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POSSESIVOS Adjetivo: Sally has lost her book.




Sujeito I you he she it we you they One usados como sujeito de um verbo

Objeto Me You Him Her It Us You Them One Usados como: objeto de um verbo objeto de preposio

Adjetivo My Your His Hers Its Our your their Ones Precedem substantivos

Pronomes Mine Yours His Hers Its Ours Yours theyrs ___ Substituem substantivos Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself ouselves yourselves themselves Oneself Usados como: reflexivos enfaticos

Pronome:Those book are hers. (her books)

Nota: Concordncia com indefinidos Everybody must bring his own material. Nobody will wrute his composition in ink. A concordncia do indefinido sempre feita atravs de um adjetivo ou pronome masculino e singular.

Nota: Of + pronome possesivo They have seen a friend of theirs (one of their friends).

Concordam com o possuidor


One: Pronome indefinido (partcula se) one must speak in a low voice in hospitals. (Deve se falar em voz baixa nos hospitais.) o possesivo de one ones.

A estrutura of + pronome possesivo significa um dos...

Observe: One must not forget to do ones homework. (no se deve esquecer de fazer a tarefa.)

Se um verbo tem dois objetos (direto e indireto): a) utiliza-se usualmente a estrutura verbo + objeto indireto + objeto direto; b) quando o objeto indireto for usado aps o objeto direto, ele precedido de to ou for.

I have lost a watch of mine (one of watches).


PRONOMES PESSOAIS Sujeito: He likes coffee. Objeto: Albert loves her. Fred is talking about us. Nota: Posio dos objetos: I gave him a present. Ou I gave a present to him. Objeto Objeto Objeto Objeto direto direto indireto direto They bought me some books. ou Objeto Objeto indireto direto They bought some books for me. Objeto Objeto indireto indireto REFLEXIVOS Reflexivos: Paul cut himself yesterday. Enfatico: a) Paul cut the cake himself. Paul himself cut the cake. b) Paul cut the cake itself. Idiomtico: Billy made the cake by himself.



Reflexivo indica que o sujeito pratica e recebe os efeitos da ao. Neste caso o pronome vem logo aps o verbo e concorda com o sujeito. I hurt myself in the footbal game.

c) The ozone layer blocks ultraviolet radition and protects you and I and all the people. blocks ultraviolet radition and protects d) Dont I leave the door open. .

Obs: Quando o sujeito for um pronome indefinido, a concordncia sempre feita com he, 3 pessoa do singular, masculino.

Dont leave


e) Technology brings comfort but we have to pay a certain price. Nobody hurt himself. brings comfort but we to pay a certain price.

Relfexivo enfatico Enfatiza o sujeito ou o objeto da orao. Neste caso o pronome no parte essencial da orao e sua posio pode variar. She herself talked to the king. (nfase no sujeito) She talked to the king herself. (nfase no sujeito) She talked to the king himsef. (nfase no objeto) She talked to the king. (orao sem nfase) sits between Reflexivo idiomatico O pronome vem precedido de by formando uma expresso que significa sozinho, sem ajuda. h) Shirley sits between Bob and Mary. sits between He lives by himself. EXERCCIOS 01) Chosse the correct alternative. A) We live near (she/her). B) The ozone layer protects (we/us). C) Barbara likes to walk (I/me) D) I seldom speak to (he/him). E) They often see (we/us) at the bus stop. F) We always bring (them/they) to school. G) There are some letters for (him/he) on the table. H) Look at (she/her) when she speaks to you. I) J) The director is talking to (they/them) now. What do you think about (us/we)? a) itself b) yourselves c) himself 03) check the correct alternative. A) Why dont you both beheave ? J) These aerosols damage the environment. Damage I sit in from of i) Sit in front of Suzy. were at the zoo yesterday, werent you? g) Mary sits between Shirley and me. f) He and you were at the zoo yesterday, werent you?

02) Supply the correct personal pronoun. a) I see Mary and Jill in the park every mornig. I see in the park every mornig.

B) Two women spoke to the actor a) themself b) Herself c) himself

b) Betty is talking to Bob now. Is talking to now.

C) We _________________ made the cake. a) itself b)ourselves c) myself

D) The students a) themselves talked to the fireman. b) himself c) itself


h) We are thinking about (our/ours) next test. Are you thinking about (your/yours)? i) There are three magazines here. The first in (my/mine), the second is (her/hers), and the is (their/theirs). j) Give him (your/yours) address.

E)We did execise by _________________________ . a) ourselves b) itself c) themselves

04) Supply the correct reflexive pronoum. a) Susan drinks too much. She is destroying ________ .

