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Garrafas !abrica"#o
Fabricao das Garrafas e Frascos: o Sopro das Preformas

A transformao da resina PET em garrafas, frascos, potes ou outros tipos de embalagem,
ocorre em 7 etapas distintas e as trs ltimas so aquelas referentes produo da garrafa
propriamente dita:
1 !ecagem
" Alimentao
# Plastificao
$ %n&eo
5. Condicionamento
6. Sopro
7. Ejeo do produto.
5- No condicionamento a pr'(forma recebe um tratamento t'rmico diferenciado,
aquecendo(se mais onde for necess)rio * conforme o desen+o da embalagem ( otimi,ando o
sopro Esse condicionamento pode ser reali,ado de duas maneiras diferentes, conforme o
sistema adotado para o sopro das embalagens:

a- um est)gio .tamb'm con+ecido como integradoou ciclo quente-
b- dois es t)gios .tamb'm con+ecido comociclo frio-
/o sistema de um est)gio .a- ' poss01el 1ariar mais a produo de formas e taman+os para os
frascos e garrafas, embora a produti1idade se&a inferior

/este sistema, a preforma segue do molde de in&eo diretamente para o condicionamento a
uma temperatura emtorno de 12234
/o sistema de dois est)gios .b- a prioridade ' a 1elocidade de produo, assim, as preformas
so in&etadas .primeiro est)gio- em grandes quantidades e estocadas, sendo en1iadas
posteriormentepara o local onde o sopro ser) feito .segundo est)gio- conforme a necessidade
/este sistema, a preforma ' in&etada pre1iamente Para ser soprada, c+ega fria do estoque e
entra no forno, onde a regio a ser estirada ser) condicionada 5ma 1e, atingida as
temperaturas ideais, a preforma est) preparada e otimi,ada para etapa seguinte
- No sopro, a pr'(forma ' colocada, geralmente com o au60lio de rob7s, dentro do molde,
cu&a ca1idade tem a forma final da embalagem
5m pino penetra no gargalo da pr'(forma para estir)(la, e ' soprado o ar comprimido no seu
interior 8 corpo da preforma ' inflado de forma controlada com a a&uda de uma +aste de
estiramento 9esta maneira, a pr'(forma ' estirada, orientando as mol'culas de PET nas
dire:es radial e a6ial, isto ', bi(orientada, at' que encoste na ca1idade do molde de sopro e
adquira sua forma final
7- Fina!mente, a embalagem soprada ' retirada ou e&etada da m)quina, pronto para o
en1ase
A produo de ;arrafas de PET ' normali,ada pela Associao <rasileira de /ormas
T'cnicas atra1's da /<=1>#?>:"22@ 8 documento pode ser adquirido diretamente com a
A</T

A Abipet recomenda a leitura do guia 9iretri,es para Pro&eto de ;arrafa, dispon01el no site para
doAnload
$reformas %ariedade
Preformas de PE": #ariedade para todos os fins
Antes da garrafa pronta, como a con+ecemos nos mercados, ' necess)rio produ,ir uma
P=EB8=CA Trata(se de uma pea em forma de tubo * com rosca ( que
ser), posteriormente, soprada para c+egar ao fomato final do produto * um frasco,
um pote, uma garrafa e a absoluta maioria das embalagens de PET e6istentes
4om ' f)cil obser1ar em qualquer supermercado, +) uma grande 1ariedade de produtos
en1asados em PET 9esde os tradicionais e pioneiros refrigerantes at' produtos de
limpe,a, rem'dios e muitos outros 4ada produto e6ige um determinado desempen+o de
sua embalagem: resistncia mecDnica, transparncia, resistncia qu0mica e taman+os
1ariados
Para atender tantas especifica:es, foram desen1ol1idas 1)rias preformas de PET e cada
uma dar) origem a um frasco, garrafa ou poe de caracter0sticas prEprias
4ada uma tem um tipo de finis+ .a parte da rosca da garrafa-, podem ser mais le1es, ter
a boca larga .adequadas para potes- e mais uma s'rie de caracter0sticas que fa,em de
cada embalagem um e6erc0cio de tecnologia, inteligncia e plane&amento 4om isso,
gan+am consumidores, indstria e o meio ambiente, &) que o uso de material ser) sempre
racionalmente pensado para cada caso
A produo das Preformas de PET ' normali,ada pela Associao <rasileira de /ormas
T'cnicas atra1's da A</T /<= 1>>FF:"22F 8 documento pode ser adquirido diretamente
com a A</T
A Abipet recomenda a leitura do guia 9iretri,es para Pro&eto de ;arrafa, dispon01el no site
para leitura ou doAnload .linG para p)gina publica:es-
$reformas !abrica"#o
$ fabricao das preformas de PE"

Ao utili,armos uma embalagem de PET, no percebemos a tecnologia en1ol1ida no seu
processo produti1o, tampouco as 1)rias etapas necess)rias at' a obteno do produto final

Antes da garrafa, ' necess)rio produ,ir uma P=EB8=CA Trata(se de uma pea em forma de
tubo * com rosca ( que ser), posteriormente, soprada para c+egar ao formato final do produto
* um frasco, um pote, uma garrafa e a absoluta maioria das embalagens de PET e6istentes

A transformao da resina PET em garrafas, frascos ou potes ocorre em 7 etapasdistintas,
sendo que as $ primeiras di,em respeito fabricao das preformas:
1. Seca%em
2. $!imentao
3. P!astificao
4. &njeo
> 4ondicionamento
@ !opro
H E&eo do produto

'- $ seca%em da resina ' uma das etapas mais importantes e cr0ticas PET ' um material
+igroscEpico, que absor1e )gua do meio ambiente durante seu arma,enamento A umidade
dos gro de PET pode atingir n01eis ele1ados de at' 2,@I em peso, se e6postos sem nen+uma
proteo s intemp'ries por longos per0odos
/a pr)tica, se a resina for mantida em locais fec+ados por curtos per0odos de tempo, o 1alor
de umidade ' normalmente menor, podendo ser inferior a 2,1I
!e a resina for submetida fuso com esses n01eis de umidade, sofre uma r)pida degradao
.+idrElise-, redu,indo o seu peso molecular, o que ' refletido na perda da 1iscosidade
intr0nseca .J%- e conseqKente perda de suas propriedades f0sicas Portanto, a secagem
cuidadosa e controlada das resinas PET ' uma operao essencial antes de sua transformao
As recomenda:es pr)ticas para se ter um processo de secagem eficiente e confi)1el so:
( Canter a temperatura efeti1a dos gros entre 1@2 L 1F234 .medida na sa0da do secador-M
( A temperatura do ar seco no de1e e6ceder 1?234 .medido na entrada do secador- Esse
limite de1e ser respeitado para e1itar degradao termo(o6idati1a que ' muito r)pida acima
desta temperatura Este fen7meno, quando ocorre, ' percebido atra1's do amarelamento do
groM
( 8 ponto de or1al+o de1e ser inferior a #234 .medido na entrada do secador-M
( /ormalmente o secador ' operado acima de # /m#.cbicos- de arLGg de PETL+, na
temperatura e ponto de or1al+o de operaoM
( 8 tempo de residncia dos gros de1e ser superior a $+ /a fai6a de temperatura
recomendada para a secagem, a 1elocidade de degradao termo(o6idati1a ' bai6a, mas o uso
de tempos muitos longos pode tornar essa degradao significati1a

(- $ a!imentao ' a transio entre o silo que arma,ena a resina e a entrada do PET na
in&etora /esta etapa, quando necess)rio, so dosados aditi1os resina PET .protetores aos
raios ultra1ioleta, concentrados de cor, etc-, atra1's de equipamentos espec0ficos para esta
finalidade Aqui o material est) sElido, seco e a uma temperatura, preferencialmente, acima de
122 4
)- $ p!astificao ' muito importante e delicada /esta etapa a resina PET muda de estado
f0sico para ser in&etado Ele ' aquecido e plastificado dentro do can+o da in&etora com o
au6ilio de um parafuso sem fim, com passo de rosca e ,onas de presso bem determinados
As temperaturas de trabal+o, geralmente controladas por resistncias, 1ariam conforme o
equipamento e esto entre "@> e #2>o4
*- &njeo+ ou, a etapa de transfernciada resina PET plastificada para o molde de
preformas 8 molde de1e estar abai6a temperatura, de1ido circulao em seu interior de
)gua gelada 8 PET no molde de in&eo endurece rapidamente de1ido a esta bai6a
temperatura !e o resfriamento fosse lento, o PET poderia retornar parcialmente ao estado
cristali,ado, podendo debilitar algumas propriedades do produto final
Ao final desta etapa, a preforma est) pronta, com o gargalo em sua forma definiti1a e o corpo
que, na etapa seguinte, ser) transformado no corpo da embalagem final
A produo das Preformas de PET ' normali,ada pelaAssociao <rasileira de /ormas
T'cnicas atra1's da A</T /<= 1>>FF:"22F 8 documento pode ser adquirido diretamente
com a A</T

