz and 50 Hz varies with the size of the motor and the number of poles. As general rule, the 60 Hz efficiency of three-phase cage-induction motors in the power range from 1 to 500 Hp is greater when compared to the 50 Hz efficiency. As a rule, the motors are rated for operation on both 60 Hz and 50 Hz with nearly the same magnetic flux and the same output power, and better efficiency 60 Hz motors can be explained by the fact that the theoretical output power increases linearly with speed, i.e. by 20%. What is unexploited in this wide-ranging conclusion is that the statement is limited to rated feeding voltage, while its well established that a change in efficiency as a function of voltage is an intrinsic characteristic of induction motors. 34

The purpose of the present work is to compare experimentally 60 Hz versus 50 Hz electric motor-driven system efficiency, taking into account the feeding voltage drop. The voltages choice are made on the basis of practical considerations: 230 V, and 200 V. The 230 V is the motor nameplate rated indication, which is in accordance with an industrial normalized 240 V feeding voltage, while the three-phase 120/208 V is frequently used in commercial & institutional sectors. So, the same 230/460 V motors are frequently feed from sources 230 V (instead of 240 V) and 200 V (instead of 208 V). The paper presents experimental results several 3 hp NEMA Premium efficiency induction motors, issued from different major manufacturers and fed by a drive without flux optimisation. The results show that feeding voltage drop has a significant impact on efficiency value. When the grid feeding voltage is decreased to 200 V, the 50 Hz motor shows relatively lower under-load efficiency, but higher full-load. Moreover, the 50 Hz efficiency bonus is more palpable when the motor is overloaded. Better 60 Hz under-loaded motor is doubtless due to no-load current, as watchful analysis of the current waveforms shows that the drive applies lower magnetization values. In addition, although iron, friction and windage losses increase with frequency; these losses usually play a minor role in motors with four poles. In contrast, Joule winding losses are particularly dominant in 3 Hp induction motors when the motor is full or overloaded, and the 50 Hz drive applies relatively lower functioning values. accordance with an industrial normalized 240 V feeding voltage, while the three-phase.

AUTHOR
Emmanuel Agamloh eagamloh@advancedenergy.org

AFFILIATION
Advanced Energy Corporation, USA

TITLE
Assessment of prospects of achieving super-premium efficiency levels with induction motor technology

Premium efficiency (per NEMA MG-1 Table 12-12) standards for certain electric motors have become mandatory in the US since December 19 2010. The US Department of Energy is mandated by law to determine if there is need to set higher standards than the one currently in effect. The Department is currently in the process of making that determination. The next possible efficiency level is the so-called super-premium efficiency level, an equivalent of which is the IE-4 level which is dedicated to advanced motor technologies such as permanent magnet (PM) motors. Although some motors rated above premium efficiency levels can be found on the market, there is a general perception that the induction motor technology cannot support the goal to achieve efficiency levels above premium efficiency and that the natural path is towards advanced technologies, such as PM motors. Indeed, recent research have pointed out that there are significant challenges to be addressed in increasing the efficiency of the induction motors above existing levels [1]. The goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility and challenges of setting super-premium efficiency standards using induction motors.

In the full paper, a survey of current products above premium level would be presented and analyzed. The analysis includes both induction motor and other technologies being marketed as super-premium efficiency products. The prospect of prescribing higher efficiency levels for induction motors would be assessed from the technological and economic points of view. From the economic standpoint, any increase in efficiency would lead to increased cost. However, it is important to verify that imposing higher efficiency levels does not adversely impact manufacturing costs and consequently result in an increase in product costs, which could make it hard for the motor to be accepted by consumers. It can be shown that as higher and higher efficiency levels are prescribed, the net benefit may significantly reduce. In the full paper the economic limits would be checked by applying the concept of isocurves. From the technological stand-point, constraints from the design perspective would be pointed out in the full paper. Also discussed would be efficiency testing aspects and constraints imposed by the need to properly differentiate between efficiency levels for effective enforcement.

AUTHOR
Vincius Gonalves viniciusg@weg.net

AFFILIATION
WEG Equipment Electric S.A., Brazil

TITLE
A study on the influence of the base on the dynamic performance of an inverter-fed motor

Impact and vibration are mechanical effects that often accelerate the failure mechanisms of industrial machinery and equipment. It is therefore indispensable to minimize or control these effects in order to avoid premature failures in motor driven systems. In this context, the supporting base of an electric motor plays an important role as regards keeping the normalized vibration levels complied with in the factory production stage. The bases used by motor manufacturers are normally of the rigid type (according to IEC 60034-14 standard) and reproducing this condition in actual plant operation is a challenge. As a result, severe vibration effects, such as resonance, are likely to occur in the field. Based on these

concepts, this paper proposes an experimental methodology using modal analysis and ODS (Operating Deflection Shapes) techniques to compare and understand the differences between a rigid and a flexible base, and how this difference could lead to resonance problems in variable speed motor applications. A standard industrial motor driven by a frequency inverter was used with two types of operating bases, namely a rigid and a flexible one. The experimental results show that a flexible base introduce a number of natural frequencies in the mounting fit (motor plus base) that may lead to high vibration levels in operation regimes with speed variation, compromising the expected motor service life.

35 35

AUTHOR
Vincius Gonalves viniciusg@weg.net

AFFILIATION
WEG Equipment Electric S.A., Brazil

TITLE
Using ods vibration techniques to solve problems in motor bearings to maximise compressor service time

This paper presents a case study, in which motor bearing damage problems were solved using ODS (Operating Deflection Shapes) vibration techniques. In the application in question, an electric motor was directly coupled to an improved newly designed screw compressor. Operational pre-tests were carried out in five different compressors prototypes and three of them presented severe premature damages in the motors rolling bearings. The first step towards the problem solution was trying to identify the failure mode of the damaged bearings. A detailed visual inspection of the bearings raceways led to the hypothesis of a critical misalignment between the motor and the screw

compressor. New rolling bearings were then installed in the motor and ODS measurements performed with the compressors prototypes confirmed the misalignment hypothesis. These results fostered the manufacturing of a new coupling flange aiming at a finer alignment between motor and compressor. A new ODS measurement performed with the new coupling flange confirmed the success of the proposed solution, once that considerable lower vibration levels were thereby achieved, preventing the premature failure of the bearings and maximizing the compressor service time.

