Você está na página 1de 89

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE AULA 02

Prezados(as) alunos(as),

Nesta segunda aula vamos estudar os adjetivos e advrbios em ingls e como as Bancas Examinadoras tm abordado a matria em prova. No deixem de tirar as dvidas no Frum das aulas, terei o maior prazer em respond-las. Destaco que o Frum o canal de comunicao entre o professor e os alunos, a oportunidade para que voc tire suas dvidas. Bons estudos.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

ADJETIVOS

Adjetivo a palavra que expressa uma qualidade ou caracterstica do substantivo, certo? Os adjetivos em ingls tm a mesma funo dos adjetivos em portugus. O que muda a posio deles na frase. No ingls, os adjetivos so usados, em sua maioria, antes dos substantivos que eles qualificam. Essa regra tambm vlida para quando estiverem presentes dois ou mais adjetivos. It was a difficult test. (Foi uma prova difcil.) O adjetivo difficult (difcil) descreve o substantivo test (prova).

Para interpretar corretamente os textos das provas de ingls da ESAF, alm de saber que os adjetivos se posicionam antes dos substantivos, voc ter que saber identificar e distinguir adjetivos comparativos e superlativos. Sendo assim, passo a demonstrar como se formam os comparativos e os superlativos em ingls.

Comparativos e Superlativos

Adjetivos Curtos Para formar os comparativos e superlativos dos adjetivos de uma slaba adiciona-se -er para a forma comparativa e -est para a forma superlativa.Veja alguns exemplos: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 2

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Adjetivos Cold Old Fast Small Weak Comparativo -ER colder older faster smaller weaker Superlativo -EST coldest oldest fastest smallest weakest

Alguns dos adjetivos mais comuns em ingls tm formas irregulares de comparativos e superlativos. Adjetivo Bad Good Far Comparativo worse better Superlativo worst best furthest farthest oldest eldest

Old

mais slabas (adjetivos longos) usamos o more e less para as formas

Al ai de

comparativas e most e least as formas superlativos. Veja alguns exemplos:

SS

Se

Para formar os comparativos e superlativos dos adjetivos de duas ou

ee

vv

Adjetivos de duas ou mais slabas

ve

ee

rr 3 r5 i7 i0 ia 2a 6a 8n 0n 4n 7o 2o

farther older elder

o,

further

,,

Adjetivo

Comparativo

Superlativo

Arrogant

more arrogant www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

most arrogant

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE less arrogant Tense more tense less tense more cooperative less cooperative more perfect less perfect least arrogant most tense least tense most cooperative least cooperative most perfect least perfect

Cooperative

Perfect

Em resumo, o que voc precisa saber est no quadro da prxima pgina:

COMPARATIVO Regra geral adj curto + er + than slower than (mais lento) richer than (mais rico) latter than (mais tarde)

more + adj longo + than less + adj longo + than

more urbanized than (mais urbanizado que) less urbanized than (menos urbanizado que)

Excees

good (bom) bad (mal) far (longe)

better than (melhor) worse than (pior) farther/further than (mais longe)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

SUPERLATIVOS Regra geral adj curto + est The slowest (o mais lento) The richest (o mais rico)

most + adj longo least + adj longo

most valuable (o mais valioso) least valuable (o menos valioso)

Excees

good (bom) bad (mal)

best (melhor) worst (pior)

Expresses comparativas Alm das formas comparativas estudadas, h expresses que tambm so usadas para fazer comparaes e podem aparecer nas provas. As...as e So....as so recorrentes em prova: Expresso to..quanto as. as as fast as (to rpido quanto) not as fast as (no to rpido) as stable as (to estvel quanto) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE not as stable as (no to estvel quanto) so.....as so stable as (to estvel quanto) so developed as (to desenvolvido quanto)

Adjetivos terminados em ed e ing. Por fim, h dois tipos de adjetivos que devem ser lembrados: os adjetivos formados pelo particpio passado (-ed) e aqueles formados pelo gerndio (-ing). Alm de ser usado para formar o passado dos verbos, o -ed tambm e o ing tambm foram adjetivos. O ed corresponde, em portugus, s terminaes ado/-edo/-ido (resolved=resolvido; bearded=barbado). O ing corresponde, em portugus, s terminaes ente/-ante (depressing=deprimente; interesting=interessante).

Advrbios Em ingls, a maioria dos advrbios formada adicionando-se o sufixo ly ao adjetivo de origem (careful/carefully, happy/happily etc.). Enquanto o adjetivo d uma caracterstica ao substantivo, o advrbio se refere ao verbo.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Existem algumas palavras que terminam em -ly mas que, porm, no so advrbios, e sim adjetivos. As principais delas so: friendly: amigvel, lonely: solitrio, ugly:feio, likely: provvel, unlikely: improvvel. Os advrbios podem ser derivados de adjetivos ou podem ter a mesma forma do adjetivo. Neste ltimo caso, temos situao semelhante em portugus quando dizemos, por exemplo: Ele um rapaz bonito (adjetivo) x Ele canta bonito (advrbio). Muitos advrbios, principalmente os de modo, freqncia e intensidade, so derivados de adjetivos mediante o acrscimo do sufixo ly (-mente em portugus). Adjetivo Slow (lento, devagar) Careful (cuidado) Efficient (eficiente) Quick (rpido) Bad (mau) Perfect (perfeito) Silent (silencioso) Easy (fcil) Terrible (terrvel) Tragic (trgico) Advrbio Slowly (lentamente, devagar) Carefully (cuidadosamente) Efficiently (eficientemente) Quickly (rapidamente) Badly (mal) Perfectly (perfeitamente) Silently (silenciosamente) Easily (facilmente) Terribly (terrivelmente) Tragically (tragicamente)

Como no possvel acrescentar um ly a adjetivos que j terminam em ly (tais como friendly, silly, lovely etc), deve-se recorrer a uma construo com way (jeito, modo) ou manner (maneira). Por exemplo: Friendly (amigvel) in a friendly way (de modo amigvel)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Ateno para um advrbio que em nada semelhante ao adjetivo: good (bom) . . .....................well (bem).

Advrbios de Frequncia Em destaque, os advrbios de freqncia. Recorrentes em provas de concurso da ESAF, so aqueles que nos indicam com que frequncia algo aconteceu, acontece, acontecer etc. Observe o quadro abaixo, que mostra, em uma escala do mais frequente para o menos frequente, o grau de frequncia dos principais advrbios:

ADVRBIOS DE FREQUNCIA

+
always: sempre often: frequentemente usually: habitualmente sometimes: s vezes seldom/rarely: raramente never: nunca

Agora, vejamos como os adjetivos e advrbios so cobrados pela FGV, CESPE e ESAF:

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Meet the new neighbours The empty house, in a middle-class corner of southern California, is two storeys high and boasts a three-car garage. Roses bloom around a kidney-shaped swimming pool, which is green with algae. Bill Bobbitt, a county inspector, dips a ladle into the water and brings up half a dozen wriggling larvae. Mosquitoes, and the West Nile virus that some of them carry, are thriving in Californias plunging property market. West Nile virus arrived in America in 1999 and made it to California three years later. Since then it is known to have infected 2,300 people in the state, of whom 76 have died In theory, owners are supposed to keep their properties in decent shape whether they live there or not. California has even passed a bill fining banks and mortgage companies that seize properties and then allow pools to fester. But Mr. Bobbitt isnt waiting for the lawyers. He has treated the pool in Santa Ana with oil and synthetic growth hormones, which will keep the mosquitoes adolescent, preventing breeding. Then he tips in a few dozen mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), which begin happily munching larvae. You can buy a lot of the fish for what a lawyer charges per hour, and some authorities, with commendable creativity, even provide them free to help control the pests. (from The Economist, August 2d, 2008, p. 34)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The tone of the title is (A) tragic. (B) sympathetic. (C) ironic. (D) wailing. (E) enthusiastic. Comentrios: A questo cobra conhecimento de vocabulrio, referindo-se ao ttulo e ao assunto do texto, questionando o tom/intonao (tone) do ttulo. Vejamos do que trata o texto:

West Nile virus arrived in America in 1999 and made it to California three years later. Since then it is known to have infected 2,300 people in the state, of whom 76 have died Veja, o texto est tratando de um virus que chegou Amrica em 1999. O ttulo diz: Meet the new neighbours = Conhea os novos vizinhos (A) tragic.= trgico (B) sympathetic. = simptico (C) ironic. = irnico (D) wailing. = lastimoso (E) enthusiastic. = entusiasmado

PALAVRAS-CHAVE meet: conhecer, encontrar new: novo www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 10

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE neighbours: vizinhos tragic: trgico sympathetic: simptico ironic: irnico wailing: lastimoso enthusiastic: entusiasmado

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) According to the text, the market for buying and selling houses in California is (A) dropping. (B) stable. (C) rising. (D) sky-rocketing. (E) inflated. Comentrios: De acordo com o texto, o Mercado de compra (buying) questo: market, houses, Califrnia: Mosquitoes, and the West Nile virus that some of them carry, are thriving in Californias plunging property market. Questo de puro vocabulrio, mas se observar as opes de resposta, apenas uma tem idia negativa. Ou seja, mesmo que voc no saiba o e venda (selling) de casas na Califrnia est.... Procure no texto as palavras-chaves da

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

11

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE significado de plunging (afundando), analisando as alternativas daria para acertar a questo:

(A) dropping. = caindo (B) stable. = estvel (C) rising. = crescendo (D) sky-rocketing. = subindo (E) inflated.= inflado

PALAVRAS-CHAVE mosquitoes: mosquitos virus: vrus carry: carregar are: so/esto, verbo be thriving: prosperando plunging: afundando property market: mercado imobilirio dropping: caindo stable: estvel rising: subindo sky-rocketing: altssimo inflated:inflado

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

12

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) A kidney-shaped swimming-pool is (A) triangular. (B) square. (C) rectangular. (D) trapezoid. (E) curved. Comentrios: O texto fala em kidney-shaped swimming-pool. Aqui temos o adjetivo kidney-shaped que o mesmo que kidney-form e significa em forma de rins, reniforme. Certo, mas o que ser isso, no mesmo? Vejamos as alternativas de resposta: (A) triangular. = triangular (B) square. = quadrado (C) rectangular. = retangular (D) trapezoid. = trapezide (E) curved. = curvado

PALAVRAS-CHAVE kidney-shaped: em forma de rins, reniforme swimming-pool: piscina triangular: triangular square: quadrado rectangular: retangular trapezoid: trapezide. curved: curvado, curvo Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

13

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 4. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The expression boasts a three-car garage (line 2) reveals an attitude which is (A) humble. (B) haughty. (C) hopeful. (D) hospitable. (E) holy. Comentrios: A expresso boasts a three-car garage significa ostenta uma garagem para 3 carros. A expresso revela uma atitude que : (A) humble. = humilde (B) haughty. = arrogante (C) hopeful. = esperanoso (D) hospitable. = hospitaleiro (E) holy. = sagrado, divino

PALAVRAS-CHAVE boast: ostentar three-car garage: garagem para trs carros reveal: reveler which: que humble: humilde haughty: arrogante hopeful: esperanoso hospitable: hosptaleiro. holy: sagrado, santo

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 14

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

A former head of German counter-intelligence recently confided: The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. That spymasters emphasis on exclusivity and withholding information even from his friends is, alas, the watchword among intelligence chiefs worldwide. And it threatens to undermine efforts to globalize the hunt for terrorists and their bad works. Timely and credible intelligence often the merest scrap can be as decisive in foiling terrorist plotting as any police action, cruise missile, or bomb. Thats why the American Congress and the White House are focused on improving information sharing between the CIA and FBI. But the debate has so far overlooked another chronic intelligence failure: the inadequacy of the CIAs liaison with other intelligence services. One reason for urgent reform is that even though the United States far outstrips other countries in its technical intelligence gathering, many other nations often have better human intelligence, or humint real live spies. Robert Gerald Livingston. Internet: <http://www.ndol.org/ndol_ci.cfm (with adaptations).

foil to prevent (someone or something) from being successful.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

15

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 5. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The best piece of information is not supposed to

be available to anyone. Comentrios: Ainda no lemos o texto, certo? Ento vamos procurar as palavras-chave desse item e depois busc-las no texto para decidir se o item est certo ou errado. PALAVRAS-CHAVE The best piece of information is not supposed to be available to anyone. best piece: melhor pea information: informao is not: no supposed: deveria be: ser, estar available: disponvel, acessvel No texto as palavras-chave do item aparecem na seguinte frase: The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. PALAVRAS-CHAVE The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. intelligence: inteligncia is: one: um only: somente possess: possuo Agora vamos comparar: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

16

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Item: best piece information is not supposed to be available to anyone Texto: best piece intelligence is only I possess Apenas com essas palavras-chave j respondemos a questo. Enquanto a alternativa afirma que a melhor pea (best piece) de informao no deve estar disponvel para qualquer um (available to anyone), o texto afirma que a melhor pea de inteligncia aquela que s uma pessoa possui (only I possess).

VOZ PASSIVA As vozes de um verbo estabelecem a relao entre o sujeito e a ao expressa por este verbo. O sujeito pratica ou sofre a ao, isto , o sujeito agente ou paciente. Quando o sujeito o agente, temos a voz ativa (active voice) e, quando o sujeito o paciente, temos a voz passiva (passive voice). Veja que na alternativa foi usada a voz passiva:

The best piece of information is not supposed to be available to anyone

OBJETO

VERBO NA VOZ PASSIVA (BE + PASSADO)

'supposed to' = tem idia de deveria

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

17

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 6. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The word one (R.2) is a numeral.

Comentrios: Vejamos a linha 2: The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. A alternativa afirma que a palavra one um numeral. pegadinha daquelas... Sim, a palavra one como todo mundo sabe, significa um, portanto, um numeral. Mas na alternativa, one aparece na funo de pronome, se referindo best piece of intelligence. The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. Esta foi uma

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

7.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

Chiefs agree to the principle that intelligence

can only be passed on to some special friends all over the world. Comentrios: Vamos identificar as palavras-chave da alternativa: PALAVRAS-CHAVE Chiefs agree to the principle that intelligence can only be passed on to some special friends all over the world. chiefs: chefes www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

18

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE agree: concordar principle: princpio can: poder be passed on: ser passada, ser transmitida some: alguns special friends: amigos especiais No texto, as palavras chiefs e friends aparecem na frase: That spymasters emphasis on exclusivity and withholding information even from his friends is, alas, the watchword among intelligence chiefs worldwide.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE That spymasters emphasis on exclusivity and withholding information even from his friends is, alas, the watchword among intelligence chiefs worldwide. spymaster: mestre de investigao emphasis: nfase, enfatizar exclusivity: exclusividade withholding: reteno even: mesmo alas: palavra usada para dar nfase em exclamaes watchword: lema among: entre worldwide: mundialmente Agora, fazendo a comparao: Item: Chiefs - agree - intelligence - can - be passed on - friends

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

19

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE
Texto: emphasis - exclusivity and withholding - information - even from his

friends Enquanto o item fala que inteligncia pode (can) ser passada, transmitida para amigos, o texto, ao contrrio, fala em exclusividade e reteno (withholding) de informao mesmo (even) para amigos.

VOZ PASSIVA Intelligence can only be passed on to some special friends.