A Abipet recomenda a leitura do guia 9iretri,es para Pro&eto de ;arrafa, dispon01el no site para
leitura ou doAnload
&esina $'( )ist*ria
,ist-ria da .esina PE"
8 Poli.Tereftalato de Etileno-, ou, simplesmente PET, ' um pol0mero termopl)stico da fam0lia
dos poli'steres Embora se&a muito con+ecido+ o&e atra1's das garrafas pl)sticas, o material
iniciou sua tra&etEria na indstria t6til

A primeira amostra da resina foi desen1ol1ida pelos ingleses N+infield e 9icGson, em 1?$1
ApEs a !egunda ;rande ;uerra, o desabastecimento afetou ( tamb'm ( a %ndstria t6til da
'poca, ainda baseada em fibras como algodo, lin+o, l, entre outras Assim, as pesquisas
que le1aram produo em larga escala do poli'ster comearam logo apEs a !egunda ;rande
;uerra nos E5A e Europa e basea1am(se nas aplica:es t6teis A id'ia era criar alternati1as
1i)1eis para as fibras at' ento usadas, cu&os campos esta1am destru0dos pela guerra 8
poli'ster apresentou(se como um e6celente substituto para o algodo * funo que cumpre
muito bem at' +o&e, inclusi1e a partir das garrafas recicladas

8 PET continuou a ser desen1ol1ido e no1as aplica:es foram surgindo !ua resistncia
mecDnica foi compro1ada quando o poli'ster passou a ser utili,ado na indstria de pneus, em
1?@"

As primeiras embalagens de PET surgiram nos Estados 5nidos * e logo apEs na Europa no
in0cio dos anos H2

8 PET c+egou ao <rasil em 1?FF e seguiu uma tra&etEria semel+ante ao resto do mundo,
sendo utili,ado primeiramente na indstria t6til Apenas a partir de 1??# passou a ter forte
e6presso no mercado de embalagens, notadamente para os refrigerantes Atualmente o PET
est) presente nos mais di1ersos produtos
&esina $'( !abrica"#o
Produo da .esina PE"
8 Poli .Etileno Tereftalato-, con+ecido pela sigla em ingls PET, ' classificado quimicamente
como um pol0mero poli'ster termopl)stico
8 PET ' produ,ido industrialmente por esterificaodireta do )cido tereft)lico purificado .PTA-
com monoetileno glicol .CE;- 8use&a, esses dois elementos .PTA e CE;- so misturados,
formando uma pasta que, durante o processo de fabricao, reagiro entre si, passando por
cristali,ao e formando o PET como con+ecemos: gros brancos e opacos
A resina PET para embalagens r0gidas ' caracteri,ada por possuir uma 1iscosidade intr0nseca
.J%- maior do que a do PET para aplica:es de filmes e fibras A 1iscosidade intr0nseca,
comumente e6pressa em dlLg, ' diretamente proporcional ao peso molecular
A resina PET ' produ,idas em duas fases:
'- 8 PET amorfo ' obtido pela polimeri,ao no estado l0quido com J% em torno de 2,@
/esta etapa ' formado o bis("(+idro6ietil(tereftalato .<OET-, tamb'm c+amado demon7mero
da polimeri,ao /esta operao forma(se )gua, que ' retirada continuamente do meio
8 mon7mero ' ento transferido para a polimeri,ao, onde, sob alto 1)cuo, ocorre a
policondensao l0quida
/esta operao, o glicol ' eliminado da reao com o aumento da J% do pol0mero.reao "-
/este ponto, o pol0mero amorfo ' retirado do polimeri,ador, resfriado, solidificado, cortado e
ento arma,enado
(- /a pEs(condensao no estadosElido a resina PET amorfa ( obtida na primeira fase de
fabricao ( ' cristali,ada e polimeri,ada continuamente .reao #- /esse processo, a J% do
pol0mero ' aumentada tipicamente a 2,FdlLg
A resina ' ento embalada, estando pronta para ser comerciali,ada
C$.$C"E./S"&C$S 01 PE"
Peso Colecular:
( A propriedade mais significati1a do PET 8 peso ' um indicati1o do nmero m'dio de
unidades de repetio PET indi1iduais que so agrupadas para formar uma corrente molecular
nica
Jiscosidade intr0nseca do PET:
( P o modo pelo qual podemos definir oseu peso molecular corretamente
$ 2orfo!o%ia do PE"

A morfologia dos pol0meros en1ol1e o arran&o, o formato, o taman+o e o efeito do cristal no
pol0mero sElido Esta morfologia ' importante pelo seu efeito nas propriedades finais do
pol0mero sElido
8s pol0meros podem ser:
( Amorfos: so aqueles que no possuem capacidade de cristali,ar, sendo amorfo sem
qualquer condio ou +istEria t'rmica
( !emicristalinos: geralmente c+amados de pol0meros cristalinos, so pol0meros formados por
regi:es amorfas e regi:es cristalinas A regio amorfa ' aquela caracteri,ada por completa
desordem de mol'culas, ao contr)rio das regi:es cristalinas, em que segmentos de cadeias
moleculares esto estendidas, arran&adas de uma maneira ordenada, formando um
empacotamento regular c+amado cristalito /ormalmente, os pol0meros nunca so 122I
cristalinos 8 PET enquadra(se na categoria dos pol0meros semi(cristalinos
8 modelo tradicional usado para 1isuali,ar a morfologia e e6plicar as propriedades dos
pol0meros semi cristalinos ' a Cicela Bran&ada Em determinados trec+os, os segmentos de
cadeias moleculares esto perfeitamente ordenados, formando as regi:es cristalinas e em
outros segmentos dessas mesmas mol'culas esto desordenados, correspondendo s regi:es
amorfas A mol'cula ', portanto, muito maior do que o comprimento do cristalito
As propriedades do PET dependem:
( 9a frao das regi:es cristalinas .grau de cristali,ao-
( Tipo e taman+o dos cristais
( 8rientao das cadeias moleculares e dos cristais
A morfologia do PET depende das condi:es do processamento 8 PET completamente amorfo
ou com bai6o grau de cristali,ao ' obtido apEs r)pido resfriamento do pol0mero fundido, tal
como acontece com o e6trudado do reator de polimeri,ao e com a pr'(formas in&etadas
8 PET amorfo obtido ' um sElido transparente com bai6as propriedades f0sicas .bai6a barreira
a gases- e mecDnicas .bai6a resistncia mecDnica e bai6o mEdulode elasticidade-
A morfologia do PET semi cristalino 1aria conforme o processo de obteno, e6istindo
basicamente duas cristali,a:es bem distintas:
( 4ristali,ao t'rmica, e
( 4ristali,ao indu,ida por tenso
A cristali,ao t'rmica ' reali,ada por resfriamento lento do PET fundido ou por aquecimento
formando cristais de estrutura esferul0tica A cristali,ao esferul0tica resulta em um sElido
branco, opaco, fr)gil, com maior resistncia t'rmica e mecDnica do que o PET amorfo
9e1ido o maior empacotamento das mol'culas, a cristali,ao aumenta a densidade e redu, o
1olume do sElido obtido
Caracter3sticas finais do produto

A resina PET ' um dos mais recentes materiais para embalagem Embora se&a largamente
utili,ada em todo o mundo para a fabricao de embalagens, notadamente garrafas para
bebidas carbonatadas .refrigerantes, )guas com g)s, cer1e&as, etc-, tem 1)rias outras
utilidades, sendo encontrada em di1ersos segmentos de mercado
8 alto desempen+o em resistncia mecDnica, bril+o e transparncia, fa, desse termopl)stico o
preferido de muitos setores
A le1e,a do PET permite produ,ir garrafas e frascos de alta capacidade 1olum'trica, com
perfeita manuteno da segurana em todas as etapas .en1ase, empacotamento, distribuio,
utili,ao final pelo consumidor-