AUTHOR
Emmanuel Agamloh eagamloh@advancedenergy.org

AFFILIATION
Advanced Energy Corporation, USA

TITLE
The effect of power quality on induction motor operation

Induction motors are often subjected to power quality issues that are inherent in industrial power supplies. It is known that adverse power quality conditions detrimentally affect the performance of induction motors. Several papers have been published that discuss the effect power quality abnormalities such as voltage unbalance, under-voltage and over voltage, voltage distortion on the operation of induction motors. However, the evaluation of the effect of these abnormalities on motor operation, using actual grid operating conditions is sparse in literature. Recently, there has been an increasing discussion on transforming the transmission grid into an intelligent or smart grid. The ultimate goal of smart grid is to improve reliability of electric energy delivery and usage. Several techniques have been proposed by different stakeholders to look at specific aspects of the problem. Some of the techniques being applied or considered under the smart grid concept would have significant effect on the operation of induction motors. Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) is a technique that is employed by electric utilities to reduce energy consumption of loads by reducing the voltage of distribution feeders. A recent study that assessed the impact of CVR reported that up to 3% reduction in energy is achievable on a national scale in the United

States. The CVR techniques are becoming more important in the era of smart-grid. Another technique under the smart grid concept is the use of automatic reclosers. Under smart grid, there is an increasing tendency to interrupt and reclose only lines that are faulted and to ensure that unfaulted phases remained operational. This means that three phase loads on distribution feeder such as induction motors are subjected to single-phasing, during the operation of these devices. Although the effect of sustained single-phasing is discussed in literature, momentary interruptions caused by recloser operation are inherently different and their effect on motor operation needs to be evaluated. In addition to the above mentioned phenomena from the utility perspective, there are other influences on power quality from the utilization perspective such as non-linear loads that create significant voltage distortion. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of power quality effects on induction motor operation caused primarily by the new smart grid techniques. Experimental results and analysis are presented to quantify the effects of voltage abnormalities, distortion and single-phasing of induction motors in a smart grid environment. A derating factor will be proposed in the full paper to mitigate the major power quality abnormalities.

36

AUTHOR
Said Chabane Said.Chabane@cetim.fr

AFFILIATION
Mechanical Engineering Technical Center, France

TITLE
Simplified design method for compressed air network

The advantage of using compressed air in industry is undeniable. indeed, pneumatic tools present a good reliability and high durability, simply designed and adapted to be used in in harsh environment and this technology is known to be environmental friendly and economic. Unfortunately, although pneumatic systems possess a lot of advantages, this energy needs another energy source to be produced: an electrical or thermal source drives the compressors that produce this energy. Despite the remarkable performances obtained by compressors and pneumatic components, the overall efficiency of such systems is rather poor. Indeed, air leaks upstream of pneumatic devices and poor design of transport

networks are the main factors which could be well designed in order to improve this efficiency. Although leakage is one of the most important causes of efficiency losses, this aspect is not covered in this paper. We focus only on the design and calculation of flow through networks to reduce energy losses. Primary networks of compressed air consist mainly of piping, elbows, tees and various connections, flow coefficients of these components are not as well known a priori and are rarely available in catalogs. It is developed a simple methodology to calculate the pressure losses of compressed air systems composed by elements in series or in parallel. This method allows knowing the flow rate and the pressure drop of such networks with a good accuracy.

AUTHOR
David McKinstry Dave.mckinstry@colfaxcorp.com Overview:

AFFILIATION
Technical Affairs Hydraulic Institute, USA

TITLE
The role of standards in reduction of energy in pump systems

The US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency year 2000 report on Industrial Electric Motor System Savings Potential identifies that pumping is the major energy reduction opportunity with over 40% of the identified savings. To observers this level was surprising since the pump industry has a long history of developing standards, guidelines and user friendly educational materials to enable knowledgeable pump application. To serve energy reduction purposes in the decade following the report therefore standards writing organizations needed to adjust their focus. This presentation covers; the process of standards creation for that purpose, the organizations involved, identification of contributing standards and a discussion of important new standards designed for energy reduction in electric motor driven pumping systems. Standards Organization and Processes Standard writing organizations follow a set of rigid practices which are certified and audited by an approval agency. Important among the processes are approvals during the creation by groups epresenting involved and knowledgeable constituencies plus the important concept of conscientious. Examples of these processes used by major global approval bodies ISO (International Standardization Organization) and ANSI (American National Standards Institute) are provided for standards and guidelines.

Energy Related Supporting Standards Developed Since 2000 Although few of these standards contained the term Energy within their title many helpful supportive standards were developed in this period for use in more efficient pumping practices. These are eviewed for their contribution to energy reduction. Pump Energy Standards and Guidelines. With the advent of the second decade of the 2000s one started to find Standards with the Energy in the title and one was the introduction of the major Energy Reduction Management System Standards in the 500001 series and increased attention focused on installed product in the ISO/ASME ISO 14414 pump system evaluation standard. 2010 to 2020 Target Energy Standards. Using existing Standards as a basis organizations have launched efforts to develop specific energy reduction documents voluntary and regulatory standards. They will deal with removing the most energy inefficient pumps from the marketmarket and developing an Enhanced Product Standard focused on a packaged solution. Such will require complementary motor and drive standards and SWOs providing enhanced pump educational opportuities.

37 37

AUTHOR
Javier Garcia jaroserog@unal.edu.co

AFFILIATION
Electrical Machines & Drives Group, Department of Electric and Electronics Engineering, USA

TITLE
Efficiency measurement of a squirrel-cage induction motor fed by a frequency inverter within its range of operation

Abstract This paper presents a procedure to measure the efficiency on an induction motor fed by a frequency inverter by the all operation range to speed and torque. The article describes the procedure, and accuracy requirements of the instrumentation required by international standards and research results to ensure the measurement of real efficiency of induction motor and drive. Also, this describes the basic requirements for measurement of the variables, accurate data measurement, information processing, power calculations and also efficiency calculations. The paper describes and analyzes the different power calculations implemented and researched, which correspond to the algorithms used by the commercial instrumentation. The losses on the system induction engine frequency inverter are shown and analyzed. Finally, the procedure for efficiency measurement is implemented through lab tests. Introduction Nowadays, electrical motors are widely used in the industry. This is why they are the main source of energy consumption in the world, with 40% and can be responsible of 13% CO2 emissions worldwide. Within this sector, squirrel-cage induction

motor (IM) dominates the use of motors in the industry, with 90%. Thus, it is important to improve operation efficiency in the IM, since this improves energy consumption and reduces polluting emissions [1]. To improve productivity and energy saving on IM, the use of a variable speed drive (VSD) has been implemented, since these regulate speed or torque in the motor. However, it must be emphasized that the use of VSD with motors is viable for large and medium motors, or for applications when we have variable load [3]. Thus, measurement and classification of energy efficiency are important to reduce energy consumption and polluting emissions. However, test procedures for appropriate efficiency measurement must be developed to establish such classification, which can be incorporated into a standard or universal procedure, for the usefulness of globalized markets and to guarantee industrial clients [2]. This paper presents the procedure to measure efficiency in the system IM-VSD, and a comparison of methods for efficiency calculations, next to the behavior analysis of the IM within its range of operation.