06) Supply the correct possesive. a) Marys train is leaving at 3 oclock, but Johns

b) Karen and Tom walked in the park by ____________ . c) The old man is singing to in the shower. .

leaving in 3 minutes. Train is leaving at3 oclock, but 3 minutes. is leaving

d) I painted the room by e) f)

You must protect ______________ from the rain . b) My brothers favorite fruit is apple.________favorite fruit I have to solve this question by before breakfast. c) is apple. The cats are sleeping in the dogs house. house.

g) We always wash

h) He has to make that decision by i) j) They love to look at in the mirror.

The cats are sleeping in

d) The teacher corrects the students compositions. The teacher corrects e) compositions.

The boy ____________________ treated the horse .

05) Choose the correct alternative. a) In the future housewives are going to do all (their/theirs) shoping through the computer.

Mr. Allens computer puts him in connection with the Internet._____________computer puts him in connection with the Internet.

f) b) Tom always types (his/hers) letters, but we never type (our/ours).

Franciscos daughter reads English very well. Daughters reads English very well.

g) Bob and Janes favorute song is New York. c) Karen and Susan are waiting for (their/theirs) parents. favorite songs is New York, New York. h) I see Mrs. Allisons car in front of the bus terminal every morning. I see every morning. i) The nurses room is on the second floor. Room is on the second floor. car in front of the bus terminal

d) I know (my/mine) family very well. Do you know (yours/your)? e) (your/yours) is an excellent car. How much did you pay for it? f) She always shouts at (her/hers) children.

g) Children ask (theirs/their) parents difficult questions.

j) We are waiting for the childrens letter. letter.


We are waiting for 07) Suply the correct possesive. a) I do b) She can do things you do


Afirmativa I am (Ia) You are (youre)

Negativa I am not (Imnot) You are not (you arent) He is not (he isnt) She ins not (she inst) It is not (it isnt) We are not (we arent) You are not (you arent)

Interrogativa Am I? Are you? Is she? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are you? Are they?

homework alone. He cant do

He is (hes) She is (shes) It is (its)

c) We must wash lunch. d) The boys arent going to clean e) Dr. Smith Washes 08) Check the correct alternative. a) Does a) he-him c) her-she bring b) she-her

hands before

We are (were) You are (youre)

rooms today. car every morning.

They are (theyre)

They are not (they arent) books to the class?

VERBO TO BE PASSADO d) she-hers records or Afirmativa I was b) Do you preferer listening to ? a) your yours b) my him c) your our c) Everybody must talk to coordinator. a) ours b) mine c) his d) him children answer. b) their yours d) her ours 01) EXERCCIOS Complete the dialogues. Follow the example. Peter is English. (Susan) Is Susan English, too? No, she isnt. are d) your mine You were He was She was It was We were You were They were Negativa Interrogativ

I was not (Iwasnt) a You were not (you werent) He was not (he wasnt) She was not (she wasnt) It was not (it wasnt) We were not (we werent) You were not (you arent) Was I? Were you? Was he? Was she? Was it? Were we? Were you? Were they?

d) Mrs. Cohen and waiting for a) his our c) her our

They were not (they werent)

a) He is at school. (they) No, b) Philip and Sheila are late. (I) Yes, . , too? . , too?


c) The dog ago. d) e) you

in the garden na hour

we at johns house last weekend? not a good student last month.

c) that man is French. (you and your sister) ________too? No, d) This cat black. (dog) Yes, e) The doctor is yung. (pilot) Yes, f) The airport is far. (theater) No, . . , too? I am working You are working He is working There is (h, existe) usado com substantivos singular. There are (h, existem) usado com substantivos no plural. There was (havia) usado com substantivo no singular. There were (havia) usado com substantivos no plural. She is working It is working We are working You are working EXERCCIOS Regra geral Os verbos no sofrem modificaes ao receber a terminao ing. Work working Try tryng agree agrecing ski skiing Ortografia . , too? . too? . THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE Presente Do verbo TO BE Verbo terminado em


01) Supply there is or there are. a) b) c) d) e) park. children playng ball. a bus on the street. there boats on the lake. a boy reading under a tree. policemen at the gate of the

Particularidades 1) Se o verbo termina em um nico e, ele perde o e, ao

02) Suplly there was or there were. a) yesterday. b) yesterday. c) d) e) a cat in my room last night. two famous artist at the hotel. there apples on the table. butter in the refrugerator many children in the park

receber ing.

Love loving Exceo: be being

have having

2) se o verbo termina em consoante +vogal+consoante, dobra-se a ultima consoante acrescenta-se - ing. Com verbos de duas ou mais silabas isso ocorre apenas quando a silaba tnica a ultima. Run running begin - beginning prefer prefering

03)Supply the verb to be in the past. a) This b) my first italian book. you in Rio last February?

Swim swimming

Obs.: die dying

tie tying

lie - lying

Uso: 1) Expressa aes que esto acontecendo na atualidade. Our Kids are growing fast.


