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2009

CEEP

INGLS INSTRUMENTAL

INFORMTICA | Prof RENATO CESAR

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Sumrio APRESENTAO........................................................................................................................................ 3 TESTE: COMO EST O SEU INGLS? ...................................................................................................... 4 ESTRATGIAS DE LEITURA ...................................................................................................................... 6 FACILITADORES ....................................................................................................................................... 6 COGNATOS ................................................................................................................................................ 6 PALAVRAS FAMILIARES (ESTRANGEIRISMOS) ....................................................................................... 6 FALSOS COGNATOS .................................................................................................................................. 7 DOUBLE SENSE WORDS ........................................................................................................................... 9 EXERCISES ..........................................................................................................................................10 CONECTIVOS ............................................................................................................................................13 GRUPOS NOMINAIS .................................................................................................................................14 FORMAO DE PALAVRAS .....................................................................................................................15 OS USOS DO ING ..................................................................................................................................16 PRONOMES RELATIVOS ..........................................................................................................................16 MARCADORES DE SUBSTANTIVOS .........................................................................................................17 REFERNCIA CONTEXTUAL ...................................................................................................................18 CASO POSSESSIVO/GENITIVO ................................................................................................................19 IMPERATIVO .............................................................................................................................................20 VERBOS MODAIS ......................................................................................................................................20 WHAT IS A BROWSER, AND WHAT BROWSERS ARE AVAILABLE? ......................................22 MOUSE MEMORIES ........................................................................................................................22 A HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER: NETWORK .............................................................................23 CAREERS IN THE COMPUTERS FIELD ........................................................................................23 PRINTING CONCEPTS ....................................................................................................................24 REGISTER AND GET AVG FOR FREE ...........................................................................................25 WHATS AN ALGORITHM?............................................................................................................26 MAINFRAME, MINICOMPUTER AND MICROCOMPUTER ........................................................27 MAGNETIC TAPE AND MAGNETIC DISK....................................................................................28 WHATS A COMPUTER?.................................................................................................................29 SOFTWARE ......................................................................................................................................30 SOFTWARE PIRACY .......................................................................................................................31 VIRTUAL REALITY ........................................................................................................................32 INTERNET ........................................................................................................................................33 JAVA .................................................................................................................................................34 PUZZLE ................................................................................................................................................35 PESQUISA DE VOCABULRIO ..........................................................................................................36 USO DO DICIONRIO .........................................................................................................................37 REFERNCIAS ..........................................................................................................................................38

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APRESENTAO

O que ingls instrumental? Como surgiu?


English for Specific Purposes (E.S.P), que em portugus quer dizer: Ingls com Objetivos Especficos, tambm chamado de ingls instrumental ou tcnico, ou seja, a habilidade de entender textos em lngua inglesa usando estratgias especficas de leitura. Surgiu com a necessidade de comunicao rpida e eficaz em vrios contextos mundiais. Como por exemplo: durante a guerra, os soldados precisavam aprender o idioma do inimigo para sobreviverem, este vocabulrio bsico era visto no avio, navio, nos campos de batalha. Com o passar do tempo, outros contextos sociais foram surgindo, como: a necessidade de leitura de livros, revistas, catlogos, instrues operacionais, manuais escritos em ingls que precisavam ser compreendidos pelos usurios, etc. Sendo assim, torna-se necessrio uma abordagem especfica da lngua Inglesa, que atenda as necessidades profissionais dos estudantes, que so leitura e compreenso de livros. E assim, o Ingls Instrumental possui o objetivo de desenvolver a habilidade de leitura, isto , de compreenso de textos de diversas reas do conhecimento escritos em lngua inglesa, utilizando para isso estratgias de leitura, a fim de tornar o aluno capaz de compreender um texto da sua rea de estudo. Nesse enfoque, a leitura conta com o conhecimento prvio dos leitores. O ingls instrumental consiste no treinamento instrumental dessa lngua, em que as habilidades tm por objetivo extrair conhecimentos para reas especficas de estudo. Vale lembrar que o ingls instrumental ou tcnico pode ou no visar a comunicao oral em ingls, entretanto, para os cursos de Informtica sua principal habilidade a ser trabalhada ser a leitura e o estudo de gramtica, restringindo-a a um mnimo necessrio, ou seja, associando-a ao texto.

Mtodo
Desenvolve a leitura ("Reading") de forma limitada a um objetivo especfico, atravs da habilidade de manipular textos em lngua inglesa, tentando assimilar a compreenso geral e inferir informaes especficas. A gramtica ensinada de forma contextualizada a um objetivo especfico.

Traduo dos textos


Para nosso curso no h traduo, porm outros mtodos so utilizados como, por exemplo: deduo, contexto semntico, reconhecimento de afixos, cognatos e vocabulrio da rea.

Como sero as aulas?


As aulas sero ministradas em portugus, pois no curso no sero trabalhadas as habilidades da fala, de compreenso oral e de escrita. No haver traduo literal, outras estratgias sero utilizadas como por exemplo, deduo, cognatos, familiares, dicas tipogrficas e outros. Muitos exerccios de leitura e compreenso de textos, os quais vocs podero aplicar as estratgias de leitura que sero ensinadas. O ingls instrumental poder abrir seus horizontes de leitura e assim voc se manter mais informado e prximo ao mundo globalizado

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TESTE: COMO EST O SEU INGLS?

A computer is a programmable machine that stores and retrieves data and performs highspeed logical and mathematical operations. However, it is not able to think. It accepts data and instructions as input, and after processing them, it outputs the results. When we talk about computers, we have to consider the hardware and the software. The hardware consists of all the electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system, and the software is the collection of data and programs needed to solve problems with a computer.

1. O melhor ttulo para o texto seria: a) The history of Computers b) What is a computer? 2. uma idia presente no texto: a) o computador resolve problemas atravs do seu prprio raciocnio. b) o hardware mais importante para o computador do que o software. c) o processamento de dados composto de trs etapas.

c) Hardware x Software

3. Do texto, podemos inferir que: a) o computador se presta a diversas aplicaes por causa da sua versatilidade. b) o computador est se tornando cada dia menor e mais barato. c) o computador a inveno humana que mais evoluiu nas ltimas dcadas. 4. (...) the software is the collection of data and programs needed to solve problems with a computer. A idia contida na orao acima est associada a: a) It basically consists of the systems analysts, the programmers, the operators and the technical managers. b) It is the collection of man-written solutions, as well as all documents to guide the operation of a computer. c) It consists of several units: the CPU, the main memory, and the peripherals known as input and output devices. 5. No trecho selecionado para a questo 4, a palavra programs pode ser entendida como: a) canais b) jogos c) instrues 6. A pergunta que pode ser respondida com base nas informaes contidas no texto : a) Quem inventou o computador? b) O que significa software? c) O que um dispositivo de entrada? 7. A opo na qual a palavra computer exerce a funo de modificador : a) computer (I. 1) b) computers (I. 4) c) computer (I. 5) 8. O melhor pargrafo para finalizar o texto seria: a) Fourth-generation computers are rather faster than third-generation computers and can complete thousands of instructions at a time. b) On the backside of the computer, there are several slots into which we can connect a wide range of peripherals. c) In only a short time, the computer has changed the way in which many jobs are done and has become part of our everyday lives. 9. Faa a correspondncia entre as palavras ( esquerda) e as definies ( direita) a) computer game ( ) The study and development of computer systems, hardware and software. b) computer graphics ( ) All of the hardware and software that can interact with a particular computer. c) computer science ( ) Charts, graphs, diagrams, or pictures produced with the aid of a computer. d) computer security ( ) A computer program designed for amusement or instruction.

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e) computer system ( )The process of protecting a computer system from access by virus or unauthorized persons. 10. Os fatos abaixo esto relacionados com a histria do computador. Numere-os de 1 a 5, partindo do mais antigo para o mais recente. ( ( ( ( ( ) In the 17 and 18 centuries, many ways of calculating were invented. ) The first analog computer was used in World War II. ) The primitive calculating device was the fingers of a mans hands. ) Howard Aiken invented the first digital computer, called Mark 1. ) The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820.
th th

11. Identifique as partes componentes do computador abaixo:

Monitor Screen Keyboard Mouse CD-Rom Drive Disk Drive Scanner Printer CD-Rom - Floppy Disk/Diskette

12. Complete a coluna de exemplos da tabela com as partes identificadas na figura: Type Storage devices Input devices Output devices Description Provide permanent storage for data and programs. Enable data to go into the computers memory. Enable users to extract information from the system. Example a) _________________________ b) _________________________ c) _________________________ d) _________________________ e) _________________________

13. A orao que melhor resume as idias contidas no texto, na figura e na tabela : a) Most computers are equipped with data communication facilities. b) Computers are also used in education and business. c) A computer is not only a machine but also a system.

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ESTRATGIAS DE LEITURA
Skimming: leitura rpida para ter-se uma idia central do texto. Scanning: leitura com objetivo de encontrar algumas informaes especficas no texto. Prediction: significa inferir o contedo de um texto atravs de seu conhecimento prvio sobre o tema (background); atravs do contexto semntico (palavras de um mesmo grupo, por exemplo: hospital, nurse, doctor, ambulance); contexto lingstico (pistas gramaticais); contexto no-lingstico (gravuras, grficos, tabelas, nmeros, etc.); conhecimento sobre estrutura do texto (lay out, ttulo, subttulo, diviso de pargrafos, etc.). Vale ressaltar a importncia do conhecimento prvio do leitor e das suas expectativas e dedues em relao ao texto.

