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APOSTILA 2015

INGLS / ENGLISH
STUDENT:_____________________________

SUMARY
Diagrama dos verbos e Reviso__________________________________________03
If clauses_____________________________________________________________18
Present Perfect ________________________________________________________19
Prepositions __________________________________________________________22
Past Perfect __________________________________________________________23
Passive voice _________________________________________________________26
Indefinite Pronouns ____________________________________________________31
Relative Pronouns _____________________________________________________33
Modal Verbs _________________________________________________________36
Future Perfect ________________________________________________________39
Tabela de verbos ______________________________________________________41
Reported speech ______________________________________________________ 43

INGLS 3 ANO ENSINO MDIO 2015

DIAGRAM OF ALL TENSES

Legend

moment in time

period of time

Result

Course /
Duration

action that takes place once, never or several times

actions that happen one after another

actions that suddenly take place

action that started before a certain moment and lasts beyond


that moment

actions taking place at the same time

action taking place before a certain moment in time

puts emphasis on the result

action taking place before a certain moment in time

puts emphasis on the course or duration of the action

INGLS 3 ANO ENSINO MDIO 2015

REVISO
1- ADVRBIOS
sobre, a respeito de , em torno de, cerca de, por, devido a.

ABOUT

Exemplos:
They were talking about politics, eles estavam conversando
sobre poltica.
She wore pearls about her neck, ela usava prolas ao redor
do pescoo.
The show began about midnight, o espetculo comeou
cerca de meia-noite.
We have been walking about the town all day, estivemos
andando pela cidade o dia todo.
They quarrel about trifles, eles discutem por minharias.
sobre, por sobre, mais de, acima de, superior a.

ABOVE

Exemplos:
We were flying above the clouds, ns estvamos voando
por sobre as nuvens.
There were above fifty pupils in the classroom, havia mais
de cinqenta alunos na sala de aula.
He is above suspicion, ele est acima de qualquer suspeita.
A major ranks above a captain, o posto de maior
imediatamente superior ao de capito.

de atravs, atravs de, no outro lado de, em contato com.

ACROSS

Exemplos:
We swam across the river, nadamos atravs do rio.
There is a restaurant across the avenue., h um restaurante
no outro lado da avenida.
I came across this book yesterday, encontrei este livro
ontem.

depois de, aps, atrs de, em homenagem a, imitao de,


semelhana de.

AFTER

Exemplos:
They left after dinner, eles partiram aps o jantar.
After a storm comes a calm, aps a tempestade vem a
bonana.
The dog was running after the cat, o co estava correndo
atrs do gato.
He was named Henry after his uncle, deram-lhe o nome de

INGLS 3 ANO ENSINO MDIO 2015

Henrique em homenagem ao tio.


He dances after the Indians, ele dana moda dos
(=imitando os) ndios.
He paints after Rubens, ele pinta imitando Rubens.

contra, em troca de, junto a, em.

AGAINST

Exemplos:
The boat sails against the current, o barco navega contra a
corrente.
They voted against my proposal, eles votaram contra
minha proposta.
We took machinery against coffee, recebemos maquinaria
em troca de caf.
Please, lean the ladder against the wall, por favor, apie a
escada na parede.

ao longo de, por.


ALONG

Exemplos:
The horses galloped at full speed along the road, os cavalos
galoparam a toda a velocidade pela estrada.

entre, no meio de.

AMID, AMIDST

Exemplos:
He was seen amid the throng, ele foi visto no meio da
multido.
They are amidst enemies, eles esto entre inimigos.

entre, no meio de, com.

AMONG,
AMONGST

Exemplos:
We are among(st) friends, estamos entre amigos.
The Christmas gifts were divided among the children, os
presentes de Natal foram divididos entre as crianas.
The one-eyed are kings among the blind, na terra dos cegos
quem tem um olho rei.

ao redor de, perto de, por, de um lugar para outro.


AROUND

Exemplos:
We planted a few trees around the house, plantamos
algumas rvores ao redor da casa.

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There is a shop around the corner, h uma loja junto


esquina (na outra rua).
We travelled around Europe for three months, viajamos
pela Europa trs meses.

em, a (), ao, no, contra, para, de, com.

AT

Exemplos:
He spent a few days at Curitiba, ele passou alguns dias em
Curitiba.
We are at home, estamos em casa.
The china was sold at auction., a loua foi vendida em
leilo.
They'll soon be at liberty, eles em breve estaro em
liberdade.
The car is at our disposal, o carro est a nossa disposio.
He is standing at the door, ele est em p porta.
He was at work when we arrived, ele estava a trabalhar
quando chegamos.
He'll go at midnight, ele ir meia-noite.
He'll come at noon, ele vir ao meio-dia.
The wreckage was at the bottom of the sea, os destroos do
naufrgio estavam no fundo do mar.
He shot at the target, ele atirou no alvo.
He was staying at the "Stevens Hotel", ele estava
hospedado no "Stevens Hotel".
They'll pay at the end of the month, eles pagaro no fim do
ms.
The tiger jumped at him, o tigre saltou contra ele.
The boy pointed at the toy, o menino apontou para o
brinquedo.
I was looking at the picture, eu estava olhando para o
quadro.
We laughed at him, ns nos rimos dele.
The children were mocking at us, as crianas estavam
zombando de ns.
I laughed at his jokes, eu me ri com suas pilhrias.
He is good at this game, ele bom neste jogo.
He was driving his car at 80 mph, ele estava dirigindo o
carro a 80 milhas por hora.
We are selling these articles at a loss, estavamos vendendo
estes artigos com prejuzo.
Dogs bark at strangers, ces latem para os estranhos.
She stared at him, ela o encarou fixamente.
We were surprised at seeing him, ficamos surpresos ao vlo.

INGLS 3 ANO ENSINO MDIO 2015

diante de, em frente de, na frente de, perante, antes de.

BEFORE

Exemplos:
They were sitting before the fireplace, eles estavam
sentados diante da lareira.
The tanks were seen before the infantry, os carros de
combate eram vistos frente da infantaria.
The poor and rich are alike before God, o pobre e o rico
so iguais perante Deus.
The culprit appeared before a court of justice, o ru
compareceu perante um tribunal.
He'll arrive before noon, ele chegar antes do meio-dia.

atrs de, detrs de, em apoio de, depoisi de.

BEHIND

Exemplos:
The broom is behind the door, a vassoura est atrs da
porta.
All his friends are behind him, todos os amigos o apiam.
He came behind his hour, ele veio depoisi da hora.

abaixo de, para baixo de.