8s benef0cios ambientais proporcionados pelas embalagens de PET no pr'(consumo so:
( =eduo do desperd0cio de produtos e embalagens ( &) que no se quebram mesmo apEs
quedas consider)1eisM
( E6trema reduo nas emiss:es durante o transporteM
( Economia de )gua no en1ase de refrigerantes e outras bebidas, por dispensar a la1agem de
cascos 1a,ios * como ilustrao, so necess)rios @ litros de )gua para cada litro de refrigerante
produ,ido em sistemas de embalagens retorn)1eis, enquanto o sistema que utili,a as garrafas
recicl)1eis de PET precisam de apenas " litros
/o pEs(consumo, a indstria do PET trabal+a incessantemente para desen1ol1er aplica:es
para o PET reciclado Esse trabal+o reflete(se no 0ndice brasileiro de reciclagem de PET, um dos
maiores do mundo, e na 1asta gama de produtos que utili,am o PET reciclado, sendo
encontr)1eis no dia(a(dia das pessoas comuns inmeros itens como bancos de 7nibus,
carpetes de carros, 1assouras, cordas, roupas, aparel+os de telefone celular, no1as
embalagens entre muitos outros
http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/PET_(pl%C3%1!ti"o #
$olitereftalato de etileno, ou $'(, um pomero termopstco, desenvovdo por dos
qumcos brtncos Whnfed e Dckson em 1941, formado pea reao entre o cdo tereftco e
o eteno gco, orgnando um pomero, termopstco. Utza-se prncpamente na forma de
fbras para teceagem e de embaagens para bebdas.
Possu propredades termopstcas, sto , pode ser reprocessado dversas vezes peo mesmo ou
por outro processo de transformao. Ouando aquecdos a temperaturas adequadas, esses
pstcos amoecem, fundem e podem ser novamente modados.
As garrafas produzdas com este pomero s comearam a ser fabrcadas na dcada de 70, aps
cudadosa revso dos aspectos de segurana e meo ambente.
No comeo dos anos 80, os Estados Undos e o Canad ncaram a coeta dessas garrafas,
reccando-as ncamente para fazer enchmento de amofadas. Com a mehora da quadade do
PET reccado, surgram apcaes mportantes, como tecdos, mnas e garrafas para produtos
no amentcos.
Mas tarde na dcada de 90, o governo amercano autorzou o uso destes matera reccado em
embaagens de amentos.
Reccagem
Uma garrafa PET demora no meo ambente cerca de 400 anos para se degradar.
Pode ser reccado, peo processo de termoreao, ou a quente, aonde a determnada
temperatura, o pomero fca qudo, podendo ento ser modado, extrusado, comprmdo ou em
outra forma.
As garrafas produzdas com este pomero podem permanecer na natureza por at 800 anos.
No comeo da dcada de 1980, os Estados Undos e Canad ncaram a coeta dessas garrafas,
reccando-as ncamente para fazer enchmento de amofadas.
Com a mehora da quadade do PET reccado, surgram apcaes mportantes, como tecdos,
mnas e garrafas para produtos no amentcos.
Mas tarde na dcada de 1990, o governo norte amercano autorzou o uso destes materas
reccados em embaagens de amentos.
A produo cresceu mas, a reccagem no acompanhou a produo, gerando uma nvaso de
garrafas de todos os tamanhos e formatos, ho|e a produo de pet avanou e um dos maores
ves do meo ambente, poundo matas, ros e"$rrego! %3& .
+ontaminantes
Os prncpas contamnantes do PET reccado so os adesvos pstcos A base ou ("base cup") - a
famosa base de aguns refrgerantes de Popropeno. A maora dos processos de avagens no
mpede que traos destes produtos ndese|ves permaneam no foco de PET.
A coa age como catasador de degradao hdrotca quando o matera submetdo ata
temperatura no processo de extruso, am de escurecer e endurecer o reccado. O mesmo pode
ocorrer com o pocoreto de vno (PVC), que compe outros tpos de garrafas e no pode
msturar-se com a sucata de PET, pos o PVC reage com o PET, transformando-o em outra
substnca.
O aumno exstente em agumas tampas s toerado com teor de at 50 partes por mho no
reccado.
,elec"#o
A seeco e pr-processamento da sucata muto mportante para a garanta de quadade do
reccado. A seeco pode ser feta peo smboo que dentfca o matera ou pea cor (crsta,
mbar ou verde). A separao pode segur processos manuas ou mecncos, como sensores
ptcos.
No pr-processamento, aps a prensagem, precso retrar os contamnantes, separando-os por
dferena de densdade em fuxo de gua (evgao) ou ar. Am do rtuo (poeteno de ata
densdade), devem ser retrados da sucata os resduos de refrgerantes e demas detrtos, por
meo de processos de avagem.
Os dferentes tpos de garrafas tambm podem ser um probema na reccagem. As garrafas que
so usadas para envase de bebdas carbonatadas, precsam de um ndce de vscosdade maor
que o de uma garrafa de gua, por exempo. Dependendo da apcao da resna reccada, a
mstura dos dos tpos de garrafas pode dar um efeto compcador no futuro processamento.
%antagens da &eciclagem
Reduo do voume de xo nos aterros santros e mehora nos processos de
decomposo de matras orgncas nos mesmos. O PET acaba por pre|udcar a
decomposo pos mpermeabza certas camadas de xo, no dexando crcuarem gases
e qudos.
Embaagens pstcas depostadas em aterro santro.
Economa de petreo pos o pstco um dervado.
Economa de energa na produo de novo pstco.
Gerao de renda e empregos.
Reduo dos preos para produtos que tm como base materas reccados.
No caso do PET de 2 tros, a reao entre o peso da garrafa (cerca de 54g) e o contedo
uma das mas favorves entre os descartves. Por esse motvo torna-se rentve sua
reccagem.
O matera no pode ser transformado em adubo. Pstco e dervados no podem ser
usados como adubo, pos no h bactra na natureza capaz de degradar rapdamente o
pstco.
atamente combustve, com vaor de cerca de 20 Mega|oues/quo , e bera gases
resduas como monxdo e dxdo de carbono, acetadedo, benzoato de vna e cdo
benzco. Esses gases podem ser usados na ndstra qumca.
muto dfc a sua degradao em aterros santros.
Produo de PET no Bras para garrafas
Uma garrafa PET derefrgerante.
Em toneadas
1994 - 80.000
1995 - 120.000
1996 - 150.000
1997 - 185.700
1998 - 223.600
1999 - 244.800
2000 - 255.100
2001 - 270.000
2002 - 300.000
2003 - 330.000
2004 - 360.000
2005 - 374.000
2006 - 402.000
2007 - 407.000
2008 - 469.700
Reccagem de PET no Bras
(fonte ABIPET)
ANO - RECICLAGEM ps-consumo|ndce
1994 - 13.000 ton | 18,80%
1995 - 18.000 ton | 25,40%
1996 - 22.000 ton | 21,00%
1997 - 30.000 ton | 16,20%
1998 - 40.000 ton | 17,90%
1999 - 50.000 ton | 20,42%
2000 - 67.000 ton | 26,27%
2001 - 89.000 ton | 32,90%
2002 - 105.000 ton | 35,00%
2003 - 141.500 ton | 43,00%
2004 - 167.000 ton | 47,00%
2005 - 174.000 ton | 47,00%
2006 - 194.000 ton | 51,30%
Referncas
1. ' a b (em ngs) |. G. Speght, Norbert Adoph Lange, Lange's handbook of chemstry, McGraw-
H, 2005, 1610{{{1}}} Predefno:Abrvaton, 1623 Predefno:Abrevao dscreta ISBN
0071432205, Predefno:P.2.807 et 2.758Predefno:COnS bbographque
2. ' a b c Record of Polyethylenterephthalat n the GESTIS Substance Database from the BGIA
3. ' Garrafas pet e ecooga
Politereftalato de etileno
Alerta sobre risco sade
(o)e *+PC
pol,(eth,le-e
terephthalate#
Identificadores
(.)ero C/ 2503125323
Propriedades
4e-!idade 153 g6")3 (20 7C# %2&
Po-to de 89!:o
; 250 7C %2&
/ol9<ilidadee) =g9a prati"a)e-te i-!ol.>el %2&
Co-d9ti>idade t?r)i"a 0.15 @ )21 A21 %1&
B-di"e de
re8ra"C:o (n4#
D20 E 1.57 2 1.51 %1&
Compostos relacionados
PolF)ero!rela"io-ado!
Poli-a8talato de
etile-o (PEN5 8or)ado por
="ido -a8tale-o
di"ar<oGFli"o e
etile-ogli"ol#
Politere8talado de
tri)etile-o (PTT5 8or)ado
por ="ido tere8t=li"o e
propa-o21532diol#
HPolitere8talato de
<9tile-o (PBT5 8or)ado
por ="ido tere8t=li"o e
<9ta-o21542diol#
Co)po!to!
rela"io-ado!
I"ido
tere8t=li"o e Etile-ogli"ol(
)o-J)ero!#
Excepto onde denotado, os dados referem-se a
materiais sob condies PTN
Referncias e a!isos "erais sobre esta caixa#
Alerta sobre risco sade#
http://e-.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pol,eth,le-e_terephthalate
Poyethyene terephthaate
Kro) @ikipedia5 the 8ree e-","lopedia
$ol-eth-lene terephthalate (sometmes wrtten poy(ethyene terephthaate)), commony
abbrevated $'(, $'(', or the obsoete PETP or PET-P, s a thermopastc poymer resn of
