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Exemplo de Design Crossover de 3 vias


Note que este exemplo de crossover faz uso de muitas das calculadoras encontradas no menu à esquerda.
Você também deve revisar o Guia de Crossover para obter ajuda com este exemplo.

Para este exemplo, escolhi 3 drivers do ScanSpeak para um alto-falante de 3 vias (os mesmos 3 usados no
exemplo da caixa do alto - falante . Observação: Este exemplo antigo e as características desses drivers foram
alterados. Esses drivers não foram escolhidos por causa de quão bem eles trabalharam juntos, mas porque têm
problemas que podem ser resolvidos com o circuito adequado. Os drivers que escolhi foram:

Driver Tweeter

Model D2008 / 8512

Frequency Range 2k-30k Hz

Impedance 8 ohms

Sensitivity 90 db SPL

Fs 1000 Hz

Response Curve Gráfico

Driver Mid

Model 13M / 8636

Frequency Range 200-4k Hz

Impedance 8 ohms

Sensitivity 88 db SPL

Fs  

Response Curve Gráfico


Driver Woofer

Model 18W / 8543

Frequency Range 35-3,2 kHz

Impedance 8 ohms

Sensitivity 89 db SPL

Fs  

Response Curve Gráfico

Todos os drivers são 8 ohms. Não há diferenças na saída causadas por diferentes impedâncias com os
drivers. O tweeter tem 2dB de sensibilidade no meio e o woofer tem 1dB de sensibilidade no meio. Os resistores
serão usados para equilibrar os problemas de sensibilidade / carga. Um L-Pad / Driver Attenuation Circuit será
usado para reduzir a saída do tweeter em 1 db e a saída do woofer em 2 db.

A Fs (ressonância de ar livre) do tweeter está em 1000Hz. Esta é a freqüência na qual o tweeter ressoará e
produzirá um grande pico positivo na resposta de freqüência. Um filtro de série será usado para remover este pico.

Você quer escolher pontos de cruzamento entre os dois drivers. Lembre-se de que é uma escala logarítmica
de base 2. Para o crossover mid / woofer existem 4 oitavas entre 200-3.2k Hz, 200-400-800-1600-3200. 800 Hz é a
frequência média, com 2 oitavas planas em qualquer direção. Para o tweeter / mid crossover, existem apenas 1
oitava, 2000-4000. 3k Hz é o ponto de cruzamento com 1/2 oitava estável em qualquer direção. Esses dois drivers
têm pouca sobreposição e normalmente não seriam usados juntos.

Na combinação mid / woofer, a faixa de freqüência / resposta é estável 2 oitavas além do ponto de crossover,
e para o tweeter / mid, apenas 1/2 oitava. Portanto, um crossover de ordem mais alta deve ser usado com o
tweeter / mid do que com o mid / woofer. Uma segunda ordem, talvez até mesmo um crossover de 1ª ordem pode
ser usado com o combo mid / woofer, enquanto um crossover de 3ª ordem mínima deve ser usado com o mid /
tweeter.

Algumas pessoas acreditam que é melhor usar passagens de ordem baixa quando possível, de preferência
apenas na 1ª ordem. Isso tem alguns benefícios. Com a maior freqüência de sobreposição, as vozes não parecerão
pular de um driver para outro tão rapidamente quanto fariam com um cruzamento íngreme. Também segue a
abordagem minimalista, onde quanto mais simples o circuito, menos distorção e modificação do sinal é
introduzida. O problema com os crossovers de 1ª ordem é que a sobreposição de frequência nos drivers teria que
ser sempre de pelo menos 2 oitavas (ou mais) em cada direção a partir do ponto de crossover. Isso provavelmente
exigiria pelo menos 4 drivers.

Outra crença é que mesmo ordem (2, 4, 6 ...) ordem cruzamentos devem ser evitados. Até mesmo os
crossovers de pedidos tendem a ter picos ou quedas na resposta de freqüência ao redor do ponto de cruzamento.
Esses picos podem ser tão ruins quanto -30db, mas podem ser facilmente resolvidos invertendo a polaridade de
apenas um dos alto-falantes, limitando o pico a cerca de + - 3db.