AUTHOR
Jussi Tamminen jussi.k.tamminen@lut.fi

AFFILIATION
Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland

TITLE
Sensorless specific energy optimization of a variable-speed-driven pumping system

Increasing energy efficiency is considered to be one of the key methods when aiming for sustainable energy use. Pumping systems are responsible of a significant part of industry electricity consumption, which has increased the interest of finding energy saving possibilities in pumping sector. Usually the greatest energy saving potential in pumping systems can be found when optimizing the system control, since increasing the efficiency of individual component rarely can reduce the energy consumption as well as setting the delivered output according to process needs. Realizing this energy saving possibility requires not only justified control methods, but easily-implementable and yet sufficient monitoring solutions. In many occasions, adjusting the pump output compliance with process is most energy efficient when applying rotational speed control of the pump using variable speed drives (VSDs). After implementing the rotational speed control to a pumping system, the optimization of the control procedure is usually left for the pump user. In many occasions, the required information

to fulfill the pumping task in the most energy efficient way is not available or must be gathered manually with startup measurements utilizing separate metering equipment. This often results that the full optimization of the pumping task is neglected. As the modern VSDs are also able to monitor the output of the pumping system without additional metering, this monitoring data can be exploited in system control to ensure that the pumping task is executed with optimal energy use. This paper shows, how variable-speed driven pumps can monitor the energy efficiency of the of the pump and set the rotational speed according to lowest specific energy consumption without any additional start-up measurements, identification runs or initial data, excluding the pump performance curves required for sensorless pump monitoring. The operation of the introduced control strategy is presented and the energy efficiency gains are illustrated with simulations based on reallife pumping cases.

38

AUTHOR
David McKinstry Dave.mckinstry@colfaxcorp.com Overview

AFFILIATION
Technical Affairs Hydraulic Institute, USA

TITLE
Critical energy saving concepts for electric motor pump systems

Alternate Pump Technologies An obvious selection criterion is that a pump technology must operate satisfactorily on the fluid in the system both at normal and alternate conditions. The first considerations therefore for a positive displacement option is do fluids allow the pump to meet operational criteria. Viscosity is one important selection criterion for a large body of liquids since it enables PD pump application and as highlighted in ANSI/HI 9.6.7-2010 Guideline deteriorates performance of Rotodynamic pumps. The paper provides an examination of effect of viscosity on performance. It also highlights operating ranges currently available for PD pumps and suggests sweet spots for consideration and highlights the control differences between the constant flow PD pump and the variable flow rotodynamic pump as they apply to energy consumption. Summary System design and proper pump selection form the basis for energy efficient pump applications. This paper provides insight into the Standards and Guidelines that assist energy efficient selection of Rotodynamic and Rotary pumps. It further suggests the benefits of VSD operation to advantage across both technologies.

Bigger is better is not advice that applies to pump selection when considering energy efficient operation. What does apply is properly selected and sized units. Rotodynamic pumps however come in a multitude of mechanical configurations which provide design options but add additional selection complexity. ANSI/HI Standard 1.3-2009, Rotodynamic Pumps Design and Application present eighteen mechanical designs with most capable of performance at the same operating point. In addition over a portion of their range there are additional technologies that can be considered for energy comparisons. This paper therefore will outline the significant considerations for application of rotodynamic and rotary pumps, highlighting basic selection criteria and reference standards for both focused on energy savings and operational performance. Rotodynamic Pump Selection Too often the desire for energy efficient operation is lost in the initial selection with inclusion of excess flow or head or the selection of a pump at a point far from the BEP, Best Efficiency Point. HI Guideline 20.3-10 provides a helpful specific speed guide for the potential efficiency of pump configurations, this paper deals with the selection process and the key points to promote energy efficient operation.

AUTHOR
Oscar Flrez oflorezc@yahoo.com

AFFILIATION
Electromechanical Autonomous University Department of Colombia, Colombia

TITLE
Experimental analysis of electrical energy efficiency for speed control of a threephases induction motor

The inductive motors represent an important load in different industrial sectors but these motors have been not changed by recent high efficient models. Therefore, the energetic efficient is a critical issue to be improved implementing suitable control systems. This paper performs an experimental analysis to analyze the relationship between an index of energetic efficient and the speed control applied to inductive motors. The speed control is modeled using standard configurations such as a

proportionalintegrative (PI) control and an electronic oscillator. Computational simulations were performed to propose a general model to evaluate the energetic efficient related to the motor speed control. Some test performed under controlled environments allows us to check the relationship between motor speed control and an index of energetic efficient. The results allow to conclude that the energetic efficient is directly related with the control systems used to vary the motor speed.

39 39

AUTHOR
Jos Kaehler josekaehler@unipampa.edu.br

AFFILIATION
Pampa University, Brazil

TITLE
Energy efficiency in water pumping systems used for rice crop irrigation in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

The rice cultivation in Brazil ranges a planted area over 2.5 million hectares and a 12 million tons of rice production, resulting in an average productivity of 4.8 kg/ha. The State of Rio Grande do Sul accounts for a planted area over 1 million hectares and an average annual production of 7.8 million tons, corresponding to an average productivity of 7.35 kg/ha. The cultivation of irrigated rice in the State occurs similarly as boarding countries such as Argentina and Uruguay. The process is different, once adopts the irrigation process of plant flooding, in which a 5-10 cm layer of water is held throughout rice growing and maturation. For the rest of the country, the crop growing is of dry land rice adapted to a traditional cultivation with natural irrigation. However, this kind of cultivation doesnt reach the productivity of irrigated rice, aggregating value to the inferior product, given by the market. There are three types of mechanized irrigation in terms of planted area: electromechanical (48%), dieselmechanical (19%) and natural (33%). In average, the engines have an installed power of 150 HP per unit. The load operates in summer months for a variable time from 90 to 120 days, 21 hours a day. These periods vary with rainfall conditions. According to Riograndense Rice Institute IRGA census, the

electromechanical pumping load is over 400,000 HP, followed by 156,000 HP on diesel. Several energy conservation actions are being undertaken by electricity utilities, within their annual programs of energy efficiency, which indicate 40% of real reduction of power and water consumption. These measures involve since the medium-voltage transformer (23 kV / 380 V) to the suction and discharge pipes, through the electric engine, the hydraulic pump and the flow control systems. The automation of the irrigation processes with the use of speed controllers to suit the flow reflects impacts that reach as 80% of electricity and water usage reduction. Thereby, this work explores the potential of energy and water conservation due to the adoption of energy efficiency measures in mechanized irrigation processes in rice crop growing. As reference, it has a sample of the current situation of this type of energy service as well as the performance of several promotion actions for the rational energy usage promoted by energy utilities within their Energy Efficiency Annual Programs. The extrapolated results seek to point out the potential level that glimpses to the rest of the irrigated rice producing regions, once this type of agriculture is now in expansion in the country.