I work You work He works 2) Expresa aes que esto acontecendo no exato I work in na office. He works in an office They work in an offce.

momento em que se fala. Neste caso, so geralmente usados com: now, at this moment, at present. She is cleaning house now. 3) Pode expressar aes futuras. Geralmente usado com: next week, tomorrow,etc. I am buying a new car nest week.

She works It works We work You work They work

EXERCCIOS 01) Choose the correct alternative. a) The children (is/are) sleeping now. Dont make any noise.

b) (Is/Are) it raining outside? c) What (is/are) Marion doing in the laboratiry right now? Regra geral


d) My computer (is/are) working perfectly with the new software. e) Can you help me? (is/am/are) cleannig the garage.

Quase todos os verbos, com exceo do to be e da maioria dos anmalos, formam a 3 pessoa do singular com o


Supply the present continuous of the verbs in parentheses.

acrscimo de s. Work works live lives play - plays

a) Our classes are b) Look at these plants! They are c) Dont worry about Mary. She is good time on the farm, d) Is your bus Yes, it is. e) What are your brothers (swim).

(begin) now. (die). (have) a 1) Se o verbo terminar em ss, sh, ch, x, z ou o, acrescenta-se (leave) in the morning? es. Kiss Kisses (do)? They are Wash washes fix fixes do does teach teaches buzz - buzzes Particularidades

03) Answer the questions. Follow the example. Whats the secretary doing? (type a letter) Shes typing a letter. a) Whats the girl doing? (cry)

2) se o vrbo terminar em y precedido de consoante, troca-se o y por ies. Try tries study studies hurry hurries

b) Whats the boy doing? (run in the park) c)What are the men doing? (read) c) What is the woman doing? (buy na ice cream) THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE Uso.: 1) Expressa aes habitais ou que se repetem no presente. Geralmente usado com: always, often, usualy,

Infinitivo sem TO 3 pessoa do singular recebe - S

Monday, etc.


frequently, sometimes, never; seldom, every day, on

b) She seldom (need) help. c) My mister

(call) us when she

(teach) Math to young

I always walk to school. She seldom gets up early. 2) Pode expressar verdades universai e aes futuras planejadas. Dogs bark. Your bus comes at 4:15

children. d) Peter and his friend Bob tennison Wednesday. e) Some people never (walk) on the side (play)

of the street. f) I usually (wash) my clothes on

Saturday morning. Auxiliar DO/DOES 03) Write sentences. Follow the example. Afirmativa: Interrogativa: Negativa: You work Do you work? You do not work. He works. Does he work? He does not work a) Melvin mechanic fix trucks cars Melvin is a mechanic. He fixes trucks and cars. Helen teacher teach portuguese literature

b) Frank author write newspaper articles books Formas abreviadas: dont (do not) Doesnt (does not) c) Roger engineer build houses bridges

d) Carolyn driver drive buses trucks

Notas: Nas formas interrogativa e negativa em que se usa o verbo auxiliar do/does, o verbo principal fica no infinitivo, sem to. Do e does no tem traduo quando funcionam como auxiliares.

04) Check the correct alternative. a) The battery current to start engine. a) provide b) Does she a) know live c) The worlds population EXERCCIOS the next 5 years. a) tends d) Urban developeds in housing and transportation. a) demand e) Temperature in recife never a) reach b) reaches b) demands 7 C b) tend huge investiments b) provides you in Chicago? b) knows live to increase very quichly in the necessary eletric

01) Chosse the correct alternative. Jack is a very lazy boy. He never (get/ges) up early. He always (miss/misses) the bus to school. Sometimes he (meet /meets)his friend Fred. Fred is also a very lazy boy. When they (meet/meets), they (walk/walks) to school. But they (stop/stops) at the newstand first. Jack always (buy/buys) a sport magazines and Fred. (buy/buys) a music magazine. Fred (like/likes) heavy metal. They (read/reads) on the way to school and often (arrive/arrives) late. When the arrive the gate is closed and they (go/goes) back home.

05) Rewrite the sentences into the negative and the interrogativeforms. a) His brothers leave for school at 7:00.

Negative Interrofative our

02) Supply the simple present of the verbs in parentheses. a) Birds from the north always (appear) in

farm in summer.

b) Dennis brings his book to school every day. Negative: Interrogative:

c) She brushes her before breakfast. Negative: Interrogative:



you go to the party or not?

a) Dont they let b) Are they going to let c) Are they let E) The teacher says he a) is go to correcting d) Do they are going to let. our tests this afternoon. b) isnt correct d) is going to correct it tomorrow.

d)Susan empties the trash every morning. Negative: Interrogative:

c) doesnt correcting F) We a) the film now, We

dont watch - are watching

b) arent watching watch FUTURE WITH GOING TO c) arent watching - are going to watch

d) are going to watch are going to watch

presente do verbo TOBE +

I am going to work You are going to work He is going to work She is going to work He is going to work we are going to work you are going to work they are going to work