OBJETO

VERBO NA VOZ PASSIVA (CAN BE + PASSADO)

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

20

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

8.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

The word threatens (R.5) can be correctly

replaced by menaces. Comentrios: A questo afirma que a palavra threatens pode (can) ser corretamente substituda por menaces. Questo difcil, que exige o conhecimento de threatens e menaces. Se o candidato no souber a definio das duas palavras, muito provvel que erre a questo. Melhor deixar em branco esse tipo de questo se voc no sabe o significado das palavras, no perca tempo (tempo que poder ser til na resoluo de outras questes que exijam raciocnio). menaces = ameaas = threatens

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

21

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 9. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) Believable and opportune intelligence can

decisively replace the action of the police, even cruise missiles, and bombs. Comentrios: As palavras-chave da questo (police, cruise missiles, bombs) so encontradas na frase: Timely and credible intelligence often the merest scrap can be as decisive in foiling terrorist plotting as any police action, cruise missile, or bomb. Antes de ver a traduo do vocabulrio-chave, vamos comparar a questo com o texto: QUESTO believable opportune intelligence can decisively replace the action of the police cruise missiles bombs Credible timely intelligence can be as decisive as any police action cruise missile bomb TEXTO

Enquanto a questo fala que inteligncia pode decisivamente substituir (can decisively replace) a ao policial, o texto afirma que inteligncia pode ser to deciva quanto (as decisive as) qualquer ao policial. As...as significa igualdade. A estrutura do uso : As + adjetivo + as. Importante: As...as = So...as

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

22

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PALAVRAS-CHAVE believable: acreditvel, possvel opportune: oportuno can: poder decisively: decididamente replace: repor,substituir action of the police: ao da polcia even: mesmo missiles: msseis bombs: bombas timely: tempestiva credible: confivel decisive: decisivo

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

23

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 10. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The CIA and FBI are yet to establish a process

of information interchange. Comentrios: No texto, as palavras CIA, FBI, information aparecem na frase Thats why the American Congress and the White House are focused on improving information sharing between the CIA and FBI. Observem que o assunto abordado na questo a troca de informaes entre a CIA e o FBI (information interchange = information sharing) A questo traz duas palavras importantes: yet e establish No texto temos: improving Mesmo sem saber os significados das outras palavras, j podemos pensar o seguinte: enquanto a questo fala em estabelecer o texto fala em melhorar, ora, s possvel melhorar algo que j existe, certo? Logo, o item est errado. Importante Yet: ainda ( usado quando algo ainda no aconteceu) Still: ainda ( usado quando algo ainda est acontecendo) Already: j ( usado quando algo j aconteceu)

PALAVRAS-CHAVE American Congress: Congresso Americano www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 24

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE White House: Casa Branca are focused: esto focados improving: melhorar information sharing: compartilhamento de informaes between: entre yet: ainda establish: estabelecer process: processo information interchange: intercmbio de informaes

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

25

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 11. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The USA surpasses other countries in terms of

technical intelligence collection. Comentrios: A questo est se referindo aos EUA e technical intelligence, certo? O texto trata dos EUA e inteligncia tcnica na frase: One reason for urgent reform is that even though the United States far outstrips other countries in its technical intelligence gathering() Vamos comparar: Item: USA surpasses in terms of technical intelligence collection Texto: U.States outstrips in its technical intelligence gathering A questo est correta, observe que ela apenas a parfrase do texto. Enquanto o item afirma que os EUA superam (surpasses) os outros pases em termos de acmulo (collection) de inteligncia tcnica, o texto diz que os EUA se destacam (outstrips) dos outros pases pela sua coleta (gathering) de inteligncia tcnica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE surpasse: superar other countries: outros pases terms: termos technical intelligence: inteligncia tcnica collection: coleo reason: razo even though: apesar disso outstrip: destacar gathering: coleta Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

26

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Ateno: No se assuste com o tamanho do texto a seguir. Ele foi cobrado na prova do concurso TCU 2009, para o cargo 3, Auditor Federal de Controle Externo. No primeiro momento, no leia o texto. V direto para as questes. Na hora da prova no d tempo de ler o texto. Voc deve partir para a identificao das palavras-chave e s depois procurar a resposta no texto.

While there is no shortage of studies into the reasons why software projects fail (Ewusi-Mensah, 1997), the major risks of software development (Jones, 1994), or even the factors affecting project success (Cooke-Davies, 2002), the field of software engineering lacks a general model with which to investigate such failures. To date, studies have tended to be surveys of the factors 4 thought to play some part in a failure. Several researchers have argued that a simple model of accidents is insufficient for dealing with modern technology. A causal-chain model of accidents is useful to investigate the failure of a specific component through wear and tear, or the attribution of the cause can be established through application of a but for test. Given the cause, similar accidents can be prevented by checking the same component for wear and tear or other flaws such as structural cracks. However, it is a less useful model when investigating accidents which causes are ultimately not due to physical weaknesses but are due to interactions between components or the failure of the system itself. Driven by the need to find ways to prevent future accidents, the alternative models reject the simple causal chain model on several www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 27

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE grounds. The first is that looking back along the causal chain requires a stopping rule to determine when to cease investigating deeper into the system which, it is argued, can be somewhat arbitrary in the choice of cause (Leveson, 2004). The second reason is that such investigative techniques tend to focus attention on the proximate event most closely associated with the accident and direct attention away from the latent, contributory causes. Where, in the past, it may have been sufficient to seek direct causes of an accident, modern socio-technical systems can produce accidents that are the result of the interaction of different parts of the system rather than a failure of any one part of the system. Turner & Pidgeon (1997) reviewed official investigations into non-natural disasters to arrive at a view that many disasters were man-made and entirely foreseeable. In a major contrast to causal models of accidents, the authors argued that the conditions for the disasters he investigated largely originated from decisions made by upper management. The view that there was ample evidence of impending disaster available if only someone paid it any attention appears to be shared by investigators other than Turner. However such hindsight bias has been criticised by several researchers, most notably Dekker (2005). Hindsight bias ignores the reality that most operational decisions are made under ambiguous circumstances based on sparse and ambiguous evidence. Instead, Dekker argues, investigators must try hard to understand the circumstances of the time and put aside knowledge of the outcome. To reason more fully about the interaction of different parts of a socio-technical system, several researchers have proposed a system theoretic model in which the system is expressed as a hierarchy of control levels. Each level of the hierarchy is considered to act on the level below it through the imposition of constraints and directions to achieve emergent properties and to receive feedback. A more useful model for considering total risk was a top-down, systems oriented www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 28

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE approach based on system control theoretic concepts. This approach gave a control structure embedded in an adaptive socio-technical system. Such a model shows how different parties contribute to safety regardless of their organizational affiliations.
Jon McBride. A model for investigating software accident. In: Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, vol. 40, n. 1, Feb. 2008 (adapted)

Judge the following items according to the text. 12. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2009) A causal-chain model of accidents is effective

in investigating accidents which causes are solely due to failures of the system. Comentrios: Primeiro, vamos identificar as palavras-chave da questo (causal-chain model, accidents, investigating, failures) e encontrar a frase correspondente no texto: O texto diz que: A causal-chain model of accidents is useful to investigate the failure of a specific component through wear and tear,() Da anlise comparativa entre a questo e o texto, temos que: Item
causal-chain model of accidents is effective in investigating which causes are solely due to failures of the system = = = =

Texto
causal-chain model of accidents is useful to investigate the failure of a specific component

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

29

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Observe que enquanto a questo fala que o modelo de cadeia-causal (causal-chain) efetivo para investigar acidentes cujas causas so falhas de sistema, o texto fala nesse modelo para investigar falhas em componentes especficos. Alm disso, na frase do texto reproduzida abaixo, ainda temos que: However, it is a less useful model when investigating accidents which causes are ultimately not due to physical weaknesses but are due to interactions between components or the failure of the system itself. A questo afirma que o modelo causal-chain efetivo para investigar acidentes cujas causas estejam relacionadas com falhas no sistema. Na frase acima, o autor afirma que este um modelo less useful, ou seja, menos til, quando a falha do sistema (failure of the system itself). O importante para resolver esta questo era o candidato saber que less significa menos. Aqui a banca cobrou o conhecimento gramatical de adjetivos comparativos. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE causal-chain model: modelo de cadeia-causal accidents: acidentes is: , verbo be (ser,estar) effective: efetivo useful: til in investigating: em investigar solely: somente due: devido failures: falhas system: sistema specific component: componente especfico Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

30

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Ateno: No leia o texto. Leia a questo, identifique as palavras-chave e s depois procure a resposta no texto.