the poyester famy and s used n synthetc fbers; beverage, food and other qud contaners;
thermoformng appcatons; and engneerng resns often n combnaton wth gass fber.
Dependng on ts processng and therma hstory, poyethyene terephthaate may exst both as
an amorphous (transparent) and as a sem-crystane poymer. The semcrystane matera
mght appear transparent (partce sze < 500 nm) or opaque and whte (partce sze up to a few
mcrons) dependng on ts crysta structure and partce sze. Its monomer (bs--
hydroxyterephthaate) can be syntheszed by the esterfcaton reacton between terephthac
acd and ethyene gycowth water as a byproduct, or by transesterfcaton reacton
between ethyene gyco and dmethy terephthaate wth methano as a byproduct.
Poymerzaton s through a poycondensaton reacton of the monomers (done mmedatey after
esterfcaton/transesterfcaton) wth ethyene gyco as the byproduct (the ethyene gyco s
drecty recyced n producton).
The ma|orty of the word's PET producton s for synthetc fbers (n excess of 60%) wth botte
producton accountng for around 30% of goba demand. In dscussng texte appcatons, PET s
generay referred to as smpy "poyester" whe "PET" s used most often to refer to packagng
appcatons. The poyester ndustry makes up about 18% of word poymer producton and s thrd
after poyethyene (PE) and poypropyene (PP).
PET conssts of poymerzed unts of the monomer ethyene terephthaate, wth repeatng
C10H8O4 unts. PET s commony recyced, and has the number "1" as ts recycng symbo.
Uses
PET can be sem-rgd to rgd, dependng on ts thckness, and t s very ghtweght. It makes a
good gas and far mosture barrer, as we as a good barrer to acoho (requres addtona
"barrer" treatment) and sovents. It s strong andmpact-resstant. It s naturay cooress wth a
hgh transparency.
Pastc bottes made from PET are exceent barrer materas and are wdey used for soft
drnks (see carbonaton). For certan specaty bottes, PET sandwches an addtona poyvny
acoho to further reduce ts oxygen permeabty.
Baxay orented PET fm (often known by one of ts trade names, "Myar") can
be aumnzed by evaporatng a thn fm of meta onto t to reduce ts permeabty, and to make
t refectve and opaque (MPET). These propertes are usefu n many appcatons, ncudng
fexbe food packagng and therma nsuaton, such as "space bankets". Because of ts hgh
mechanca strength, PET fm s often used n tape appcatons, such as the carrer for magnetc
tape or backng for pressure senstve adhesve tapes.
Non-orented PET sheet can be thermoformed to make packagng trays and bsters. If
crystazabe PET s used, the trays can be used for frozen dnners, snce they wthstand both
freezng and oven bakng temperatures.
When fed wth gass partces or fbers, t becomes sgnfcanty stffer and more durabe. Ths
gass-fed pastc, n a sem-crystane formuaton, s sod under the
tradename &-nite, .rnite, )ostadur, and +rastin.
Whe most thermopastcs can, n prncpe, be recyced, PET botte recycng s more practca
than many other pastc appcatons. The prmary reason s that pastc carbonated soft drnk
bottes and water bottes are amost excusvey PET. PET has a resn dentfcaton code of 1. One
of the uses for a recyced PET botte s for the manufacture of poar feece matera. Among ts
many uses, companes such as Engsh Retreads use the PET matera to ne ther products. It can
aso make fber for poyester products.
Because of the recycabty of PET and the reatve abundance of post-consumer waste n the
form of bottes, PET s rapdy ganng market share as a carpet fber. Mohawk Industres reeased
everSTRAND n 1999, a 100% post-consumer recyced content PET fber. Snce that tme, more
than 17 bon bottes have been recyced nto carpet fber.|4| Pharr Yarns, a supper to numerous
carpet manufacturers ncudng Looptex, Dobbs Ms, and Berkshre Foorng,|5| produces a BCF
(buk contnuous fament) PET carpet fber contanng a mnmum of 25% post-consumer recyced
content.
PET, as wth many pastcs, s aso an exceent canddate for therma dsposa (ncneraton), as t
s composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, wth ony trace amounts of catayst eements (but
no sufur). PET has the energy content of soft coa.
PET was patented n 1941 by the Caco Prnters' Assocaton of Manchester. The PET botte was
patented n 1973 by Nathane Wyeth.|6
Intrnsc vscosty
One of the most mportant characterstcs of PET s referred to as ntrnsc vscosty (IV)|7|
The ntrnsc vscosty of the matera, measured n decters per gram (dl/g) s dependent upon
the ength of ts poymer chans. The onger the poymer chans, the more entangements
between chans and therefore the hgher the vscosty. The average chan ength of a partcuar
batch of resn can be controed durng poycondensaton.
The ntrnsc vscosty range of PET|8|
Fber grade
0.40 - 0.70 dl/g Texte
0.72 - 0.98 dl/g Technca, tre cord
Fm grade
0.60 - 0.70 dl/g BoPET (baxay orented PET fm)
0.70 - 1.00 dl/g Sheet grade for thermoformng
Botte grade
0.70 - 0.78 dl/g Water bottes (fat)
0.78 - 0.85 dl/g Carbonated soft drnk grade
Monofament, engneerng pastc
1.00 - 2.00 dl/g
Dryng
PET s hygroscopc, meanng that t naturay absorbs water from ts surroundngs. However, when
ths 'damp' PET s then heated, the water hydroyzes the PET, decreasng ts resence. Ths
means that before the resn can be processed n a modng machne, as much mosture as
possbe must be removed from the resn. Ths s acheved through the use of a desccant or
dryers before the PET s fed nto the processng equpment.
Insde the dryer, hot dry ar s pumped nto the bottom of the hopper contanng the resn so that
t fows up through the peets, removng mosture on ts way. The hot wet ar eaves the top of the
hopper and s frst run through an after-cooer, because t s easer to remove mosture from cod
ar than hot ar. The resutng coo wet ar s then passed through a desccant bed. Fnay the coo
dry ar eavng the desccant bed s re-heated n a process heater and sent back through the same
processes n a cosed oop. Typcay, resdua mosture eves n the resn must be ess than 5
parts per mon (parts of water per mon parts of resn, by weght) before processng. Dryer
resdence tme shoud not be shorter than about four hours. Ths s because dryng the matera n
ess than 4 hours woud requre a temperature above 160 C, at whch eve hydroyss woud
begn nsde the peets before they coud be dred out.
PET can aso be dred n compressed ar resn dryers. Compressed ar dryers do not reuse dryng
ar. Dry, heated compressed ar s crcuated through the PET peets as n the desccant dryer,
then reeased to the atmosphere.
Copoymers
In addton to pure (homopoymer) PET, PET modfed by copoymerzaton s aso avaabe.
In some cases, the modfed propertes of copoymer are more desrabe for a partcuar
appcaton. For exampe, cycohexane dmethano (CHDM) can be added to the poymer
backbone n pace of ethyene gyco. Snce ths budng bock s much arger (6 addtona carbon
atoms) than the ethyene gyco unt t repaces, t does not ft n wth the neghborng chans the
way an ethyene gyco unt woud. Ths nterferes wth crystazaton and owers the poymer's
metng temperature. Such PET s generay known as PETG (Eastman Chemca and SK Chemcas
are the ony two manufacturers). PETG s a cear amorphous thermopastc that can be n|ecton
moded or sheet extruded. It can be coored durng processng.
Another common modfer s sophthac acd, repacng some of the 1,4-(para-)
nked terephthaate unts. The 1,2-(ortho-) or 1,3-(meta-) nkage produces an ange n the chan,
whch aso dsturbs crystanty.
Such copoymers are advantageous for certan modng appcatons, such as thermoformng,
whch s used for exampe to make tray or bster packagng from co-PET fm, or amorphous PET
sheet (A-PET) or PETG sheet. On the other hand, crystazaton s mportant n other appcatons
where mechanca and dmensona stabty are mportant, such as seat bets. For PET bottes, the
use of sma amounts of sophthac acd, CHDM, DEG or other comonomers can be usefu: f ony
sma amounts of comonomers are used, crystazaton s sowed but not prevented entrey. As a