G) What

the day after tomorrow? b) you are doing c) do you do


a) are you going c) are you going to do

02) Complete the sentences. Follow the example. Shes studyng now, then shes going to walk in the park. (walk in the park)
Afirmativa: He is going to work. Interrogativa: Is he going to work? Negativa: He is not going to work.

a) Hes reading now, then b)We are dancing mow, then c) I am working now, then d)They are writing now, then e)

(swim in the club) (cat) (sleep) (read)

We are selecting the material now, then_______ (type)

Uso.: 1) Expressa ao futura ou inteno. I am going to swim. We are going to get married. 2) Geralmente vem acompanhado de: tomorrow, next..., in... Shes going to travel in March. They are going to study tomorrow. THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE 03) Suply the going to form of the verbs in parentheses. a) The show (begin) at oclock sharp.

b) Mr. Shaw ______________ (leave) the office after 5:00 today.

EXERCCIOS 01) Check the correct alternative. A) Jane always a) are going to walk c) walks B) They are a) are tell c) are to telling to school morning. b) is going to walk d) walk us the story tomorrow. b) dont tell d) are going to tell I will work You will work He will work She will work It will work He will wor They will work

Will + VERBO

Afirmativa: He will work. Interrogativa: Will he work? Negativa: He will not work. Formas abreviadas: l (will) wont (will not)

C) She doesnt play tennis on Fridays,but she next Friday. a) is going to play c) doesnt play b) isnt playing d) inst going to playing

Uso: 1) Para expressar ao ou previso quanto ao futuro. usado com advrbios ou expresses que indiquem tempo futuro: tomorrow, next..., in July, on Moday, etc. We will study hard next year.


C) They_______ to Japan tomorrow at this time. a) will flying

b) wont flying c) will be flying D) We _______to Sarah in the afternoon.

2) Para dar idia de pedido. Will you open the door, please.


will meet

b) will be talking c) will being speaking E) Susan_______when we get there. a) Will be studing


Verbo terminado em WILL BE + -ING

b) Is studing c) Wont studing F) ________Ted______next weekend? a) Afirmativa: He will be working. Interrogativa: Will he be working? Negativa: He wont be working. will-work b) c) going to-work will-to work

G) She_______before 2 0clock. a) will not to be arriving wont arrive will not to arrive

Uso: Para expressar ao que estar ocorrendo num determinado tempo no futuro. Tomorrow at 4 oclock Ill be talking to him. Nota: Vrias formas verbais podem expressar aes ou acontecimentos futuros. Reveja-as. Simple future: I will leave next week. Going to: I am going to leave next week. Simple present: The train leave in 5 minutes. Present continuous: He is leaving tomorrow.

b) c)

02) Supply the simple future of the verbs in parentheses. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) We___________(meet) you by the lake. The Browns_____(move) to the contry in November. John________(arrive) tomorrow morning. I__________(catch) the midnight train to Amsterdam Cars______(be) lighter in the future. Mrs. Jenkins_______(not come) for the show. I________(represent) my company in the conference The new project_____(begin) in March. What_______you______(do) after class. I am on a diet, so I ________ (not eat)any ice cream.


i) j)

01) Chek the correct alternative. A) ________ you ________ by the end of next week? a) b) c) will be traveling will traveling will be

B) Tomorrow at 7 oclock l _________ tennis. a) b) c) will be play will be playing wont be play

Verbo Expressa a)capacidade CAN b)possibilidade c)permisso a)capacidade COULD b)possibilidade c)permisso MAY a)possibilidade b)permisso a)possibilidade mais MIGHT remota b)permisso mais formal Na afirmativa: a) deduo MUST b) obrigao Na negativa: c) proibio SHOULD OUGHT TO NEED a)conselho b)lembrana de um dever Necessidade Desafio DARE Presente futuro Passado Presente futuro USED TO Hbito passado passado Usednt to ou didnt use to Presente futuro Mustnt Presente futuro Presente futuro Passado Presente Condicional Mightnt Passado condicional Couldnt usado no Presente futuro Cant Contrao com not


c)Its raining. We _________ put on our raicoats. d)I cant see you next week. I_______ go to my aunts. e)Mother was out last night. Father _______ cook our dinner.