The world of computer security has changed dramatically in the last few years, and one of the greatest challenges now facing CIOs and IT directors is the task of maintaining the security of their IT environments. The effects of a security breach can be catastrophic, including unplanned downtime and the resulting loss of service, a potentially significant financial impact, and the loss of sensitive and confidential information. This problem has been compounded by the proliferation of networked PCs and servers as well as the growing intelligence of malicious software that seeks to exploit and expand throughout the Internet infrastructure. Companies are releasing new technologies and tools to address the needs of system administrators responsible for managing the security large numbers of geographically dispersed systems. For example, technologies such as Position Independent Executables (PIE) and Exec Shield help protect against buffer overflows, a tactic frequently employed by attackers to infiltrate and compromise flawed software programs. Security features in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (adapted).

13. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) The occurrence of a security breach can bring about only three undesirable results.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

31

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Comentrios: A questo fala em security breach, can, bring, only three, undesirable results. No texto, temos que: The effects of a security breach can be catastrophic, including unplanned downtime and the resulting loss of service, a potentially significant financial impact, and the loss of sensitive and confidential information. A questo afirma que a ocorrncia de violao da segurana pode trazer (bring about) somente (only) 3 (three) resultados indesejveis (undesirable). No texto, fala-se em efeitos da violao da segurana (security breach), que incluem (including) .... 1. unplanned downtime and the resulting loss of service, 2. a potentially significant financial impact, 3. loss of sensitive and confidential information Enquanto a questo fala de que os resultados so apenas 3, o texto fala de efeitos (= resultados), que incluem....os trs citados acima. Apesar de o texto citar 3 efeitos da violao da segurana, quando se usa a palavra including, entende-se que h outros efeitos que no estes que o texto cita. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE occurrence: ocorrncia can bring about: pode gerar, trazer only: somente three: trs undesirable: indesejveis results: resultados effects: efeitos can be: pode ser including: incluindo Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 32

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

14. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) Two of the technologies to help protect against buffer overflows are mentioned. Comentrios: A questo fala em two technologies, help, protect, against, buffer, overflows. No texto, estas palavras aparecem na frase: For example, technologies such as Position Independent Executables (PIE) and Exec Shield help protect against buffer overflows, a tactic frequently employed by attackers to infiltrate and compromise flawed software programs. ITEM Two of = TEXTO For example 1. technologies such as Position
Independent Executables (PIE) and 2. Exec Shield

technologies help
protect against buffer overflows

= =
=

technologies help
protect against buffer overflows

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

33

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE two: dois help: ajuda, ajudar protect: proteger against: contra Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

15. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) seldom. Comentrios:

frequently (R.18) is the opposite of

Para acertar esta questo bastaria saber os advrbios de freqncia. Enquanto frequently significa frequentemente, seldom significa raramente. Veja o quadro explicativo abaixo: ADVRBIOS DE FREQUNCIA

+
always: sempre often, frequently: frequentemente usually: habitualmente sometimes: s vezes seldom/rarely: raramente never: nunca

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 34

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) 1. The regulation of insurance company solvency is a function of

the state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic onsite examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

16. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo diz: In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators (Em relao ao monitoramento da sade financeira de www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 35

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE companhias licenciadas a oferecer seguro, os reguladores estatais...) Vejamos onde o texto est tratando de monitoring. DICA: Observe que das 10 palavras-chave, 6 so verdadeiros cognatos, ou seja, palavras que se assemelham ao portugus. Felizmente elas so maioria! Mas cuidado, h os falsos cognatos. No se preocupe com eles agora. Eles so minoria.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE relation: relao monitoring: monitoramento financial health: sade financeira companies: companhias licensed: licenciadas provide: oferecer, fornecer, produzir state regulators: reguladores estatais

O texto trata do assunto monitoring na seguinte frase: State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examinations.

MAIS PALAVRAS-CHAVE www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 36

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE through: atravs analysis: anlises detailed: detalhadas annual: anual financial statements: demonstraes financeiras insurers: segurador, seguradora are required: so demandados, solicitados to file: seguir periodic: peridico on-site examinations: exame, investigao in loco

Da leitura, verificamos que h duas maneiras por meio (through) das quais os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias: analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examination.

a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. A opo A est incorreta. O texto no diz que os reguladores estatais esto atualmente (currently) desenvolvendo (designing) duas ferramentas (tools) para monitoramento da sade financeira das seguradoras. O autor apenas afirma que os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias de seguro atravs de 2 ferramentas: analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers e periodic on-site examination.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

37

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Currently = atualmente CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO!

x
actually = realmente, efetivamente

b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. A opo B est correta. O verbo to resort to significa recorrer a, apelar a. J might resort to d a idia de probabilidade. A opo afirma que possvel que os reguladores do mercado de seguros recorram s ferramentas citadas no texto. Logo a afirmativa est corretssima, uma vez que o autor afirma que os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias atravs da analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file e do periodic on-site examination, duas aes desenvolvidas para lhes assistir.

c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. A opo C est incorreta. O autor no diz que os reguladores podem (may) decidir por terceirizar (outsource) anlises mais profundas (further = como vimos, esta a forma comparativa do adjetivo far). d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. A opo C est incorreta. No texto no h qualquer meno ao verbo assess (avaliar, estimar, calcular) ou outro com idia similar. Logo, est errado afirmar que os reguladores estatais esto avaliando os procedimentos mais efetivos (most effective = forma superlativa do adjetivo effective). e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 38

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo E est incorreta. No se pode afirmar pela leitura do texto que os reguladores estatais esto tendentes a adotar a anlise de suas demonstraes. Totalmente errada.

IMPORTANTE Sufixo -LY Forma adjetivos e advrbios slowly: lentamente likely: provavelmente, tendente lively: vivaz

PALAVRAS-CHAVE currently: atualmente designing: desenvolvendo tool: ferramenta resort to: recorrer a outsource: terceirizar further: mais profundo, mais distante assess: avaliar, estimar, calcular

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

39

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE most effective procedures: procedimentos mais efetivos likely: provvelmente, tendente adopt: adotar

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

17. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo j remete o leitor expresso insolvencies do occur. S ser necessrio encontrar esta expresso no texto. Vejamos a ltima frase do texto: ()Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. Agora as palavras-chave e as alternativas de resposta:

PALAVRAS-CHAVE

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

40

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente take place: ocorrer pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser

a) actually happen. A opo A est correta. Insolvencies do occur significa que insolvncias efetivamente acontecem. Actually significa de fato, efetivamente. IMPORTANTE actually = realmente, efetivamente Adjetivos + Sufixo LY = advrbio Logo, actual = real, efetivo CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO! Atualmente = nowadays, presently Outros exemplos: undoubtedly (indubitavelmente) hardly (dificilmente) frequently (frequentemente) usually (usualmente, habitualmente)

b) are undoubtedly preventable. A opo B est incorreta. Da leitura da frase Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. percebe-se que apesar dos www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 41

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE esforos dos reguladores, as insolvncias efetivamente ocorrem. Logo, no se pode afirmar que insolvncia seja indubitavelmente evitvel (preventable). c) hardly take place. A opo C est incorreta. O texto no diz que insolvncia dificilmente (hardly) ocorre (take place), apenas afirma que ela ocorre. d) do not pose a threat. A opo D est incorreta. Insolvencies do occur no quer dizer que insolvncias no representam (pose) uma ameaa (threat). Perceba que o enunciado da questo quer apenas o significado da expresso e no a interpretao de que sejam ou no ameaas. e) used to be more frequent. A opo E est incorreta. A opo afirma que insolvncias costumavam ser (used to be) mais freqentes. No texto no h essa afirmao.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

The long climb www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 42

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal, but it

will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

18. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) defined as a) both real and active. b) absolutely extraordinary. c) not very active or busy. d) sustainable and rapid. e) unpredictable.