BELOW

Exemplos:
The garage is below the ground floor, a garagem est
abaixo do andar trreo.
He is below his schoolfellows, ele est abaixo de seus
colegas.
It is the third shop below the post office, a terceira loja
para baixo (da agncia) do correio.

sob, abaixo de, inferior a.

BENEATH

Exemplos:
There was a bench beneath the tree, havia um banco sob a
rvore.
His conduct is beneath contempt, sua conduta (ou est)
abaixo da crtica.

REVISO

INGLS 3 ANO ENSINO MDIO 2015

2 - PRONOMES POSSESSIVOS

PRONOMES
PESSOAIS
I , eu
thou , tu
he , ele
she , ela
it , ele, ela
we , ns
you , vs
they , eles, elas

PRONOMES
POSSESSIVOS
my, mine , meu, minha, meus, minhas
thy, thine , teu, tua, teus, tuas
his, his , seu, sua, seus, suas (dele)
her, hers , seu sua, seus, suas (dela)
its, its , seu, sua, seus, suas (dele, dela)
our, ours , nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas
your, yours , vosso, vossa, vossos, vossas
their, theirs , seu, sua, seus, suas (dles, delas)

Os possessivos concordam em gnero e nmero com o possuidor e no com a


coisa possuda, como em portugus:

Paul wrote to

Mary wrote to

Paulo escreveu a

seu irmo
sua irm
seus irmos
suas irms

her brother
her sister
Maria escreveu a
her brothers
her sisters

seu irmo
sua irm
seus irmos
suas irms

his brother
his sister
his brothers
his sisters

their brother
their sister
Paulo e Maria escreveram a
their brothers
Paul and Mary wrote to
their sisters

seu irmo
sua irm
seus irmos
suas irms

REVISO
3- PRONOMES DEMONSTRATIVOS

a) Os demonstrativos:
this , este, esta, isto;
these , estes, estas;
that , esse, essa, isso, aquele, aquela, aquilo; e
those , aqueles, aquelas
So usados:

INGLS 3 ANO ENSINO MDIO 2015

I) Como pronomes adjetivos:


This boy is writing, este menino est escrevendo.
That girl is reading, aquela menina est lendo.
These books are mine, estes livros so meus.
Those children are playing, aquelas crianas esto brincando.
II) Como pronomes substantivos;
Who is this? Quem este?
What is this? Que isto?
These are the books he bought, estes so os livros que ele comprou.
Do you agree to that? Voc concorda com isso?
That's not right, isso no est direito.
We talked of this and that, falamos disto e daquilo.
Whose are those? De quem so aqueles?
b) So tambm usados como demonstrativos:
So, isso
Such , tal, tais
The same , o mesmo, a mesma
The one , o, a
The former , aquele(s), aquela(s)
The latter , este(s), esta(s)
Yon, yond, yonder , aquele(s) l, aquela(s) l (ou acol).
Ex.:
He told me so, ele me contou isso.
He himself says so, ele prprio o diz.
He never says such things, ele nunca diz tais coisas.
She is a child will be treated as such, ele uma criana e ser tratda como tal.
He wrote the same words three times, ele escreveu as mesmas palavras trs
vezes.
He would do the same , ele faria o mesmo.
Those are the ones he brought yesterday, queles so os que ele trouxe ontem.
Prof. Smith and Prof. Brown arrived yesterday, the former came from London,
the latter from New York, o Prof. Smith e o Prof. Brown chegaram ontem; aquele veio
de Londres e este, de Nova Iorque.
I see a few trees on yonder hill, vejo algumas rvores naquele monte l.

REVISO

INGLS 3 ANO ENSINO MDIO 2015

4- PRONOMES INDEFINIDOS

a) OS INDEFINIDOS MAIS COMUNS

Any, qualquer, quaisquer, algum, alguns, alguma(s).


Some, algum, alguns, alguma(s), cerca de, cert(s), certa(s).
No, nenhum, nenhuma.
None, nenhum, nenhuma.
Much, muito, muita.
Many, muitos, muitas.
Little, pouco, pouca.
Few, poucos, poucas.
All, todo(s), toda(s), tudo.
One, a gente, certo, um certo, algum, alguma.
Each, cada.
Every, todo(s), toda(s), cada.
Other, outro(s), outra(s).
Another, um outro, uma outra.
Either, um ou outro, uma ou outra, cada.
Neither, nem um(a) nem outro(a), nenhum dos(das) dois(duas).
Both, ambos, ambas.
Enough, bastante.
Several, vrios, vrias.
Anybody, anyone, algum.
Anything, alguma coisa.
Somebody, someone, algum.
Something, alguma coisa.
Nobody, no one, ningum.
Nothing, nada.
Every, everyone, todos (todas as pessoas).
Everything, tudo.
REVISO

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5- VERBOS
Present Continuous tense
Affirmative

Negative

- I am + verb+ing
- I am not + verb+ ing
- You are + verb+ ing
- You am not + verb+ ing
- He is + verb+ ing
- He is not + verb+ ing
- She is + verb+ ing
- She is not + verb+ ing
- It is + verb+ ing
- It is not + verb+ ing
- we are + verb+ ing
- We are not + verb+ ing
- you are + verb+ ing
- You are not + verb+ ing
- they are + verb+ ing
- they are not + verb+ ing
Interrogative
- Am + verb+ ing I ?
- Are + verb+ ing you?
- Is + verb+ ing he?
- Is + verb+ ing she?
- Is + verb+ ing it?
- Are + verb+ ing you?
- Are + verb+ ing they?
Exemplos:
Affirmative
Negative
I am sleeping
I am not helping
You are cooking
He is not cooking
They are visiting
She is not visiting
We are walking
They are not studying
You is playing baseball
We are not fining
Interrogative
Are you reading letter?
Is he a good cooking?
Is she good singer?
Are we tall?
Are they beautiful woman?

Simple past
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Affirmative
- I was
- You were
- He was
- She was
- It were
- We were
- You were
- They were
Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

- I was not
- You were not
- He was not
- She was not
- It were not
- We were not
- You were not
- They were not
Exemplos:

- Was I?
- Were you?
- Was she?
- Was he?
- Was it?
- Were we?
- Were you?
- Were they?
Negative

I was one
I was not a gardener
She was marking reports
My brothers where not a
She was busy the police
plumber
station
Those boys were not painters
It was awful
She was not a nurse
School was out earlier today
She was not a bus driver
Interrogative
When was the girl at the park?
Where were the two friends last Sunday?
Who was at home last night?
When were the girls in Paris?
Who was at school yesterday?