FACILITADORES
Cognates: so palavras de origem grega ou latina bem parecidas com as do portugus. Ex. different diferente, infection infeco. Obs.: Ateno com os falsos cognatos. Ex. pretend no significa pretender, mas sim, fingir; importante observar se a palavra se encaixa no contexto. Repeated words: se uma palavra aparece vrias vezes no texto, isto significa que ela importante para a compreenso do mesmo. Typographical Evidences: so smbolos, letras maisculas, negrito, itlico, etc., que do dicas teis sobre o texto. Selectivity: leitura seletiva, isto , selecionar os trechos onde se quer encontrar uma determinada informao (pargrafos, por exemplo). Dictionary: o dicionrio deve ser utilizado como ltimo recurso para se descobrir o significado de uma palavra ou expresso desconhecida. Isso para que a leitura no seja lenta demais, e para que o leitor no desanime tendo que parar toda vez que encontrar algo desconhecido.

COGNATOS
Muito comuns na Lngua Inglesa, os cognatos so palavras de procedncia grega ou latina, bastantes parecidas com as da Lngua Portuguesa, tanto na forma, como no significado. Os cognatos podem ser: Idnticos: radio, piano, hospital, hotel, sofa, nuclear, social, total, particular, chance, camera, inventor, etc. Bastante parecidos: gasoline, banks, inflation, intelligent, population, revolution, commercial, attention, different, products, secretary, billion, dramatic, deposits, distribution, automatic, television, public, events, models, etc. Vagamente parecidos: electricity, responsible, explain, activity, impossible, lamp, company, etc.

PALAVRAS FAMILIARES (ESTRANGEIRISMOS)


Familiares so palavras conhecidas pela maioria das pessoas que vive em um pas altamente influenciado pela cultura dos pases de Lngua Inglesa. No tm a mesma origem das palavras da Lngua Portuguesa. Alguns exemplos de Familiares: Software Windows Fast food Video game Delivery Dollar Shows Hamburguer Moto/Office Boy Play

Hot dog Credit card Marketing Site DVD / CD

Diet Mouse Light Drive-thru Record

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FALSOS COGNATOS
Tambm chamados de falsos amigos, os falsos cognatos so palavras normalmente derivadas do latim, que tm portanto a mesma origem e que aparecem em diferentes idiomas com ortografia semelhante, mas que ao longo dos tempos acabaram adquirindo significados diferentes.
EM INGLS ACTUAL ACTUALLY ADVERTISE ALUMNUS AMASS APPLICATION APPOINTMENT ARGUMENT ASSIST ATTEND AUDIENCE AVAILABLE BALCONY BARRACS BATON BEEF BOND CAFETERIA CAMERA CASUALTY CIGAR COLLAR COLLEGE COMMODITY COMPASS COMPETITION COMPREHENSIVE CONDUCTOR CONTEST CONVENIENT CONVICT COSTUME DATA DECEPTION DEFENDANT DESIGN DISGUST DIVERT EDITOR EDUCATED EMISSION ENROLL ESTATE EXCITING EXIT EXPERT EXQUISITE FABRIC FAMILIAR FILE INGENIOUS REAL NA VERDADE ANNCIO EX-ALUNO ACUMULAR INSCRIO HORA MARCADA DISCUSSO AJUDAR FREQUENTAR PLATIA, PBLICO DISPONVEL SACADA QUARTEL BATUTA, CACETETE CARNE DE GADO LAO, LIGAO REFEITRIO MQ. FOTOGRFICA FATALIDADE CHARUTO GOLA, COLARINHO FACULDADE ARTIGO, MERCADORIA BSSOLA CONCORRNCIA COMPLETO, TOTAL COBRADOR COMPETIO, CONCURSO PRTICO CONDENADO ROUPA, FANTASIA DADOS, INFORMAES LOGRO, FRAUDE RU PROJETO, CRIAO, ESTILO NUSEA DESVIAR REDATOR INSTRUDO DESCARGA ALISTAR-SE PROPRIEDADE, IMVEL EMPOLGANTE SADA PERITO APURADO TECIDO CONHECIDO ARQUIVO CRIATIVO, ENGENHOSO SIGNIFICA EM PORTUGUS ATUAL ATUALMENTE ADVERTIR ALUNO AMASSAR APLICAO APONTAMENTO ARGUMENTO ASSISTIR ATENDER AUDINCIA AVALIAR BALCO BARRACA BATOM BIFE BUNDE CAFETERIA CMARA CASUALIDADE CIGARRO COLAR COLGIO COMODIDADE COMPASSO COMPETIO COMPREENSIVO CONDUTOR CONTEXTO CONVENIENTE CONVICTO COSTUME DATA DECEPO DEFENDER DESIGNAR DESGOSTO DIVERTIR EDITOR EDUCADO EMISSO ENROLLAR ESTADO EXCITANTE XITO ESPERTO ESQUISITO FBRICA FAMILIAR FILA INGNUO MAS PARECE SER QUE EM INGLS PRESENT NOWADAYS, TODAY WARN PUPIL WRINKLE, DENT, CRUSH INVESTMENT NOTE REASONING ATTEND ANSWER, SERVE COURT APPEARENCE EVALUATE COUNTER HUT, TENT LIPSTICK STEAK STREERCAR, TRAM COFFEE SHOP CHAMBER, TUBE CASUALLNESS CIGARETTE NECKLACE HIGH SCHOOL COMFORT A PAIR OF COMPASSES CONTEST UNDERSTANDING DRIVER CONTEXT APPROPRIATE CERTAIN CUSTOM, HABIT DATE DISAPPOINTMENT DEFEND APPOINT GRIEF ENJOY PUBLISHER POLITE ISSUE WIND, CURL STATE THRILLING SUCCESS SMART WEIRD FACTORY MEMBER OF THE FAMILY LINE, QUEUE NAIVE

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EM INGLS INGENUITY INJURY INTEND INTOXICATION INTRODUCE JOURNAL LARGE LECTURE LEGEND LIBRARY LUNCH LUXURY MAGAZINE MANAGE MAYOR MOISTURE NOTICE NOVEL OFFICE ORDINARY ORE PARENTS PARTICULAR PASTA POLICY PORT PORTER PREJUDICE PRESCRIBE PRETEND PREVENT PROCURE PROPAGANDA PROPER PULL PUSH REALIZE RECORD REPORT REQUIREMENT RESPITE RESUME RSUM RETIRE SENSIBLE SORT STABLE STRANGER STUPID SUPPORT SYMPATHETIC TENANT TENTATIVE TUTOR UNIQUE USE VEGETABLES

SIGNIFICA EM PORTUGUS ENGENHOSIDADE FERIMENTO PRETENDER EMBRIAGUEZ APRESENTAR PERIDICO GRANDE PALESTRA LENDA BIBLIOTECA ALMOO LUXO REVISTA ADMINISTRAR, CONSEGUIR PREFEITO UMIDADE PERCEBER ROMANCE ESCRITRIO COMUM MINRIO PAIS ESPECFICO MASSA POLTICA, NORMA PORTO CARREGADOR PRECONCEITO RECEITAR FINGIR IMPEDIR CONSEGUIR, ADQUIRIR DIVULGAODE IDIAS APROPRIADO, ADEQUADO PUXAR EMPURRAR PERCEBER GRAVAR, DISCO RELATRIO REQUISITO INTERVALO, PAUSA RECOMEAR CURRCULO APOSENTAR SENSATO ESPCIE, ESCOLHER FIRME, ESTVEL DESCONHECIDO BURRO SUSTENTAR, APOIAR COMPREENSIVO, SOLIDRIO INQUILINO PROVISRIO PROFESSOR PARTICULAR DIFERENTE, SEM IGUAL UTILIZAR, USAR VERDURAS, LEGUMES

MAS PARECE SER INGENUIDADE INJRIA ENTENDER INTOXICAO INTRODUZIR JORNAL LARGO LEITURA LEGENDA LIVRARIA LANCHE LUXRIA MAGAZINE MANEJAR MAIOR MISTURE NOTCIA NOVELA OFICIAL ORDINRIO OURO PARENTES PARTICULAR PASTA POLCIA PORTA PORTEIRO PREJUZO PRESCREVER PRETENDER PREVENIR PROCURAR PROPAGANDA PRPRIO PULAR PUXAR REALIZAR RECORDAR REPRTER REQUERIMENTO RESPEITO RESUMIR RESUMO RETIRAR SENSIVEL SORTE ESTBULO ESTRANGEIRO ESTPIDO SUPORTAR SIMPTICO TENENTE TENTATIVA TUTOR NICO USAR (VESTIR) VEGETAIS

QUE EM INGLS NAIVETY INSULT UNDERSTAND POISONING INSERT NEWSPAPER WIDE READING SUBTITLE BOOKSTORE SNACK LUST DEPARTMENT STORE HANDLE BIGGER MIXTURE NEWS SOAP OPERA OFFICIAL VULGAR GOLD RELATIVES PRIVATE FOLDER, PASTE POLICE DOOR DOORMAN DAMAGE EXPIRE INTEND WARN LOOK FOR ADVERTISEMENT OWN JUMP PULL ACCOMPLISH REMEMBER, RECALL REPORTER REQUEST, PETITION RESPECT SUMMARIZE SUMMARY WITHDRAW SENSITIVE LUCK BARN FOREIGNER RUDE BEAR, STAND, TOLERATE NICE, PLEASANT, FRIENDLY LIEUTENANT ATTEMPT, TRY GUARDIAN THE ONLY ONE WEAR PLANTS