In paragraph 1, growth in the new order is

Comentrios: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 43

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A questo nos remete ao Pargrafo 1 e expresso growth in the new order. Voc dever escolher a opo que mais se assemelha definio de growth in the new order dada pelo texto. Vejamos como o texto trata do assunto: The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal, but it will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE growth: crescimento new order: nova ordem world economy: economia mundial getting back to normal: voltando ao normal will be: futuro do verbo be (ser) - ser subdued: passado do verbo subdue (reduzir) reduzido, reduziu unemployment: desemprego will remain: futuro do verbo remain (continuar) - continur high: alto Qual a opo mais retrata o crescimento econmico (growth) na nova ordem mundial: a) both real and active. A opo A est incorreta. A alternativa caracteriza a nova ordem com os adjetivos real e active (ativa, rpida, vigorosa). A definio positiva e est errada. Veja que o texto fala em alto desemprego (high unemployment) e crescimento reduzido (subdued). b) absolutely extraordinary. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 44

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo B est incorreta. Assim como a alternativa a, a alternativa b traz uma definio positiva da nova ordem: absolutamente extraordinria (absolutely extraordinary). c) not very active or busy. A opo C est correta. O texto define o crescimento na nova ordem como: (...) growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. Temos aqui que o crescimento ser reduzido e desemprego continuar alto, logo, a alternativa est correta ao afirmar que o crescimento no ser muito vigoroso, ativo (active, busy). d) sustainable and rapid. A opo D est incorreta. Aqui a definio de crescimento tambm positiva, sustainable e rapid (sustentvel e rpido). e) unpredictable. A opo E est incorreta. O texto no diz que o crescimento na nova ordem mundial imprevisvel (unpredictable). DICA: Apenas na alternativa c, resposta para a questo, foi apresentada uma definio negativa para o crescimento na nova ordem mundial. Mesmo sem saber a definio de subdued daria para acertar a questo. Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

45

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Reason with him Source: www.newsweek.com 22nd Sep, 2009 (Adapted) Question (Q) 1: Margolis: When you took office, Brazil was regarded as an underachiever, and the last among the BRIC nations. Now Brazil is considered a star among emerging countries. Whats happened? Lula: No one respects anyone who doesnt respect themselves. And Brazil always behaved like a second-class country. We always told ourselves we were the country of the future. But we never transformed these qualities into anything concrete. In a globalized world you cannot sit still. You have to hit the road and sell your country. So we decided to make strengthening Mercosul (the South American trading bloc) a priority, and deepened our relations with Latin America in general. We prioritized trade with Africa and went into the Middle East aggressively. Our trade balance today is diversified. This helped us cushion the blow of the economic crisis. Q2: Margolis: Has Brazils success in navigating the economic crisis changed investorsviews? Lula: There was no miracle. We had a strong domestic market. We had consumers who wanted to buy cars. We reduced part of the sales tax and asked the companies to offer consumers credit on affordable items. Its the same case with refrigerators, stoves, washing machines, and with computers and the housing construction. Q3: Margolis: What are the lessons for other countries? Lula: The great lesson is that the state has an important role to play, and has great responsibility. We dont want the state to manage business. But it can be an inducer of growth and can work in harmony with society.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

46

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 19. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) In his answer to question 1, Brazils president refers to strengthening Mercosul as a priority. In other words, a measure he considered a) risky. b) unattainable. c) pivotal. d) unnecessary. e) advisable. Comentrios: A questo se refere expresso strengthening Mercosul as a priority e quer saber qual dos adjetivos reflete a opinio do presidente acerca dessa medida (measure). Considerando que o presidente disse ser a medida uma prioridade (priority), o fortalecimento do Mercosul :

a) risky. b) unattainable. c) pivotal. d) unnecessary. e) advisable. Observe que no era preciso saber ingls para acertar a questo, todos as adjetivos apresentados nas alternativas se parecem com o portugus. O vocabulrio-chave que cobrado nesta questo se parece bastante com o portugus: PALAVRAS-CHAVE strengthening: fortalecimento, fortalecer priority: prioridade measure: medida www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 47

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE risky: arriscado unattainable: inatingvel pivotal: fundamental, essencial, piv unnecessary: desnecessrio advisable: aconselhvel

Das 08 palavras-chave, 06 se parecem com nossas palavras do portugus. Isso muitas vezes acontece. Existem sim os falsos cognatos, aquelas palavras que na escrita se assemelham ao portugus, mas que tm significados diferentes. Contudo, importante lembrar que forte a presena de vocbulos de origem latina no ingls, sendo que a porcentagem de ocorrncia dessas palavras como falsos cognatos em relao ao portugus insignificante - menos de 0,1%. No se preocupe com qualquer probabilidade de erro ao interpretar palavras do ingls parecidas com palavras do portugus. Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

48

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 20. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) Brazils president refers to the countrys diversified trade balance as having a) contributed to worsen the global economic crisis. b) resulted from trade with one sole strategic partner. c) been prevented by internal regulations. d) been considered as an unattainable goal. e) minimized the adverse effects of the world crisis. Comentrios: Vamos destacar as palavras-chave do enunciado para depois buscar no texto a resposta: Brazils president refers to the countrys diversified trade balance as having (O Presidente se refere balana comercial diversificada do pas como tendo....) No texto, as palavras diversified trade balance aparecem no trecho: Our trade balance today is diversified. This helped us cushion the blow of the economic crisis. Juntando as palavras-chave do enunciado com as do texto, temos que: diversified trade balance helped economic crisis

Agora vejamos as alternativas de respostas: a) contributed to worsen the global economic crisis. A opo A est incorreta. Com a anlise das palavras no quadro acima, conclumos que a balana comercial diversificada ajudou (helped) o pas na www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 49

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE crise econmica. Ao contrrio do texto, a alternativa diz que a balana comercial prejudicou, piorou (worsen) a crise econmica global. Observe que a palavra crisis est precedida de dois adjetivos: global e economic. b) resulted from trade with one sole strategic partner. A opo B est incorreta. Estamos falando aqui de diversified trade balance e a alternativa fala em trade with one solo strategic partner (comrcio com um nico parceiro estratgico). A palavra partner est precedida dos adjetivos one solo e strategic. c) been prevented by internal regulations. A opo C est incorreta. O presidente trata da balana comercial diversificada como fator que teria ajudado o pas na crise e no como tendo sido evitada ou impedida (prevented) por regulamentaes internas. Internal o adjetivo que est qualificando regulations.

d) been considered as an unattainable goal. A opo D est incorreta. A alternativa afirma que a balana comercial diversificada foi considerada (been considered) um objetivo (goal) inatingvel (unattainable) unattainable o adjetivo. e) minimized the adverse effects of the world crisis. A opo E est correta. Assim como est no texto que a balana comercial diversificada ajudou, a alternativa diz que ela minimizou (minimized) os efeitos adversos (adverses o adjetivo) da crise mundial.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE diversified: diversificado trade balance: balana comercial www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 50

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE contributed: contribuido worsen: piorar global economic crisis: crise econmica global resulted: resultou trade: comrcio one sole: um s, um nico strategic partner: parceiro estratgico been: sido, estado prevent: evitar, impedir, prevenir internal regulations: regulamentaes internas considered: considerado unattainable: inatingvel goal: objetivo minimized: minimizou adverse effects: efeitos adversos cushion: amortecer, proteger contra choques

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

51

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

52

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

21. (ESAF/ STN/2008) As regards investors in Europe at the moment, they are feeling a) nervous and upset. b) confident and optimistic. c) reassured, but cautious. d) slightly afraid. e) tense, but optimistic. Comentrios: Veja que as alternativas s trazem adjetivos. O enunciado diz: quanto aos (as regards) investidores (investors), como esto se sentindo. H duas frases no texto com palavras-chave que aparecem tambm em duas das alternativas: In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. Nesta frase aparece a palavra reassurance, que significa resseguro, confiante. Na alternativa e est sendo afirmado que os investidores esto confiantes, mas cuidadosos. Contudo, o texto est negando que os investidores tenham tal confiana, segurana (veja que o texto diz: have no). That makes many watchers nervous. Aqui no aparece a palavra investors, mas a palavra watchers, que significa observadores em geral (o que inclui, portanto, os investidores) a) nervous and upset. (nervosos e preocupados) b) confident and optimistic. (confiantes e otimistas) c) reassured, but cautious. (confiantes, mas cautelosos) d) slightly afraid. (levemente temerosos) e) tense, but optimistic. (tensos, mas otimistas) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 53

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE as regards: quanto /ao investors: investidores feeling: sentindo nervous: nervoso upset: preocupado confident: confidante, certo, seguro optimistic: otimista reassured: resseguro, confiante cautious: cauteloso slightly: levemente afraid: temeroso, com medo tense: tenso, ansioso