Past Continues tense

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Affirmative
Negative
- I was + verb + ing
- You were + verb +
- I was not + verb + ing
ing
- You were not + verb + ing
- He was + verb + ing
- He was not + verb + ing
- She was + verb + ing
- She was not verb + ing
- It were + verb + ing
- It were not + verb + ing
- We were + verb + ing
- We were not + verb + ing
- You were + verb +
- You were not + verb + ing
ing
- They were not + verb + ing
- They were + verb + ing
Interrogative
- Was + verb + ing I?
- Were + verb + ing you?
- Was + verb + ing she?
- Was + verb + ing he?
- Was + verb + ing it?
- Were + verb + ing we?
- Were + verb + ing you?
- Were + verb + ing they?
Exemplos:
Negative
Affirmative
I was not cooking
He was not dancing
She was not eating
We were not playing basketball
They were not talking on
telephone
Interrogative

I was playing soccer


He was reading a book
They were swimming
He was sleeping
They were helping mom

Was the girl writing yesterday?


Was the boy sleeping?
Were the girls studying?
Was Simon singing at 10 oclock?
Was Sandra teaching Portuguese?

Simple future
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Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

- I Will
- You Will
- He will
- She will
- It will
- We will
- You will
- They will

- Will I?
- Will you?
- Will he?
- Will she?
- Will it?
- Will we?
- Will you?
- Will they?

Affirmative

- I will not
- You will not
- He will not
- She will not
- It will not
- We will not
- You will not
- They will not
Exemplos:
Negative

I will buy a bike

I will not a operator

She will go to
beach

She will not a


cashier

He will go
tomorrow

He will not a
librarian

He will go to
garage

We will not an
electrician

We will ho next
week

They will not watch


TV

Interrogative
Where will they
try?
Where will she go?
When will he go?
Where will Sonia
go?
Where will Ruan
go?

Simple present tense


Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I am boy
I am not happy
Is it a dog?
You are a girl He is not beautiful
Is she not style?
She is a woman She is not style Are we not good singer?
He is a man
We are not good
Is He a man?
It is a dog
They are not bad Is she a beautiful girl?

OBS: Verbos com terminaes especiais


- To do does
- To wash washes
- To kiss kisses
- To box boxes
- To play plays
- To study studies

INGLS 3 ANO ENSINO MDIO 2015

Does he like potato?


He washes his car.
She kisses my brother and me.
He put pens in boxes.
She plays tennis.
They studies math.

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- To watch watches

Simple Past
Affirmative

Negative

- I did +irregular verb


- I did not +irregular verb
- You did +irregular verb
- You did not +irregular verb
- He did +irregular verb
- He did not + irregular verb
- She did +irregular verb
- She did not +irregular verb
- It did +irregular verb
- It did not +irregular verb
- We did +irregular verb
- We did not +irregular verb
- You did +irregular verb - You did not + irregular verb
- They did +irregular verb - They did not+ irregular verb
Interrogative
- Did I +irregular verb?
- Did you +irregular verb?
- Did he +irregular verb?
- Did she +irregular verb?
- Did it +irregular verb?
- Did we +irregular verb?
- Did you +irregular verb?
- Did they +irregular verb?
Exemplos:
Affirmative
Negative
- I bought milk
- I did not slept
- I taught math
- He did not Spoke
- He wrote letter for parents
- She did not Thought
- They put shoes black
- We did not Flew
- We saw pyramids the Egypt
- You did not taught
Interrogative
- Did they paint the window?
- Did he wash the dog?
- Did she water the flowers?
- Did he fix the TV?
Did they clean the kitchen?

Present perfect tense

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Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

- I have
- You have
- He has
- She has
- It has
- We have
- You have
- They have

- I have not
- You have not
- He has not
- She has not
- It has not
- We have not
- You have not
- They have not
Exemplos:

- Have I?
- Have you?
- Has he?
- Has she?
- Has it?
- Have we?
- Have you?
- Have they?

Affirmative

Negative

I have milk drunk


He has not been a France
He has live in Rio de Janeiro You have not found sunglasses
She has sold her car
She has not been a motorbike
We have gone to NY
They have not gone theater
They have seen an accident
You have not lived in Italy
Interrogative
Has he been to England?
Have you sold your car?
Have you talked to the bus driver?
Has she walked to the supermarket?
Has he searched his sunglasses?

What
What is your name?
What color is it?
What is the mater?
What about?
What now?
Where
Where is the light switch in this room?
Where will we go on vacation?
Where will they spend the weekend?
Where have gone recently?
Where have you taken the children?

When

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When did you start working at your job?


When was the last time that you traveled?
When did you last visit your grandmother?
When do you like to go out?
When do you usually?
Why
Why are Brazilians going to Miami?
Why are people usually fired?
Why should businessman study English?
Why do you live in this city?
Why do you want to live in the States?
Who
Who speak English at your house?
Who is youngest in this class?
Who was the first president of Brazil?
Who cooks best your house?
Who is your best friend?
How Many
How many days are there in a year?
How many states are there in the USA?
How many states are there in Brazil?
How many countries are there in South America?
How many secretaries are there at your work?
How much
How much that calculator?
How mucho this pen?
How much those pencils?
How much these eraser?
How much this box?

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Conditional Tense IF Clauses

Condicional Tense (Futuro do Pretrito e Futuro do Presente)


Para se formar uma frase na forma condicional basta colocar o auxiliar would antes do
verbo principal na frase. Os tempos condicionais podem ser:
Simples
Formado por SUJEITO + WOULD+ INFINITIVO SEM TO
Ex: I would study. (Eu estudaria/Eu iria estudar).
Contnuo
Formado por SUJEITO+WOULD+BE=V-ING
Ex: I would be studying. (Eu estaria estudando).
Perfeito
Formado por SUJEITO+ WOULD+HAVE+ PARTICPIO PASSADO
Ex: I would have studied. (Eu iria ter estudado/ Eu teria estudado).
Os tempos do condicional so muitas vezes usados juntamente com outros tempos
verbais, e a conjuno if (se) permite que esta correlao seja feita. Com esta conjuno,
se o verbo na frase estiver no presente simples, o outro verbo estar no futuro do
presente.
Ex: If I can, I will go wherever you will go. (Se eu puder, eu irei aonde quer que voc
v).
Com a conjuno if, havendo verbo no passado, o outro verbo ir para o futuro do
pretrito:
Ex: If I could, I would go wherever you will go. (Se eu pudesse, eu iria aonde quer que
voc fosse).