02) Supply can, must, need our might. a)The radio said it_________ rain. (possibilidade remota) b)Helen ________ help us with the work. (possibilidade) c)He has just received his salary. He ________ have some money. ( deduo) d)You _________ arrive late to the lecture. (proibio) e)I ____________ count the money again. There is some missing. (necessidade)

03) Supply could, shold or used to. a) You _________ go to the dentist every year. (conselho) b) I __________ speak English well 5 years ago. (capacidade) c) We _________ do all the exercises in na hour. (possibilidade)
Shouldnt oughtnt to

d) I __________ smoke a lot some years ago. (hbito passado) e) We _________ help mother now. She is tired. (dever)


04) Supply may, dare or ought to. a) Its raining. You ________ take a raincoat. (conselho) b) __________ we leave the clasrrom now? (permisso) c) My sister __________ arrive from Italy today. (possibilidade)

Notas: 1) Can/could podem ser substitudos por to be able to. Presente: She can swim She is able to swim. Passado: She could swim She was able to swim. Futuro: She will be able to swim.

d) __________ you swim across the river again? (desafio) e) I __________ answer Marys letter. (dever)

05) Check all correct alternatives. A) You _______ smoke here. a) might to b) have permission d) may

2) Must pode ser substituido por to have to. Presente: I must study Passado: I have to study. I had to study.

c) can to

B) The teacher told pupils that they _______ leave the school. a) might to b) musted c) mayed d) might

Futuro: I must study tomorrow I will have to study tomorrow.

C) You _______ to know it better. EXERCCIOS a) could b) shold c) ought d) may

01) Suply to have to. a)He _________ run very fast to cath the bus yesterday. b)Lucy is sick. She_________ go to the doctor.

D) He _______ speak Italian when he was years old. a) may b) might c) ought d) could

E) She ________ come in May. a) mays b) have to c) musts d) may


07) Check the correct alternative. A) Our class _______ to study a litle bit more about our history.

F) She felt ill. She ________ to go to bed immediately. a) could b) must c) can d) had

a) should

b) ought

B) They ______ ask the teacher if they want to leave the room. G) You mustnt take that medicine expressa: a) uma ordem b) uma advertncia C) You _______give her a present. Its her birthday. a) should H) Im sure she isnt here. She _________ be at home. a) dare b) must c) ought d) have to D) We ________ to arrive at school early tomorrow. Theres a special class. I) She ______study hardy now, because she hs no chance to pass. a) mustnt b)cant c) shouldnt d) neednt E) I _______ to write to my friends in Italy. a) should J) Im awfully sorry, but I had no choice. I simply ________ what I did. a) ought to b) must do b) ought a) should b) ought b) ought a) should b) ought

c) uma obrigao d) uma proibio.

08) Check the correct alternative. A) Tecnology ______ provide a higher quality of life to every citizen. a) should b) ought

c) have had todo d) had to do

06) Check the corret alternative. A) shes crying because her mother says that she _________ go to the club with her friends. a) must b) is allowed to c) may d)may not

B) He thinks he ______ anybodys help to finish his project. a) doesnt need b) needs not

C) The teacher ______ to give us na easier test next time. a) should b) ought

B) Your eyes are reddish. You _______ have a fever. a) may not b) mustnt c) mustnt d) mightnt

D) I _______ to finish cleaning the garage before going to the game. a) need b) needs

C) My team ______ win this championship, but I dont belive it will. a) might b) mustnt to 09) Check the correct meaning. D) _______ I used your pen for a minute? a) Must b) Mustnt c)May d) Mightnt A) Look at Fred! He must be drunk. a) dedution b) obligation c) prohibition c) may not d) will be allowed E) _______ they eat all those sandwiches at once? a) Need b) Do need

E) The teacher said that the children_____ arrive a little late today. Theres no problem. a) will may b) will might c) may d) must

B) We must study because there is an exam tomorrow. a) dedution b) obligation c) prohibition

C) You mustnt smoke in this room. Look at the sing.

a) dedution b) obligation c) prohibition


Columbus discovered Amrica in 1492. She arrived late last nigh.

D) Lucy is running to school. She must be late. a) dedution b) obligation c) prohibition EXERCCIOS


01) Rewrite the sentences into the interrogative torm. a) The police stopped us on our way to the stadium.

Verbo + -D/-ED Auxiliar DID

I worked You worked He worked She worked It worked We worked You worked They worked Notas: No passado os verbos tm a mesma forma para todas Forma abreviada:didnt (did not) Afirmativa: He worked yesterday. Interrogativa: Did he work yesterday? Negativa: He did not work yesterday.

Did the police stop us on our way to the stadium.? b) Albert Eintein formulated the theory of relativity. c) A big explosion destroyed several houses in the village. d) Last years proficts permited investimentes in the new factory. e) Our competitor opened a new industry in Chicago.