AUTHOR
Jos Florentino jose_florentino@uol.com.br

AFFILIATION
Rio de Janeiro Metro, Brazil

TITLE
Modernization of escalators with focus on energy efficiency and sustainability: a case study for feasibility analysis

This case study aims to evaluate the feasibility of upgrading equipment, Escalator, using concepts of energy efficiency, sustainability, financial analysis, among others, in order to propose modernization in the Companhia do Metropolitano de So Paulo - METR. The research methodology began by defining measurements and verifications using the protocol of international M&V EVO. After analysis of the protocol a cycle of one week was chosen to collect electrical and operational data. The obtained data allowed to correlate the electrical quantities, statistical analyzes and financial considerations. The nature of the problem studied and adopted the form to quantify and correlate the greatness involved, its relationship with the environment and the conclusions from this study suggest that modernization is feasible in many aspects as:

1) Social: to reduce accidents with elderly, to generat jobs in the process of modernization; 2) Technical: use of high-performance motor, programmable logic controller and variable frequency drive regenerative; to improve MTBF and availability; to generate functional deviations history; 3) Budget / Financial: modernization with energy savings making possible the supply of funds for execution of project with Pay Back TIRM of 10 years; 4) Legal: meet federal and state laws in the area of energy efficiency and sustainability; 5) Environmental: Reducing CO2 emissions estimated at one thousand tons per year (1.000Ton CO2/year)

40

AUTHOR
JHirooki Tokoi hirooki.tokoi.fe@hitachi.com

AFFILIATION
Hitachi Research Laboratory, Japan

TITLE
Highly efficient industrial 11kW permanent magnet synchronous motor without rareearth metals

We developed technology to optimize the structure of the axial gap motor to efficiently use lowmagnetic ferrite material and a stratified core structure which efficiently draws out the low-energy loss characteristic of the amorphous metal, to achieve an industrial 11kW highly efficient permanent magnet synchronous motor without rare metals. In comparison to conventional motors of the same class, the motor developed is smaller and achieves an energy efficiency of approx. 93% which fulfills the highest standard of IE4 in the efficiency guideline set out by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Features of the technology developed are as below: (1) Increasing the capacity of double-rotor axial gap motors: In order to employ the double rotor axial gap motor which allows a greater amount of ferrite magnet to be used and thus dramatically increase the magnetic energy of the magnet, highly resilient stator and rotor structures which could endure a large torque and centrifugal force were developed. As a result, increased efficiency was achieved in energy-consuming medium capacity 11kW motors used in industrial applications as well as realizing the development of a motor without rare-metal magnets.

(2) Decreasing core loss using stratified core structure: A stratified core structure which uses lowloss material such as iron-based amorphous metal with loss characteristics, approx. 1/10 that of magnetic sheet material used in conventional motors in the stator core of the motor, and the production technology for the new core structure were developed. As a result, deterioration due to processing which occurs in low-loss material such as iron-based amorphous metals was improved, making it relatively easier to manufacture a low-loss core. (3) Motor design optimization technology: Three-dimensional magnetic field analysis and three dimensional thermal analysis technologies were developed for a double rotor axial gap motor by taking characteristics analysis of ferrite magnet rotors and amorphous stratified cores into account. Using the analysis technologies developed, an 11kW capacity industrial permanent magnet synchronous motor was designed and the prototype machine was built to verify the high efficiency of the motor resulting in the realization of a smaller size motor with high efficiency conforming to the IE4 standard of the IEC guideline.

AUTHOR
Tero Ahonen tero.ahonen@lut.fi

AFFILIATION
Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland

TITLE
Sensorless frequency-converter-based methods for realizing life-cycle cost efficient pumping and fan systems

Frequency converters provide means for the energy efficient flow control of pumping and fan systems by varying the motor speed. Besides speed variation, a modern frequency converter can estimate the state and performance of system operation without additional measurement sensors. This ability provides several new possibilities to optimize pumping or fan system operation and the resulting lifecycle costs (LCC) that mainly consist of energy and maintenance costs. First, information on the present operating state directly informs that how energy efficiently the system is driven, and does the system fulfil the given process requirements. Estimation of the pump or fan operating state can be further applied to determine the surrounding process characteristics, which is essential information for energy audits and optimization of the system operation with energy-efficiencybased speed control scheme. Another, a less studied topic is the detection of lifetime reducing operating states with the frequency converter: It

is shown that the occurrence of high flow cavitation, fluid recirculation and fan stalling have an effect on the frequency converter estimates for the motor rotational speed and shaft torque. By combining the time-domain monitoring of converter estimates to general estimation of the system operating state, user can be warned when the pump or fan is prone to a premature failure. Correspondingly, mass increase in the fan impeller caused by the contamination build-up can be detected with the converter estimates before the occurrence of impeller imbalance. In both cases, the successful detection of adverse operating state can provide notable cost savings, if the resulting production losses and their effect on the system LCC can be avoided. This article presents frequency-converter-based monitoring and optimization methods that can be used to optimize pumping and fan system life-cycle costs. First the methods are demonstrated with laboratory test results. The possible effect of introduced methods on the system life-cycle costs is also demonstrated with example cases. 41 41

AUTHOR
Konstantin Kulterer Konstantin.Kulterer@ energyagency.at

AFFILIATION
Energy Technologies and Systems Austrian Energy Agency, Austria

TITLE
EMSA - Policy guidelines for efficient electric motor systems

Within the IEA 4E Project the Electric Motor Systems Annex EMSA will design and propose a global policy guideline for exploiting efficiency potentials in motor driven systemsconsisting of mandatory, voluntary and financial measures as well as procedures for monitoring and compliance. This work will benefit of several sources of information: Current research conducted by EMSA members, especially the Motor Policy Guide Part I Review of existing policies and the work done for the IEA by IEA 4E members (Waide, P., Brunner, C.:, Energy- Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems, IEA 2011; Falkner, H., Holt, S.: Walking the Torque: Proposed Work Plan for Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor- Driven System, IEA 2011; Mark Ellis et al: Compliance Counts: A Practitioners Guidebook on Best Practice Monitoring, Verification, and Enforcement for Appliance Standards &Labeling (2010);Information generated in the Tasks Building SEAD EMSA bridge and International Standardization; continued monitoring of policy developments in key regions (EU, China, India, Japan, Australia, USA) and direct experience in national motor policy programs in Austria, USA and Switzerland;

The paper will present previous results of selected issues and the state of discussion.