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What would you do if...?


By asking questions to passerby and reporting their answers, the New York Daily News
Inquiring Photographer, Jimmy Jemail, knocks together a fascinating column. The things that
people tell him are usually things that thousands of readers have been thinking but not telling.
One day last week he asked, If your house caught fire at night, what would you grab before
trying to escape?
Id take my most gorgeous negligee from the closet, dont it, go to the window and wait for
the firemen Id risk a few minutes of my life to be s3en as I always want to be seen in public:
glamorous. Answered a Manhattan caf hostess.
First Id grab my false teeth If there was time, Id then put on my pants. And if I still had a
little time, Id kick my mother-in-law in the shins so she couldnt escape. No, thats not cruelty;
thats justice. Said a Bronx waiter.

(Source: WWW.time.com)

So what would you do?


1

If your house caught fire at night, what would you grab?

I would grab
( ) my money

( ) my dog or

( ) _________________

If you could live anywhere, where would you live?

I would live in
( ) Natal

( ) Paris

( )____________________________

If you could be another person for one day, who would you be?

I would be
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( ) a superstar

( ) a politician

( ) ___________________

If you could change one thing in the world, what would you change?

I would change
( ) violence

( ) poverty

( ) _________________________

If you won $ 1,000,000 in the lottery, what would you do?

I would
( ) share it

( ) keep it

( ) ____________________________

Present Perfect

Technology
In our days man has achieved a tremendous progress in science and technology.
With technology man has almost occupied all parts of the Earth. He lives in the
most torrid climates as well as in the coldest places of the world. He can live on the
little islands lost in the ocean as well as in the desert.
Man has built modern bridges, dams, power stations and has dominated some
forces of nature such as the water of rivers, lakes and seas.
Man has invented many types of machines and modern devices to improve his
life on the Earth.
Man has sent space ships to other planets and little by little he is conquering the
universe.
Man has already controlled some bad diseases by means of modern resources of
medicine.
But there are so many things to do in the future!

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Man hasnt found the cure for cancer yet.

Man hasnt finished with the wars.

Man hasnt solved the problem of hunger and many other social problems.

Man hasnt learnt to protect nature from pollution and destruction yet.

GRAMMAR

We use the Present Perfect for actions in the past which have a connection to the
present. The time when these actions happened is not important.

We use the Present Perfect for recently completed actions.

We use the Present Perfect for actions beginning in the past and still continuing.

EXERCISES

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A) Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or present perfect simple).
1. Mother: I want to prepare dinner. (you / wash)____________________ the dishes
yet?
2. Daughter: I (wash) ____________________the dishes yesterday, but I (have / not)
____________________the time yet to do it today.
3. Mother: (you / do / already) ____________________your homework?
4. Daughter: No, I (come / just) ____________________home from school.
5. Mother: You (come) ____________________ home from school two hours ago!
6. Daughter: Well, but my friend Lucy (call) ____________________when I (arrive)
____________________and I (finish / just) ____________________the phone call.
7. Mother: (you / see / not) ____________________Lucy at school in the morning?
8. Daughter: Yes, but we (have / not) ____________________ time to talk then.

B) Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or present perfect simple).
1. A: (you / play / already)______________________ the new computer game?
2. B: No, not yet. I only (buy) ______________________ it yesterday and I (have /
not) ______________________ the time yet.
3. A: (you / go) ______________________ to the cinema last night?
4. B: Yes. I (be) ______________________ there with Sue and Louis. (you / be)
______________________ to the cinema recently?
5. A: I last (go) ______________________ to the cinema two weeks ago.
6. B: So you (see / not) ______________________ the new action film yet.
7. A: No, unfortunately not. (you / enjoy) ______________________ it?
8. B: Oh, I really (love) ______________________it. But Sue (like / not)
______________________it - too much action!
9. A: But why (you / take) ______________________ her with you? She (tell)
______________________ me last week that she (hate) ______________________
action films.

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10. B: I think she has an eye on Louis. She (try) ______________________to flirt
with him all the time. So he (can / concentrate / not) ______________________on the
film.

Prepositions

Prepositions so palavras que estabelecem relaes de ligao entre dois elementos de


uma orao. Tomando como exemplo a conhecida expresso The book is on the
table., podemos identificar a preposition on (sobre a superfcie) ligando dois termos
da orao: o sujeito (the book) e o objeto da preposio (table).
Existem muitas prepositions na lngua inglesa. Em razo de muitas delas serem
confundidas, necessrio conhecer bem suas aplicaes.
O uso de In e on uma das maiores dvidas no estudo das prepositions. In
usado para nos referir a cidades, Estados e pases; partes do dia; anos e estaes do ano.
Exemplos: In 2008, in Brazil, in morning, in Paris, in summer, etc. Tambm usamos
in para designar uma coisa que est dentro de outra. Ex: The message is in the bottle.
= A mensagem est dentro da garrafa.
Usamos On para nos referir a algo que est sobre uma superfcie. Tomando
novamente o exemplo da frase The book is on the table, o on nos diz que o livro
est sobre a mesa, ou seja, em cima da mesma. J a preposition at usada para
designarmos o momento (horas) ou local (endereos) exato de algo. Ex: at 7:00 p.m, at
456 Lincoln St., etc.
Mostraremos de forma resumida, outras prepositions:
- Behind (atrs): Im behind the tree. = Eu estou atrs da rvore.
- Under (debaixo): The dog is under the table. = O cachorro est debaixo da mesa.
- Near (perto): Mary is near my house. = Mary est perto da minha casa.
- Between (entre): My house is between two blue houses. = Minha casa fica entre duas
casas azuis.
- From (de, usado no sentido de origem): Shes from Australia. = Ela (origem) da
Austrlia.
- To (para, no sentido de ir a algum lugar): John will go to Russia tomorrow. = John
ir para a Rssia amanh.

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Passive voice

The World Trade Center


The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York (417 and 415 meters
high), the symbol of the American power, were destroyed by terrorists on 11th
September, 2001.
Everyone in the world was astonished.
Do you know why they did it?

GRAMMAR

to be + past participle

Active: They built this house in 1486.


In the active voice this house is the object.
This house was built in 1486 by Sir
John Latton.
Passive: This house was built in 1486.
In the passive voice this house is the subject.

