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Trabalho de Investigao de Grupo (TIG) realizado no mbito da Unidade Curricular Sismologia no ano lectivo 2011/2012

Ficha de Avaliao Contnua N 1 Sismo do Alaska de 1964


AUTOR:
Ivo Alexandre T. Gonalves N 27367; ivoshady88@hotmail.com

REGENTE: Professor Doutor Jos Manuel Correia Romo LISBOA, 21 DEZEMBRO DE 2011

ndice
ndice de Ilustraes......................................................................................4

Capitulo I Enquadramento Terico....................................................................5 1.Introduo.....................................................................................................6 2.Conceitos Base...........................................................................................6 3.Percepo do Risco.....................................................................................6 4.Questo Central..........................................................................................8 5.Questes de Investigao.............................................................................8 6.Hipteses...................................................................................................8 Captulo II - Aplicao da metodologia de avaliao de riscos..................................9 1.Identificao da metodologia.........................................................................9 2.Identificao dos perigos............................................................................13 Captulo III - Avaliao dos riscos......................................................................14 Captulo IV - Gesto do Riscos..........................................................................16 1.Chuvas Intensas.....................................................................................16 2.Porto Martimo.......................................................................................16 3.Redes...................................................................................................16 4.Reserva Natural.....................................................................................16 5.Centro Histrico.....................................................................................17 6.Parque Industrial (industrias abrangidas pelo nvel superior de perigosidade)..17 7.Diversas comunidades............................................................................17 8.Risco Ssmico........................................................................................17 Concluses....................................................................................................18 Bibliografia.....................................................................................................19

ndice de Ilustraes
Ilustrao Ilustrao Ilustrao Ilustrao 1 2 3 4 Grau de Risco...........................................................................9 Tabela de Severidade.............................................................10 Tabela Probabilidades.............................................................11 Matriz de Risco.......................................................................11

Capitulo I Enquadramento Terico

1.Introduo
O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido no mbito da disciplina de Sismologia da Licenciatura de Gesto da Segurana e Proteco Civil, realizada no Instituto Superior de Lnguas e Administrao de Lisboa. O objectivo do trabalho consiste na apresentao e caracterizao de um sismo escolhido pelo aluno, sendo o escolhido neste caso o sismo do Alaska de 1964. A metodologia de anlise de risco ser aplicada numa cidade fictcia onde o objectivo ser saber, dos riscos existentes, aps a deteco dos mesmos, qual deles que tem uma maior probabilidade de ocorrncia e criar um mtodo de sensibilizao populao.

2.Conceitos Base
Sismo Os sismos, tremores ou abalos de terra, so caracterizados por movimentos vibratrios bruscos das camadas superiores da superfcie terrestre, mais ou menos violentos, provocados por uma sbita libertao de energia em zonas instveis do interior da Terra. A sua durao no ultrapassa alguns minutos ou at segundos, sendo sempre um fenmeno breve e localizado.; Sismologia A Sismologia o ramo da Geofsica que estuda os sismos, as suas causas e os seus efeitos; Epicentro Local superfcie da terra, situado na vertical do foco, sendo a zona onde o sismo sentido em primeiro lugar e, em regra, com maior intensidade Hipocentro ou Foco Ssmico Zona localizada no interior da Terra onde ocorre a libertao da energia acumulada devido ruptura ou deslocao das rochas; Distncia focal A distncia entre o foco e o epicentro; Placas Transformantes ; Placas Divergentes ; Placas Convergentes Tsunami: existncia de risco aceitvel.

3.Sismo do Alaska de 1964


The 1964 Alaska earthquake, also known as the Great Alaskan Earthquake, thePortage Earthquake and the Good Friday Earthquake, was a megathrust earthquake that began at 5:36 P.M. AST on Good Friday, March 27, 1964.[2] Across south-central Alaska, ground fissures, collapsing buildings, and tsunamis resulting from the earthquake caused about 131 deaths. Lasting nearly four minutes, it was the most powerful recorded earthquake in U.S. andNorth American history, and the second most powerful ever measured byseismograph.[3] It had a magnitude of 9.2, at the time making it the second largest earthquake in recorded history.[2][4] The powerful earthquake produced earthquake liquefaction in the region. Ground fissures and failures caused major structural damage in several communities, much damage to property and several landslides. Anchorage sustained great destruction or damage to many inadequately engineered houses, buildings, and infrastructure (paved streets, sidewalks, water and sewer mains, electrical systems, and other man-made equipment), particularly in the several landslide zones along Knik Arm. Two hundred miles southwest, some areas near Kodiak were permanently raised by 30 feet (9.1 m). Southeast of Anchorage, areas around the head of Turnagain Arm near Girdwood and Portage dropped as much as 8 feet (2.4 m), requiring reconstruction and fill to raise the Seward Highway above the new high tide mark. In Prince William Sound, Port Valdez suffered a massive underwater landslide, resulting in the deaths of 30 people between the collapse of the Valdez city harbor and docks, and inside the ship that was docked there at the time. Nearby, a 27-foot (8.2 m)tsunami destroyed the village of Chenega, killing 23 of the 68 people who lived there; survivors out-ran the wave, climbing to high ground. Post-quake tsunamis severely affected Whittier, Seward, Kodiak, and other Alaskan communities, as well as people and property in British Columbia, Oregon, and California. Tsunamis also caused damage in Hawaii and Japan. Evidence of motion directly related to the earthquake was reported from all over the earth.