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DOUBLE SENSE WORDS

comum a todas as lnguas a ocorrncia de palavras com significado ou funo gramatical mltiplos. Freqentemente este mltiplo sentido em um idioma no tem correspondente em outro. Quer dizer: os termos nem sempre cobrem as mesmas reas de significado entre diferentes idiomas. Este fenmeno, tambm chamado de polissemia, ocorre com qualquer idioma; assim como o portugus, o ingls tambm tem inmeras palavras de mltiplo significado. , entretanto a ocorrncia do fenmeno na lngua me do aluno que causa maior dificuldade. Partir do geral para o particular sempre mais difcil do que o inverso. Portanto, sempre que diferentes idias representadas pela mesma palavra na lngua me do aluno corresponderem a diferentes palavras na segunda lngua, o mesmo ter dificuldades em expressar-se corretamente. As diferentes palavras do ingls que correspondem aos diferentes significados da palavra do portugus podem eventualmente funcionar como sinnimos, portanto neutralizando o contraste entre os dois idiomas. O objetivo, entretanto, mostrar os contrastes nas ocorrncias mais usuais do vocabulrio ingls moderno.
Ingls Abstract Affiliate Affluent Ambulant Apology Application Apply Argument Arm Bachelor Balance Ball Bar Bat Cancel Capital Case Cell Character China Class Classified Club Coll Collect Compass Confirmed Consistent Content Date Directory Easy Effective Entertain Faculty Figure Fix General Primeiro significado Abstrato Filiar-se Afluente Paciente de Ambulatrio Apologia Aplicao Aplicar Argumento Arma Bacharel Balana Bola Bar Basto de beisebol Cancelar Capital Caso Clula Carter China Classe Classificado Clube Fresco Colecionar Compasso Confirmado Consistente Contente Date Diretoria Fcil Efetivo Entreter Faculdade (mental) Figura Fixar General Segundo significado Resumo Determinar Paternidade Rico Capaz de Caminhar Desculpas Requerimento Inscrever-se Discusso Brao Solteiro Equilbrio Baile, Bala (projtil) Barra Morcego Carimbar Maiscula Estojo Cela Personagem, caractere Porcelana Aula Confidencial Taco de golfe Legal Cobrar, coletar Bssola Inveterado Compatvel Contedo Tmara, Encontro Lista telefnica Em Paz / Confortvel Verdadeiro Receber visitas Corpo Docente Nmero Consertar Geral Ingls Individual Interest Just Legend Letter Match Major Manifest Mark Mass Matter Medicine Move Observe Official Oil Operator Order Park Period Plant Principal Pupil Race Rare Record Rest Retire Roll Save Scale Sequel Spectacles Spirits Story Subject To Play Turkey Primeiro significado Individual Interesse Justo Legenda Letra Ligar (Relacionar) Major Manifesto Marca Massa Matria Medicina Mover Observar Oficial leo Operador Ordem Parque Perodo Planta Principal Pupila Raa Raro Recorde Resto Retirar Rolo Salvar Escala Sequela Espetculos Espritos Estria Sujeito Jogar/ Brincar Turquia Segundo significado Indivduo Juros Apenas Lenda Carta Partida (Jogo) Principal bvio Nota Missa Assunto Remdio Mudar Celebrar Autoridade Petrleo Telefonista Pedido Estacionar Menstruao Fbrica Diretor da escola Aluno Corrida Mal passado (carne) Gravar Descansar Aposentar Lista Economizar Balana Sequencia culos Bebida alcolica Pavimento, andar Assunto Tocar / Imitar Peru

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Complete the chart using the information from the texts below:
1. Czechoslovakias minister of Finance, Vaclav Klaus, an advocate of free-market economic reforms, has emerged as his countrys fastest-rising politician. At a recent congress of the Civic Forum, the the coalition that toppled the Communist regime, Klaus was elected chairman, overwhelming the candidate supported by President Vaclav Havel. Last week in Prague, Klaus, 49, talked with NewsWeeks Andrew Nagorski about the Significance of his upset victory. 2. Last week Mexican poet and essayist Octavio Paz, 76, was awarded this years Nobel Prize in Literature. A day after the announcement, Paz met with Newsweeks Sarah Crichton in New York. 3. Chilean novelist Isabel Allende, 48, a niece of the late President Salvador Allende, is one of the most celebrated authors writing in Spanish. While visiting Rome to promote the release of her latest book, Stories of Eva Luna, she talked to Newsweeks Anne Whaley. 4. Jean-Luc Godard, 60, is widely considered one of the worlds great film directors. A founder of the French New Wave film movement, along with Franois Truffaut and Eric Rohmer, Godard has directed such modern classics as Contempt Starring Brigitte Bardot and others. His latest film, New Wave features Alain Delon. Recently, Godard spoke with Newsweeks Benjamin Iury at at his office in Rolle, Switzerland.

Name Isabel Allende

Age 76

Nationality

Occupation

Czech Film Director

PREDICTION EXERCISE
a.
Suponhamos que voc acaba de receber um carto-postal de um amigo que est viajando. O carto pegou chuva e algumas palavras desapareceram. Tente descobrir que palavra foi apagada em cada lacuna atravs da previsibilidade fornecida pelo contexto.

Querido__________________, A viagem est sendo _______________ . Tenho____ divertido bastante por aqui. H muitas ___________ para fazer durante a noite: vrios bares, restaurantes, cinemas e teatros e ___________ variedade de shows. A cidade _________ bonita, com uma geografia encantadora. Ontem _____ao Po de Acar com meus primos. A subida do bondinho d um ______na barriga, mas vale a pena vencer o medo. A _________ l do alto do morro fantstica! Espero ____ tudo esteja bem com vocs. Volto _____ uma semana. Um grande abrao e at a __________.

b. c. d.

Como voc descobriu as palavras que faltavam? Apesar de o nome da cidade visitada pelo seu amigo no estar mencionada no carto, ela pode ser facilmente reconhecida. Que meios voc utilizou para a deduo? De que modo seu conhecimento de mundo pode ajud-lo a fazer inferncias? Quais os diferentes tipos de texto que voc conhece? Que estratgias voc utiliza para deduzir o assunto de um texto nas seguintes situaes: Voc encontra um grupo de amigos conversando e descobre que perdeu metade da conversa. Voc liga a televiso e ouve a notcia que lhe interessa pela metade. Voc chega atrasado ao cinema e perde os primeiros minutos do filme.

e. f. g.

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Leia os segmentos abaixo e selecione todas as palavras que se paream com o Portugus e aquelas que so usadas da mesma forma tanto na Lngua Inglesa como na Lngua Portuguesa. a. Computers are electronic machines that process information. They can perform complex operations in a fraction of time. But, they cant think. Computers are divided into two parts: hardware and software. Hardware refers to the actual equipment and software refers to the programs that control and coordinate the activities of the computer. The CPU is the part of a computer that executes the arithmetic and logic operations. It controls all the computer activities. Memory is the storage area where a computer saves or retrieve data. It is expressed as quantities of K. For example, each K is equal to 1,024 bytes and each byte is equal to 8 bits. A mouse is a device that has a ball underneath. It is used to point the cursor at different parts of the screen or at specials symbols called icons. There are many different high-level languages. Each one has its advantage or disadvantage. COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN, ALGOL and PASCAL are examples of high-level languages. Data put into a computer is INPUT. The input is processed according to the program that is being used. The results of processing are called OUTPUT. Film transparent de qualit suprieure. Faites de votre imprimante couleur HP Deskjet une machine fabriquer ls transparents pour rtroprojecteur. (Hewlett Packard)

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

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h.

Leia os segmentos abaixo, utilizando os cognatos e familiares identifique o assunto abordado em cada:
1) One of the most impressive sights in Paris, this construction was built in the second half of the 19th century as an ornament, presumably to show the possibilities of steel, and to allow Parisians to see their own city from above. Now a major tourist attraction for visitors from all over the world and a site for TV and radio transmissions. It is linked in the worlds mind with the image of France and Paris. - ____________________________________________. 2) In computer science, a popular pointing input device, used mostly for playing computer games but used for other tasks as well. It usually has a square or rectangular plastic base to which is attached a vertical stem. Control buttons are located on the base and sometimes on top of the stem. The stem can be moved to control the movement of an object on the screen. - ____________________________________________. 3) A computer peripheral that puts text or image on paper or on another medium, such as a transparency. They can be categorized in any of several ways. The most common distinction is impact x, non impact. Impact physically strike the paper and are exemplified by dot-matrix; non impact include every other type of print mechanism including laser, ink-jet and thermal. - ____________________________________________. 4) Alcoholic drink produced originally in Scotland, Ireland and USA, by fermenting certain cereal grains and then distilling to produce a light-colored liquid containing about 40% alcohol. It is drunk with or without ice, soda or according to taste. - ____________________________________________. 5) A common pointing device. Its basic features are a casing with a flat bottom, designed to be gripped by one hand; one or more buttons on the top; a ball on the bottom; and a cable connecting it to the computer. By moving it on a surface, the user typically controls a cursor. To select items or choose commands on the screen, the user presses one of the buttons, producing a click. - ____________________________________________.