Passive voice - present, past and future


Simple Present am, is, are + past participle
English is spoken here.
Present Continuous am, is, are + being +past participle
Excuse the mess; the house is being painted
Simple Past was, were + past participle

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I wasnt invited, but I went anyway


Past Continuous was, were + being + past participle
I felt as if I was being watched
Present Perfect have/has been + past participle
Has Mary been told?
Past perfect had + been +past participle
I knew why I had been chosen
Future will be + past participle
You will be told when the time comes
Conditional would + be + past participle
Time Magazine would be read.
Immediate Future am, is, are + going to be + past participle
Whos going to be invited?

EXERCISES
A) Fill the gaps with the correct tenses (active or passive voice).
1. In the year 122 AD, the Roman Emperor Hadrian (visit) ____________________
his provinces in Britain.
2. On his visit, the Roman soldiers (tell) ____________________________ him that
Pixyish tribes from Britain's north (attack) them.
3. So Hadrian (give) ____________________________ the order to build a protective
wall across one of the narrowest parts of the country.
4. After 6 years of hard work, the Wall (finish) ____________________________ in
128.
5. It (be) ____________________________ 117 kilometers long and about 4 meters
high.
6. The Wall (guard) ____________________________ by 15,000 Roman soldiers.
7. Every 8 kilometers there (be) ____________________________a large fort in
which up to 1,000 soldiers (find) ____________________________ shelter.

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8. The soldiers (watch) ____________________________ over the frontier to the


north and (check) ____________________________the people who (want)
____________________________to enter or leave Roman Britain.
9. In order to pass through the Wall, people (must go) _________________________
to one of the small forts that (serve) ____________________________as gateways.
10. Those forts (call) ____________________________mile castles because the
distance from one fort to another (be) ____________________________one Roman
mile (about 1,500 meters).
11. Between the mile castles there (be) ____________________________ two turrets
from which the soldiers (guard) ____________________________ the Wall.
12. If the Wall (attack) ____________________________by enemies, the soldiers at
the turrets (run) to the nearest mile castle for help or (light) ______________________
a fire that (can / see) ____________________________by the soldiers in the mile
castle.
13. In 383 Hadrian's Wall (abandon) ____________________________ .
14. Today Hadrian's Wall (be) ____________________________ the most popular
tourist attraction in northern England.
15. In 1987, it (become) ____________________________ a UNESCO World
Heritage Site.

Past Perfect
The Canterville Ghost Level: lower intermediate
The ghost did not appear for the rest of the week. The only strange thing that
happened was the blood-stain, which they found on the library-floor every morning. It
was also quite strange that the colour of the stain changed from time to time. Some
mornings it was red, then brown or purple, or even green. These changes amused the
family very much, and bets on the colour were made every evening. The only person
who did not enter into the joke was Virginia. For some unexplained reason, she was
rather annoyed at the sight of the blood-stain, and nearly cried the morning it was green.
The second appearance of the ghost was on Sunday night. Shortly after the
family had gone to bed they heard a fearful crash in the hall. A suit of armour had fallen
on the floor and in a chair sat the Canterville ghost and rubbed his knees, which seemed
to hurt. When the twins started shooting peas at him with their pea-shooters, the ghost

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stood up with an angry growl and passed through them like a mist. He also blew out the
candle, leaving them all in total darkness. On top of the stairs the ghost turned around
and, in order to frighten the Otis boys, laughed his most horrible laugh. Just then, a door
opened and Mrs Otis came out of her bedroom. I am afraid you are not well, she said,
I have therefore brought you this bottle of medicine. The ghost looked at her
furiously, and then he disappeared.
When he reached his room, he was completely exhausted. This American family
was extremely annoying. But what annoyed him most was, that he had not been able to
wear the suit of armour. The weight of it had made him fall and hurt his knees.
For some days after this the ghost only left his room to renew the blood-stain.
However, on Friday, the 17th of August, he tried to frighten the Otis family again. At
half-past ten the family went to bed. For some time the ghost heard the twins laugh, but
at a quarter past eleven all was still. So, at midnight he left his secret chamber and
glided through the corridors, when suddenly, behind one corner, a horrible ghost stood
right in front of him. As the Canterville ghost had never seen another ghost before, he
was terribly frightened. He quickly hurried back to his room. But then he thought that
he should go and and speak to the other ghost. After all, two ghosts were better than
one, and his new friend might help him to frighten the twins. However, when he came
back to the spot, he found that this 'other ghost' was not real, but only a white sheet
which the twins had hung there to play a trick on him. Very upset the Canterville ghost
went back to his chamber.

GRAMMAR

We form the Past Perfect with had and the past participle:
had + past participle*
* regular verbs: infinitive + ed or irregular verbs: 3rd column of the table of the
irregular verbs.

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Affirmative sentences
regular verbs

irregular verbs

I/you/he/she/it/we/they had played

I/you/he/she/it/we/they had gone

hockey.

home.

Negative sentences
regular verbs
I/you/he/she/it/we/they had not played
hockey.

irregular verbs
I/you/he/she/it/we/they had not gone
home.

Questions
regular verbs

irregular verbs

Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they played


Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they gone home?
hockey?

EXERCISES

A) Write the verbs in Past Perfect Simple (Positive Sentences)


1. The pupils talked about the film they (watch)____________________________ .
2. I was late for work because I (miss) ____________________________ the bus.
3. We lived in the house that my father (build) ____________________________ .
4. We admired the picture that Lucy (paint) ____________________________.
5. They watered the trees that they (plant) ____________________________.
6. The teacher corrected the tests that the pupils (write) ________________________.
7. I received a good mark in my test because I (practise) _______________________
on ego4u.
8. The mail order house did not send me the shirt that I (order) __________________

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9. I had to clean the floor because my cats (knock) ___________________________


over the flower pots.
10. My friend was in hospital because she (slip) ____________________________ on
a banana skin.

B) Write the verbs in Past Perfect Simple (Negative Sentences)


1. In the shopping centre, I met a friend who I (see / not) _____________________for
ages.
2. The thief could walk right into the house because you (lock / not) ______________
the door.
3. We lost the match because we (practise / not) _________________________ the
days before.
4. At school, Jim quickly copied the homework that he (do / not) ________________.
5. We ate at a restaurant last night because I (buy / not) _________________ anything
for dinner.
6. When we came back, it was cold in the house because Alice (close / not)
_________________________ the windows.
7. All day long, Phil was angry with me just because I (greet / not) _______________
him first.
8. When I met Jane at eleven oclock, she (have / not)__________________breakfast
yet.
9. I couldnt go to the cinema with my friends last night because I (finish / not)
_________________________ my homework yet.
10. Fred answered my question although I (ask / not) _________________________
him.