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

54

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

A world of connections Source: www.economist.com (Adapted) Jan 28th, 2010 To sceptics all this talk of twittering, yammering and chattering smacks of another internet bubble in the making. They argue that even a huge social network such as Facebook will struggle to make money because fickle networkers will not stay in one place for long, pointing to the example of MySpace, which was once all the rage but has now become a shadow of its former self. Last year the site, which is owned by News Corp, installed a new boss and fired 45% of its staff as part of a plan to revive its fortunes. Within companies there is plenty of doubt about the benefits of online social networking in the office. A survey of 1,400 chief information officers conducted last year by Robert Half Technology, a recruitment firm, found that only one-tenth of them gave employees full access to such networks during the day, and that many were blocking Facebook and Twitter altogether. The executives biggest concern was that social networking would lead to social networking, with employees using the sites to chat with friends instead of doing their jobs. Some bosses also fretted that the sites would be used to leak sensitive corporate information.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

55

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

22. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 2, the benefits of online social networking in the office are a) undeniable. b) numerous. c) long-lasting. d) uncertain. e) predictable. Comentrios: De acordo com o pargrafo 2, os benefcios (benefits) de uma rede social (networking) online para um escritrio (office) so.... No texto, encontramos a palavra benefits na frase: Within companies there is plenty of doubt about the benefits of online social networking in the office. As palavras-chave para responder a questo so plenty (muitas) e doubt (dvidas). Analisando as alternativas e seus adjetivos, qual deles traz a idia de algo duvidoso: a) undeniable. (inegveis) b) numerous. (numerosos) c) long-lasting. (duradouros) d) uncertain. (incertos) = plenty of doubt e) predictable. (previsveis)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

56

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE benefits: benefcios office: escritrio undeniable: inegvel numerous: numeroso long-lasting: duradouro uncertain: incerto predictable: previsvel within: em companies: empresas plenty of doubt: muitas dvidas

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

57

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 23. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 2, some bosses also worried that through the sites sensitive corporate information would be a) altered. b) distorted. c) made classified. d) disclosed. e) negotiated.

Comentrios: De acordo com o pargrafo 2, alguns patres/chefes (bosses) tambm temam (worried) que atravs destes sites (sites de redes sociais) informaes corporativas sensveis (sensitive corporate information)

seriam.....Observe que informao est aqui caracterizada por sensitive e corporate, dois adjetivos que antecedem a palavra information. No texto, a palavra bosses aparece na frase: Some bosses also fretted that the sites would be used to leak sensitive corporate information. Sem se preocupar com a traduo de leak, sabendo que o texto trata dos riscos destes sites de redes sociais para informaes sensveis de que essas informaes sejam amplamente divulgadas, certo? Informaes sensveis podem ser tambm informaes sigilosas, no mesmo?

Vejamos as alternativas: a) altered. (alteradas) b) distorted. (distorcidas) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 58

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE c) made classified.(classificadas) d) disclosed. (abertas, divulgadas) e) negotiated.(negociadas) As alternativas so todas adjetivos terminados em ed, ou seja, formadas pelo passado particpio de verbos. As alternativas a e b so sinnimos e a questo no pode ter duas respostas. A c e a e no fazem sentido no contexto. Portanto, sobra a letra d. Disclosed (divulgadas) tem o mesmo sentido que leak, que significa vazar informaes secretas. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE some: alguns bosses: chefes also: tambm worried: preocupado sensitive corporate information: informaes corporativas sensveis altered: alteradas distorted: distorcidas classified: classificadas disclosed: divulgadas negotiated: negociadas fretted: preocupado leak: vazar informaes secretas

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

59

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Tackling Corruption for Growth and Development Source: www.ausaid.gov.au 18th Jan 2008 (Adapted) 1. Corruption is a major impediment to broadbased growth and

development, undermining government revenue and expenditure on the delivery of basic services such as law and justice, health care, education, and the maintenance of essential infrastructure. The World Bank Institute has estimated that more than US$1 trillion is paid in bribes each year and, over the long run, countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times. 2. Corruption weakens institutions and makes states more vulnerable to crisis. It has the potential to undermine security in our partner countries and in the Asia-Pacific region more broadly. Security can be threatened when governments fail to deliver services, uphold law and order, maintain public confidence in institutions, or control the use of resources. 3. Corruption can lead to money politics and undermine the decisions of democratically elected governments. It can also open the way for a variety of other crimes such as money laundering and trafficking in drugs, arms, and people.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

60

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 24. (ESAF/CGU/2008) According to the text, the effect of corruption on the decisions made by democratically elected governments is that these decisions a) become more legitimate and effective. b) gradually become less effective. c) are implemented in a shorter period of time. d) gain both credibility and morale. e) may lose legitimacy and credibility.

Comentrios: O enunciado no diz o pargrafo a que se refere a questo. Teremos que procurar no texto onde o assunto foi tratado. Vejamos as palavras-chave do enunciado: According to the text, the effect of corruption on the decisions made by democratically elected governments is that these decisions A questo trata do efeito (effect) da corrupo nas decises tomadas (decisions made) pelos governos democraticamente eleitos (democratically elected governments), certo? Quando voltamos ao texto, percebemos que a palavra democratically aparece na primeira frase do pargrafo 3. Corruption can lead to money politics and undermine the decisions of democratically elected governments. Agora, vejamos as alternativas: a) become more legitimate and effective. A opo A est incorreta. Vimos que a questo trata da corrupo e sua influncia nas decises dos governos democraticamente eleitos. A alternativa afirma que, como efeito da corrupo, as decises tornam-se mais legtimas e

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

61

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE efetivas. Isso no poderia ser verdadeiro, no mesmo? Aqui temos a forma comparativa (more) dos adjetivos legitimate e effective. b) gradually become less effective. A opo B est correta. O texto diz que a corrupo mina, enfraquece (undermine) as decises, ou seja, as decises vo se tornando menos (less) efetivas com a corrupo. A palavra undermine tem o significado de arruinar gradativamente (gradually), minar. c) are implemented in a shorter period of time. A opo C est incorreta. Tambm no h no texto a informao de que as decises, considerando a ocorrncia de corrupo, sejam implementadas num perodo de tempo mais curto (shorter forma comparativa do adjetivo short) do que se no houvesse corrupo. d) gain both credibility and morale. A opo D est incorreta. Ao contrrio do que o texto afirma, esta alternativa diz que as decises ganham credibilidade e moralidade. e) may lose legitimacy and credibility. A opo E est incorreta. O texto no diz claramente que as decises dos governos democraticamente eleitos perdem legitimidade e credibilidade. O texto diz que a corrupo enfraquece as decises e usa o verbo undermine, que tem a idia de processo gradativo.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE democratically: democraticamente elected: eleito goernments: governos lead: conduzir, levar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 62

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE undermine: minar, enfraquecer become: tornar-se less effective: menos efetivo gradually: gradualmente implemented: implementado shorter: mais curto, menor morale: moral gain: ganho, benefcio, vantagem both: ambos credibility: credibilidade lose: perder legitimacy: legitimidade

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

63

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

REVISO DO VOCABULRIO-CHAVE

A partir deste momento vamos revisar a aula por meio do quadro do vocabulrio-chave.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE meet: conhecer, encontrar new: novo neighbours: vizinhos tragic: trgico sympathetic: simptico ironic: irnico wailing: lastimoso enthusiastic: entusiasmado mosquitoes: mosquitos virus: vrus carry: carregar are: so/esto, verbo be thriving: prosperando plunging: afundando property market: mercado imobilirio dropping: caindo stable: estvel rising: subindo sky-rocketing: altssimo inflated:inflado kidney-shaped: em forma de rins, reniforme

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

64

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE swimming-pool: piscina triangular: triangular square: quadrado rectangular: retangular trapezoid: trapezide. curved: curvado, curvo boast: ostentar three-car garage: garagem para trs carros reveal: reveler which: que humble: humilde haughty: arrogante hopeful: esperanoso hospitable: hosptaleiro. holy: sagrado, santo best piece: melhor pea information: informao is not: no supposed: deveria be: ser, estar available: disponvel, acessvel intelligence: inteligncia is: one: um only: somente possess: possuo chiefs: chefes agree: concordar principle: princpio can: poder