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FALSE COGNATES EXERCISE A DAY AT WORK


In the morning I attended a meeting between management and union representatives. The discussion was very comprehensive, covering topics like working hours, days off, retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an agreement and ready to compromise. The secretary recorded everything in the notes. Eventually, they decided to set a new meeting to sign the final draft of the agreement. Back at the office, a colleague of mine asked me if I had realized that the proposed agreement would be partially against the company policy not to accept workers that have already retired. I pretended to be really busy and late for an appointment, and left for the cafeteria. Actually, I didn't want to discuss the matter at that particular moment because there were some strangers in the office. After lunch I attended a lecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax legislation and has a graduate degree in political science. He said his government intends to assist welfare programs and senior citizens, raise funds to improve college education and build a public library, and establish tougher limits on vehicle emissions because he assumes this is what the people expect from the government.
Texto e lista extrados do site www.sk.com.br , autor Ricardo Schtz, 1999

Escreva o verdadeiro significado das palavras em destaque no texto acima

DOUBLE SENSE WORDS EXERCISE


A) Assinale o significado correto das palavras em destaque nas sentenas: 1. I need to cancel your documents. 6. He is the most famous bachelor of the party. ( ) cancelar ( ) carimbar ( ) bacharel ( ) solteiro 2. She is the principal of the school. 7. Do you know the capital (a) of China (b)? ( ) diretora ( ) principal a- ( ) capital ( ) principal 3. His mark was terrible. b- ( ) porcelana ( ) China ( ) marca ( ) nota 8. Brasilia is the capital of Brazil. 4. The operator (a) gave me the wrong number of ( ) capital ( ) maiscula the plant (b). 9. I use capital letter to write my name. a- ( ) operador ( ) telefonista ( ) capital ( )maiscula b- ( ) planta ( ) fbrica I appreciate Chinese china. 5. We are lost. We need a compass now. ( ) porcelana ( ) China ( ) bssola ( ) compasso 10. John collects caps. ( ) coleciona ( ) cobro B) D os respectivos significados das palavras repetidas em cada segmento: 1. a) Mike is not married. He is a bachelor. b) He finished the college last year. Now, he is a bachelor in Biology. 2. We have a directory in order to look for the telephone numbers of the students. This directory is in the directory of the school. 3. The character of this film has a bad character. 4. You have to write the names of the capitals with capital letters.

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CONECTIVOS

ADIO
and : e in addition, furthermore, besides, moreover: alm disso as well as: assim como also: tambm apart from: com exceo de both....and: ambos; tanto como not only ... but also: no apenas...mas tambm

REITERAO
that is: isto in other words: em outras palavras in short, in brief: em resumo i.e. : (do latim) isto that is to say: quer dizer

COMPARAO
like, as: como than: do que

CONTRASTE/CONCESSO/ADVERSATIVA
but: mas however, neverthless: entretanto yet: entretanto, ainda although, even though, though: embora nonetheless, notwithstanding: no obstante despite that, in spite of: apesar de rather than, instead of: em vez de whereas: enquanto

ILUSTRAO
e.g. : (do latim) por exemplo for instance, for example: por exemplo such as: tal como namely: a saber viz: (do latim) quer dizer

CONDIO
if: se unless: se no, a menos que provided that: uma vez que on condition that: desde que as long as: uma vez que subject to: sujeito a wether: se

PROPSITO
in order to: a fim de so as to: de modo que

CONSEQUNCIA/CONCLUSO
therefore: portanto consequently, as a result: consequentemente accordingly: de acordo, adequadamente hence: pois, ento, da thus: assim thereby: assim, desse modo then: ento so: ento, pois finally: finalmente

CAUSA
because: porque due to: devido a as: porque since: uma vez que

DVIDA OU HIPTESE
perhaps, maybe: talvez possibly: possivelmente

ALTERNATIVA
otherwise: por outro lado or: ou or else: ou ento, ou ainda either ... or: ou... ou while, whereas: enquanto

TEMPORAL
when: quando while: enquanto

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GRUPOS NOMINAIS

So grupos de palavras, compostos por duas ou mais palavras que esto relacionadas entre si, sendo que uma a palavra principal; o substantivo (ncleo), e as outras so os modificadores; palavras que caracterizam o substantivo. Electric Energy (Energia Eltrica) Private Investors (Investidores Privados) State Government (Governo Estadual) Observe que nos grupos nominais em Ingls a palavra principal, ou seja, o substantivo (ncleo) sempre a ltima palavra do grupo, ao passo que em portugus ns comeamos o grupo com ela. Assim, temos: United Kingdom (Reino Unido) Parliamentary Vote (Voto Parlamentar) Modern Computer (Computador Moderno) Laser Printer (Impressora Laser) Central Processor (Processador Central) Personal Computer (Computador Pessoal) Os grupos nominais podem ter mais de um modificador: Red Cross Emblem (Emblema da Cruz Vermelha) Vrias siglas so iniciais de Grupo Nominais: VIP = Very Important Person ________________________________ WTC = World Trade Center ________________________________ WHO = World Health Organization ________________________________ NASA = National Air and Space Administration ________________________________ USAF = United States Air Force ________________________________ USA = United States of America ________________________________ FBI = Federal Bureau of Investigation ________________________________

Incredible speed = velocidade incrvel

Hard disk = disco rgido

Input devices = dispositivos de entrada

Confirma-se ento que a ordem dos grupos nominais em Ingls INVERSA ordem em Portugus: Data Processing = Processamento de dados Central Processing Unit = Unidade Central de Processamento

Arithmetic and Logic Operations = Operaes lgicas e aritmticas / Operaes aritmticas e lgicas Electronic machine = Mquina eletrnica

Pense nas seguintes estruturas: Como elas seriam traduzidas para o Portugus?

Car race = ________________________

Race car = ________________________

Pesquise qual o significado das siglas abaixo e as suas respectivas tradues


IMF NATO EEC UNO USA CPU RAM ROM CD ALU ALGOL BASIC COBOL CRT DDD DOS IBM I/O Devices MVS PC HTML WWW

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FORMAO DE PALAVRAS
Algumas palavras que aparecem nos textos demandam um pouco mais de ateno para inferi-las e reconhec-las durante a leitura. So as chamadas palavras derivadas, ou seja, palavras que apresentam componentes denominados genericamente de afixos que podem ser prefixos ou sufixos. O conhecimento da formao das palavras muito til, sem dvida, para sua compreenso. Isto significa que necessrio reconhecer os afixos mais comumente usados na lngua que se que aprender e, naturalmente, seu significado. Sufixos e prefixos podem ser acrescentados s palavras dando-lhes novos significados e, quase sempre, alternando sua classe gramatical. Portanto, ateno: habitue-se a descobrir ou reconhecer o significado de palavras e expresses atravs de prefixos e sufixos, da nova posio que ocupam na frase, como tambm na alterao da classe gramatical. A fim de facilitar sua identificao, colocamos a seguir uma lista com os afixos mais usados na lngua inglesa.

Prefixao o prefixo muda o significado da palavra primitiva, mas no muda a classe gramatical.
a (sem) anti (contra) dis (oposto) il, ir, im, in (no) mis (errado) non (no) un (no) over (excesso, alm) pre (antes) Mini, micro Macro, mega Inter (entre) Amoral Anti-clockwise Disagree Illegal Misunderstand Nonsense Unmagnetized Overdose Premarital Minicomputer Macroeconomics Interface apolitical anti-nuclear dishonest irregular misdirect non-fiction uncommon overeat prefix Microcomputer Megabyte Interactive prehistory asexual Antichrist disloyal imperfect /incomplete misaddress non-programable unprofessional

Sufixao o sufixo pode mudar a classe gramatical da palavra sem mudar-lhe o sentido primitivo.
Formao de verbos:
- en - ify - ize Freshen Simplify Centralize Logically Downward comparably homeward blacken solidify modernize Yearly Inward computerize annually Harden

Formao de advrbios
- ly (mente) - ward (em direo)

Formao de substantivos:
- ance / ence - or - er - ee - ist - ion - ment - ity - ism - ness - dom - hood - ship Tolerance Operator Trainer Trainee Economist Education Investment Sincerity Modernism Happiness Freedom Childhood Friendship Preference Accumulator Employer Employee Scientist Collision development Generosity Buddhism Darkness Kingdom Brotherhood Partnership relationship Magnetism Dentist Compilation programmer Performance

Formao de adjetivos:
- able, ible - an, ian - ful -y - ic - ical/al - less Programmable American Powerful Tasty Poetic Sociological Homeless Admirable Sagitarian Hopeful Healthy Democratic Magical Childless Wireless Divisible suburban wonderful/beautiful

e.g. Comfort(Substantivo)Conforto; Uncomfort(Substantivo)Desconforto; Confortable(Adjetivo)Confortvel

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OS USOS DO ING
Palavras cuja formao composta por ING podem apresentar diferentes classes gramaticais: Learning pode significar aprendendo; aprender; aprendizagem, dependendo de como apresentada na sentena. Gerndio (aps o verbo to be) They are learning how to get more information. (Eles esto aprendendo como conseguir mais informaes.) Verbo (aps preposies) This is a way of learning about management. (Esta uma maneira de aprender sobre gerenciamento.) Adjetivo (parte de um grupo nominal) This is part of the learning process. (Isto parte do processo de aprendizagem.) Substantivo Learning is essencial to life. (Aprendizagem essencial vida.) Classifique em cada frase as palavras formadas por ING como: substantivo, gerndio, adjetivo ou verbo infinitivo a. They are learning Computer Science. b. Teleprocessing is the use of a telecommunication system by a computer. c. The calculating machine was invented many years ago. d. The recording surface of a disk has concentric circles called tracks. e. He works 10 hours without stopping. f. The printer is printing documents. g. I prefer typing to writing.