02) Supl the simple present or the simple past of the verbs in parentheses. a) Alfred _______ (work) at a big department store now. b) what _______ she _______ (study) last night? c) Timothy ________ (carry) the heavy tables to the garage yesterday. d) The president always ________(speak) to the press in the Golden Room? e) Why ________ the child________ (cry) every time it is in the dark room? f) Water ________ (boil) at 100 degrees Celsius.

as pessoas. Nas formas interrogativa e negativa em que se usa o

auxiliar (did), o verbo principal fica no infinitivo sem to. Regra geral Acrescenta-se -d/ -ed ao verbo. Work-worked Love-loved Particularidades play-played agree-agreed

03) Check the correct alternative. A) A Bus _______ against the house and _______ na old lady. a) crash kill b) crashes killed c) crashed killed

1) Verbos terminados em y precedido de consoante trocam o y por ied. Study-studied carry-carried cry-cried

c) crashed kills

B) I ________ them. They________ five minutes later. a) called arrived c) crashed arrive b) call arrives d) call arrived

2) Verbos terminados em consoante + vogal+ consoante, cuja silaba forte aultima, dobram a consoante antes do acrscimo de ed. permit-permited ocur-occurred stop-stopped

C) She never ________ with us. She ________ shes always right.

uso: 1) Expressa hbitos passados. I walked to school when I was a child.

a) agreed think c) agrees- think

b) agree think d) agrees thinks

D) They ________ when I _________ the door. 2) Expressa aes terminadas ou ocorridas em um momento definido. Geralmente usado com yesterday, last..., ago, etc. a) complains closed c) complained - closed b) complained closes d)complains close

E) His company ________a new system of recording sound. a) develop c) developps b) developed d) developped


h) They _________ (do) their homework at 8:30 last night. i) Helen _________(dance) at the club. J) I _________ (work) with your brother last night.

02) Check the correct alternative. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE A) Alice ________ up when the telephone rang. a) gets b) is geting c) was getting d) get

Passado do verbo verbo terminado em TO BE + -ING

I was sleeping You were sleeping He was sleeping She was sleeping It was sleeping We were sleeping You were sleeping Formas abreviadas: wasnt (was not) They were sleeping werent (were not) Afirmativas: He was sleping. Interrogativa: Was he sleeping? Negativa: He was not sleeping.

B) My friend didnt go to the club because it ________. a) was raining b) is raining c) rain d) rains

C) Noboly Knew Mary ________ in the Unided States. a) is live b)live c)living d) was living

D) Several Children __________ in the park when the accident happened. a) plays c) was plaing b) is playing d) were playing

Nota: O verbo terminado em - ing no se altera na interrogativa e na negativa. ORTOGRAFIA

E) I could tell she was sad because she _________. a) cries c) cry b) is crying d) was crying. THE PAST CONTINUOUS AND THE SIMPLE PAST TENSES Todos os tempos continuous seguem as mesmas

normas ortogrficas.

When (quando) e while (enquanto) podem ser usados para ligar oraes indicando que :

Uso; Expressa aes que estavam acontecendo em um determinado momento no passado. They were sleeping 5 minutes ago.

uma ao estava acontecendo quendo outra ocorreu. I was studying when she arrived duas aes estavam ocorrendo ao mesmo tempo. I was studing while they were swimming

EXERCCIOS EXERCCIOS 01) Supply the past continuous of the verbas in parenses. a) Susan ________ (help) her mother in the kitchen. b) We _________ (run) to school at 8:00 this morning. c) The children ________ (look) for the cat in the garage. d) Father ________ (drive) Home at 6:00 yesterday. e) Dennis and Tom _________ (solve) the problem in the classroom. f) The telephone ________ (ring) at 5 oclok this mornig. g) I __________ (walk) down the street at 5:00 in the afternoon. a) Nobody was working _________ I arrived there. b) She said she was sleeping ________ you were studying. c) What were you doing _________ the accident took place? d) Are you sure you were not sleeping _______ the boys entered the room? e) We went having fun ________ their parents were working. 01) Suply while or when.

f) The children were having fun ________ their parents were working. g) Some people were still tryng to buy tickets ________ the game was going on in the stadium. h) _________ they finished the exercise we were already playing outside. i) Some workers were protesting _________ the President was vising the factory.


He hs lived in London. (Ele morou em Londres./ Eletem morado em Londres.)

Obs.: Se o tempo exato em que a ao ocorreu for mencionado ou sugerido, usa-se o passado simples: I worked with her 10 years ago. They studient English last year. He lived in London when he was a child.

j) Some workers were marching in front of the factory______ b) aes que aconteceram vrias vezes no passado. the President arrived. She hs talked to me many times.


Since (desde) We have lived here since April


For (durante, h) I have lived here for 2 years. Just (acabar de) The Kids have just arrived

I have worked You have worked

Afirmativa: He has worked hard. Interrogativa: Has he worked hard?

Ever (alguma vez, j) Have you ever traveled abroad? Alrealy (j) I have already seen that film.

He/she/it has worked Negativa: he hasnt worked hard. We have worked You have worked They have worked Formas abreviadas: s (has) ve (have) hasnt (has not) havent (have not)

Have you alread seen it? Yet (j, ainda) Have they arrived yet? They havent arrived yet. Leately (ultimamente) She hasnt talked to me lately.