resut, bottes are obtanabe va stretch bow modng ("SBM"), whch are both cear and
crystane enough to be an adequate barrer to aromas and even gases, such as carbon doxde n
carbonated beverages.
Crystas
Crystazaton of poymers occurs when poymer chans fod up on themseves n a repeatng,
symmetrca pattern. Long poymer chans tend to become entanged on themseves, whch
prevents fu crystazaton n a but the most carefuy controed crcumstances. PET s no
excepton to ths rue; About 60% crystazaton s the upper mt for commerca products, wth
the excepton of poyester fbers. Besdes, about 60% crystane poymer about 40 % of the
poymer chans remanng amorphous. Therefore PET s commony caed a sem-crystane
poymer.
PET n ts natura state s a sem-crystane resn. Cear products can be produced by rapdy
coong moten poymer beow Tg gass transton temperature to form an amorphous sod.
Lke gass, amorphous PET forms when ts moecues are not gven enough tme to arrange
themseves n an ordery, crystane fashon as the met s cooed. At room temperature the
moecues are frozen n pace, but f enough heat energy s put back nto them by heatng above
Tg, they begn to move agan, aowng crystas to nuceate and grow. Ths procedure s known as
sod-state crystazaton.
Lke most materas, PET tends to produce spherutes contanng many sma crystates when
crystazed from an amorphous sod, rather than formng one arge snge crysta. Lght tends to
scatter as t crosses the boundares between crystates and the amorphous regons between
them. Ths scatterng means that crystane PET s opaque and whte n most cases. Fber
drawng s among the few ndustra processes that produce a neary snge-crysta product.
Degradaton
PET s sub|ect to varous types of degradatons durng processng. The man degradatons that can
occur are hydroytc, therma and, probaby most mportant, therma oxdaton. When PET
degrades, severa thngs happen: dscooraton, chan scssons resutng n reduced moecuar
weght, formaton of acetadehyde and cross-nks ("ge" or "fsh-eye" formaton). Dscooraton s
due to the formaton of varous chromophorc systems foowng proonged therma treatment at
eevated temperatures. Ths becomes a probem when the optca requrements of the poymer
are very hgh, such as n packagng appcatons. The therma and thermooxdatve degradaton
resuts n poor processbty characterstcs and performance of the matera.
One way to aevate ths s to use a copoymer. Comonomers such as CHDM or sophthac
acd ower the metng temperature and reduce the degree of crystanty of PET (especay
mportant when the matera s used for botte manufacturng). Thus the resn can be pastcay
formed at ower temperatures and/or wth ower force. Ths heps to prevent degradaton,
reducng the acetadehyde content of the fnshed product to an acceptabe (that s, unnotceabe)
eve. See copoymers, above. Other ways to mprove the stabty of the poymer s by usng
stabzers, many antoxdants such as phosphtes. Recenty, moecuar eve stabzaton of the
matera usng nanostructured chemcas has aso been consdered.
.cetaldeh-de
Acetadehyde s normay a cooress, voate substance wth a fruty sme. It forms naturay n
frut, but t can cause an off-taste n botted water. Acetadehyde forms n PET through the
"abuse" of the matera. Hgh temperatures (PET decomposes above 300 C or 570 F), hgh
pressures, extruder speeds (excessve shear fow rases temperature) and ong barre resdence
tmes a contrbute to the producton of acetadehyde. When acetadehyde s produced, some of
t remans dssoved n the was of a contaner and then dffuses nto the product stored nsde,
aterng the taste and aroma. Ths s not such a probem for non-consumabes (such as shampoo),
for frut |uces (whch aready contan acetadehyde), or for strong-tastng drnks ke soft drnks.
For botted water, however, ow acetadehyde content s qute mportant, because f nothng
masks the aroma, even extremey ow concentratons (10-20 parts per bon n the water) of
acetadehyde can produce an off-taste.
Antmony
Antmony (Sb) s a catayst that s often used as antmony troxde (Sb2O3) or antmony tracetate
n the producton of PET. After manufacturng a detectabe amount of antmony can be found on
the surface of the product. Ths resdue can be removed wth washng. Antmony aso remans n
the matera tsef and can thus mgrate out nto food and drnks. Exposng PET to bong or
mcrowavng can ncrease the eves of antmony sgnfcanty, possby above USEPA maxmum
contamnaton eves.|9| The drnkng water mt n the USA for antmony s 6 parts per bon.
|10| Athough antmony troxde s of ow toxcty when taken oray,|11| ts presence s st of
concern. The Swss Federa Offce of Pubc Heath nvestgated the amount of antmony
mgraton, comparng waters botted n PET and gass: the antmony concentratons of the water
n PET bottes were hgher, but st we beow the aowed maxmum concentraton. The Swss
Federa Offce of Pubc Heath concuded that sma amounts of antmony mgrate from the PET
nto botted water, but that the heath rsk of the resutng ow concentratons s neggbe (1% of
the "toerabe day ntake" determned by the WHO). A ater (2006) but more wdey pubczed
study found smar amounts of antmony n water n PET bottes.|12| The WHO has pubshed a
rsk assessment for antmony n drnkng water.|11|
Frut |uce concentrates (for whch no gudenes are estabshed), however, that were produced
and botted n PET n the UK were found to contan up to 44.7 g/L of antmony, we above the EU
mts for tap water of 5 g/L.%13& %14
Possbe toxcty of PET
Commentary pubshed n Envronmenta Heath Perspectves n Apr 2010 suggested that PET
mght yed endocrne dsruptors under condtons of common use and
recommended|15| research on ths topc. Proposed mechansms ncude eachng of phthaates as
we as eachng of antmony. Other authors (FRANZ and WELLE) pubshed evdence based on
mathematca modeng, ndcatng that t s qute unkey that PET yeds endocrne dsruptors n
mnera water.|16|
Botte processng equpment
There are two basc modng methods for PET bottes, one-step and two-step. In two-step modng,
two separate machnes are used. The frst machne n|ecton mods the preform, whch resembes
a test tube, wth the botte-cap threads aready moded nto pace. The body of the tube s
sgnfcanty thcker, as t w be nfated nto ts fna shape n the second step usng stretch bow
modng.
In the second step, the preforms are heated rapdy and then nfated aganst a two-part mod to
form them nto the fna shape of the botte. Preforms (unnfated bottes) are now aso used as
contaners for candy, and by some Red Cross chapters to dstrbute to homeowners to store
medca hstory for emergency responders.|17|
In one-step machnes, the entre process from raw matera to fnshed contaner s conducted
wthn one machne, makng t especay sutabe for modng non-standard shapes (custom
modng), ncudng |ars, fat ova, fask shapes etc. Its greatest mert s the reducton n space,
product handng and energy, and far hgher vsua quaty than can be acheved by the two-step
system.
Poyester recycng ndustry
When recycng poyethyene terephthaate or PET or poyester, two ways generay have to be
dfferentated:
1. The chemca recycng back to the nta raw materas purfed terephthac acd (PTA)
or dmethy terephthaate (DMT) and ethyene gyco (EG) where the poymer structure s
destroyed competey, or n process ntermedates ke bs--hydroxyterephthaate
2. The mechanca recycng where the orgna poymer propertes are beng mantaned or
reconsttuted.
Chemca recycng of PET w become cost-effcent ony appyng hgh capacty recycng nes of
more than 50,000 tons/year. Such nes coud ony be seen, f at a, wthn the producton stes of
very arge poyester producers. Severa attempts of ndustra magntude to estabsh such
chemca recycng pants have been made n the past but wthout resoundng success. Even the
promsng chemca recycng n |apan has not become an ndustra break through so far. The two
reasons for ths are: at frst, the dffcuty of consstent and contnuous waste bottes sourcng n
such a huge amount at one snge ste, and, at second, the steady ncreased prces and prce