AUTHOR
Atila Girao atilagirao@yahoo.com.br

AFFILIATION
Federal University of Cear (UFC), Brazil

TITLE
Stator winding interturns short circuit fault detection in a three phase induction motor driven by frequency converter using multilayer perceptron neural network

This work is an investigation about the possibility of using Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network (MLP NN) to detect early inter turn short-circuit faults in three phase induction motors. The quantity used to analyze the problem is the stator current or, more specifically, the harmonic contend of the frequency spectrum, also called current signature. The analysis through the current signature is a non-invasive method and can be embedded in a frequency converter, what is a great advantage. The data set used to train and validate the network is obtained using a test bench that allows to apply different levels of inter turn short-circuits in the machine. The frequency converter is used to drive the machine in many different frequencies to cover the whole machine operation

range. Furthermore, the data acquisition also includes 3 levels of load: unload, 50% and 100% of load. It is observed some difficulties to apply precedent theories about current signature, maybe because these precedent works didnt use frequency converter to drive the motors, but its a supposition not a certain and needs to be more investigated. It is also observed that the fault data set and normal data set are difficult to separate due the nonlinear character, which demands a large computational effort to choose an appropriate MLP topology. The MLP results are thoroughly explored and then slightly compared with the results of a Self Organized Map NN previous done in one of the references*.

42

AUTHOR
Michelle Wang michelle.wang@copperalliance.asia

AFFILIATION
International Copper Association Beijing Office, China

TITLE
Present situation of Chinas motor manufacturing industry and energy-saving standard for motor systems

Electric motor is the electric equipment widely used in various industries of national economy. As it is used in large quantity with a long running time, there is a great energy-saving potential during motors selection and application. Especially for the small- and medium-sized motors which are used in large quantity with wide-range application, the energy-saving effects are even more apparent. Reducing motor loss and increasing its output efficiency are now commonly concerned issues all over the world, and it is also the key energy-saving and emissionreduction field in which the Chinese governments emphasize. As one of the worlds largest energy-consuming and carbon dioxide-emitting countries, how China deals with the challenges of energy and environment issues is currently the top issue to be solved for sustainable development. The Chinese government is always dedicated to energy-saving work for motor systems. During the 11th Five-Year Period, under the guidance of Chinas of energy development strategy of implementing energy-saving and development tasks simultaneously and putting the energy-saving task in the first place and the basic national policy of saving resources, Chinese government organizations including the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) jointly prepared and issued the Opinions on Implementation of Ten Key Energy-Saving Projects During the 11th Five-Year Plan Period (hereinafter referred to as the Ten Energy-Saving Projects) in as early as July 2006. Among them, the energy-saving of motor system was one of the Ten Energy-Saving Projects which proposed systematic and specific goals and tasks for Chinas motor systems energy-saving work. China entered its 12th Five-Year Plan Period in 2011, and the overall work for energy saving and emission reduction will be continuously push ahead by taking the development mode transformation and economic structure adjustment as the mainline. As a component of Chinas energy-saving work, the motor system energy-saving measures are systematically and strictly regulated and implemented. The successive introduction of motor energy-efficiency standard and relevant energy-saving policies include high-energy consumption product elimination system, preferential income tax for energy-saving and watersaving special equipment manufacturing enterprises, energysaving product certification, government procurement directory

for energy-saving products, motor energy-efficiency labeling, energy-saving evaluation and inspection for fixed-asset investment projects, national supervision and spot checks for three-phase asynchronous motor product quality, Motor Energy Savings Project and energy performance contracting. These energy-saving policies laid good foundation for thoroughly carrying out Chinas motor energy-saving work. Meanwhile, to further guide the energy-saving product market, provide technical basis for Chinas energy-saving policies, overall improve the energy-efficiency level of domestic products and establish a fair competitive environment for enterprises to constantly increase products energy efficiency in the market competition, China successively made two revisions and supplements for the Energy-efficiency standard of small- and medium-sized threephase asynchronous motors.

43

AUTHOR
Bonn Maguire bonn.maguire@climatechange.gov.au

AFFILIATION
Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, Australia

TITLE
Research in australia and switzerland on measuring energy efficiency of electric motors and motor+drive combinations

This paper describes an Australian-Swiss collaborative research project, the primary objective of which was to develop state-of-the-art dynamometer systems for the evaluation of those high efficiency motors and driven systems in which it is not possible to determine losses or efficiency by separation of losses methods. The project has sought to identify the most precise instruments and test methodologies for making high precision efficiency measurements, and to quantify the associated uncertainties. Such systems are described in detail.

The Laboratory for Electrical Machines of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland and CalTest in Australia then used the developed facilities to explore the optimum ways in which to mechanically connect a motor to a dynamometer system, and test methods described in the Draft Technical Specification IEC 60034-2-3. A suggested test method for dynamometer measurements on new technology motors and motor-drive systems is presented.

AUTHOR
Alvaro Pinto alvaro@eletrobras.com

AFFILIATION
Brazilian Electric Power - Eletrobras, Brazil

TITLE
Certification in ISO 50001 standard in Brazil

This paper intends to highlight the importance of the international standard ISO 50001, Energy Management System - in the role of creating an appropriate structure for the implementation of an energy management system that provides continuous improvement of energy performance and of the energy system management itself. Energy efficiency measures will be presented in this seminar, new technologies, procedures, policies and programs for the energy use and consumption with its maximum performance. The role of energy management is to gather these ingredients allowing them to collaborate individually and together to achieve this goal. Thus, the role of ISO 50001 is to enable the implementation of an energy management system effective, durable and standardized. This is not a temporary program to deal with the energy bill, energy management should not be linked only to the companys current management or transient situational questions, but should becoming an integral part of companys policy and this way the standard calls. Much has advanced in terms of technology and successful management practices have become widespread as models to be followed. A standard, however, makes the management

is systematic and allows both perpetuate the achievements earned by performance improvement activities as its energy management system. Savings on lighting, pumping and HVAC systems, compressed air, fuel switching processes, thermal insulation, training programs, awareness campaigns, all the achievements finally achieved by implementing an energy management system are important milestones for the company and can neither weaken as the time goes nor to be lost, returning to the previous values that were inefficient. Performing as a strong ally to sustainability issue, energy management is handled in the Standard in technical and managerial aspects, addressing crucial issues in management practices and energy usage and consumption. When examining the literature and heard testimony from professionals, the finding is that the shortcomings, difficulties and obstacles that present themselves to energy efficiency are common among companies and between countries. Therefore, the Standard, that has as one of its references the standard EN 16001 applied in European countries, was built with the participation of 33 countries, to take international feature and to meet worldwide needs in energy management.

