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PRINZ, The Emotional Construcion of Morals 347 pp

CATEGORIAS ANALTICAS, CONCEITOS TERICOS E


DESENVOLVIMENTO

Uma Nota Sobre Suas Conotaes Normativas

Ihering Guedes Alcoforado de Carvalho

Nesta nota trato das categorias e conceitos em dois planos. No


primeiro plano, apoiado na historia conceitual, evidencio como as categorias e
conceitos reflete uma conotao normativa e, um recurso analitico dinmico, ou
seja, ao assumir mltiplas configuraes ao longo do tempo e do espao. No
segundo plano, mostro como as possibilidades de instrumentalizao analtica
e poltica na apreenso da dinmica categorial e conceitual na formao no s
do discurso politico, mas tambm da prpria poltica. [ GASPER &
APTHORPE, 19961).

2. Uma Aproximao ao Discurso e Analise do Discurso do Desenvolvimento

Na primeira parte, introduzo os termos a) discurso ( um conjunto de ideias,


categorias e conceitos que do significado a um determinado fenmeno) e b)
analise do discurso (....), ressaltando aquelas aplicadas nos estudos do
desenvolvimento, por meio do que se pe em tela alguns aspectos (causas,
consequncias e efeitos) , e se, encobre outros. Na segunda parte, ressalto
que uma analise terica (baseada em mtodos e teorias consistentes) efetiva
do discurso requer uma ateno sistemtica no s ao texto (termos e
sentenas como proposies isoladas), mas tambm aos efeitos lingusticos
(semnticos, sintticos e pragmticos) decorrentes do contexto, de forma a

1
#GASPER, D., & APTHORPE, R. (1996). Discourse analysis and policy discourse. European Journal of
Development Research, 8(1), 115.
evidenciar as mltiplas escolas, abordagens (approaches), matrizes
disciplinar2. Por fim, esboo uma agenda de trabalho na analise do discurso
politico (policy) [GASPER & APTHORPE, 1996, p. 2; HAJER, 1993, p. 45;
CORBRIDGE, 19923, 19934 ; BULLOCK & STALLYBRASS, 1977: 1755]

CORBRIDGE, S

A change of terminology often


signals a change in the way problems are perceived and addressed and questions
posed.

A DESCONSTRUO DOS SERVIOS ECOSISTMICOS E PAGAMENTO DOS SERVIOS

Terms such as ES and PES (Chap. 4 by Pesche et al.),

2
CORBRIDGE, S 1993. Debt and Development. Oxford: Blackwell.

3
CORBRIDGE, S., 1992. Third World Development. Review article, Progress in Human
Geography,
16(4),584-95.
4
CORBRIDGE, S., 1993. Debt and Development. Oxford: Blackwell.
5
Bullock, A., & Stallybrass, O. (eds.), 1977. The Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought.
London:
Fontana/Collins
partnerships (Chap. 3 by Kramarz6),

incentive (Chap. 2 by Brner and Vosti7)

6
Kramarz deconstructs the notion of public-private partnership, which has become
a central tenet of the World Bank. She shows how World Bank documents and
activities frame co-management (whether collaboration between state agencies and
communities, public-private partnerships between market actors and state agencies,
or social-private partnerships between market actors and communities) as a necessary
innovation to address the complexity of environmental problems and the democratic
de fi cit in global governance. Partnerships are promoted as an ef fi cient way of producing regulatory
effects through individualised incentives and other market-based
instruments, which, it is hoped, will catalyse the willing participation of a diverse
range of actors. As they have become a normative imperative in global environmental
governance, we need to ask why their emergence, which amounts to a change in
procedural norms, does not correlate with the desired changes in substantive
norms. This question is subsequently answered by a number of the books empirically
informed chapters [MURADIAN & RIVAL, p.7]
7
. Brner and Vostis contribution focuses on the many ways incentive and disincentive are being thought and
deployed. Although written as a comprehensive
survey of environmental management policies in the Amazon basin, this chapter
provides a wide-ranging discussion of policy instruments available to all decisionmakers aiming to avoid trade-offs
between ecosystem conservation and human
welfare through policy integration. The insights Brner and Vosti offer on motivation
and behaviour are echoed in many of the books case studies [MURADIAN & RIVAL, p.7]
or bioprospecting (Chap. 5
by Stromberg et al.)8 are all social constructions, which can be used to describe, analyse, conceptualise, or
prescribe. Although they are intended to facilitate the making
of decisions or the taking of actions, they can also be used as rhetorical tools. The
four chapters in Part I present critical analyses and general overviews of each of
these terms, which are central to the new environmental governance paradigma [MURADIAN &
RIVAL, p.7]

8
. Stromberg and his co-authors look at bioprospecting through the remits of the
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which intends to create strong conservation
incentives for both biodiversity holders and external users. Their approach is both historical and
comparative. Their historical reconstruction of the CBD from
the 1993 Nagoya protocol to the present (i.e. October 2010), and their comparative
examination of 67 cases on three different continents (selected out of a data
base comprising 190 case studies) lead them to argue that transaction costs
due to contractual uncertainty have deeply in fl uenced the modes of governance of
bioprospecting. Their conclusion on access and bene fi t sharing of genetic resources
in bioprospecting projects linking southern providers and northern buyers has wider
implications for PES more generally. [[MURADIAN & RIVAL, pp.7/8]