Forma: 1) O particpio passado dos verbos regulares igual ao passado simples. 2) O verbo principal (no passado no se altera nas frases interrogativas e negativas: Have you worked You havent worked. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

HAVE/HAS BEEN + verbo Terminado em -ING

Uso: O presente perfeito usado para expressar: a) aes que ocorreram num tempo indefinido. Essas aes Afirmativa: She has been working hard. Interrogativa: Has she been working hard? Negativa: She hasnt been working hard.

podem ou no estar ocorrendo ainda.

I have worked with her. ( Eu trabalhei com ela. / Eu tenho trabalhado com ela.) They have studied English. (Eles estudaram Ingls./Eles tm estudado Ingls.)

Uso: O presente continuo enfatiza a continuidade da ao que comeou no passado e que se prolonga at o presente.

Linda hs been working for 2 hours. She must be tired.


06) Write senteces using since or for. She read - book 3 weeks She hs been reading this book for 3 weeks.

EXERCCIOS a) we-speak with Paul 2 hours 01) Supply the simple past or the present perfect of the verbs in parnteses. a) I ___________ (Kiss) my girlfriend. b) the boy _________ (find) a little dog last night. c) they __________ (be) in the library 5 minutes ago. d) She __________ (work) in that room. e) We ___________(break) the crystal vase. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE b) they write letters - yesterday c) He - sing this song 5 oclock d) I waint for half an hour


02) Supply alread or yet. a) I have _________ done my exercises but Sally hasnt done hers___________ You had worked I had worked Afirmativa: He had worked. Interrogativa: Had he worked? Negativa: He had not worked. You had worked Formas abreviativas: d (had) Hadnt (had not)

b) We havent run into the new director___________ He/she/it had worked c) Have they done their homewo rk____________ We had worked __? d) She has _________ sent the postvards. They had worked 03) Suply just or lately. a) Mother has ___________ baked a chocolate cake. b) I havent seen Jane ___________ c) Have you worked hard __________________? d) She has ____________ told us the good news.

Uso: O passado perfeito indica que uma ao ocorreu antes de outra ao no passado. Geralmente usado com after, before, when, etc.

04) Suply since or for. a) she hs spoken _________ last year. b) He has worked as a teacher________ last year. c) They have lived in Miami __________1988. d) We havent said a word __________2 hours.

I had cleaned the room when she arrived. They had left before I called them.


05) Rewrite the sentences. Put the adverbs in the correct position. Follow the example. You have ssen a lion. (ever) Have you ever seen a lion?

HAD BEEN + verbo terminado em - ING

I had been working You had been working He/she/it had been working

a) They have traveled abroad. (never) b) She hs arrived. (just) c) I havent gone to the movies. (lately) d) We have lived here. (since 1990)

We had been working You had been working They had been working

Afirmativa: He had been working Interrogativa: Had he been working

Negativa: He had not been working. Formas abreviadas: d (had) hadn't (had not)


04) Supply past perfect or past continuous. a) They dressed after they _________ (wash) b) I came in While he ___________(write). c) It ____________ (rain) this morning when I got up.

Uso: O passado perfeito continuo enfatiza a durao da ao que ocorreu antes de outra ao no passado. When I arrived, she had been crying for na hour.

d) She told me her name after I __________ (ask) bread. e) After you ___________ (go), I went to sleep. f) When I arrived at his house he ________ still________ (sleep) g) She cut her finger while she ____________(cut) bread. EXERCCIOS h) Why didnt you go to the doctor after I __________ (tell) you? i) The ligth went out while we __________(have) dinner.

01) Check the correct alternative. A) I ________ a letter when the guests arrived. a) had been writeing b) had been c) had writing

INFINITIVO E GERNDIO B) She told me her name after I ________ her twice. a) asked b) had askey c) had asking
Forma verbal forma

Uso Usa-se o infinitivo sem to: a) aps os verbos anmalos; b) aps os verbos make e let;

C) When she interrupted him, he ________ about his life for an hour. a) had been talk b) had been talking c) talked
O infinitivo a forma original do Infinitivo verbo. O infinitivo pode aparecer com ou sem to

c) aps os verbos auxiliares: do, does, did, will, would; d) aps as preposies but e except. Usa-se o infinitivo com to: a) aps os verbos: tell, invite, teach, remind, wish, desire, want; b) aps: the first, the second, the last, the only; c) aps adjetivos no superlativo: d) aps: to, enough; e) aps alguns verbos.

D) He ________ for a newspaper but she brought some magazines. a) did ask b) have asked c) had asked

02) Suply the past perfect of the verbs in parenteses. a) We__________ (finish) the exercise when teacher called us. b) I washed the dishes after they _________ (eat) c) Jane lost the book Paul________(give) to her. d) They read the message she _______ (write). d) They read the message she _______ (White). e) He __________ (leave) the party before I arrived.