4.

Localizao detalhada

Este sismo ocorreu em Prince William Sound, Alasca, EUA, a 61.02 de latitude e -147.65

de longitude.
O seu epicentro foi a cerca de 129km a Este de Anchorage na ensaida do Principe Guilherme Enseada do Prncipe Guilherme (em ingls: Prince William Sound) uma enseada no golfo do Alasca, litoral sul do Alasca. Est localizado no lado leste da pennsula Kenai, e seu maior porto Valdez, no extremo sul doSistema de Oleodutos Trans-Alasca. Outras povoaes nessa enseada, que apresenta muitas ilhas, soCordova e Whittier, mais as vilas indgenas de Chenega e Tatitlek. A maior parte das terras em torno da enseada do Prncipe Guilherme faz parte da Floresta Nacional de Chugach, segunda maior floresta nacional dos Estados Unidos. Esse pequeno trecho de mar cercado pelas escarpadas e glaciais montanhas Chugach. O litoral muito recortado, como muitas ilhas e fiordes, alguns dos quais apresentando Geleiras de gua de mars. As principais ilhas que formam a barreira da enseada soMontague (790,88 km), Hinchinbrook (445,44 km), e Hawkins (176,39 km).

Ilustrao 1 Mapa da ensaida do Prncipe Guilherme

Epicenter: 80 miles east of Anchorage in Prince William Sound

5.Caracterizao do sismo atravs da magnitude e intensidade


The great Alaskan earthquake of 1964 was the largest earthquake in North America and the second largest ever recorded (largest occurred in Chile in 1960). The nine deaths that were due to the earthquake occurred in downtown Anchorage (5), Turnagain Heights (3), and at the International Airport (1). The earthquake occurred at 5:36pm on March 27, 1964, Alaska Standard Time (or, at 03:36 Universal Time code on March 28, 1964). The epicenter was in the Northern Prince William Sound (61.1N 147.5W) about 75 miles E of Anchorage, or about 55 miles west of Valdez. The reported Richter magnitudes (Ms) for this earthquake ranged from 8.4 to 8.6. The moment magnitude (Mw) is reported as 9.2. The depth, or point where the rupture began was about 14 miles within the earth's crust. The strong ground motion reported in the Anchorage area lasted about 4-5 minutes which triggered many avalanches and landslides - some being tsunamigenic. Ground deformations were extensive with some areas east of Kodiak being raised by 30 feet and areas about Portage being dropped by 8 feet (Pflaker, 1964). The rise is estimated to come in two thrusts of about 5 meters each. The maximum intensity reported was XI on the modified Mercalli Intensity scale, indicating major structural damage, and ground fissures and failures. This scale is a 12-point one usually given in roman numerals ranging from I, (not felt/no damage) to XII (total destruction many lives lost). From this event, significant damage covered an area of about 50,000 square miles. Intensities of IV-V (felt by most people/minor damage) were reported as far away as Cold Bay, Bethel, McGrath, Kotzebue, Deadhorse, Ft. Yukon, Eagle and Skagway. -O valor estimado para a magnitude Richter (Ms) foi de 8,4 a 8,6, estando a magnitude Mwregistada como 9,2. Foi dos sismos mais energticos registados instrumentalmente. Imediatamente ao sismo do Chile (1960, M=9,5), foi o evento ssmico instrumental

que mais energia libertou. A durao do abalo foi estimada entre 3 e 4 minutos. A profundidade focal foi um pouco superior a 20km.
Power: The quake had a magnitude 9.2, releasing 10 million times more energy than the atomic bomb that devastated Hiroshima and 80 times more energy than the 1906 San Francisco quake.