44

AUTHOR
Alexandre Assumpcao alexandre.assumpcao@eletrobras.com

AFFILIATION
Brazilian Electric Power - Eletrobras, Brazil

TITLE
Methodology for implementation of energy efficiency actions in brazilian industrial sector

Since 2002, the PROCEL Industria - Industrial Energy Efficiency Program - has acted as inductor of energy efficiency policies for brazilian industrial sector. The program has focused on motor driven systems such as pumping, air compressed, ventilation and exhaust systems, whereas the motor driven systems correspond to 60% of final use of electricity in the brazilian industrial sector, according to the Balance of Useful Energy (BEU). Currently, the PROCEL Industria has looked for new partnership with industrial associations in order to encourage the energy efficiency and energy management actions that aim the reduction of electricity consumption in the industrial sector. In the scope of large industries, the program intends to replicate the energy efficiency actions through the protocol of technical cooperation between the industries and industrial associations. These actions comprise the achievement of training courses in motor driven systems, development of energy audits using the expertise program and development

of pilot project for implementing the management energy in according to the ISO 50.001 standard. In the framework the medium industries, the program pretends to fit out the DoE methodology to brazilian reality. This methodology was carried out in two brazilian industrial plant under the development of actions provided in the Memorandum of Understanding signed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy and the DoE that aim the cooperation between two countries in energy efficiency and renewable energies themes. This work presents the news methodologies used by PROCEL Industria for encourage the progress inducted by energy efficiency actions in the industrial national sector, in accordance with the Energy National Plan 2030 (PNE 2030), and emphasizes the industrial sector affected, the results obtained and planned by means the actions ongoing or future and your replication in other industrial sectors.

AUTHOR
Wagner Duboc duboc@cepel.br

AFFILIATION
Center for Electric Power Research (Cepel), Brazil

TITLE
Methodology for calculating the value of uncertainty of efficiency of brazilian labelling program and definition of criteria for acceptance of income for each of measurement uncertainty

Experience shows that the issue of measurement uncertainty is still little explored within programs of conformity assessment. According to the technical standard ISO / IEC 17025: General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, testing laboratories should have and apply procedures for estimating of measurement uncertainties. However there is a concern about whether the levels of uncertainty of the accredited laboratories are appropriate to the tolerance specified in the regulations of conformity assessment. During the last years the CEPEL searching a careful way to improving the performance of efficiency of three-phase induction electric motors within the Brazilian Labeling Program

(PBE). Therefore, was developed a methodology for calculating uncertainty of measurement in accordance with the ISO GUM and EA-4/02 documents. Motivated by a critical analysis conducted in test results, INMETRO noted that in conformity assessment programs within the Brazilian Labeling Program (PBE), the level of uncertainty of laboratories, in some cases, was not adequate to the limits of tolerance requirements specified in the conformity assessment of the product, creating a doubt in the final result measurement. This situation is very damaging in energy conservation programs, where the product should be classified in a certainrange of efficiency ratings.

45

AUTHOR
Rita Werle rw@abinternational.ch

AFFILIATION
Swiss Agency for Efficient Energy Use (Safe), Switzerland

TITLE
Easy program for electric motor systems efficiency in Switzerland

The Swiss financial incentive program Easy (Efficiency for Electric Motor Systems www.topmotors.ch/easy) was launched on 1 November 2010 by the Swiss Agency for Efficient Energy Use. The goal of the program is retrofitting existing motor systems in mid-size industrial and infrastructure plants and large buildings with an annual electricity consumption between 10 and 50 GWh. The program has a budget of CHF 1 million from public funding and runs until 31 October 2014. Participating firms go through a standardized four-step audit called MotorCheck: Step 1: efficiency potential, subsidy 100% Step 2: motor list, subsidy 25% - 75% Step 3: on-site measurements, subsidy 50% Step 4: implementation of improved system, subsidy 10%. The first three steps are preliminary assessments, necessary to determine the best option for Step 4, the implementation of the efficiency measures. So far, in five participating firms more than 1500 electric motors have been assessed in detail and 75 motors have been measured on site. Some efficiency measures (motor / pump replacement through more efficient and / or smaller equipment, installing frequency converter,

better transmission, better control for compressors, etc.) have already been implemented, with more expected to be carried out by 31 October 2014. The results show, that from the 1500 motors 56% are already older than their operating life expectancy. The oldest motor has been running for 46 years. The median of motors nominal power is 4.5 kW (half of the motor population is below 4.5 kW nominal power). Only 14% of motors are equipped with a frequency converter. For the 75 motors tested, median nominal power is 37 kW and median load factor is 63%. Lessons learned confirm on the one hand, that the process with the necessary preliminary assessments is long and tiresome. It requires human and financial resources and know-how, which are often lacking at the firms. On the other hand, the approval of the management and committed energy managers are a must for a successful implementation. The way forward foresees a continued implementation of the program beyond 2014, complemented by education and training programs for energy managers and technicians.

AUTHOR
Conrad Brunner cub@cub.ch

AFFILIATION
4E EMSA, Operating Agent, Switzerland

TITLE
Market transformation program for electric motor systems global progress report and outlook

The market transformation towards highly efficient, integrated electric motor systems is only slowly making progress. The basic development of market transparency with agreed harmonized international testing standards and efficiency classes has made big progress for fixed speed electric motors. The expansion of the scope of standards towards new motor technologies run on variable speed and towards more complex applications of motors with pumps, fans and compressors is recognized but so far almost not existent. The introduction of mandatory minimum requirements for the sale of fixed speed electric motors that started in 1997 will reach a first plateau in 2015 with the USA, Canada, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand and also the European Union, Switzerland and China joining, though not yet fully aligned at the premium efficiency level IE3. Most of these countries have not yet implemented the necessary compliance measures. A global certification system has only been launched at the end of 2012 by IECEE. 46

Very few mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for motor systems exist, among them are the new European Ecodesign requirements for small integrated circulators and larger not integrated pumps and ventilation fans. The complexity of these MEPS for motor-plus-application has required extra convincing efforts for the European Commission and extra time for the industry to accept. Also similar requirements for pumps and fans are started in Australia, China, Mexico, Vietnam and other countries The paper also includes a report on international activities of the International Energy Agencys Implementing Agreement 4E Electric Motor Systems Annex (EMSA). The goal of EMSA is to improve energy efficiency of electric motor systems through information dissemination, capacity building, training, experience exchange and other activities.

