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A EXPERINCIA DO PLANEJAMENTO NA CORIA DO SUL

Uma Nota Sobre um Aparente Paradoxo.


Ihering Guedes Alcoforado


Este trabalho parte da premissa que a Economia coreana do sul depende
no seu take-off em grande medida da operao das empresas privadas
sob orientao governamental altamente centralizada, indo alm da mero
estabelecimento das regras do jogo e da induo indireta por meio das
foras de mercado, configurando uma forma de governo dos mercados.
(HASAN, 1976:29 apud WADE, 1990, p. 24]
Este fato criou as condies para o surgimento de vrias teorias
explicativas do seu sucesso, a exemplo das baseadas no i) livre Mercado
( THE FREE MARKET (FM) THEORY) b) na induo do mercados (THE
STIMULATED FREE MARKET) e c) no governo dos mercados ( THE
GOVERNED MARKET (GM) THEORY OF EAST ASIAN SUCCESS).

O objetivo deste trabalho mostrar que as distintas teorias se
complementam, j que cada uma delas foca um aspecto especifico da
arquitetura e da operao do sistema de planejamento da Coria do Sul
no perodo em tela.

Com este propsito o trabalho consta desta introduo mais duas partes
e uma concluso, em todas trato das teorias explicativas para o sucesso
da experincia da Coreia do Sul do planejamento do desenvolvimento. .
Na primeira parte trato da Teoria do livre mercado, na segundo me
debruo sobre a Teoria do livre mercado induzido e no terceiro introduzo
a Teoria do Mercado Governando.

1 A Teoria do Livre Mercado

"An abundant literature attributes the industrial success of the five NIcs-
Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore-to their reliance on
free markets [...]"Malaysia, Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and
Ja-pan-relying extensively on private markets-are thriving. .By
contrast, India, Indonesia, and Communist China, all relying heavily on
central plan-ning, have experienced economic stagnation" (Milton and
Rose Friedman, in Free to Choose, 1980: 57) [WADE, 1990, p. 22].

2. A Teoria do Mercado Estimulado
"Some neoclassical economists conclude that the governments of East
Asia did more than just liberalize markets and lower distortions. In their
view the gov-ernments also intervened more positively to offset other
distortions, both those caused by other policies (e.g., import controls)
and those remaining from gov-ernment failure to change distortion-
inducing institutions directly (e.g., seg-mented financial markets).
[WADE, 1990, 23]

"[] the proponents of the SM view have shown little interest in ana-
lyzing the nature of government intervention in East Asia, though they
rec-ognize its existence. And they also place primary causal weight on
the char-acter of the trade regime for explaining economic perfonnance.
For both reasons, the SM theory can be considered a variant of the core
neoclassical theory, which links economic success to self-adjusting
markets. " [WADE, 1990, 24]

3. A Teoria do Mercado Governado
The governed market (GM) theory says that the superiority of East
Asian economic performance is due in large measure to a combination of:
(1) very high levels of productive investment, making for fast transfer of
newer techniques into actual production; (2) more investment in certain
key industries than would have occurred in the absence of government
intervention; and (3) exposure of many industries to international
competition, in foreign markets if not at home. These are the proximate
causes. At a second level of causation, they are themselves the result, in
important degree, of a set of government economic policies. Using
incentives, controls, and mechanisms to spread risk, these policies
enabled the government to guide~r govern-market processes of
resource allocation so as to produce different production and investment
outcomes than would have occurred with either free market or simulated
free market policies. At the third level of explanation, the policies have
been per-mitted or supported by a certain kind of organization of the
state and the pri-vate sector. Let us specify the policies and the
organizational arrangements in more detail. [WADE, 1990, pp. 26/27]

REFERNCIAS

HASAN, Parvez., 1976, Korea, Problems and 1ssues in a Rapidly Growing
Economy. Balti-more: Johns Hopkins University Press.

MASON, Eward., et al., The Economic and Social Modernization of the
Republic of Korea. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1980

POWELL, Benjamin, State Development Planning: Did it Create an East
Asian Miracle? Independent Institute Working Paper Number 2004/54

WADE, R. (1990) Governing the Market. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press. [ the most completely developed theory of the East
Asian developmental state. ]