The magnitude of the earthquake was 9.2. This is the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in North American history.
Lasting nearly four minutes, it was the most powerful recorded earthquake in U.S. andNorth of 9.2, at the time making it the second largest earthquake in recorded history.

American history, and the second most powerful ever measured byseismograph.[3] It had a magnitude

5.Anlise da crise ssmica:


premonitrios e rplicas
Over 10,000 aftershocks were recorded following the main earthquake. In the first day eleven aftershocks were recorded with magnitudes greater than 6.0. All of those were more powerful than any earthquake we've had in 2010.
Eleven aftershocks of 6.0 or greater were recorded in the first 24 hours after the quake.

Aftershocks
Over 10,000 aftershocks were recorded following the main shock. In the first day alone, eleven major aftershocks were recorded with a magnitude greater than 6.0. Nine more occurred over the next three weeks. It was not until more than a year later that the aftershocks were no longer noticed.

6.

Efeitos directos e induzidos

The 1964 Alaska earthquake, also known as the Great Alaskan Earthquake, thePortage Earthquake and the Good Friday Earthquake, was a megathrust

earthquake that began at 5:36 P.M. AST on Good Friday, March 27, 1964.[2] Across south-central Alaska, ground fissures, collapsing buildings, and tsunamis resulting from the earthquake caused about 131 deaths.
This great earthquake and ensuing tsunami took 128 lives (tsunami 113, earthquake 15), and caused about $311 million in property loss. Earthquake effects were heavy in many towns, including Anchorage, Chitina, Glennallen, Homer, Hope, Kasilof, Kenai, Kodiak, Moose Pass, Portage, Seldovia, Seward, Sterling, Valdez, Wasilla, and Whittier. Anchorage, about 120 kilometers northwest of the epicenter, sustained the most severe damage to property. About 30 blocks of dwellings and commercial buildings were damaged or destroyed in the downtown area. The J.C. Penny Company building was damaged beyond repair; the Four Seasons apartment building, a new six-story structure, collapsed; and many other multistory buildings were damaged heavily. The schools in Anchorage were almost devastated. The Government Hill Grade School, sitting astride a huge landslide, was almost a total loss. Anchorage High School and Denali Grade School were damaged severely. Duration of the shock was estimated at 3 minutes. Landslides in Anchorage caused heavy damage. Huge slides occurred in the downtown business section, at Government Hill, and at Turnagain Heights. The largest and most devastating landslide occurred at Turnagain Heights. An area of about 130 acres was devastated by displacements that broke the ground into many deranged

blocks that were collapsed and tilted at all angles. This slide destroyed about 75 private houses. Water mains and gas, sewer, telephone, and electrical systems were disrupted throughout the area.

The earthquake was accompanied by vertical displacement over an area of about 520,000 square kilometers. The major area of uplift trended northeast from southern Kodiak Island to Price William Sound and trended east-west to the east of the sound. Vertical displacements ranged from about 11.5 meters of uplift to 2.3 meters of subsidence relative to sea level. Off the southwest end of Montague Island, there was absolute vertical displacement of about 13 - 15 meters. Uplift also occurred along the extreme southeast coast of Kodiak Island, Sitkalidak Island, and over part or all of Sitkinak Island. This zone of subsidence covered about 285,000 square kilometers, including the north and west parts of Prince William Sound, the west part of the Chugach Mountains, most of Kenai Peninsula, and almost all the Kodiak Island group. This shock generated a tsunami that devastated many towns along the Gulf of Alaska, and left serious damage at Alberni and Port Alberni, Canada, along the West Coast of the United States (15 killed), and in Hawaii. The maximum wave height recorded was 67 meters at Valdez Inlet. Seiche action in rivers, lakes, bayous, and protected harbors and waterways along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas caused minor damage. It was also recorded on tide gages in Cuba and Puerto Rico. This great earthquake was felt over a large area of Alaska and in parts of western Yukon Territory and British Columbia, Canada. --