PRONOMES RELATIVOS Who is for people (not things)


A Programmer is a person who writes programs. The man who phoned will call you later again. I know everybody who work in my company.

Which is for things (not people)


This is the printer which you asked me. I dont have the CD-Rom which you need. Is this the new computer which you bought?

Who/That (Para pessoas) e.g. He is the system analyst who/that prepares instructions. Which/ That (Para coisas) e.g.This is the manual which/that you need

That is for things or people:


I know everybody that work in my company. (You can use that for people, but who is more usual) This is the printer that you asked me. Complete com who ou which: a. I met a woman who can speak six languages. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Whats the name of the man ________ lives next door? Whats the name of the river ________ flows through the town? Where is the picture ________ was hanging on the wall? Do you know anybody _______ wants to buy a car? You always ask questions _______ are difficult to answer. I have a friend _________ is very good at repairing cars. I think everybody ________ went to the party enjoyed it a lot.

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MARCADORES DE SUBSTANTIVOS

Substantivo a palavra que designa pessoa, lugar, objeto, evento, substncia. possvel localiza-la no texto prestando ateno em certas palavras que acompanham os substantivos. Empregam-se geralmente antes de substantivos:

Artigos
Definido: THE = o, a, os, as Indefinido: A, AN = um, uma

Pronomes Possessivos adjetivos


My Your His Her Its Our Their Meu, minha, meus, minhas seu, sua, seus, suas dele (para pessoa) dela (para pessoa) dele, dela (para coisas ou animais nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas deles, delas

Numerais Cardinais:
One, two, three, etc.

Pronomes Demonstrativos:
This These That Those este, esta, isto estes, estas esse, essa, isso, aquele, aquela, aquilo esses, essas, aqueles, aquelas

Quantidades
Many (a) few much (a) little some any every a lot of muitos, muitas poucos, poucas muito, muita pouco, pouca algum, alguns, alguma, algumas qualquer, quaisquer todo, toda, todos, todas, cada muito (a), muitos (as)

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REFERNCIA CONTEXTUAL

A referncia contextual tambm representa um recurso auxiliar na compreenso das idias de um texto. As chamadas palavras de referncia substituem palavras que esto no texto (ou fora dele) e podem classificar-se da seguinte maneira: pronomes (pessoais, possessivos, demonstrativos, relativos e indefinidos); numerais ordinais; palavras que indicam ordem e exemplificao. Quando queremos nos referir a alguma coisa (ou idia) que j foi mencionada, ou ainda vai ser mencionada numa determinada sentena, geralmente utilizamos recursos lingsticos para no tornar a sentena repetitiva. The magazine which is on the desk is old. (A revista que est sobre a mesa velha.) Paul and Sue are good friends. They always help us. (Paul and Sue so bons amigos. Eles sempre nos ajudam.) John works in my office.We like him very much. (John trabalha em meu escritrio. Ns gostamos muito dele.) Pode-se observar que podemos nos referir a uma idia anterior ou posterior utilizando diferentes PRONOMES;
Subject Pronouns I You He She It We You They Subject Pronouns I know Ann You know Ann He knows Ann She knows Ann We know Ann They know Ann Object Pronouns Me You Him Her It Us You Them Object Pronouns Ann knows me Ann knows you Ann knows him Ann knows her Ann knows us Ann knows them Possessive My Your His Her Its Our Your Their Possessive Its my money Its your money Its his money Its her money Its our money Its their money Adjectives Possessive Mine Yours His Hers Its Ours Yours Theirs Adjectives Possessive Its mine Its yours Its his Its hers Its ours Its theirs

A. Finish the sentences with mine / yours / ours / theirs / hers / his: 1. Its your money. Its 5. Its their house. Its 2. Its my bag. Its 6. Theyre your books. Theyre 3. Its our car. Its 7. Theyre my glasses. Theyre 4. Theyre her shoes. Theyre 8. Its his coat. Its B. Classifique os pronomes grifados e indique as respectivas palavras a que eles se referem: 1. Most people are happy in their jobs. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Mr. Baker lives in London. His son lives in Australia. Where are the tickets? I cant find them. We are going out. You can come with us. Margaret likes music. She plays the piano. Ann is going out with her friends tonight. I like tennis. It is my favorite sport. I am talking to you. Please, listen to me.

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CASO POSSESSIVO/GENITIVO

Caso possessivo ou genitivo caracterizado quando o substantivo/possuidor designa um ser vivo (pessoa ou animal) as expresses possessivas so formadas do seguinte modo: a) Acrescentando-se s ao substantivo/possuidor, quando ele estiver no singular. The body of the man. The mans body. (O corpo do homem) b) Acrescentando-se s tambm no caso em que o substantivo/possuidor estiver no plural mas no terminar em s. The family of the children. The childrens family. (A famlia das crianas) c) Acrescentando-se apenas um apstrofo ao substantivo/ possuidor, quando ele estiver no plural terminado em s. The school of the girls. The girls school. (A escola das garotas) Quando o substantivo/ possuidor designa um ser inanimado, usa a expresso feita com da preposio of : The door of the car, the trees of the garden, etc. No entanto, a expresso com s pode ser usada (assim como of) quando o substantivo/ possuidor tiver um sentido nobre, caso principalmente dos nomes geogrficos, como a Terra, o Sol, o mar, nomes de pases, cidades, etc. The population of the world = The worlds population Geralmente usamos -s para pessoas: Marys computer O computador da Mary. / Marys personal computer O PC da Mary. Johns laser printer A impressora do John. / The managers equipment O equipamento do gerente. Friends or Friends : A casa do meu amigo = My friends house. / A casa dos meus amigos = My friends house. Usamos of para coisas, lugares, etc. The high technology of Brazil. Tecnologia de ponta do Brasil. Whats the name of this village? Qual o nome desta vila? Madrid is the Capital of Spain. Madrid a Capital da Espanha. The memory of the computer. (not the computers memory)

Faa a correo da sentena quando necessrio: I stayed at the house of my sister. I stayed at my sisters house What is the name of this village? - Ok Do you like the color of this coat? Do you know the phone number of Bill? The job of my brother is very interesting. Write your name at the top of the page. When is the birthday of your mother? The house of my parents isnt very big. The walls of this house are very thin. The manager of the hotel is on holiday. Passe as sentenas para o Caso Genitivo: The laptop of my sister. The computer of my secretary. The printer of my boss.

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IMPERATIVO
A forma imperativa, utilizada para ordenar ou pedir algo, possui a mesma forma do infinitivo do verbo, sem to. To repair (consertar) Repair the terminal. / Please repair the equipment. / Repair the engine, please.

Para formar o imperativo negativo, coloca-se do not (dont) antes do verbo. To press (pressionar) Dont press this button. / Please dont press the button. / Dont press this button, please

Para sugerir ou convidar algum para uma ao conjunta usa-se antes do infinitivo do verbo, Let us (Lets). Lets load the peripherals. / Lets stop. / Lets go.

VERBOS MODAIS

H uma srie de verbos em ingls que expressam idias gerais. J que o objetivo do ingls instrumental diferente (estratgias de leitura), atenha-se s regras e tradues abaixo, pois elas sero suficientes para nosso propsito. CAN : Usado para dizer que alguma coisa possvel ou que algum tem a habilidade/capacidade para fazer algo. Forma negativa: Can not / Cannot / Cant e.g. Can you swim very fast? No I cant, but I can play chess. COULD : Usado para dizer que algum tinha habilidade geral para fazer alguma coisa. Forma negativa: Could not / Couldnt Usado especialmente com os verbos: ToSee; ToHear; To Smell; To Taste; To Feel; To Remember; To Understand e..g My grandfather could speak five languages. MUST : Usado para expressar necessidade, obrigao, deduo forte, proibio. Forma negativa: Must not / Mustnt e.g. Fish must live in water. (necessidade) Everybody must uphold laws. (obrigao) e.g. He must be your father. (Deduo forte) You mustnt tell anyone what I said. (proibio) MAY/MIGHT : Usados para dizer que alguma coisa possvel ou seja, com 50% de certeza. Tambm usamos para pedir permisso (de algo incerto, com baixa probabilidade ou mais formal). No existe diferena importante entre MAY e MIGHT. Podemos dizer, por exemplo: e.g. Paul may be in his office. / Paul might be in his office. (probabilidade) e.g. May I dance with your girlfriend? No, you may not. (permisso com baixa probabilidade) SHOULD : Geralmente usado quando pedimos ou damos uma opinio sobre alguma coisa. Forma negative: Should not / Shouldnt e.g. I dont think you should work so hard. / e.g. Mike shouldnt drive really. He is too tired.
Relacione as colunas de acordo com a traduo: 1) DRAG ( )INCLUA 2) PRESS ( )MUDE 3) CLICK ( )PRESSIONE 4) CLOSE( )APAGUE 5) MOVE ( )ARRASTE 6) GRAB ( )PUXE 7) SELECT ( )ABRA 8) OPEN ( )CLIQUE 9) PUSH ( )EXECUTE 10) PULL ( )CANCELE 11) DELETE ( )FECHE 12) RUN ( )MOVA 13) INSTALL ( )INSIRA 14) INSERT ( )EMPURRE 15) INCLUDE ( )SELECIONE 16) CHANGE ( )PEGUE 17) CANCEL ( )INSTALE

Traduza as seguintes sentenas para o portugus e Identifique a idia expressada pelos verbos modais em destaque.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. We might have several problems in case inflation rises sharply. They can manufacturer high-tech equipment, but they may have problems to ship it. How much should we purchase from that supplier? A foreign company can encourage its employments to study languages. We mustn`t do this because it`s against the laws. Some terms may be included in such exemptions. She must be in trouble in the traffic because she never comes to work late. People should be in contact with a foreign language more often, otherwise they won`t memorize new vocabulary and structures. 9. Companies should develop equipment, processes and goods that are ecologically clean.