Para este exemplo, um crossover de 3ª ordem a 3000Hz e um crossover de 1ª ordem a 800Hz serão usados. A
Calculadora Crossover foi usada para determinar os componentes de crossover. Estes são os resultados dos dois
cálculos de crossover:
Now, these two diagrams must be combined into a 3-way diagram. When working with 3 or more speakers, at
least one speaker must be bandpass. Bandpass means that the speaker has a high pass filter (HPF) that filters out
low frequencies and lets high frequencies pass through, and a low pass filter (LPF) that filters out high frequencies
and lets low frequencies pass through. In this system, only the mid will be bandpass. When wiring multiple
speakers, you usually start with the largest speaker. All speakers above that one are run through the HPF. In our 3-
way system, both the mid and tweeter are run though the HPF from the woofer/mid crossover.

This diagram has been simplified, and only the positive (+) lead is shown, but you get the idea. The reason for
going woofer to tweeter is so that the HPF is before the LPF for each bandpass speaker. The inductors (coils) in a
LPF have resistance. This resistance affects the impedance of the entire circuit. If you put the LPF before the HPF,
the amp will not have a stable load to work with.

Although the diagrams in this document show each of the high speakers being run through multiple high pass
filters, this is not necessary. In the above diagram, the input for the second and third crossover could be directly tied
to the main input instead of the high output from another crossover.

The next step in designing the crossover circuit is to design the l-pads to equalize the different driver
sensitivities. 2db needs to be removed from the tweeter, and 1db from the woofer. The L-Pad / Driver Attenuation
Calculator was used to determine the L-Pad components.
The last design step is the series notch filter. The Fs is at 1000Hz, and the crossover point is at 3000Hz with a
3rd order crossover. The resonance spike is over one octave from the crossover point, and may be damped enough
that it will not be noticed, but it will be added to the circuit anyway. The Series Notch Filter Calculator was used to
determine the necessary components.
Now, the crossovers, l-pads, and series notch filter must be combined into one circuit. There is no standard as
to which parts come first, but the common method is crossover then l-pad then series notch filter.

This is the complete circuit for the 3-way system. Note: A bi-amp/bi-wired system would look something like
this.
With the crossover designed the next step is to procure the parts: the capacitors, resistors, and inductors. See
the Crossover Guide for explanations on the different types of these components (Mylar vs. polypropylene
capacitors...). In the end, it is about how much money you want to spend, which should be no more than half the
cost of the drivers.

When you buy inductors, capacitors, and resistors there are usually only certain values available. These values
are referred to the E ranges are discussed in Resistor Colors. That is why the values in the crossover tables for 1st,
2nd, 3rd order Butterworth crossovers have slightly different values than what the Crossover Calculator produces.
The tables use commonly available inductors and capacitors. A 16.58uF Capacitor (as required for the first
crossover) is not something you can find in a store but you should be able to find something close. You can also use
multiple different capacitors, inductors, and resistors in series or parallel to achieve the desired value.

With the crossover designed and parts in hand, the next step is to build the crossover. For this step, you will
need a piece of wood to mount the parts to, a hot glue gun and some glue sticks, a soldering iron and solder, and
finally some wire. Any piece of wood will work as a mounting board. You can even use the MDF for the speaker
itself. First, layout the components on the board according to the crossover diagram that you have made. Try to
place the components close enough to each other so that jumper wires are not required to connect the different
components together. Cut the board to size once you have decided on the layout.

Once the components are in place, use your hot glue gun to mount them to the board. Be sure that the inductor
coils are not near each other and that each one is on a different axis to eliminate "inductive coupling" (See the
Crossover Guide for more info).

Now solder the different components together. If possible, solder the components directly to each other.
Otherwise, use short jumper wires to connect them. I prefer using 12AWG for the crossover but it is not required.
Finally, mount the crossover in your speaker, connect the crossover leads to the back of your binding post, and
connect the speakers to the crossover. Positive (+) to Red. Negative (-) to Black. When testing your speaker, pay
attention to possible Phase Shift problems (See the Crossover Guide) where the sound volume dips significantly at
one of the crossover points. If you suspect you have a Phase Shift problem, reverse the leads (+/-) on one of the
speakers to see if the system gets louder. If so, then you have found and solved your problem.

The final step in any design is experimentation. Remember that every component (capacitors, inductors, and
resistors) each exhibit all 3 properties (capacitance, inductance, and resistance). This is why thicker copper wire is
desired for inductors - to lower its resistance. No design is perfect, and improvements can be made by making
small changes to the crossover. This may not be possible if you don't have an electronics shop filled with parts.
Ordering foil inductors one at a time can get expensive. The best alternative may be to wind your own inductor coils
using the Inductor Calculator. Start large and then unwind (but don't cut) the inductor to experiment with different
values.

© 1996-2018 Michael LaLena


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