The powerful earthquake produced earthquake liquefaction in the region. Ground fissures and failures caused major structural damage in several communities, much damage to property and several landslides. Anchorage sustained great destruction or damage to many inadequately engineered houses, buildings, and infrastructure (paved streets, sidewalks, water and sewer mains, electrical systems, and other man-made equipment), particularly in the several landslide zones along Knik Arm. Two hundred miles southwest, some areas near Kodiak were permanently raised by 30 feet (9.1 m). Southeast of Anchorage, areas around the head of Turnagain Arm near Girdwood and Portage dropped as much as 8 feet (2.4 m), requiring reconstruction and fill to raise the Seward Highway above the new high tide mark. In Prince William Sound, Port Valdez suffered a massive underwater landslide, resulting in the deaths of 30 people between the collapse of the Valdez city harbor and docks, and inside the ship that was docked there at the time. Nearby, a 27-foot (8.2 m)tsunami destroyed the village of Chenega, killing 23 of the 68 people who lived there; survivors out-ran the wave, climbing to high ground. Post-quake tsunamis severely affected Whittier, Seward, Kodiak, and other Alaskan communities, as well as people and property in British Columbia, Oregon, and California. Tsunamis also caused damage in Hawaii and Japan. Evidence of motion directly related to the earthquake was reported from all over the earth. -Various sources indicate that about 131 people died as a result of the earthquake: nine during the earthquake itself, 106 [4] from subsequent tsunamis in Alaska and 16 from tsunamis in Oregon and California. Property damage was estimated at over $310 million ($2.12 billion in current U.S. dollars). --

Anchorage area
Most damage occurred in Anchorage, 75 mi (120 km) northwest of the epicenter. Nine people were killed, the only deaths directly attributed to the earthquake. Anchorage was not hit by tsunamis, but downtown Anchorage was heavily damaged, and parts of the city built on sandy bluffs overlying "Bootlegger Cove clay" near Cook Inlet, most notably the Turnagain neighborhood, suffered landslide damage. The neighborhood lost 75 houses in the landslide, and the destroyed area has since been turned into Earthquake Park. The Government Hill school suffered from the Government Hill landslide leaving it in two jagged, broken pieces. Land overlooking the Ship Creek valley near the Alaska Railroad yards also slid, destroying many acres of buildings and city blocks in downtown Anchorage. Most other areas of the city were only moderately damaged. The 60-foot concrete control tower at Anchorage International Airport was not engineered to withstand earthquake activity and collapsed, killing one employee.[7]

The house at 918 W. 10th Avenue suffered damage peripherally, but one block away the recently completed and still unoccupied Four Seasons Building on Ninth Avenue collapsed completely with one whole wing sticking up out of the rubble like a seesaw. The hamlets of Girdwood and Portage, located 30 and 40 mi (60 km) southeast of central Anchorage on the Turnagain Arm, were destroyed by subsidence and subsequent tidal action. Girdwood was relocated inland and Portage was abandoned. About 20 miles (32 km) of the Seward Highway sank below the high-water mark of Turnagain Arm; the highway and its bridges were raised and rebuilt in 1964-66. [edit]Elsewhere

in Alaska

Most coastal towns in the Prince William Sound, Kenai Peninsula, and Kodiak Islandareas, especially the major ports of Seward, Whittier and Kodiak were heavily damaged by a combination of seismic activity, subsidence, post-quake tsunamis and/or earthquake-caused fires. Valdez was not totally destroyed, but after three years, the town relocated to higher ground 7 km (4 mi) west of its original site. Some Alaska Native villages, includingChenega and Afognak, were destroyed or damaged. The earthquake caused the Cold-War era ballistic missile detection radar of Clear Air Force Station to go offline for six minutes, the only unscheduled interruption in its operational history. Near Cordova, theMillion Dollar Bridge crossing the Copper River also collapsed. The community of Girdwood was also confined to the southern side of the Seward Highway when water rushed into Turnagain Arm arm and flooded or destroyed any buildings left standing to the north of the highway. Interestingly, only the ground immediately along the highway and that on the north side of the road dropped, prompting geologists to speculate that Girdwood may rest upon an ancient cliff face, now covered by countless thousands of years of sediment and glacial deposits.[citation needed] [edit]Canada A 4.5 ft (1.4 m) wave reached Prince Rupert, British Columbia, just south of the Alaska Panhandle, about three hours after the quake. The tsunami then reached Tofino, on the exposed west coast of Vancouver Island, and traveled up a fjord to hit Port Alberni twice, washing away 55 homes and damaging 375 others. The towns of Hot Springs Cove, Zeballos, and Amai also saw damage. The damage in British Columbia was estimated at $10 million Canadian ($65 million in 2006 Canadian dollars, or $56 million in 2006 U.S. dollars).