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WHAT IS A BROWSER, AND WHAT BROWSERS ARE AVAILABLE?

A browser is a software program used to access and display pages and files on the web. Browsers require a connection to the Internet (e.g., through a cable modem, a direct Ethernet connection, or a modem). Popular web browsers include the following: Mozilla Firefox, Netscape, Internet Explorer, and Safari Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, and Safari are graphical web browsers that can access text, graphics, sound, and other media. These browsers offer a graphical user interface in which you use a mouse to navigate. Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Netscape are available for both Windows and Macintosh computers; Safari is available only for MacOS X. Firefox is available to Indiana University users in all of the Student Technology Centers (STCs). Netscape and Internet Explorer are available in the Windows STCs; Safari is available in the Macintosh STCs. All are available via IUware at: http://iuware.iu.edu/ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. O que um Browser e para que usado? (Resposta em portugus) De acordo com o texto, quais so os Browsers mais populares? (Resposta em portugus) O que estes browsers oferecem? Para onde o Firefox est disponvel? Para onde o Safari est disponvel? Qual o tipo de texto? Circule todas as palavras cognatas no texto. Relacione todas as palavras familiares do texto e d a traduo.

MOUSE MEMORIES

In 1968 Douglas Engelbart demoed a strange device called a mouse. Last week 1.500 people gathered at Stanford University to honor him. Speakers stressed that Engelbarts contributions went beyond the mouse. His Stanford computer was the second one to hook up to ARPAnet, the Internets predecessor, and he developed the first use of multiple windows. More important, Engelbart strove to enhance human intelligence, thus improving our ability to solve problems. Well click to that.
(Newsweek, December 28, 1998)

1.

O que aconteceu: a) em 1968? b) durante a semana anterior a 28 de dezembro de 1998? Na frase: Well click to that, o termo em destaque passa a idia de: a) discordar b) aprovar c) rejeitar d) aplaudir Verdadeiro ou Falso; Segundo os oradores, o trabalho de Engelbart restringiu-se criao do mouse. (cite a linha do texto em que se encontra essa informao) De onde foi retirado o texto lido? a) de um jornal b) da internet

2.

3.

4.

c) de um livro

d) de uma revista

5.

Faa, em portugus, um breve resumo sobre o texto.

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A HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER: NETWORK

Timesharing, the concept of linking a large numbers of users to a single computer via remote terminals, is developed at MIT in the late 50s and early 60s. 1962: Paul Baran of RAND develops the idea of distributed, packet-switching networks. ARPANET goes online in 1969. Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf develop the basic ideas of the Internet in 1973. In 1974 BBN opens the first public packet-switched network - Telenet. A UUCP link between the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University establishes USENET in 1979. The first MUD is also developed in 1979, at the University of Essex. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol) is established as the standard for ARPANET in 1982. 1987: the number of network hosts breaks 10,000. 1989: the number of hosts breaks 100,000. Tim Berners-Lee develops the World Wide Web. CERN releases the first Web server in 1991. 1992: the number of hosts breaks 1,000,000. The World Wide Web sports a growth rate of 341,634% in service traffic in its third year, 1993. The main U.S. Internet backbone traffic begins routing through commercial providers as NSFNET reverts to a research network in 1994. The Internet 1996 World Exposition is the first World's Fair to be held on the internet. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Quando a ARPANET foi ao ar O que fizeram Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf Escreva um pargrafo informando o assunto tratado no texto O que TCP/IP em ingls? (traduza para o portugus Qual o significado do termo World Wide Web

CAREERS IN THE COMPUTERS FIELD

Computer specialists include System Analysts, Programmers and Operators. Systems Analysts develop methods for computerizing business. They also improve the efficiency of systems in use. Application Programmers write commercial programs to be used by business, science center and home. System Programmers write the complex programs that control the inner working of the computer. Computer operators handle several types of computers. Other people who work in the computer field include Computer Scientists, who conduct research and teach at universities; Hardware Designers and Engineers, who work in areas such as microchip and peripheral equipment design; Information Center Administrators or Data Base Administrators, who manage the information collections of business or data banks.
Excerpted from Comptons Interactive Encyclopedia 1993, 1994.

Agora, escreva em Portugus as especialidades que so mencionadas no texto

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PRINTING CONCEPTS

When users print, the computer completes several steps that involve a set of components including executable files, drivers, device interfaces, and dynamic-link libraries, which work together to create the printed output. Understanding how this process works helps you understand what happens when you print a document and how to solve printing problems. Printing has two parts: printing process and the print components. The two parts make the printing process possible. When printing to an Internet print server, the print server adds to the standard print process by creating an interface for users.

VOCABULARY
To print = imprimir Print = impresso Printer = impressora Set = jogo, conjunto, grupo, To set up = iniciar, instalar, estabelecer-se Drive = unidade de disco Standar = padro Device = dispositivo

1.

Aps a leitura do texto responda as questes a seguir: a. b. c. d. e. Sobre o que trata o texto? Quais so as duas partes da impressora O que estas partes possibilitam? Qual e o conjunto de componentes citados no texto? O que o servidor de impresso adiciona quando imprime para um servidor de impresso de Internet?

2.

Localize as palavras familiares no texto acima e d a traduo.

3.

Circule todas as palavras cognatas.

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REGISTER AND GET AVG FOR FREE


AVG Free Edition - Registration Complete We received your data. In a couple of minutes, depending on the load of our servers, we will send you an email containing your download link. Without this link, you will not be able to successfully download and install AVG Free Edition. After successfully started the download, your unique License Number will be activated and sent to you in another electronic letter. Please make sure that the address confirm@grisoft.com is added to your accepted e-mail address list. In the meantime, you might be interested in the FAQ (frequently asked question) list or the online Documentation, both of them can be found in the "I need help" subsection. Are you looking for more features, functionality and flexibility than AVG FREE offers? Buy AVG Professional.

We have received the VB100% in the test of Virus Bulletin in June 2004 on Windows XP platform. 100% detection rate of AVG Anti-Virus System is continuously certified by independent ICSA laboratories.
(www.avg.com)

Grife todas as palavras cognatas encontradas no texto, circule as familiares e responda: 1) Sobre o que trata o texto? 2) Qual o produto em questo? 3) Aps baixar o arquivo com sucesso, o que acontecer com seu Nmero de Licena? 4) Qual produto oferecido caso voc esteja procurando mais caractersticas, funcionalidade e flexibilidade? 5) Quando a empresa recebeu o Boletim de Vrus? 6) Em qual programa o Boletim foi recebido? 7) Qual o percentual do padro de deteco do Sistema anti-vrus

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WHATS AN ALGORITHM?

An algorithm is a sequence of instructions that tells how to solve a particular problem. Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to select the best method for solving it. If the problem is a familiar one, standardized algorithms may be available from program libraries. But if standard algorithms are not available or suitable, a new algorithm must be written and then added to the program library. An algorithm must be specified exactly, so there can be no doubt about what to do next, and it must have a finite number of steps. A computer program is an algorithm that is written in a language that a computer can understand, but the same algorithm could be written in several different languages.

Observe a sentena: Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to select the best method for solving it. 1) A classificao da palavra solving : a) substantivo (soluo) b) gerndio (resolvendo) c) particpio (resolvido) d) verbo/infinitivo (resolver) 2) O pronome it (ltima palavra) refere-se a: a) problem b) identified c) select d) method 3) Observando o uso do verbo modal must a traduo apropriada da sentena it must have a finite number of steps, : a) ele (algoritmo) poderia ter um nmero finito de passos. b) ele (algoritmo) no precisa ter um nmero finito de passos. c) ele (algoritmo) deve ter um nmero finito de passos. d) ele (algoritmo) no pode ter um nmero finito de passos. e) ele (algoritmo) talvez tenha um nmero finito de passos.

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MAINFRAME, MINICOMPUTER AND MICROCOMPUTER


A mainframe is a large computer system comprised of a large central processing unit, separate memory banks, multiple data-storage devices and peripherals. It is found in computer installations which process immense amounts of data. This powerful machine has a larger repertoire of more complex instructions which can be executed more quickly. A minicomputer is much smaller than the mainframe computer. It was developed to perform limited functions in scientific environments with less computing capacity. It became possible to reduce the size of the computer with the replacement of vacuum tubes by transistors and the development of multicircuit `chips. A microcomputer is the smallest of the three sizes of computers. The central processor of a micro, called the microprocessor, is built as a single semiconductor device, that is, the elements necessary to perform all the logical and arithmetic functions are manufactured as a single chip. The microprocessor literally contains a computer on a chip that can pass through the eye of a needle.