AUTHOR
Rogrio de Souza rogeriodss@ieee.org

AFFILIATION
Federal University of Par (UFPA), Brazil

TITLE
Ten years of minimum efficiency standards for induction motors in brazil: from standards class until super premium motors

The year 2012 marked the 10th anniversary of publication of Presidential Decree no. 4508/2002, which set forth minimum efficiency standards for induction motors in Brazil. Within this context, the present article focuses on the importance of implementing minimum efficiency standards in Brazil and elsewhere and presents the state of the art in domestic and international legislation and standards pertaining to induction motors. It also covers advancements in motor technology, by means of an analysis of motors currently on the market, and trends in said technology, with particular emphasis on the search for new materials for permanent magnet manufacturing. The results of experimental testing of a permanent-magnet motor and a Premium-efficiency induction motor are presented and discussed, with the objective of contributing to definition of the IE4 standard and to the goal-oriented Brazilian efficiency program.

The present article described the results of experimental testing with an induction motor and a line-start permanentmagnet motor and concluded that permanent-magnet motors are superior in performance to induction motors at loads between half and full, with an efficiency advantage of up to 6.7%. However, in applications with wide variations in load, with motor operation below half load, use of permanentmagnet motors is not economically feasible, as the current cost of these motors exceeds that of induction motors. Another relevant finding concerns the current harmonic distortion observed during testing. The tested permanentmagnet motor exhibited a distortion of up to 13.5%, exceeding IEEE 519/2001- recommended limits. This behavior must be clearly specified and taken into account by future standards that define the Super Premium class, lest the impact of harmonic distortion prove detrimental to industries that adopt these motors for their processes.

AUTHOR
Rahul Kanchan rahul.kanchan@se.abb.com

AFFILIATION
ABB AB, Corporate Research Vsters, Sweden

TITLE
Efficiency measurement tests evaluation of frequency converter fed induction motors and synchronous reluctance motors

In recent years, a lot of attention is focused on improving the efficiency of industrial motors which constitute approximately 60-65% of the total industrial energy usage. The scientific as well as industrial research is focused towards improving the motor efficiency through design optimization as well as operating these motors more effectively using variable speed drives. Several alternatives to traditional and widely used induction motors are being proposed and introduced by motor manufacturers, like permanent magnet PM motors and Synchronous reluctance motors (SynRM). It is equally important to test and evaluate the efficiency performance of motor drive using fast and accurate methods. The efficiency measurement standard IEC 600342-1 Ed 1.0 describes the test methods for standard non-VSD motors but it does not include testing of VSD motors or motor drive systems. The accuracy of measurement is more and more important while testing high efficiency systems since slight

errors in the measurements can lead to significant deviations in the measured efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to present test methods and procedures for faster evaluation of motor-drive system efficiency. The paper presents efficiency tests performed on two motors from different efficiency classes an IE2 class induction motor and an IE4 class synchronous reluctance motor of equal rating. The electrical efficiency is estimated using direct input-output power measurements similar to as outlined in efficiency measurement standard IEC 60034-2-1 Ed 1.0 for standard non-VSD motors. Then these electrical measurements are compared with the calorimetric loss measurement tests, being performed at the sample test point. The error margins associated with different sensors, instrumentation is then used to evaluate the uncertainty of measured efficiency for IE2 and IE4 motors. System performances of the two different motor technologies are also addressed in the paper

47

AUTHOR
Enrique Quispe ecquispe@uao.edu.co

AFFILIATION
University Autonomy in the West, Colombia

TITLE
The colombian strategic program for energy management: structure, strategies, advances, its relation with ISO 50001

This paper presents the structure, strategies and advance of the Programa Estrategico Nacional - Sistema de Gestion Integral de la Energia PEN-SGIE. The PEN-SGIE is a Strategic Program result of a partnership between government, universities and the productive sector of Colombia. This Programseeks the implementation of the SGIE in Colombian industry, so that the integrated of SGIE in the management system allows that the company to find the optimal operation, production, purchasing and maintenance of production processes for that energy will be used efficiently and sustainably. The Program is structured in three projects; the first project is on education and training in the SGIE, the second project SGIE consist in the implementation de SGIE in the five regions of Colombia and the third project is to propose strategies for consolidation and sustainability of the national productive sector. The program is divided into five regions of Colombia: Bogota, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Cali and Medellin. The Program also

works in partnership with the Instituo Colombiano de Normas Tecnicas ICONTEC for training in ISO 50001 auditor. The program execution is carried out by 15 Colombian universities and has the support of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation of Colombia and five energy companies in the country. The program began in 2010 and ended in 2013. The first project of the PEN-SGIE ended in 2012 with the formation of four hundred energy managers in the SGIE and eighty ISO 50001 auditors. Currently the PEN-SGIE implements energy characterization of 50 companies in five regions of Colombia and has sensitized three hundred managers on the benefits of the company have an energy management system. The steering group of the PEN-SGIE participates in the Energy Management Colombian Committee ICONTEC 228 and the committee TC 242 ISO 50001

AUTHOR
Philippe Juhel Benoit Leprettre-presenter philippe.juhel@schneider-electric.com benoit.leprettre@schneider-electric.com

AFFILIATION

TITLE
Selecting the most energy-efficient motor control system for a given application: the approach in future EN 5xxxx-1 standard

Capiel, France

The EN 5xxxx European standard on is being developed under the CENELEC project number 23551. It defines requirements and methods in response to the European Commission mandates M/470 (motors), M/476 (variable speed drives) and horizontal mandate M/495. The purpose of EN 5xxxx is to improve the energy efficiency of motor driven applications. Part 1 of EN 5xxxx adresses the entire application (the Extended Product) and provides requirements and guidelines to select the most energy-efficiency motor control system for a given application. Part 2 specifies in full details how to compute or measure the efficiency of drives, power drive systems and motor starters. Part 3 deals with the environmental aspects. Since motor systems are very diverse and can be complex, and EN 5xxxx aims at addressing several aspects of energy efficiency, it is worthwhile to provide material to explain how to use EN 5xxxx in order to evaluate the energy losses of typical

possible solutions and to select the solution which meets the users requirements and offers the lowest energy consumption. This paper is intended to provide the designers of motorbased applications (OEMs, plant designers) with guidelines and examples on how to use the future EN 5xxxx standard, especially the first and second parts on motor system efficiency. The details are yet to be decided considering the development of EN 5xxxx in the coming months, but we will include at least: A flow chart illustrating how to select the most efficient motor control system based on simple characteristics of the application A summary on how to compute the energy consumption based on the duty profile of the application and reference data from EN 5xxxx-2 Application examples (conveyors, pumps, fans) to illustrate how to use EN 5xxxx-1 and -2 in Practice.