Elsewhere

A winter scene of a "Ghost forest" that was killed and preserved by salt water along with ruined buildings at the site of the former town of Portage, 2011

Twelve people were killed by the tsunami in or near Crescent City, California, while four children were killed on the Oregon coast at Beverly Beach State Park.[8] Other towns along the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Hawaii were damaged. Minor damage to boats reached as far south as Los Angeles. As the entire planet vibrated as a result of the quake, minor effects were felt worldwide. Several fishing boats were sunk in Louisiana, and water sloshed in wells in Africa.[

Provocou danos significativos numa rea de cerca de 130 000km2, correspondente a quase todo o Alasca, parte ocidental do Canad e sul do estado de Washington. Induziu vrias movimentaes de massa (avalanches,landslides, etc.) e teve tsunamis associados, quer devido a movimentaes cossmicas da superfcie submarina, quer provocados por cedncia de vertentes submarinas. A maior parte das cidades do Alasca sofreram danos graves. Os danos foram muito grandes em vrias cidades, designadamente nas de Anchorage, Chitina, Glennallen, Homer, Hope, Kasilof, Kenai, Kodiak, Moose Pass, Portage, Seldovia, Seward, Sterling, Valdez, Wasilla e Whittier.

.A cidade de Anchorage, a cerca de 120km a nordeste do epicentro, foi a


que registou maiores danos no patrimnio construdo. No centro da cidade verificou-se a destruio de 30 edifcios.

O sismo induziu, tambm, seichas em rios, lagos, portos e canais, no s no Alasca e na costa oriental dos Estados Unidos, mas

tambm na costa do Golfo do Mxico, designadamente na da Louisiana e na do Texas. Estas seichas causaram danos relativamente pequenos, embora alguns pequenos barcos de pesca se tenham afundado devido a estas ondas estacionrias. Seichas induzidas pelo sismo forma tambm registado em margrafos em Cuba e em Porto Rico. Mesmo em locais muito afastados, como na frica do Sul, registaram-se oscilaes na altura de gua em poos e furos para captao de gua.
Seicha uma onda de longo perodo (30 < T < 500 s), em geral estacionria, que se gera em esturios, bacias porturias, lagos e outros corpos de gua confinados, em resultado da amplificao por ressonncia da energia de ondas incidentes ou de outra qualquer fonte de excitao ondulatria. O termo foi cunhado em 1890 pelohidrologista suo Franois-Alphonse Forel, que descreveu o efeito no lago de Genebra. A palavra originria dofrancs falado na Sua, na qual significa abanar periodicamente, e aparentemente j era utilizada para descrever as oscilaes dos lagos alpinos. Nos portos as seichas so por vezes designadas por calema(embora frequentemente a agitao seja apenas devida refraco, difraco e reflexo da ondulao vindo do exterior da bacia porturia). Ocasionalmente, os tsunamis podem desencadear seichas em resultado da forma das costas afectadas.

Nine people lost their lives and 2,000 were left homeless in Anchorage; 115 perished in Alaska and 131 overall, killed as far away as California as a result of the tsunamis generated by the quake.

Anchorage sustained 60 percent of the $537.6 million in damage in the state of Alaska, including 30 blocks of buildings that were either destroyed or heavily damaged. The greatest damage in Anchorage was along the bluff from Turnagain Heights to downtown, where a geological layer of clay, saturated with water, liquefied under pressure and caused the ground above to slide toward the sea. Part of the area has been turned into Earthquake Park that has been left in its natural state since 1964.

7.Caracterizao da estrutura activa que origina o sismo: tipo de falha, caracterizao, etc.
Tipo de falha deve ter sido falha normal? Nope, eh inversa

The earthquake
At 5:36 p.m. Alaska Standard Time (3:36 a.m. March 27, 1964 UTC), just as people were traveling home, a faultbetween the Pacific and North American plates ruptured near College Fjord in Prince William Sound. The earthquake lasted for three to five minutes in most areas. Ocean floor shifts created large tsunamis (up to 70 feet (20 meters) in height), which resulted in many of the deaths and much of the property damage. Large rockslides were also created which resulted in great property damage. Vertical displacement of up to 38 feet (11.5 m) occurred, affecting an area of 100,000 miles (250,000 km) within Alaska.

Type of fault
The Alaska Earthquake was a Subduction Zone Earthquake.(Megathrust earthquake)

Vertical displacement
In tectonics, vertical displacement is the shifting of land in a vertical direction, resulting in a permanent change in elevation. Two types of vertical displacement are uplift, an increase in elevation, and subsidence, a decrease in elevation.