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

65

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE be passed on: ser passada, ser transmitida some: alguns special friends: amigos especiais spymaster: mestre de investigao emphasis: nfase, enfatizar exclusivity: exclusividade withholding: reteno even: mesmo alas: palavra usada para dar nfase em exclamaes watchword: lema among: entre worldwide: mundialmente believable: acreditvel, possvel opportune: oportuno can: poder decisively: decididamente replace: repor,substituir action of the police: ao da polcia even: mesmo missiles: msseis bombs: bombas timely: tempestiva credible: confivel decisive: decisivo American Congress: Congresso Americano White House: Casa Branca are focused: esto focados improving: melhorar information sharing: compartilhamento de informaes between: entre

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

66

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE yet: ainda establish: estabelecer process: processo information interchange: intercmbio de informaes surpasse: superar other countries: outros pases terms: termos technical intelligence: inteligncia tcnica collection: coleo reason: razo even though: apesar disso outstrip: destacar gathering: coleta causal-chain model: modelo de cadeia-causal accidents: acidentes is: , verbo be (ser,estar) effective: efetivo useful: til in investigating: em investigar solely: somente due: devido failures: falhas system: sistema specific component: componente especfico occurrence: ocorrncia can bring about: pode gerar, trazer only: somente three: trs undesirable: indesejveis results: resultados www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 67

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE effects: efeitos can be: pode ser including: incluindo two: dois help: ajuda, ajudar protect: proteger against: contra relation: relao monitoring: monitoramento financial health: sade financeira companies: companhias licensed: licenciadas provide: oferecer, fornecer, produzir state regulators: reguladores estatais through: atravs analysis: anlises detailed: detalhadas annual: anual financial statements: demonstraes financeiras insurers: segurador, seguradora are required: so demandados, solicitados to file: seguir periodic: peridico on-site examinations: exame, investigao in loco currently: atualmente

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

68

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE designing: desenvolvendo tool: ferramenta resort to: recorrer a outsource: terceirizar further: mais profundo, mais distante assess: avaliar, estimar, calcular most effective procedures: procedimentos mais efetivos likely: provvelmente, tendente adopt: adotar insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente take place: ocorrer pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser growth: crescimento new order: nova ordem world economy: economia mundial getting back to normal: voltando ao normal will be: futuro do verbo be (ser) - ser subdued: passado do verbo subdue (reduzir) reduzido, reduziu www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 69

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE unemployment: desemprego will remain: futuro do verbo remain (continuar) - continur high: alto strengthening: fortalecimento, fortalecer priority: prioridade measure: medida risky: arriscado unattainable: inatingvel pivotal: fundamental, essencial, piv unnecessary: desnecessrio advisable: aconselhvel diversified: diversificado trade balance: balana comercial contributed: contribuido worsen: piorar global economic crisis: crise econmica global resulted: resultou trade: comrcio one sole: um s, um nico strategic partner: parceiro estratgico been: sido, estado prevent: evitar, impedir, prevenir internal regulations: regulamentaes internas considered: considerado unattainable: inatingvel goal: objetivo minimized: minimizou adverse effects: efeitos adversos cushion: amortecer, proteger contra choques as regards: quanto /ao investors: investidores www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 70

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE feeling: sentindo nervous: nervoso upset: preocupado confident: confidante, certo, seguro optimistic: otimista reassured: resseguro, confiante cautious: cauteloso slightly: levemente afraid: temeroso, com medo tense: tenso, ansioso benefits: benefcios office: escritrio undeniable: inegvel numerous: numeroso long-lasting: duradouro uncertain: incerto predictable: previsvel within: em companies: empresas plenty of doubt: muitas dvidas some: alguns bosses: chefes also: tambm worried: preocupado sensitive corporate information: informaes corporativas sensveis altered: alteradas distorted: distorcidas classified: classificadas disclosed: divulgadas negotiated: negociadas

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

71

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE fretted: preocupado leak: vazar informaes secretas democratically: democraticamente elected: eleito goernments: governos lead: conduzir, levar undermine: minar, enfraquecer become: tornar-se less effective: menos efetivo gradually: gradualmente implemented: implementado shorter: mais curto, menor morale: moral gain: ganho, benefcio, vantagem both: ambos credibility: credibilidade lose: perder legitimacy: legitimidade

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

72

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

QUESTES DA AULA Meet the new neighbours The empty house, in a middle-class corner of southern California, is two storeys high and boasts a three-car garage. Roses bloom around a kidney-shaped swimming pool, which is green with algae. Bill Bobbitt, a county inspector, dips a ladle into the water and brings up half a dozen wriggling larvae. Mosquitoes, and the West Nile virus that some of them carry, are thriving in Californias plunging property market. West Nile virus arrived in America in 1999 and made it to California three years later. Since then it is known to have infected 2,300 people in the state, of whom 76 have died In theory, owners are supposed to keep their properties in decent shape whether they live there or not. California has even passed a bill fining banks and mortgage companies that seize properties and then allow pools to fester. But Mr. Bobbitt isnt waiting for the lawyers. He has treated the pool in Santa Ana with oil and synthetic growth hormones, which will keep the mosquitoes adolescent, preventing breeding. Then he tips in a few dozen mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), which begin happily munching larvae. You can buy a lot of the fish for what a lawyer charges per hour, and some authorities, with commendable creativity, even provide them free to help control the pests. (from The Economist, August 2d, 2008, p. 34)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

73

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The tone of the title is (A) tragic. (B) sympathetic. (C) ironic. (D) wailing. (E) enthusiastic. 2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) According to the text, the market for buying and selling houses in California is (A) dropping. (B) stable. (C) rising. (D) sky-rocketing. (E) inflated. 3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) A kidney-shaped swimming-pool is (A) triangular. (B) square. (C) rectangular. (D) trapezoid. (E) curved. 4. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The expression boasts a three-car garage (line 2) reveals an attitude which is (A) humble. (B) haughty. (C) hopeful. (D) hospitable. (E) holy. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 74

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

A former head of German counter-intelligence recently confided: The best piece of intelligence is the one that only I possess. That spymasters emphasis on exclusivity and withholding information even from his friends is, alas, the watchword among intelligence chiefs worldwide. And it threatens to undermine efforts to globalize the hunt for terrorists and their bad works. Timely and credible intelligence often the merest scrap can be as decisive in foiling terrorist plotting as any police action, cruise missile, or bomb. Thats why the American Congress and the White House are focused on improving information sharing between the CIA and FBI. But the debate has so far overlooked another chronic intelligence failure: the inadequacy of the CIAs liaison with other intelligence services. One reason for urgent reform is that even though the United States far outstrips other countries in its technical intelligence gathering, many other nations often have better human intelligence, or humint real live spies. Robert Gerald Livingston. Internet: <http://www.ndol.org/ndol_ci.cfm (with adaptations).

foil to prevent (someone or something) from being

successful.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

75

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

12.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The best piece of information is not

supposed to be available to anyone. 13. 14. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The word one (R.2) is a numeral. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) Chiefs agree to the principle that

intelligence can only be passed on to some special friends all over the world. 15. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The word threatens (R.5) can be

correctly replaced by menaces. 16. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) Believable and opportune intelligence can

decisively replace the action of the police, even cruise missiles, and bombs. 17. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) The CIA and FBI are yet to establish a

process of information interchange.

18.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

The USA surpasses other countries in

terms of technical intelligence collection.