C) Rewrite the phrase into Present Perfect.


Example: he cries - he has cried
1) we don't forget - _______________________________________________
2) you finish - ___________________________________________________

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D) Which answer is correct?


1) In which sentence is the Present Perfect put in correctly?
a) I has bought a new computer.
b) I have bought a new computer.
c) I have buyed a new computer.

E) In which sentence is the Present Perfect put in correctly?


a) They has met at the airport.
b) They have meeted at the airport.
c) They have met at the airport.

F) Since or for?
1) ____12 o'clock
2) ____years

G) Which answers are correct?


1) Which verb forms are used with the Present Perfect?
a) had

d) has had

b) had had

e) have had

c) has

H) What are typical signal words for the Present Perfect?


a) already

e) last night

b) at the moment

f) usually

c) ever

g) yet

d) just

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Relative Pronouns

Drink Milk, Lose Weight!


Researches at Purdue University, in Indiana, United States, report that women
in the age group of 18 to 31 who consume an average of 1,000 milligrams of calcium a
day have smaller over-all levels of body fat and slower weight gain than women who
consume approximately the same number of calories but less calcium. Calcium is a
chemical element which is present in bones, teeth and blood.
Our study shows that calcium not only helps control weight, but can also be
associated specifically with decreases in body fat, says Dorothy Teegarden, assistant
professor of foods and nutrition at Purdue University. We do not know wheter the
weight regulation applies to women in other age groups or to men.
The researches also found that women in the study who got their calcium from
dairy sources, such as milk, yogurt and cheese, showed more of the weight control
benefits than those who primarily use nondairy sources such as vegetables, nuts and
beans or calcium supplements.
There is something in milk that works to help regulate body weight,
Teegarden says.
Girls, what are you waiting for? Drink milk, lose weight!

GRAMMAR

who: when we talk about people


which: when we talk about things
whose: instead of his/her or their
that: generic

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EXERCISES

A) Choose one of the following relative pronouns who, which or whose from the
dropdown menu.
1) I talked to the girl ___________________car had broken down in front of the shop.
2) Mr Richards, ___________________ is a taxi driver, lives on the corner.
3) We often visit our aunt in Norwich___________________ is in East Anglia.
4) This is the girl ___________________comes from Spain.
5) That's Peter, the boy___________________ has just arrived at the airport.
6) Thank you very much for your e-mail ___________________was very interesting.
7) The man, ___________________ father is a professor, forgot his umbrella.
8) The children, ___________________shouted in the street, are not from our school.
9) The car, ___________________driver is a young man, is from Ireland.
10) What did you do with the money___________________ your mother lent you?

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Indefinite pronouns

Music with Past Perfect Continuous!!!!

GRAMMAR

some-: affirmative sentences

any-: in negatives and questions

Although we use some- in the interrogative to offer something, to ask for


something or when we expect a positive response. Examples:
I saw somebody there.
I did not see anybody there.
Did you see anybody there?
Would you like something better?

Instead of I did not see anybody there, we can say I saw nobody there, but we
cannot use two negative words: I did not see nobody there.
Anybody, nobody and somebody mean the same as anyone, no-one and
nobody respectively. No-one can also be written no one.
Any can also mean "every" or "it does not matter which / who":
You can take any pencil.
Anybody can do it. It's very easy.
Somebody told me you were abroad.
Nobody came to the meeting.
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Was there anybody in the house?


I want something to eat.
I don't need anything.
I need nothing.
Would you like something to drink?

EXERCISES

A) Fill in the gaps with somebody, anybody, nobody, something, anything, nothing,
somewhere, anywhere or nowhere.
1. I know __________ about this issue that you may find interesting, but if I tell you,
you must promise to keep it (a) secret.
2. __________ lives here. There is no water.
3. I spent the night __________ near the beach.
4. __________ could have jumped over this wall, and stole your rake. It's very low.
5. __________ scares him. He's very brave.
6. There is __________ to park here. Let's go __________ else to park.
7. Would you like __________ to wash your hands?.
8. May I have __________ for dessert, please?
9. They took him __________ in London, and he never returned.
10. Please don't leave __________ behind at home. We'll be away for a fortnight.
11. She needs __________ to love. She's very lonely.
12. They will not sing __________ in this city. They said that they would never come
back.
13. There isn't __________ you can do to help them. __________ can help them.
14. We do not need __________ else to run this department. We can do it ourselves.
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15. __________ is ringing the bell. Go and see who it is.


16. __________ phoned while we were out, but they did not leave a message.
17. __________ tells me that there is __________ fishy going on .
18. They are looking for __________ to settle down and have children. They want to
find a quiet place to lead a quiet life.
19. "Where would you like to stay?"
"__________ will do provided it is a clean place."
20. "Is there __________ at home?"
"I don't think there is __________. Mum and dad must have gone out."

Modal Verbs

What causes the Greenish color around the yolk of Hand-Boiled Eggs?
Many times when eggs are boiled, you can observe a greenish color around the
yolk. Experienced cooks know that eggs need to be boiled slowly, that boiling needs to
be carefully timed, in order to prevent this discoloration. After boiling, the eggs are
placed in cold water to arrest the cooking process. What is the green color that may
result when these precautions are not taken? Iron, in the form iron (II) ions, reacts with
sulfide ions from the white to form iron (II) sulfide:
Fe2+ + S2- = FeS

Modal verbs are for example may, can, must, should, need. They express an
ability, permission, wish etc. to do something. (I may, can, must swim.) Many modal
verbs cannot be used in all of the English tenses. That's why we need to know the
substitutes to these modal verbs.

Modal Verb

Substitute

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35

must

to have to

I must swim. = I have to swim.

must not

not to be allowed to

I must not swim. = I am not allowed to swim.

Can

to be able to

I can swim. = I am able to swim.

may

to be allowed to

I may swim. = I am allowed to swim.

need

to have to

I need to swim. = I have to swim.

need not

not to have to

I need not swim. = I don't have to swim.

shall /
I shall / should / ought to swim. = I am
to be supposed to / to be
should/ ought
supposed to swim. / I am expected to swim. / I
expected to / to be to
to
am to swim.

EXERCISES
A) Choose the correct substitute for each modal verb.
1. We ought to win the race. We_________________ win the race.
2. I can swim. I _________________swim.
3. You must meet my best friend. You_________________ meet my best friend.
4. He should be in bed by now. He_________________ be in bed by now.
5. I must get up early. I _________________get up early.
6. They may stay up late. They _________________stay up late.
7. She needs to see the doctor. She _________________see the doctor.
8. We need not walk. We _________________walk.
9. You must not sleep You_________________ sleep.
10. Should I go to the cinema with them? _________________ go to the cinema
with them?