Megathrust earthquake
A megathrust earthquake occurs at subduction zones (destructive plate boundaries), where one tectonic plate is forced under (subducts) another. Due to the shallow dip of the plate boundary, these earthquakes are among the world's largest, with moment magnitudes(Mw) that can exceed 9.0. The major subduction zone is associated with the Pacific and Indian Oceans and are responsible for the volcanic activity associated with theRing of Fire. Since these earthquakes deform the ocean floor, they almost always generate a significant tsunami. All five earthquakes since 1900 of magnitude 9 or greater have been megathrust earthquakes. 1964 Good Friday Earthquake (magnitude 9.2 Mw) Pacific Plate subducting under the North American Plate, duration 45 minutes, depth 25 km, slip length 800 km (500 mi), slip motion 23 m (69 ft).

Subduction
In geology, a subduction zone is an area on Earth where twotectonic plates meet and move towards one another, with one sliding underneath the other and moving down into the mantle, at rates typically measured in centimeters per year. An oceanic plate ordinarily slides underneath a continental plate or another oceanic plate; this often creates an orogenic zone or volcanic arc subject to manyearthquakes. In a sense, subduction zones are the opposite of divergent boundaries, areas where material rises up from the mantle and plates are moving apart.

Earthquakes and tsunamis


Subduction zones are also notorious for producing devastating earthquakes because of the intense geological activity. The introduction of cold oceanic crust into the mantle depresses the local geothermal gradient and causes a larger portion of the earth to deform in a more brittle fashion than it would in a normal geothermal gradient setting. Because earthquakes can only occur when a rock is deforming in a brittle fashion, subduction zones have the potential to create very large earthquakes. If this earthquake

occurs under the ocean it has the potential to createtsunamis, such as the earthquake caused by subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate under the Eurasian Plate on December 26, 2004, thatdevastated the areas around the Indian Ocean. Small tremors that create tiny, unnoticeable tsunamis happen all the time because of the dynamics of the earth. Subduction zones are associated with the deepest earthquakes on the planet. Earthquakes are generally restricted to the shallow, brittle parts of the crust, generally at depths of less than 20 km. However, in subduction zones, earthquakes occur at depths as great as 700 km. These earthquakes define inclined zones of seismicity known as Wadati-Benioff zones (after the scientists who discovered them), which outline the descending lithosphere. Seismic tomography has helped outline subducted lithosphere in regions where there are no earthquakes. Some subducted slabs seem not to be able to penetrate the major discontinuity in the mantle that lies at a depth of about 670 km, whereas other subducted oceanic plates can penetrate all the way to the core-mantle boundary. The great seismic discontinuities in the mantle - at 410 and 670 km depth - are disrupted by the descent of cold slabs in deep subduction zones.

8. Enquadramento sismotectnico: placas tectnicas


Geology
At 5:36 p.m. Alaska Standard Time (3:36 a.m. March 28, 1964 UTC), a fault between the Pacific and North American plates ruptured near College Fjord in Prince William Sound. The epicenter of the earthquake was 61.05N 147.48W, 12.4 mi (20 km) north ofPrince William Sound, 78 miles (125 km) east of Anchorage and 40 miles (64 km) west of Valdez. The focus occurred at a depth of approximately 15.5 mi (25 km). Ocean floor shifts created large tsunamis (up to 220 feet (67 m) in height), which resulted in many of the deaths and much of the property damage.[5] Large rockslides were also caused, resulting in great property damage. Vertical displacement of up to 38 feet (11.5 m) occurred, affecting an area of 100,000 miles (250,000 km) within Alaska. Studies of ground motion have led to a peak ground acceleration estimate of 0.14 - 0.18 g.[6] The Alaska Earthquake was a subduction zone earthquake (megathrust earthquake), caused by an oceanic plate sinking under a continental plate. The fault responsible was the Aleutian Megathrust. It was a reverse fault caused by a compressional force. This caused much of the uneven ground.

9.Tsunami associado?
Tsunami
O evento ssmico gerou um tsunami que desvastou muitas cidades costeiras do Golfo do Alaska, tendo provocado grandes danos em Port Alberni, na Columbia Britnica, e na costa oeste dos Estados Unidos, onde provocou 15 mortos, bem como no Hawaii. Na realidade, a maior parte dos danos e da perda de vidas humanas ficou a dever-se aos tsunamis. Ocorreram dois tipos de tsunamis: tsunami de mar aberto, gerado pela movimentao co-ssmica de grande rea do fundo marinho; tsunamis locais, provocados por cedncia de vertentes submarinas.

O tsunami de 1964 do Alaska foi o segundo maior de que h registo, imediatamente a seguir ao provocado pelo sismo do Chile, em 1960.