While there is no shortage of studies into the reasons why software projects fail (Ewusi-Mensah, 1997), the major risks of software development (Jones, 1994), or even the factors affecting project success (Cooke-Davies, 2002), the field of software engineering lacks a general model with which to investigate such failures. To date, studies have tended to be surveys of the factors www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 76

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 4 thought to play some part in a failure. Several researchers have argued that a simple model of accidents is insufficient for dealing with modern technology. A causal-chain model of accidents is useful to investigate the failure of a specific component through wear and tear, or the attribution of the cause can be established through application of a but for test. Given the cause, similar accidents can be prevented by checking the same component for wear and tear or other flaws such as structural cracks. However, it is a less useful model when investigating accidents which causes are ultimately not due to physical weaknesses but are due to interactions between components or the failure of the system itself. Driven by the need to find ways to prevent future accidents, the alternative models reject the simple causal chain model on several grounds. The first is that looking back along the causal chain requires a stopping rule to determine when to cease investigating deeper into the system which, it is argued, can be somewhat arbitrary in the choice of cause (Leveson, 2004). The second reason is that such investigative techniques tend to focus attention on the proximate event most closely associated with the accident and direct attention away from the latent, contributory causes. Where, in the past, it may have been sufficient to seek direct causes of an accident, modern socio-technical systems can produce accidents that are the result of the interaction of different parts of the system rather than a failure of any one part of the system. Turner & Pidgeon (1997) reviewed official investigations into non-natural disasters to arrive at a view that many disasters were man-made and entirely foreseeable. In a major contrast to causal models of accidents, the authors argued that the conditions www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 77

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE for the disasters he investigated largely originated from decisions made by upper management. The view that there was ample evidence of impending disaster available if only someone paid it any attention appears to be shared by investigators other than Turner. However such hindsight bias has been criticised by several researchers, most notably Dekker (2005). Hindsight bias ignores the reality that most operational decisions are made under ambiguous circumstances based on sparse and ambiguous evidence. Instead, Dekker argues, investigators must try hard to understand the circumstances of outcome. To reason more fully about the interaction of different parts of a socio-technical system, several researchers have proposed a system theoretic model in which the system is expressed as a hierarchy of control levels. Each level of the hierarchy is considered to act on the level below it through the imposition of constraints and directions to achieve emergent properties and to receive feedback. A more useful model for considering total risk was a top-down, systems oriented approach based on system control theoretic concepts. This approach gave a control structure embedded in an adaptive socio-technical system. Such a model shows how different parties contribute to safety regardless of their organizational affiliations.
Jon McBride. A model for investigating software accident. In: Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, vol. 40, n. 1, Feb. 2008 (adapted)

the time and put aside knowledge of the

Judge the following items according to the text.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

78

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 12. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2009) failures of the system. The world of computer security has changed A causal-chain model of accidents is

effective in investigating accidents which causes are solely due to

dramatically in the last few years, and one of the greatest challenges now facing CIOs and IT directors is the task of maintaining the security of their IT environments. The effects of a security breach can be catastrophic, including unplanned downtime and the resulting loss of service, a potentially significant financial impact, and the loss of sensitive and confidential information. This problem has been compounded by the proliferation of networked PCs and servers as well as the growing intelligence of malicious software that seeks to exploit and expand throughout the Internet infrastructure. Companies are releasing new technologies and tools to address the needs of system administrators responsible for managing the security large numbers of geographically dispersed systems. For example, technologies such as Position Independent Executables (PIE) and Exec Shield help protect against buffer overflows, a tactic frequently employed by attackers to infiltrate and compromise flawed software programs. Security features in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (adapted).

13. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) The occurrence of a security breach can bring about only three undesirable results. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 79

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

14. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) Two of the technologies to help protect against buffer overflows are mentioned. 15. (CESPE/SEBRAE/2008) seldom. Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) 1. The regulation of insurance company solvency is a frequently (R.18) is the opposite of

function of the state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

16. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 80

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements.

17. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent.

The long climb Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal,

but it will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 81

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

18. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) In paragraph 1, growth in the new order is defined as a) both real and active. b) absolutely extraordinary. c) not very active or busy. d) sustainable and rapid. e) unpredictable.

Reason with him Source: www.newsweek.com 22nd Sep, 2009 (Adapted) Question (Q) 1: Margolis: When you took office, Brazil was regarded as an underachiever, and the last among the BRIC nations. Now Brazil is considered a star among emerging countries. Whats happened? Lula: No one respects anyone who doesnt respect themselves. And Brazil always behaved like a second-class country. We always told ourselves we were the country of the future. But we never transformed these qualities into anything concrete. In a globalized world you cannot sit still. You have to hit the road and sell your country. So we decided to make strengthening Mercosul (the www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 82

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE South American trading bloc) a priority, and deepened our relations with Latin America in general. We prioritized trade with Africa and went into the Middle East aggressively. Our trade balance today is diversified. This helped us cushion the blow of the economic crisis. Q2: Margolis: Has Brazils success in navigating the economic crisis changed investorsviews? Lula: There was no miracle. We had a strong domestic market. We had consumers who wanted to buy cars. We reduced part of the sales tax and asked the companies to offer consumers credit on affordable items. Its the same case with refrigerators, stoves, washing machines, and with computers and the housing construction. Q3: Margolis: What are the lessons for other countries? Lula: The great lesson is that the state has an important role to play, and has great responsibility. We dont want the state to manage business. But it can be an inducer of growth and can work in harmony with society. 19. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) In his answer to question 1, Brazils president refers to strengthening Mercosul as a priority. In other words, a measure he considered a) risky. b) unattainable. c) pivotal. d) unnecessary. e) advisable.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

83

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

20. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) Brazils president refers to the countrys diversified trade balance as having a) contributed to worsen the global economic crisis. b) resulted from trade with one sole strategic partner. c) been prevented by internal regulations. d) been considered as an unattainable goal. e) minimized the adverse effects of the world crisis.

While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 84

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

21. (ESAF/ STN/2008) moment, they are feeling a) nervous and upset. b) confident and optimistic. c) reassured, but cautious. d) slightly afraid. e) tense, but optimistic.

As regards investors in Europe at the

A world of connections Source: www.economist.com (Adapted) Jan 28th, 2010 To sceptics all this talk of twittering, yammering and chattering smacks of another internet bubble in the making. They argue that even a huge social network such as Facebook will struggle to make money because fickle networkers will not stay in one place for long, pointing to the example of MySpace, which was once all the rage but has now become a shadow of its former self. Last year the site, which is owned by News Corp, installed a new boss and fired 45% of its staff as part of a plan to revive its fortunes. Within companies there is plenty of doubt about the benefits of online social networking in the office. A survey of 1,400 www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 85

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE chief information officers conducted last year by Robert Half Technology, a recruitment firm, found that only one-tenth of them gave employees full access to such networks during the day, and that many were blocking Facebook and Twitter altogether. The executives biggest concern was that social networking would lead to social networking, with employees using the sites to chat with friends instead of doing their jobs. Some bosses also fretted that the sites would be used to leak sensitive corporate information.

22. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 2, the benefits of online social networking in the office are a) undeniable. b) numerous. c) long-lasting. d) uncertain. e) predictable.

23. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 2, some bosses also worried that through the sites sensitive corporate information would be a) altered. b) distorted. c) made classified. d) disclosed. e) negotiated.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

86

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Tackling Corruption for Growth and Development Source: www.ausaid.gov.au 18th Jan 2008 (Adapted) 1. Corruption is a major impediment to broadbased

growth and development, undermining government revenue and expenditure on the delivery of basic services such as law and justice, health care, education, and the maintenance of essential infrastructure. The World Bank Institute has estimated that more than US$1 trillion is paid in bribes each year and, over the long run, countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times. 2. Corruption weakens institutions and makes states more vulnerable to crisis. It has the potential to undermine security in our partner countries and in the Asia-Pacific region more broadly. Security can be threatened when governments fail to deliver services, uphold law and order, maintain public confidence in institutions, or control the use of resources. 3. Corruption can lead to money politics and undermine the decisions of democratically elected governments. It can also open the way for a variety of other crimes such as money laundering and trafficking in drugs, arms, and people.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

87

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

24. (ESAF/CGU/2008) According to the text, the effect of corruption on the decisions made by democratically elected governments is that these decisions a) become more legitimate and effective. b) gradually become less effective. c) are implemented in a shorter period of time. d) gain both credibility and morale. e) may lose legitimacy and credibility.

GABARITO 1-C 10-E 19-C 2-A 11-C 20-E 3-E 12-E 21-A 4-B 13-E 5-C 14-C 6-E 15-C 24-B 7-E 16-B 8-C 17-A 9-E 18-C

22-D 23-D

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

88

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 02 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

89