B) Use modal verbs where possible. If a modal verb can't be used with a certain tense,
use its substitute.

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1. You (must) ________ get up early tomorrow.


2. You (not / need) _______________call a baby sitter.
3. We (may) _______________watch the film tonight.
4. He (not / can) _______________see me yesterday.
5. She (must) _______________stay at school yesterday afternoon.
6. (may / you) _______________go to the disco yesterday?
7. He (not / must) _______________sleep now.
8. You (not / need) _______________ answer.
9. He (ought to) _______________give evidence at the court yesterday.
10. Since he bought the new car he_______________ (not / can) sleep.
OBS: - must not - prohibition (it is not allowed)
- need not - option (it is not necessary)
Ex: The players must not touch the ball with their hands or arms. = They are not
allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms.

Future Perfect
Use: something will already have happened before a certain time in the future

will + have + past participle

Ex:
I will have written the letter by tomorrow.
Will the car have started?
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When we arrive there, they wont have left.


The train will leave the station at 9am.
You will arrive at the station at 9.15am. When you arrive, the train will have left.

EXERCISES

A) Fill in the verbs in brackets in the Future Perfect.


1) Anne_____________________her bike next week. (to repair)
2) We _____________________the washing by 8 o'clock. (to do)
3) She _____________________Paris by the end of next year. (to visit)
4) I _____________________this by 6 o'clock. (to finish)
5) Sam _____________________by next week. (to leave)
6) She _____________________this with her mother tonight. (to discuss)
7) The police _____________________the driver. (to arrest)
8) They_____________________ their essay by tomorrow. (to write)
9) Paolo_____________________ the teams. (to manage)

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Irregular verbs (most common)


infinitive

simple past past participle

to go

went

Gone

I go

I went

I have gone

he goes

he went

he has gone

I don't go

I didn't go

I haven't gone

he doesn't go

he didn't go

he hasn't gone

infinitive

simple past

past participle

Be

was/were

Been

I am

I was

I have been

he is

he was

he has been

we are

we were

we have been

Beat

Beat

Beaten

become

Became

Become

Begin

Began

Begun

bet*

Bet

Bet

break

Broke

Broken

Bring

Brought

Brought

Build

Built

Built

Buy

Bought

Bought

Catch

Caught

Caught

choose

Chose

Chosen

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come

Came

Come

Cost

Cost

Cost

CUT

CUT

CUT

Deal

Dealt

Dealt

Do

Did

Done

Draw

Drew

Drawn

Drink

Drank

Drunk

Drive

Drove

Driven

Eat

Ate

Eaten

Fall

Fell

Fallen

Feed

Fed

Fed

Feel

Felt

Felt

Fight

Fought

Fought

Find

Found

Found

Fly

Flew

Flown

Forget

Forgot

forgotten

Freeze

Froze

Frozen

Get

Got

got, gotten

Give

Gave

Given

GO

Went

Gone

Grow

Grew

Grown

Hang

Hung

Hung

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Have

Had

Had

Hear

Heard

Heard

Hide

Hid

Hidden

Hit

Hit

Hit

Hold

Held

Held

Hurt

Hurt

Hurt

Keep

Kept

Kept

know

Knew

Known

Lay

Laid

Laid

Leave

Left

Left

Lend

Lent

Lent

Let

Let

Let

Lie

Lay

Lain

Lose

Lost

Lost

Make

Made

Made

Mean

Meant

Meant

Meet

Met

Met

Pay

Paid

Paid

Put

Put

Put

Read

Read

Read

Ride

Rode

Ridden

Run

Ran

Run

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Say

Said

Said

See

Saw

Seen

Sell

Sold

Sold

Send

Sent

Sent

shake

Shook

Shaken

steal

Stole

Stolen

shine

Shone

Shone

shoot

Shot

Shot

show*

Showed

Shown

Sing

Sang

Sung

Sit

Sat

Sat

Sleep

Slept

Slept

Speak

Spoke

Spoken

Spend

Spent

Spent

Swim

Swam

Swum

Take

Took

Taken

Teach

Taught

Taught

Tell

Told

Told

Think

Thought

Thought

Throw

Threw

Thrown

understand

understood

understood

wake*

Woke

Woken

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Wear

Wore

Worn

Win

Won

Won

Write

Wrote

Written

* regular form (+ -ed) also possible.

Reported Speech
Reported Statements
When do we use reported speech? Sometimes someone says a sentence, for example
"I'm going to the cinema tonight". Later, maybe we want to tell someone else what the
first person said.
Watch my reported speech video:
Here's how it works:
We use a 'reporting verb' like 'say' or 'tell' If this verb is in the present tense, it's easy.
We just put 'she says' and then the sentence:

Direct speech: I like ice cream

Reported speech: She says she likes ice cream

We don't need to change the tense, though probably we do need to change the 'person'
from 'I' to 'she', for example. We also may need to change words like 'my' and 'your'.
But, if the reporting verb is in the past tense, then usually we change the tenses in the
reported speech:
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Direct speech: I like ice cream

Reported speech: She said she liked ice cream

Tense

Direct Speech

present simple I like ice cream


present
continuous

I am living in London

past simple

I bought a car

past

I was walking along the

continuous

street

present perfect I haven't seen Julie

past perfect*

I had taken English


lessons before

Reported Speech
She said (that) she liked ice cream.

She said she was living in London.

She said she had bought a car OR She said she


bought a car.

She said she had been walking along the street.

She said she hadn't seen Julie.

She said she had taken English lessons before.

will

I'll see you later

She said she would see me later.

would*

I would help, but..

She said she would help but...

can

could*

shall

should*

might*

must

I can speak perfect


English
I could swim when I
was four
I shall come later
I should call my
mother

She said she could speak perfect English.

She said she could swim when she was four.

She said she would come later.

She said she should call her mother

"I might be late"

She said she might be late

"I must study at the

She said she must study at the weekend OR She said

weekend"

she had to study at the weekend

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* doesn't change
Occasionally, we don't need to change the present tense into the past if the information
in direct speech is still true (but this is only for things which are general facts, and even
then usually we like to change the tense):

Direct speech: The sky is blue

Reported speech: She said that the sky is/was blue

Reported Questions
So now you have no problem with making reported speech from positive and negative
sentences. But how about questions?