voatty of coected bottes. The prces of baed bottes ncreased for nstance between the years
2000 and 2008 from about 50 Euro/ton to over 500 Euro/ton n 2008.
Mechanca recycng or drect crcuaton of PET n the poymerc state s operated n most dverse
varants today. These knds of processes are typca of sma and medum-szed ndustry. Cost-
effcency can aready be acheved wth pant capactes wthn a range of 5 000 - 20 000
tons/year. In ths case, neary a knds of recyced-matera feedback nto the matera crcuaton
are possbe today. These dverse recycng processes are beng dscussed hereafter n deta.
Besdes chemca contamnants and degradaton products generated durng frst processng and
usage, mechanca mpurtes are representng the man part of quaty deprecatng mpurtes n
the recycng stream. Recyced materas are ncreasngy ntroduced nto manufacturng
processes, whch were orgnay desgned for new materas ony. Therefore, effcent sortng,
separaton and ceanng processes become most mportant for hgh quaty recyced poyester.
When takng about poyester recycng ndustry, we are concentratng many on recycng of PET
bottes whch are meanwhe used for a knds of qud packagng ke water, carbonated soft
drnks, |uces, beer, sauces, detergents, househod chemcas and so on. Bottes are easy to
dstngush because of shape and consstency and separate from waste pastc streams ether by
automatc or hand sortng processes. The estabshed poyester recycng ndustry conssts of
three ma|or sectons:
PET botte coecton and waste separaton-waste ogstcs
Producton of cean botte fakes-fake producton
Converson of PET fakes to fna products-fake processng
Intermedate product from the frst secton s baed botte waste wth a PET content greater than
90%. Most common tradng form s the bae but aso brcked or even oose, pre-cut bottes are
common n the market. In the second secton the coected bottes are converted to cean PET
botte fakes. Ths step can be more or ess compex and compcated dependng on requred fna
fake quaty. Durng thrd step PET botte fakes are processed to any knd of products ke fm,
bottes, fber, fament, strappng or ntermedates ke peets for further processng and
engneerng pastcs.
Besdes ths externa (post-consumer) poyester botte recycng, numbers of nterna (pre-
consumer) recycng processes exst, where the wasted poymer matera does not ext the
producton ste to the free market, and nstead s reused n the same producton crcut. In ths
way, fber waste s drecty reused to produce fber, preform waste s drecty reused to produce
preforms, and fm waste s drecty reused to produce fm.
$'( bottle rec-cling
Main article: PET bottle recycling
|edt|$urification and decontamination
The success of any recycng concept s hdden n the effcency of purfcaton and
decontamnaton at the rght pace durng processng and to the necessary or desred extent.
Generay, the foowng appes: the sooner foregn substances are removed, n the process, and
the more thoroughy ths s done, the more effcent the process s.
The hgh pastczaton temperature of PET n the range of 280C s the reason why amost a
common organc mpurtes such as PVC, PLA, poyoefn, chemca wood-pup and paper
fbers, poyvny acetate, met adhesve, coorng agents, sugar and proten resdues are
transformed nto coored degradaton products whch, n ther turn, mght reease reactve
degradaton products addtonay. Then, the number of defects n the poymer chan ncreases
consderaby. Naturay, the partce sze dstrbuton of mpurtes s very wde, the bg partces of
60-1000 m-whch are vsbe by naked eye and easy to fter-representng the esser ev snce
ther tota surface s reatvey sma and the degradaton speed s therefore ower. The nfuence
of the mcroscopc partces, whch-because they are many-ncrease the frequency of defects n
the poymer, s comparabe bgger.
The motto "What the eye does not see the heart cannot greve over" s consdered to be very
mportant n many recycng processes. Therefore besdes effcent sortng the remova of vsbe
mpurty partces by met ftraton processes s payng a partcuar part n ths case.
In genera, one can say that the processes to make PET botte fakes from coected bottes are as
versate as the dfferent waste streams are dfferent n ther composton and quaty. In vew of
technoogy there sn't |ust one way to do t. There are meanwhe many engneerng companes
whch are offerng fake producton pants and components, and t s dffcut to decde for one or
other pant desgn. Nevertheess there are processes whch are sharng most of these prncpes.
Dependng on composton and mpurty eve of nput matera, the genera foowng process
steps are apped.|18|
1. Bae openng, brquette openng
2. Sortng and seecton for dfferent coors, foregn poymers especay PVC, foregn matter,
remova of fm, paper, gass, sand, so, stones and metas
3. Pre-washng wthout cuttng
4. Coarse cuttng dry or combned to pre-washng
5. Remova of stones, gass and meta
6. Ar sftng to remove fm, paper and abes
7. Grndng, dry and / or wet
8. Remova of ow-densty poymers (cups) by densty dfferences
9. Hot wash
10.Caustc wash
11.Caustc surface etchng, mantanng ntrnsc vscosty and decontamnaton
12.Rnsng
13.Cean water rnsng
14.Dryng
15.Ar sftng of fakes
16.Automatc fake sortng
17.Water crcut and water treatment technoogy
18.Fake quaty contro
|edt|Impurities and material defects
The number of possbe mpurtes and matera defects whch accumuate n the poymerc
matera s ncreasng permanenty-when processng as we as when usng poymers-takng
nto account a growng servce fe tme, growng fna appcatons and repeated recycng. As far
as recyced PET bottes are concerned, the defects mentoned can be sorted n the foowng
groups:
1. Reactve poyester OH- or COOH- end groups are transformed nto dead or non-reactve
end groups, e.g. formaton of vny ester end groups through dehydraton or
decarboxyaton of terephthaate acd, reacton of the OH- or COOH- end groups wth
mono-functona degradaton products ke mono-carbonc acds or acohos. Resuts are
decreased reactvty durng re-poycondensaton or re-SSP and broadenng the moecuar
weght dstrbuton.
2. The end group proporton shfts toward the drecton of the COOH end groups but up
through a therma and oxdatve degradaton. The resuts are decrease n reactvty, and
ncrease n the acd autocataytc decomposton durng therma treatment n presence of
humdty.
3. Number of poy-functona macromoecues ncreases. Accumuaton of ges and ong-chan
branchng defects.
4. Number, concentraton and varety of non poymer-dentca organc and norganc foregn
substances are ncreasng. Wth every new therma stress, the organc foregn substances
w react by decomposton. Ths s causng the beraton of further degradaton-
supportng substances and coorng substances.
5. Hydroxde and peroxde groups bud up at the surface of the products made of poyester
n presence of ar (oxygen) and humdty. Ths process s acceerated by utravoet ght.
Durng an uteror treatment process, hydro peroxdes are a source of oxygen radcas
whch are source of oxdatve degradaton. Destructon of hydro peroxdes s to happen
before the frst therma treatment or durng pastczaton and can be supported by
sutabe addtves ke antoxdants.
Takng nto consderaton the above-mentoned chemca defects and mpurtes, there s an
ongong modfcaton of the foowng poymer characterstcs durng each recycng cyce, whch
are detectabe by chemca and physca aboratory anayss.
In partcuar:
Increase of COOH end groups
Increase of coor number b
Increase of haze (transparent products)
Increase of ogomer content
Reducton n fterabty
Increase of by-products content such as acetadehyde, formadehyde
Increase of extractabe foregn contamnants
Decrease n coor L
Decrease of ntrnsc vscosty or dynamc vscosty
Decrease of crystazaton temperature and ncrease of crystazaton speed
Decrease of the mechanca propertes ke tense strength, eongaton at break or eastc
moduus
Broadenng of moecuar weght dstrbuton
The recycng of PET-bottes s meanwhe an ndustra standard process whch s offered by a
wde varety of engneerng companes.|19|