Complete as sentences com mainframe / minicomputer / microcomputer:


a) b) c) d) e) _________________________ is the smallest of all. _________________________ has less computing capacity. _________________________ performs limited functions. _________________________ is a large computer system. _________________________ executes instructions more quickly.

Retire do texto dois pronomes relativos e indique as respectivas palavras a que se referem:
a) ______________ -- ________________________ b) ______________ -- ________________________

Assinale a alternativa em que h um Grupo Nominal:


a) b) c) d) e) executed more quickly multiple data-storage devices perform limited tubes by transistors called the microprocessor

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MAGNETIC TAPE AND MAGNETIC DISK

Magnetic tape it is one of the principal input/output recording media used with computers and is mainly used for storing
intermediate results of computations and for compact storing of large amounts of data, in an ordered sequence. It is much cheaper to store information on tape than in the computer main memory or on a disk memory device, but it takes longer to locate a particular data item if it is stored on tape: data must be stored and accessed sequentially. Magnetic disk it consists of a series of concentric paths or tracks each capable of storing data in magnetically coded form. It looks like a phonograph record and a series of disks is mounted on a vertical shaft. One or more access arms move into the disk to read or write the data stored on it. Disks may be hard (made out of aluminum) or floppy (made out of plastic). Disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit or they may be made up as removable disk packs. Disks may be made even more efficient by using laser beam to read and write data.

Qual a definio, conforme o texto, de Disco Magntico?

Quais so os dois principais usos das Fitas Magnticas?

Indique a ordem em que essas idias ocorrem no texto: Magnetic Disk


( ) disks may be hard or floppy. ( ) disks may be more efficient. (1 ) disks consists of a series of concentric paths. ( ) disks may be made up as removable disk packs. ( ) disks may be mounted on a vertical shaft. ( ) disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit.

Indique se as afirmaes so verdadeiras (V) ou falsas (F):


a) Magnetic tape is the only way for inputting data. b) It is used for storing data sequentially. c) It is much cheaper to store data on disks. d) It takes longer to locate data stored on tapes. e) Data on tape is stored in an ordered sequence. ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) )

Indique os dois erros do Presente Simples com crculos e d as formas verbais corretas:
Some mail systems uses a large disk space, but they doesnt determine any amount before its use.

Destaque das frases abaixo, os verbos na Voz Passiva:


Disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit and they may be made up as removable disk packs.

Circule na sentena a palavra que se encontra no Comparativo e d o seu significado em Portugus:


It is much cheaper to store information on tapes than in the computer main memory

Observe o segmento abaixo:


Magnetic Tape is mainly used for storing(1) intermediate results of computations and for compact storing(2) of large amounts of data. A palavra storing (1) significa: A palavra storing (2) significa: a) armazenar a) armazenar b) armazenando b) armazenando c) armazenamento c) armazenamento d) armazenado d) armazenado

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WHATS A COMPUTER?

1 Nowadays, in most modern societies, almost everybody has an idea about what a computer is. We depend on computers in every aspect of our lives whether we know how to use one or not. But does everyone really know how a computer works inside? A computer is an electronic machine which processes data and provides the results of the processing as 5 information. There are three basic steps in the computing process. The first one is input, which consists of feeding data into the computers memory. Then comes the processing: the program is run and the computer processes the data by performing a set of instructions. The third and final step is the output furnished by the computer, which allows the user to see the results either in printed from or on the screen. 10 The world of computers has created a specific language of its own. English words such as software and hardware are used worldwide and have been borrowed by many different languages. Software is information in the form of data and programs, and hardware refers to the electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system. Despite the constant presence of computers in most modern societies, it is a great mistake to believe 15 that everybody in the world is computer-literate, i.e., is familiar with computers and knows how to use them properly. In some contemporary societies, many people still have no idea about the existence of computers, and even in the so-called developed countries, there are lots of people who do not know or do not care about what a computer is.

Procure no texto as seguintes informaes. Nos espaos em branco, escreva os nmeros das linhas em que elas se encontram: 1) ________ O computador processa dados e fornece os resultados em forma de informao. 2) ________ um erro acreditar que todo mundo hoje em dia saiba usar o computador. 3) ________ O processo de computao envolve trs etapas bsicas. 4) ________ O mundo da computao criou uma linguagem prpria. 5) ________ Hoje em dia quase todo mundo tem uma idia do que seja um computador. 6) ________ Algumas dessas palavras vm sendo usadas pelo mundo afora, tomadas emprestadas por outras lnguas. 7) ________ Algumas sociedades contemporneas desconhecem o computador. 8) ________ A etapa final permite ao usurio ver os resultados do processamento. 9) ________ Mesmo nos pases ditos desenvolvidos, h pessoas que no sabem o que um computador e no se importam em saber. O autor conclui o texto afirmando que algumas sociedades contemporneas e muitas pessoas dos pases desenvolvidos desconhecem o computador ou no ligam para ele, sem dar exemplos. Em sua opinio, quais seriam essas sociedades e essas pessoas? Escreva na primeira coluna os nmeros correspondentes s palavras definidas na segunda. a) ________ computer b) ________ input c) ________ processing d) ________ output e) ________ screen f) ________ software g) ________ hardware h) ________ data 1) Data fed into the computers memory. 2) Information. 3) Machine that processes data. 4) Electronic and mechanical parts of a computer. 5) Device that shows the results of the processing. 6) The results shown on the screen or in printed form. 7) Programs. 8) Series of actions that a computer performs to arrive at a

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SOFTWARE

SOFTWARE (Computer), computer program; instructions that cause the hardware (machine) to do work. Software can be divided into a number of categories based on the types of work done by programs. The two primary software categories are operating system which control the workings of the computer, and application software which addresses the multitude of tasks for which people use computers. Operating System includes programming languages and utility programs. Application Software includes software that executes accounting, word processing, data management, communications and graphics. Two additional categories are network software which enable groups of computers to communicate and language software which provide programmers the tools they need to write programs. See also OPERATING SYSTEM; PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE.
Excerpted from Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia 1993-1995 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Complete o diagrama com informaes retiradas do texto:

SOFTWARE
CATEGORIAS

SISTEMA
OPERACIONAL

SOFTWARE DE
LINGUAGEM

CARACTERSTICAS ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

COMUNICAO

________________

_____________

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SOFTWARE PIRACY

Software piracy is the unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted computer software. The most common forms include copying for personal use, for use among employees of a company, and for resale. The latter includes manufacturing of counterfeit packages that pretend to be originals. Piracy is the most widespread computer crime. The Software Publishers Association (SPA), the principal trade group of the personal computing software industry, estimated that in 1994 the industry lost $8.08 billion worldwide due to illegal copying of operating systems, education, entertainment, or personal productivity software.
Excerpted from The 1996 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. 1995 Grolier Incorporated. All rights reserved.

1. Quais foram todos os tipos de pirataria mencionados no texto?

2. De acordo com o texto, a pirataria considerada um crime? Retire do texto a sentena que afirma ou nega isso?

3) O que a SPA? O que esta sigla significa?

4) Observe a palavra grifada: The latter includes the manufacturing of counterfeit packages that pretend to be originals. Ela um cognato ou um falso-cognato? Qual o seu real significado?

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VIRTUAL REALITY

Researchers in computer imaging technology are developing systems by which users can experience a simulated three-dimensional reality (3D). This simulated reality is known as virtual reality (VR). Sometimes the term cyberspace is used as synonym with VR. Since the 1970s, technologists have learned how to produce animated computer images of objects that exhibit colors, textures and special changings. The images can also be subjected to changing light conditions and to simulated effects of gravity and other forces. The results can look as real as actual motion pictures. The further aim of technologists is to make it for person t enter and actually manipulate VR. This is being achieved by having an observer who wears a headgear through which computer images are displayed on small screens in front of the eyes. At the same time, gloves that are equipped with sensors are transmitting apparent changes of body orientation in VR. A simpler form of these VR techniques is seen in the flight simulators used for training pilots.
Adapted from: Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc., 1996

1) O que os pesquisadores da rea de tecnologia de imagem computacional esto desenvolvendo?

2) O que Realidade Virtual? Qual a sua sigla (em Ingls)?

3) D um sinnimo de Virtual Reality?

4) Quando iniciaram-se as pesquisas com VR? Como eram feitas?

5) O que pretendiam as pesquisas posteriores?

6) Encontre no texto as palavras ou expresses que se referem s seguintes definies: a. People who work in technology area: b. Three-dimensional reality: c. Another name for monitor or display: 7) Classifique os INGs encontrados no texto em gerndio, substantivo ou verbo: a. Researchers in computer imaging technology are developing systems b. images of objects that exhibit colors, textures and special changings c. This is being achieved by having an observer who d. gloves that are equipped with sensors are transmitting changes e. flight simulators used for training pilots.

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INTERNET

Internet started in 1969, in a military project in which 21 computers were linked. This means that a person in one oh those computers could read the files of any other computer in the same network. This project was called ARPANET. During the 70s and 80s, computer technology developed vary fast. Networks were developed, like the ARPANET.You will do everything through Internet: shopping, electronic forums, debates etc. The Internet will be the necessary basis for our everyday life. (Adapted from Sun, Amos)

1) O que o texto afirma sobre a Internet? Escolha apenas uma alternativa correta e traduza na linha abaixo. a) b) c) d) e) will be a military reality in the future will be important for everyone is made of 21 computers can be used to develop technology very fast teachers computer skills

2) Explique o que ARPANET. Resposta em portugus.