Direct speech: "Where do you live?"

How can we make the reported speech here?


In fact, it's not so different from reported statements. The tense changes are the same, and we
keep the question word. The very important thing though is that, once we tell the question to
someone else, it isn't a question any more. So we need to change the grammar to a normal
positive sentence. Confusing? Sorry, maybe this example will help:

Direct speech: "Where do you live?"

Reported speech: She asked me where I lived.

Do you see how I made it? The direct question is in the present simple tense. We make a
present simple question with 'do' or 'does' so I need to take that away. Then I need to change
the verb to the past simple.
Another example:

Direct speech: "where is Julie?"

Reported speech: She asked me where Julie was.

The direct question is the present simple of 'be'. We make the question form of the present
simple of be by inverting (changing the position of)the subject and verb. So, we need to change
them back before putting the verb into the past simple.

Here are some more examples:

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Direct Question

Reported Question

Where is the Post Office, please? She asked me where the Post Office was.
What are you doing?

She asked me what I was doing.

Who was that fantastic man?

She asked me who that fantastic man had been.

So much for 'wh' questions. But, what if you need to report a 'yes / no' question? We don't
have any question words to help us. Instead, we use 'if':

Direct speech: "Do you like chocolate?"

Reported speech: She asked me if I liked chocolate.

No problem? Here are a few more examples:

Direct Question

Reported Question

Do you love me?

He asked me if I loved him.

Have you ever been to Mexico? She asked me if I had ever been to Mexico.
Are you living here?

She asked me if I was living here.

Reported Requests
There's more! What if someone asks you to do something (in a polite way)? For
example:

Direct speech: "Close the window, please"

Or: "Could you close the window please?"

Or: "Would you mind closing the window please?"

All of these requests mean the same thing, so we don't need to report every word when
we tell another person about it. We simply use 'ask me + to + infinitive':

Reported speech: She asked me to close the window.

Here are a few more examples:


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Direct Request

Reported Request

Please help me.

She asked me to help her.

Please don't smoke.

She asked me not to smoke.

Could you bring my book tonight?

She asked me to bring her book that night.

Could you pass the milk, please?

She asked me to pass the milk.

Would you mind coming early tomorrow? She asked me to come early the next day.

To report a negative request, use 'not':

Direct speech: "Please don't be late."

Reported speech: She asked us not to be late.

Reported Orders
And finally, how about if someone doesn't ask so politely? We can call this an 'order' in
English, when someone tells you very directly to do something. For example:

Direct speech: "Sit down!"

In fact, we make this into reported speech in the same way as a request. We just use 'tell'
instead of 'ask':

Reported speech: She told me to sit down.

Direct Order

Reported Order

Go to bed!

He told the child to go to bed.

Don't worry! He told her not to worry.


Be on time!

He told me to be on time.

Don't smoke! He told us not to smoke.

Time Expressions with Reported Speech

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Sometimes when we change direct speech into reported speech we have to change time
expressions too. We don't always have to do this, however. It depends on when we
heard the direct speech and when we say the reported speech.
For example:
It's Monday. Julie says "I'm leaving today".
If I tell someone on Monday, I say "Julie said she was leaving today".
If I tell someone on Tuesday, I say "Julie said she was leaving yesterday".
If I tell someone on Wednesday, I say "Julie said she was leaving on Monday".
If I tell someone a month later, I say "Julie said she was leaving that day".
So, there's no easy conversion. You really have to think about when the direct speech
was said.
Here is a table of some possible conversions:
now

then / at that time

today

yesterday / that day / Tuesday / the 27th of June

yesterday the day before yesterday / the day before / Wednesday / the 5th of December
last night

the night before, Thursday night

last week

the week before / the previous week

tomorrow today / the next day / the following day / Friday

Exercises
1) Put the sentences into the indirect speech. Supply the correct form of the verbs.
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a. I said, I dont feel well today.


__________________________________________________________
b. Mother said, The girls are playing in the park.
__________________________________________________________
c. She said, I will be your new teacher.
__________________________________________________________
d. George said, I read the newspaper yesterday.
__________________________________________________________
e. My father said, I will be working tomorrow.
__________________________________________________________
f.

Harold said, I am studying Biology now.


__________________________________________________________

g. The driver said, I will reach New York next Friday.


__________________________________________________________
h. He said, I saw her last night.
__________________________________________________________
i.

Jane said, Joe didnt lend me his book this morning.


__________________________________________________________

j.

Mr. Winston said, John doesnt live here.


__________________________________________________________

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2) Put the sentences into direct speech.


a. Julie said that she would receive a letter from her brother.
___________________________________________________________
b. James said that I had to see his work that day.
___________________________________________________________
c. She said that she had lived there since the year before.
___________________________________________________________
d. They said that they were studying History then.
___________________________________________________________
e. Frank said that he would be in London the following week.
___________________________________________________________
f.

We said that we couldnt find the answer.


___________________________________________________________

g. Cecilia said that we had to help her that day.


___________________________________________________________

3) Choose the correct alternative.


1. The reported speech form of the sentence: The clock will never work again if
you try to mend it. Is:
a. He told that the clock would never have worked again if I have tried to mend
it.
b. He told the clock would never had worked again if I tried to mend it.
c. He said the clock would had never work again if I had tried to mend it.
d. He says the clock would never work again if I try to mend it.
e. He said that the clock would never work again if I tried to mend it.
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2. They said, We are writing our reports now.


a. They said they were writing their reports at the moment.
b.

They said the reports were written by them.

c. Now they are writing the reports.


d. They say they wrote the reports.
e. They said that the reports were written.

3. The indirect speech form of The teacher said: I am sure I have understood
you . is:
a. The teacher said you are sure you had understood him.
b. The teacher said I was sure he understood him.
c. The teacher said that he was sure he had understood me.
d. The teacher said I am sure I have understood you.
e. The teacher said he is sure he understands me.

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BIBLIOGRAFIA:

Ingls para o ensino mdio: Volume nico / Mariza Timann Ferrari, Sarah Giersztel
Rubin - So Paulo: Scipione, 2002 Srie Parmetro.

Take over 2 / Denise Snatos So Paulo: Editora Lafonte Ltda.- 2010.

Sun up / Volume 3 / Amos Presher Pasqualin So Paulo: Editora Richmond


Publishing 3 edio 2010.

Source: WWW.time.com

Sun up / Volume 2 / Amos Presher Pasqualin So Paulo: Editora Richmond


Publishing 3 edio 2010.

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