Dos cerca de 120 mortos (os nmeros variam ligeiramente de acordo com as interpretaes dos diferentes autores) atribuveis aos tsunamis induzidos pelo sismo do Alaska, aproximadamente um tero foi vitimado pelo tsunami de mar aberto (4 em Newport Beach, Oregon; 12 em Crescent City, California; e cerca de 21 no Alaska). Os tsunamis locais vitimaram, pelo menos, 82 vidas. A maior onda observada teve cerca de 70 metros de altura, junto a Valdez. Na realidade, a regio do Alaska, apesar de ter apenas cerca 200 anos de resgisto histrico fivel, tem j uma histria tsunamignica com vrios eventos catastrficos. Como a placa Pacfica est a ser subductada pela Norte-Americana, os movimentos verticais co-ssmicos so frequentes, o que, quando ocorre em domnio marinho, provoca tsunamis que se propagam por todo o oceamo Pacfico. Em tempos relativamente recentes esta zona tsunamigmica de Alaska-Aleutas induziu outros 3 grandes tsunamis que provocaram mortos, designadamento no Hawaii e, mesmo, no Japo. No entanto, nesta rea, tm-se registado, tambm, frequentes cedncias de vertentes submarinas (movimentos de massa) causadoras de grandes tsunamis locais, os quais podem ocorrer (e tm ocorrido) mesmo sem existirem sismos. Estima-se que, s no Alasca, os tsunamis associados ao sismo de 1964 provocaram prejuzos avaliados em cerca de 84 milhes de dlares. O sismo induziu, tambm, seichas em rios, lagos, portos e canais, no s no Alasca e na costa oriental dos Estados Unidos, mas tambm na costa do Golfo do Mxico, designadamente na da Louisiana e na do Texas. Estas seichas causaram danos relativamente pequenos, embora alguns pequenos barcos de pesca se tenham afundado devido a estas ondas estacionrias. Seichas induzidas pelo sismo forma tambm registado em margrafos em Cuba e em Porto Rico. Mesmo em locais muito afastados, como na frica do Sul, registaram-se oscilaes na altura de gua em poos e furos para captao de gua.

Concluses
Os danos provocados, no Alasca; pelo evento ssmico de 27 de Maro de 1964 resultaram, na generalidade das cidades mais afectadas (Anchorage, Cordova, Homer, Kodiak, Seldovia, Seward e Valdez), no s das vibraes ssmicas, mas tambm dos movimentos co-ssmicos de emergncia ou subsidncia, dos movimentos de massa, dos tsunamis e dos incndios. Os movimentos de massa foram particularmente fortes em Anchorage, nas reas de Turnagain, Fourth Avenue, "L" Street, e Government Hill, onde os principais danos estruturais resultaram destas movimentaes.

Em Valdez, os danos principais foram causados por tsunamis gerados por movimentos de massa submarinos ou por movimentaes deste gnero que terminaram no mar (que no so verdadeiramente tsunamis mas sim splashes). Neste contexto, de relembrar que parte da cidade estava construda em zonas de aterro, que nesta ocasio acabaram por ceder. Toda a frente martima (incluindo as infra-estruturas porturias) foi destruda por estas movimentaes de massa e pelos tsunamis a que deram origem. As movimentaes ao nvel do subsolo danificaram as fundaes de muitas edificaes, o que obrigou sua posterior demolio. A cidade de Valdez teve que ser reedificada noutro local, a um custo estimado em quase 40 milhes de dlares. Estes movimentos de massa foram os que mais danos infra-estruturais causaram. No s casas e edifcios foram afectados (como em Anchorage), como a rede viria (incluindo estradas e pontes), a

Ocorreram, tambm, muitas avalanches (tanto de material rochoso como de neve). Porm, devido aos ndices de ocupao muito baixos das zonas em que ocorreram, no h notcias de vtimas nem de grandes prejuzos. As movimentaes de emergncia e de subsidncia co-ssmica afectaram reas bastante vastas, o que tornou inoperacionais vrias estruturas porturias. Tambm vrios ecossistemas foram afectados por estas bruscas variaes das caractersticas do habitat. Em muitos casos o coberto vegetal, designadamente floresta, acabou por ser destrudo, ou devido directamente submerso da rea, ou porque os lenis freticos superficiais foram salinizados. Devido subsidncia co-ssmica, vrios ncleos urbanos, assim como centenas de quilmetros da rede viria e ferroviria, passaram a ser inundados durante as mars cheias e esporadicamente atingidas por ondas de temporal, o que obrigou sua reconstruo a cotas mais elevadas. No entanto, apesar destas modificaes topogrficas importantes, s foram encontrados indcios de falhas reactivadas no soco (bedrock) na rea de emergncia tectnica mxima, na parte SW da Ilha de Montague, e em domnio marinho, a SW desta ilha. Na restante rea afectada por estes movimentos co-ssmicos no foram detectadas falhas reactivadas no soco. Apesar da origem da catstrofe radicar nas vibraes ssmicas, estas, directamente, causaram menos danos do que as alteraes topogrficas (devido s movimentaes de massa e emergncia e subsidncia co-ssmicas) e ostsunamis. Todavia, estas vibraes provocaram danos estruturais importantes em Anchorage, em Valdez e na regio do delta do rio Copper.