|edt|$rocessing examples for rec-cled pol-ester
Recycng processes wth poyester are amost as vared as the manufacturng processes based on
prmary peets or met. Dependng on purty of the recyced materas poyester can be used
today n most of the poyester manufacturng processes as bend wth vrgn poymer or
ncreasngy as 100% recyced poymer. Some exceptons ke BOPET-fm of ow thckness, speca
appcatons ke optca fm or yarns through FDY-spnnng at > 6000 m/mn or mcrofaments
and mcro-fbers are produced from vrgn poyester ony.
|edt|,imple repelleti/ing of bottle fla0es
Ths process conssts n transformng botte waste nto fakes, by dryng and crystazng the
fakes, by pastczng and fterng, as we as by peetzng. Product s an amorphous re-granuate
of an ntrnsc vscosty n the range of 0.55-0.7 dl/g, dependng on how compete pre-dryng of
PET fakes has been done.
Speca feature are: acetadehyde and ogomers are contaned n the peets at ower eve; the
vscosty s reduced somehow, the peets are amorphous and have to be crystazed and dred
before further processng.
Processng to:
A-PET fm for thermoformng,
Addton to PET vrgn producton,
BoPET packagng fm,
PET Botte resn by SSP,
Carpet yarn,
Engneerng pastc,
Faments,
Non-woven,
Packagng strpes,
Stape fbre,
Choosng the re-peetzng way means havng an addtona converson process whch s at the
one sde energy ntensve, cost consumng and causes therma destructon. At the other sde the
peetzng step s provdng the foowng advantages:
Intensve met ftraton
Intermedate quaty contro
Modfcaton by addtves.
Product seecton and separaton by quaty
Processng fexbty ncreased
Ouaty unformzaton
|edt|1anufacture of $'(pellets for bottles 2bottle to bottle3 and .$'(
Ths process s, n prncpe, smar to the one descrbed above; however, the peets produced are
drecty (contnuousy or dscontnuousy) crystazed and then sub|ected to a sod-state
poycondensaton (SSP) n a tumbng drer or a vertca tube reactor. Durng ths processng step,
the correspondng ntrnsc vscosty of 0.80 - 0.085 dl/g s rebud agan and, at the same tme,
the acetadehyde content s reduced to < 1 ppm.
The fact that some machne manufacturers and ne buders n Europe and USA make efforts to
offer ndependent recycng processes, e.g. the so caed botte-to-botte (B-2-B) process, such as
URRC or BHLER, ams at generay furnshng proof of the "exstence" of the requred extracton
resdues and of the remova of mode contamnants accordng to FDA appyng the so caed
chaenge test, whch s necessary for the appcaton of the treated poyester n the food sector.
Besdes ths process approva t s nevertheess necessary that any user of such processes has to
constanty check the FDA-mts for the raw materas manufactured by hmsef for hs process.
|edt|4irect con5ersion of bottle fla0es
In order to save costs, one|who?| s workng on the drect use of the PET-fakes, from the
treatment of used bottes, wth a vew to manufacturng an ncreasng number of poyester
ntermedates. For the ad|ustment of the necessary vscosty, besdes an effcent dryng of the
fakes, t s possby necessary to aso reconsttute the vscosty through poycondensaton n the
met phase or sod-state poycondensaton of the fakes. The atest PET fake converson
processes are appyng twn screw extruders, mut-screw extruders or mut-rotaton systems and
concdenta vacuum degassng to remove mosture and avod fake pre-dryng. These processes
aow the converson of undred PET fakes wthout substanta vscosty decrease caused by
hydroyss.
Lookng at the consumpton of PET botte fakes, the man porton of about 70% s converted to
fbers and faments. When usng drecty secondary materas such as botte fakes n spnnng
processes, there are a few processng prncpes to obtan.
Hgh speed spnnng processes for the manufacture of POY normay need a vscosty of 0.62-0.64
dl/g. Startng from botte fakes, the vscosty can be set va the degree of dryng. The addtona
use of TO2 s necessary for fu du or sem du yarn. In order to protect the spnnerets, an
effcent ftraton of the met s, n any case s necessary. For the tme beng the amount of POY
made of 100% recycng poyester s rather ow because ths process requres hgh purty of
spnnng met. Most of the tme a bend of vrgn and recyced peets s used.
Stape fbers are spun n an ntrnsc vscosty range whch rather es somewhat ower and whch
shoud be between 0.58 and 0.62 dl/g. In ths case too, the requred vscosty can be ad|usted va
dryng or vacuum ad|ustment n case of vacuum extruson. For ad|ustng the vscosty, however,
an addton of chan ength modfer ke ethyene gyco or dethyene gyco can aso be used.
Spnnng non-woven - n the fne tter fed for texte appcatons as we as heavy spnnng non-
woven as basc materas, e.g. for roof covers or n road budng - can be manufactured by
spnnng botte fakes. The spnnng vscosty s agan wthn a range of 0.58-0.65 dl/g.
One fed of ncreasng nterest where recyced materas are used s the manufacture of hgh
tenacty packagng strpes, and monofaments. In both cases, the nta raw matera s a many
recyced matera of hgher ntrnsc vscosty. Hgh tenacty packagng strpes as we as
monofament are then manufactured n the met spnnng process.
|edt|&ec-cling bac0 to the initial raw materials
|edt|Gl-col-sis and partial gl-col-sis
The poyester whch has to be recyced s transformed nto an ogomer by addng ethyene gyco
or other gycos durng therma treatment. The am and advantage of ths way of processng s the
possbty of separatng the mechanca deposts drecty and effcent through a progressve and
stepwse ftraton. The ftraton fneness of the ast ftraton step has a decsve effect on the
quaty of the end product. Takng parta recycng wth parta gycoyss as an exampe, t s to be
demonstrated how botte waste can successfuy be recyced n a contnuousy operatng
poyester ne whch s manufacturng peets for botte appcatons.
The task conssts n feedng 10-25% botte fakes whe mantanng the quaty of the botte
peets whch are manufactured on the ne. Ths am s soved by degradng the PET botte fakes
- aready durng ther frst pastczaton whch can be carred out n a snge- or mut-screw
extruder - to an ntrnsc vscosty of about 0.30 dl/g by addng sma quanttes of ethyene
gyco and by sub|ectng the ow vscosty met stream to an effcent ftraton drecty after
pastczaton. Furthermore, temperature s brought to the owest possbe mt. In addton, wth
ths way of processng, the possbty of a chemca decomposton of the hydro peroxdes s
possbe by addng a correspondng P-stabzer drecty when pastczng. The destructon of the
hydro peroxde groups s, wth other processes, aready carred out durng the ast step of fake
treatment for nstance by addng H3PO3.|20| The partay gycoyzed and fney ftered recyced
matera s contnuousy fed to the esterfcaton or prepoycondensaton reactor, the dosng
quanttes of the raw materas are beng ad|usted accordngy.
The treatment of poyester waste through tota gycoyss to convert the poyester to bs-beta
hydroxy-terephthaate, whch s vacuum dsted and can be used, nstead of DMT or PTA, as a
raw matera for poyester manufacture, has been executed on an ndustra scae n |apan as
expermenta producton.
|edt|)-drol-sis
Recycng processes, through hydroyss of the PET to PTA and MEG, are operatng under hgh
pressures under supercrtca condtons. In ths case, PET-waste w be drecty hydroyzed
appyng for nstance supercrtca water steam. Purfcaton of crude terephthac acd w be
carred out by re-crystazaton n acetc acd / water mxtures smar to PTA purfcaton.
Industra-scae nes based on ths chemstry have not been known to date.
|edt|1ethanol-sis
Methanoyss s the recycng process whch has been practced and tested on a arge scae for
many years n the past. In ths case, poyester waste s transformed wth methano nto DMT,
under pressure and n presence of cataysts. After ths an effcent ftraton of the methanoyss
product s apped. Fnay the crude DMT s purfed by vacuum dstaton. The methanoyss s
ony rarey carred out n ndustry today because poyester producton based on DMT shrunk