3) De acordo com o texto a frase computers were linked pode ser traduzida como: a) b) c) d) e) computadores esto ligados computadores eram desligados computadores no eram conectados computadores esto conectados computadores estavam conectados

4) Explique o que aconteceu entre os anos 70 e 80?

5) traduza a frase: a person in one of those computers could read the files of any other computer in the same network.

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JAVA

Who is the champion in the world about plataforms! If you said windows, youre wrong. The champion in technology is Java. It was created by sun to work in receptors of cable TV, adapted for Internet and later to PDA s, cell phones and similars. Java is a program language. Softwares that are writen in this language can be executed in any dispositive, since it has the operational system. This independence is possible due to the fact that this technology is based in a complex software that permits to execute any order. The name arose from a conversation among programmers in a coffee shop Java is one kind of coffee from Java island. From the name, others have arisen at the same time: Java beans Hot Java- only to exemplify. The stylistic cup is the famous reference. And there is one thing that only programmers know. The first four bytes of any file class are in hexadecimal, OXCAFEBABE. Finally, about micro Edition, we have Java me, more known as Jame.
Java logo (created by sun) (adapted from Internet Magazine, by Niuza Barone Peres, June, 2006)

1. Who is the champion in technology?

2. What is Java?

3. Como surgiu a marca e aonde?

4. Em que esta tecnologia baseada?

5. Circule os Cognatos e relacione as familiares encontradas no texto.

6. Qual empresa criou a tecnologia mencionada no texto?

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PUZZLE
Existem dezessete palavras no quadro abaixo. Encontre-as e indique a traduo de cada uma delas, relacionando as colunas (as que no souber deixe em branco). Comece localizando os cognatos. E N G I N E N T R I E S V M O A O P R I C E C A R R I E S E T T D E V E L O P E D A R R N O E D B M E W S P M K D Y T V P L U T A R M D A G V E M O I E A X T B V A A C P F V U H R R R C O M P U T E R O I C A O F R F S V C U A A O R C H N N O Q D T I E U E C G E E S D M R B R O D S S S M R I S E L E M A T R R A L F E A T U R E D T R B E A D S S D M N G U N I T O O T H E D W H E E L S T G I Y T M A R E S O U R C E S I S I N C E T H E N M L O I F T

VOCABULARY
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) COMPUTER DATA FEATURE TO STORE TO PERFORM BEADS RODS DEVICES TOOTHED WHEELS TO HANDLE CARRIES DIGIT ENGINE PROGRAM SINCE THEN DEVELOPED ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) rodas dentadas; engrenagens ) contas (pequenas bolas com orifcio ) caractersticas; trao ) dados ) muito; bastante ) mquina; motor; mecanismo ) computador ) guardar; armazenar ) desenvolvido ) dgito; qualquer numeral de 0 a 9 ) manipular; lidar com ) desempenhar ) varetas; hastes ) desde essa poca ) programa (srie de instrues) ) transportes; transferncias ) dispositivos

17) VERY MUCH

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PESQUISA DE VOCABULRIO

DISK DRIVE DISPLAY UNIT FLOPPY DISK HARD COPY - HARDWARE SOFTWARE KEYBOARD MACHINE LANGUAGE MONITOR PRINTER PROGRAM PROGRAMMER SCREEN SOFT COPY STORAGE MIDIA WORK STATION WORD PROCESSING WINCHESTER

1.

The part of a computer system that carries the instructions and programs; the opposite of hardware: ______________________.

2.

All the physical part of a computer such as monitor, CPU, drives, keyboard, printer, the opposite of software: ______________________.

3. 4.

Language that programmers use to give the computer its basic instructions: ________________________. A step-by-step series of instructions that tells the computer how to perform a task:

________________________. 5. 6. 7. The object that prints out the paper copies of documents: ________________________. It is an input device similar to a typewriter: _________________________. It is similar to a TV and displays information: _______________________________,

__________________________ or ___________________________. 8. 9. Consist of monitors, keyboards and printer divided by two or more people: ________________________. Collective term for hard disk, floopy disk, tapes, cards on which computers store information: _________________________. 10. A thin flexible disk that stores data magnetically: ______________________________. 11. Storage midia located into the CPU: _____________________or _________________. 12. A person who writes the software programs: ____________________________. 13. An automated means of creating and editing texts: _____________________________. 14. Refers to printed copies on paper: ____________________________. 15. The information that appears on the screen before it is printed out: ________________. 16. The place where you insert the floopy disk or CD-ROM: ________________________.

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USO DO DICIONRIO O dicionrio uma fonte de muitos tipos de informaes sobre palavras.
COMPUTER (KAMPJULTER): An electronic machine that can be supplied with a program.
Voc pode notar que podemos encontrar: A representao fontica das palavras; Abreviaturas; Significado das palavras; Classe gramatical das palavras. Veja o exemplo seguinte e responda: 1. Qual a representao fontica da palavra look? 2. Quantos significados ela pode ter como substantivo? E como verbo? 3. Qual a primeira expresso mencionada? 4. Qual o significado de to look for?

Look (luk) s. 1. Olhar m., olhadela f. 2. Expresso f. aspecto m// v. 1 Olhar 2. Contemplar, observar. 3. /considerar. 4. Prestar ateno. 5. Ter vista para. 6. Parecer. 7. Inspecionar, examinar Have a ~ at It d uma olhada nisto. It ~s like rain est com aspecto de chuva, ameaa chover. ~ out seja cuidadoso. To ~ after 1. Procurar 2. Cuidar de. To ~ down upon menosprezar. To ~ for 1. Procurar 2. Esperar, antecipar.
Adaptado do dicionrio Ingls/Portugus Michaellis Verbos Quando voc procura um verbo no dicionrio geralmente encontra a base do verbo, por exemplo: look, work, teach. Mas, quando lemos textos encontramos os verbos sob diferentes formas: looking, worked, teaches. Quando o verbo irregular encontramos a seguinte explicao no dicionrio: Fell/fel/ v. passado de fall. Assim, ter que procurar o verbo na sua forma base (fall), para encontrar a definio da palavra. Observe os seguintes exemplos em Portugus e Ingls. Quais as semelhanas na forma de utilizao das palavras no Portugus e no Ingls? 1. Ele apagou as velas. 2. Tenho que limpar as velas do carro. 3. O marinheiro levantou as velas do barco. 4. Eu no vou ao cinema com eles porque detesto segurar vela. claro que o contexto sempre importante para a compreenso das palavras que tm vrios significados diferentes. Em Ingls tambm o contexto muito importante para a interpretao adequada dos vocbulos. The waiter fills their glasses with champagne. He went to the optician for a new pair of glasses. The window is made of glass. I like computers. OS2 operating system is like Ms DOS Voc precisa ter em mente que na leitura de textos tcnicos voc encontrar vrias palavras em ingls que talvez j faam parte de seu vocabulrio, mas que nesse contexto iro adquirir novos significados. Qual a traduo mais adequada para os vocbulos em negrito? 1. I will substitute my computer by a notebook. 2. I need a new notebook for my English classes 3. I need the key to open the door. 4. To enter the program, press any key. 5. I have to save money to by a new car. 6. Dont forget to save the file before turning off the computer. (Atividade adaptada da apostila elaborada pelas professoras Mrcia C. Bonamim e Magali N. de Paula) Abreviaturas mais comuns encontradas nos dicionrios

f. feminino m. masculino m. pl = masculino plural p.p. = particpio passado pl = plural pop. = popular pref. = prefixo prep. = preposio

pret. = pretrito pron. = pronome s. substantivo s.pl = plural sg. = singular sup. = superlativo v. = verbo var. = variante de

Smbolos Comuns: separao da categoria morfolgica ~ substitui a palavra de entrada (ou seja, a palavra que se est consultando) Smbolos fonticos: Formas de pronncia Vogais / Ditongos / Semivogais / Consoantes Sinal que significa acentuao Sinal : que significa prolongao

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REFERNCIAS

MAIN SOURCE. Material de apoio de Ingls instrumental: Tecnologia em redes de comptadores (organized by Adriana Soeiro Pino; Chafia Laszkiew; Silvana Vieira Elias Satyro; Verusca Praciano de Paula; Yara Marisol Contipelli) 2008.

BOECKNER, Keith & BROWN, P. Charles. Oxford English for Computing.Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1996.

CASTLEMAN, R. K. Digital Image Processing. USA: Prentice Hall, 2000.

CRUZ, Dcio Torres & SILVA, Alba Valria & ROSAS, Marta. Ingls.com.textos para informtica. Salvador: O Autor , 2001.

GALANTE, T. P. Ingls para Processamento de Dados. So Paulo: Atlas, 1996.

MARTINS, Elisabeth P. & PASQUALIN, Ernesto & AMOS, Eduardo. Graded English. So Paulo: Moderna,1993.

MUNHOZ, Rosngela. Ingls Instrumental Estratgias de Leitura. Mdulo I. So Paulo: TEXTO NOVO, 2000.

________.Ingls Instrumental Estratgias de Leitura. Mdulo II. So Paulo: TEXTO NOVO, 2001.

Internet: sites diversos

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