Ocorreram, tambm, muitas avalanches (tanto de material rochoso como de neve). Porm, devido aos ndices de ocupao muito baixos das zonas em que ocorreram, no h notcias de vtimas nem de grandes prejuzos. As movimentaes de emergncia e de subsidncia co-ssmica afectaram reas bastante vastas, o que tornou inoperacionais vrias estruturas porturias. Tambm vrios ecossistemas foram afectados por estas bruscas variaes das caractersticas do habitat. Em muitos casos o coberto vegetal, designadamente floresta, acabou por ser destrudo, ou devido directamente submerso da rea, ou porque os lenis freticos superficiais foram salinizados. Devido subsidncia co-ssmica, vrios ncleos urbanos, assim como centenas de quilmetros da rede viria e ferroviria, passaram a ser inundados durante as mars cheias e esporadicamente atingidas por ondas de temporal, o que obrigou sua reconstruo a cotas mais elevadas. No entanto, apesar destas modificaes topogrficas importantes, s foram encontrados indcios de falhas reactivadas no soco (bedrock) na rea de emergncia tectnica mxima, na parte SW da Ilha de Montague, e em domnio marinho, a SW desta ilha. Na restante rea afectada por estes movimentos co-ssmicos no foram detectadas falhas reactivadas no soco. Apesar da origem da catstrofe radicar nas vibraes ssmicas, estas, directamente, causaram menos danos do que as alteraes topogrficas (devido s movimentaes de massa e emergncia e subsidncia co-ssmicas) e ostsunamis. Todavia, estas vibraes provocaram danos estruturais importantes em Anchorage, em Valdez e na regio do delta do rio Copper.

10. Referncias bibliogrficas



Alaska Earthquake Information Center (s/d) - The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964. <http://www.giseis.alaska.edu/quakes/Alaska_1964 _earthquake.html> Christensen, Doug (s/d) - "The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964" <http://www.giseis.alaska.edu/quakes/Alaska_1964_earthquake.html> Alaska Earthquake Information Center Earthquake Museum (s/d) - <http://www.olympus.net/personal/gofamily/quake>

Hanson-Hedgecock, S., Gary, D., Meyer, K.& Green, B. (2001) - The Good Friday Alaska Earthquake, 1964. GEOL 108 -- Earthquake Web Project, <http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~geol108/eq19/AlaskaEQ.html> Hartness, Nievita Bueno (2001) - 1964 Good Friday Great Alaskan Earthquake <http://www.geo.arizona.edu/~nhartnes/alaska/> Martin, John a. & Associates, Inc. (s/d) Earthquake Images. <www.johnmartin.com/earthquakes/eqshow/index> Plafker, George (1965) Tectonic Deformation Associated with the 1964 Alaska Earthquke. Science, 118 (36678):1675-1687. Plafker, George (2004) - A Look Back at the Great M 9.2 Alaska Earthquake of March 27, 1964: What was learned about Arc Tectonics. Peninsula Geological Society < http://www.diggles.com/pgs/2004/PGS04-11.html> PUBLIC SEISMIC NETWORK ALASKA (s/d) - The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 < http://apsn.awcable.com/1964.htm> Sokolowski, Thomas J. (s/d) - The Great Alaskan Earthquake & Tsunamis of 1964 <http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/64quake.htm> UAA-ISER University of Alaska Anchorage - Institute of Social and Economic Research (1998-2004) Earthquakes <http://www.alaskool.org/resources/regional/sc_reg_pro/earthquake_volcano.html> United States Geological Survey (s/d) <http://wwwneic.cr.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/USA/1964_03_28.html> u-s-history.com (s/d) - North American Natural Disasters: Great Alaskan Quake of 1964 Good Friday Earthquake. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h2101.html> Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (s/d) - Good Friday Earthquake <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Good_Friday_Earthquake>