tremendousy and wth ths DMT producers dsappeared step by step durng the ast decade.|21|
Notes
1. a b c d e f g h A.K. van der Vegt & L.E. Govaert, Poymeren, van keten tot kunstof, ISBN 90-407-
2388-5
2. a b |. G. Speght, Norbert Adoph Lange (2005). McGraw-H. ed. Lange's handbook of
chemistry (16 ed.). pp. 2.807-2.758. ISBN 0071432205.
3. a b c Record of Polyethylenterephthalat n the GESTIS Substance Database from the IFA
4. 6 Carpet-nspectors-experts.com
5. 6 Smpy Green Carpet - A Berkshre Foorng Brand
6. 6 Nathane C. Wyeth "Baxay Orented Poy(ethyene terephthaate) Botte" US patent 3733309,
Issued May 1973
7. 6 Urch K. Thee; Poyester Botte Resns, Producton, Processng, Propertes and Recycng, pp. 85
ff, Hedeberg, Germany,2007, ISBN 978-3-9807497-4-9
1. 6 Stoyko Fakrov; Handbook of Thermopastc Poyesters, Chapter 7 by V.B. Gupta, Z. Bashr, p.
320, ISBN 978352730113
3. 6 Cheng, X; Sh, H; Adams, CD; Ma, Y (2010). "Assessment of meta contamnatons eachng out
from recycng pastc bottes upon treatments.".Environmental science and polltion research
international 17 (7): 1323-30. do:10.1007/s11356-010-0312-4. PMID 20309737.
10.6 Consumer Factsheet on: Antmony, EPA
11. a b Gudenes for drnkng - water quaty
12.6 Shotyk, Wam; Kracher, Mchae; Chen, Bn (2006). "Contamnaton of Canadan and European
botted waters wth antmony from PET contaners" (free access). !ornal of Environmental
Monitoring 7 (2): 288-92. do:10.1039/b517844b. PMID 16470261.
13.6 Hansen, Caus; Tsrgotak, Aexandra; Bak, Sren Aex; Pergants, Spros A.; Strup, Stefan;
Gammegaard, Bente; Hansen, Hee Rsz (17 February 2010). "Eevated antmony concentratons
n commerca |uces". !ornal of Environmental Monitoring 18 (4): 822-
4. do:10.1039/b926551a.PMID 20383361.
14.6 Borand, Sophe (1. March 2010). "Frut |uce cancer warnng as scentsts fnd harmfu chemca
n 16 drnks". Day Ma.
15.6 Sax, Leonard (Apr 2010). "Poyethyene Terephthaate May Yed Endocrne
Dsruptors". Environmental "ealth Perspectives 117 (4).do:10.1289.ehp.0901253.
16.6 Franz, Roand and Wee, Frank (2009). "Can Mgraton of Endocrne Dsruptors from Pastc
Bottes be the Cause of Estrogenc Burden Recenty Determned n Botted Mnera
Water?". #etsche Lebensmittel-$ndscha 19: (5): 315.
17.6 Red Cross "Va of Lfe" usng preform
11.6 PET-Recycng Forum;"Current Technoogca Trends n Poyester Recycng"; 9th Internatona
Poyester Recycng Forum Washngton, 2006; Sao Pauo; ISBN 3-00-019765-6
13.6 Urch K. Thee,"Poyester Botte Resns Producton, Processng, Propertes and Recycng", pp.
259 ff, PETpanet Pubsher GmbH, Hedeberg, 2007, Germany ISBN 978-3-9807497-4-9
20.6 DE-Patent DE19503055
21.6 Stoyko Fakrov; "Handbook of Thermopastc Poyesters", pp. 1223 ff; Wey-VCH, Wenhem,
2002, ISBN 3-527-30113-5
$ol-eth-lene terephthalate
I;$.+ name
poy(ethyene terephthaate)
Identifiers
C/ -9)<er 2503125323
Properties
Lole"9lar 8or)9la (C10M1N4#-%1&
4e-!it,
1.4 g/")3 (20 7C#5%3& a)orpho9!: 1.370 g/")35%1& "r,!talli-e: 1.455
g/")3%1&
Lelti-g poi-t
; 250 7C5%3& 260 7C%1&
/ol9<ilit, i-water pra"ti"all, i-!ol9<le%3&
Ther)al "o-d9"ti>it, 0.15 @ )O1 AO15%2& 0.24 @ )O1 AO1%1&
Pe8ra"ti>e i-deG (n4# 1.57Q1.515%2& 1.5750%1&
T$ermoc$emistr%
/pe"i8i" heat
"apa"it,5 C
1.0 kR/(kg6A#%1&
Related compo&nds
PelatedLo-o)er!
Terephthali" a"id
Eth,le-egl,"ol
(what i! thi!S# (>eri8,#
EG"ept where -oted otherwi!e5 data are gi>e- 8or )aterial! i- their !ta-dard !tate (at 25 7C5
100 kPa#
*-8o<oG re8ere-"e!
PET
To9-gU! )od9l9! (E# 2100Q3100 LPa
Te-!ile !tre-gth(Vt# 55Q75 LPa
Ela!ti" li)it 50Q150%
-ot"h te!t 3.6 kR/)2
Wla!! te)perat9re 75 7C
Xi"at Y 170 7C
li-ear eGpa-!io- "oe88i"ie-t (Z# 7[10O5/A
@ater a<!orptio- (/TL# 0.16
'o&rce%1
http://es.wi0ipedia.org/wi0i/$olitereftalato<de<etileno
Tereftaato de poeteno
E (ereftalato de polietileno, politereftalato de
etileno, polietilentereftalato o polietileno (ereftalato (ms conocdo por sus sgas en ngs
PET, Polyethylene Terephtalate) es un tpo de pstco muy usado en envases
de bebdas ytextes. Agunas compaas manufacturan e PET y otros posteres ba|o dferentes
marcas comercaes, por e|empo, en os Estados Undos y Gran Bretaa usan os nombres
de 1-lar y 1elinex.
Oumcamente e PET es un pomero que se obtene medante una reaccn de
pocondensacn entre e cdo tereftco y e etengco. Pertenece a grupo de
materaes snttcos denomnados posteres.
Es un pomero termopstco nea, con un ato grado de crstandad. Como todos os
termopstcos puede ser procesado medante extrusn, nyeccn, nyeccn y sopado, sopado
de preforma y termoconformado. Para evtar e crecmento excesvo de as esferutas y ameas
de crstaes, este matera debe ser rpdamente enfrado, con esto se ogra una
mayor transparenca, a razn de su transparenca a enfrarse rpdo consste en que os crstaes
no acanzan a desarroarse competamente y su tamao no nterfere (scatterng en ngs) con
a trayectora de a ongtud de onda de a uz vsbe, de acuerdo con a teora cuntca.
Propedades
Presenta como caracterstcas ms reevantes:
Ata transparenca, aunque admte cargas de coorantes.
Ata resstenca a desgaste y corrosn.
Muy buen coefcente de deszamento.
Buena resstenca qumca y trmca.
Muy buena barrera a CO2, aceptabe barrera a O2 y humedad.
Compatbe con otros materaes barrera que me|oran en su con|unto a cadad barrera de
os envases y por o tanto permten su uso en mercados especfcos.
Reccabe, aunque tende a dsmnur su vscosdad con a hstora trmca.
Aprobado para su uso en productos que deban estar en contacto con productos
amentaros.
Las propedades fscas de PET y su capacdad para cumpr dversas especfcacones tcncas
han sdo as razones por as que e matera haya acanzado un desarroo reevante en a
produccn de fbras textes y en a produccn de una gran dversdad de envases,
especamente en a produccn de boteas, bande|as, fe|es y mnas.
|edtar|Hstora
Fue producdo por prmera vez en 1941 por os centfcos brtncos Whnfed y Dckson, quenes
o patentaron como pomero para a fabrcacn de fbras. Se debe recordar que su pas estaba en
pena guerra y exsta una apremante necesdad de buscar susttutos para
e agodn provenente de Egpto.
A partr de 1946 se empez a utzar ndustramente como fbra y su uso text ha prosegudo
hasta e presente. En 1952 se comenz a empear en forma de fme para envasar amentos. Pero
a apcacn que e sgnfc su prncpa mercado fue en envases rgdos, a partr de 1976. Pudo
abrrse camno gracas a su partcuar apttud para a fabrcacn de boteas para bebdas poco
sensbes a oxgeno como por e|empo e agua mnera y os refrescos carbonatados. Desde
prncpos de os aos 2000 se utza tambn para e envasado de cerveza.
|edtar|Aspectos postvos de uso de tereftaato de poeteno
Como agunos de os aspectos postvos que encontramos para e uso de este matera,
prncpamente empeado en envases de productos destnados a a venta, podemos destacar:
Oue acta como barrera para os gases, como e CO2, humedad y e O2
Es transparente y crstano, aunque admte agunos coorantes
Irrompbe
Lvano
Impermeabe
No txco, cuadad necesara para este tpo de productos que estn a acance de pbco
en genera (Aprobado para su uso en productos que deban estar en contacto con
productos amentaros)
Inerte (a contendo)
Resstenca esfuerzos permanentes y a desgaste, ya que presenta ata rgdez y dureza
Ata resstenca qumca y buenas propedades trmcas, posee una gran ndeformabdad
a caor
Totamente reccabe
Superfce barnzabe
Estabdad a a ntempere
Ata resstenca a pegado y ba|a absorcn de humedad que o hacen muy adecuado para
a fabrcacn de fbras
PET
Kor)9la Lole"9lar (C10M1N4#-
4e-!idad a)or8a 15370 g/")3
4e-!idad "ri!tali-a 15455 g/")3
L$d9lo de To9-g (E# (E# 2100Q3100 LPa
Pre!i$-(Vt# 55Q75 LPa
\F)ite el=!ti"o 50Q150%
-ot"h te!t 356 kR/)2
Wla!! te)perat9re 75 7C
P9-to de 89!i$- 260 7C
Xi"at Y 170 7C
Co-d9"ti>idad t?r)i"a 0524 @/()6A#
Coe8i"ie-te de dilata"i$- li-eal (Z# 7[10O5/A
Calor e!pe"F8i"o ("# 150 kR/(kg6A#
<!or"i$- de ag9a (/TL# 0516
B-di"e de re8ra""i$- 155750
Co!te 055Q1525 ]/kg
'o&rce( A#)# !am der *e"t + ,#E# -o!aert, Pol%meren, !an .eten tot .&nstof, I'/N 01-213-4566-
7