48

AUTHOR
Nicholas Dalziel NDalziel@willisenergy.com

AFFILIATION
Willis Energy Services (ONT) Ltd., Canada

TITLE
Industrial energy efficiency technical review best practices

Objective: Custom technical review of large and unique, industrial energy efficiency capital incentive project applications is typically conducted for the primary purpose of assessing eligibility, determining or validating the energy savings, and finalizing an incentive amount. Technical review at the ex-ante stage can be conducted to various degrees of rigor and using different methodologies. The role of technical review is to mitigate risk to DSM program administrators. If done effectively, technical reviews should aid the cost effectiveness of DSM programs by improving on targeted net-to-gross ratios and savings persistence. Ex-post impact evaluations of programs have detailed protocols for evaluators to follow, however those conducting the technical review of ex-ante projects have limited guidance material to follow. The objective of this paper is to assess the benefits and costs of ex-ante technical review for large, unique and primarily industrial projects and develop a framework for technical review standards that advise the appropriate approach and rigor for maximizing the cost-effectiveness of DSM programs. Methodology and Scope of Research: 1. Empirical analysis of reported energy savings at the application, reviewed (contracted), measurement and verification (M&V) and evaluation stages for multiple large

or industrial incentive programs with varying approaches to technical review. a. Assess impact of technical review rigor on reviewed values compared to M&V results b. Assess impact of technical review rigor on reviewed values compared to evaluation results (net-togross) c. Assess impact of technical review rigor on application values compared to M&V results (i.e. does existence of more rigorous technical review result in better application estimates) d. Assess impact of technical review rigor on program participation 2. Identify examples of appropriate approaches to technical review based on empirical results. 3. Develop methods to screen potential projects to maximize program cost effectiveness, considering the effective useful life, free-ridership (partial and deferred), incremental savings and costs, and project alternatives. 4. Develop stratified approaches and practices for performing base case, measure and cost analysis. Results: Development of a framework to align various large, capital incentive, DSM program designs to a standard approach for technical review.

AUTHOR
Yoshiaki SHIBATA yoshiaki.shibata@edmc.ieej.or.jp

AFFILIATION
Institute of Energy Economics, Japan

TITLE
The status quo of electric motor energy standard setting and top runner experience in Japan

The committee for Top Runner energy performance standard setting for 3-phase electric motor was established in December 2011 in Japan. Product coverage and energy performance standard are currently under consideration. The draft standards are scheduled to be published within the FY2013. The latest situation on the standard setting process for the 3-phase electric motor is presented in this paper. The energy performance standard setting activities for electric motor of Japan are lagging behind the foreign countries such as the US and European nations. However, Japan has

ever realized substantial energy efficiency gain in equipment and appliance equipped with electric motor like air conditioner, refrigerator and vehicles by means of Top runner scheme. In addition, Japan has strongly promoted VVVF technology that plays important role in contributing to energy efficiency. These Japanese experiences will be an implication for the nations aiming to further improve energy efficiency of the equipments and appliances. This paper also addresses how Top runner scheme has ever contributed to energy efficiency improvement.

49

AUTHOR
Godofredo Winnischofer godofredo.winnischofer@br.abb.com

AFFILIATION
ABB Ltda, Brazil

TITLE
Reconditioning techniques of electrical machines aiming the preservation of original efficiency

Efficiency of reconditioned motors is of interest since in addition to the number of new machines purchased and installed by the industry every year; nearly the same number of motors is repaired and reemployed. Starting with a literature review of rewound low and medium voltage motors, the paper then discusses common industry practices including guidelines by EASA. Some of the analysis is supported by measurements. The efficiency of a rewound motor is found to increase, decrease or even remain the same following a rewinding operation based upon the actual practices employed. It is nevertheless shown that a carefully monitored rewinding procedure can indeed allow a replication of the efficiency of the original motor. This applies to a single as well as to multiple rewinds. The stator core (iron and stray losses) treatment including the actual procedure of removing the winding and the new winding details are found to be the key factors that influence a reconditioned motor efficiency. Of these, while removal of the winding is related to procedural delicacy, operator experience, right core temperature setting, etc., and while the new winding details are related to the motor operation and customer expectations, the real uncertainty lies in the stator core properties. This is thus studied further in detail. Stator cores of motors that are to be rewound are thus tested to determine their suitability for reuse. Red flags such as losses exceeding acceptable limits, existence of localized hot spots and temperature rise of the core when exceeding acceptable limits are studied and remedies to address those

are listed. Test parameters as well as core properties that have a greater influence over the measurements are also identified and discussed. Differences in measurements and the related causes of a finished stator core and Epstein test samples are also elaborated in detail. Various stator core loss test methods like, EASA Loop Test, Phenix & Lexseco automated stator core loss test systems and Electromagnetic Core Imperfection Detector are reviewed and discussed. Of these, the first three are further investigated with the help of measurements and their differences documented. Recommendations are provided in establishing a pass fail criteria for preserving, restacking or replacing a stator core. This is identified as the key topic in preserving the efficiency of a reconditioned motor. In addition, it is also shown that the significant efficiency improvements claimed by certain rewinding techniques e.g. unity-plus, in fact result in an improvement in the power factor and not in the efficiency. The efficiency improvement opportunity is also shown to be made possible through a redistribution of the losses during rewinding and making the maximum efficiency occur at the actual operating point (load) of the motor. The paper concludes by discussing the economics of repair cost versus a new machine acquisition. Statistical data that illustrate the number/rating of motors that are repaired in Brazil every year and how this picture is evolving is provided for illustration purposes.

AUTHOR
Edson Bortoni bortoni@unifei.edu.br

AFFILIATION
Itajub Federal University, Brazil

TITLE
Losses determination in induction motors using infrared thermography techniques

AUTHOR
John Petro j.petro@novatorque.com

AFFILIATION
NovaTorque, Inc. Fremont, USA

TITLE
Future improvements in electric motor system efficiency

AUTHOR
Conrad Brunner cub@cub.ch

AFFILIATION
4E EMSA Operating Agent, Switzerland

TITLE
Standard format for IEC standards Learning from motor standards for other electric equipment

50

AUTHOR
Maarten van Werkhoven mvanwerkhoven@tpabv.nl

AFFILIATION
TPA bv Netherlands

TITLE
Program green deal efficient electric motor systems and energy efficiency programs as implementing forces

AUTHOR
Soenke Petersen Soenke.Petersen@skf.com

AFFILIATION
SKF USA Inc

TITLE
Motor efficiency: a critical comparison of laboratory motor capability measurement with operating estimation techniques in the field

AUTHOR
Anibal de Almeida adealmeida@isr.uc.pt

AFFILIATION
ISR-University of Coimbra, Portugal

TITLE
Beyond induction motors Ecodesign of electric motors and drives the eup lot 30 preparatory study

AUTHOR
Anna Lising alising@clasponline.org

AFFILIATION
CLASP Online

TITLE
The sead global efficiency medal competition: accelerating

51

Patrocnio Platina

Patrocnio Prata

Patrocnio Bronze

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