Usa-se o gerndio: Verbo com a terminao ing. Observao: Os verbos com ing a) como substantivo funcionando como: - sujeito - objeto direto - objeto indireto (aps preposies); b) aps os verbos go e come indicando atividade fsica; c)aps os verbos: admit, avoid, appreclate, consider, delay, detest, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, keep, mention, miss, practice, quit; d) aps algus verbos (ver lista abaixo)

03) Supply the past perfect or the simple past of the verbs in parenses. a) Roy told me he __________ (fall) from a tree. b) The teacher ___________ (give) us the test after we had read the book. c) They had drunk a lot before they _________ (start) dinner. d) I ____________ (sleep) for 2 hours when Jack called me. e) She answered the door after I _________ (ring) the bell many times.


dos tempos contnuos no esto no gerndio, mas no particpio presente.

Verbos que podem ser seguidos de gerndio ou infinitivo com TO

Ingls Admit Affirm Approve Avoid Cant help Cant resist Mind Miss Necessitate Oppose Postpone Predict Cant stand Cancel Condemn Confirm Prescribe Prohibit Recall Recognise Report Resist Confuse Consider Delay Deny Risk Save Signift Simulate Skip Stress Emphasise Enjoy Excuse Fancy Suggest Tolerate Treat Value View visualise

advise continue love remember agree forget mean stop allow hate negrect study attempt leave prefer try begin like permit

Anticipate Apreciate Favour Finish Imagine Include Its not

Observao: He stopped to talk. ( Ele parou para conversar.) He stopped talking. ( Ele parou de conversar.) Verbos que podem ser seguidos de gerndio ou infinitivo sem to )verbos de percepo.

worth Justify

d) As crianas foram nadar no clube. The chilbren went ___________ in the club. e) Eles detestaram andar descalos na areia.


observe hear




They disliked _________ barefoot on the sand.


03) Underline the correct form of the verbs in parenteses. a) They attempted (make, making) the exercises by

01) Supply the infinitive with or without to. a) You should _________ (travel) at night because its fresher. b) Jenny made us ________ (clean) the room before we left. c) Will you __________ (lend) me your book, plase? d) She did nothing but _____________ (cry) e) I was the first ____________ (arrive) last night. f) For me, Japanese is the hardest language__________ (speak). g) You are too young __________ (watch) that film. h) Do you have enough money __________(buy) our tickets? i) They told us ____________ (leave) the room. j) Tom invited me ___________ (have) dinner with him.

themselves. b) I heard the baby (to cry, crying).

Verbos seguidos de gerndio Admit Avoid Appreciate Consider Delay Detest Deny Dislike Enjoy

Verbos seguidos de gerndio e infinitivo sem to Verbos de percepo Feel Hear Notice Observe See watch

Verbos seguidos de gerndio e infinitivo com to Advise Altempt Begin Start Continue Forget Have Leave Like Love Mean Neglect Prefer Permit Remember Stop Study Try

02) Turn into English. Use gerund. a) A primeira um bom passatempo ___________ is a good pastime. b) Ela gosta de trabalhar de manh She likes __________ in the morning. c) Ns falamos em ir ao parque, mas Judy continuou chorando. We talked about ___________ to the park, but Judy kept ___________

Escape Excuse Finish Set Mention Miss Practice Resist Suggest understand

Nota: He stopped to talk. (Ele parou para conversar.) He stopped talking. (Ele parou de conversar.)

THE NON-FINITES (As formas nominais)


VERBS TAKING A GERUND Examples: III never approve talking in the classrom.

As formas nominais ( no-finits, em ingls) so as formas verbais no conjugadas e, portanto, sempre invariveis e equivalentes a substantivos ou adjetivos: infinitivo, gerundio, particpio presente e particpio passado. Ex: to go, going (present participle and gerund), gone. Em ingls, o particpio presente e o gerndio so obtidos acrescentando-se -ing ao infinitivo. O particpio presente um adjetivo verbal e sempre usado nos tempos contnuos ( present continuous, past continuous, present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous, future continuous). O gerundio um substantivo verbal. Veja os exemplos: Shes dancing now (present participle) She likes dancing. (gerund)

She cant help loving him. Its not worth going there today. He confirmed not being a Protestant. The proibited smoking in the museum. Susan doesnt tolerate living alone.

VERBS TAKING AN INFINITIVE WITH TO afford appear arrange attempt decide determine expect fail long manage mean(intend) ofter prepare pretend proceed promise prove refuse resolve seem swear try want wish

be(obligation) guarantee care choose claim help hope learn

O gerundio e o infinitivo podem funcionar como sujeito, objetivo ou coplemento predicativo. Veja os exemplos: Helping poor children is a joy. (subject) We really enjoy doing it. (object) All she enjoys is helping children. (complement) To walk is a pleasure. (subject) He wants to walk. (object) To walk too fast is to walk in vain. (complement)

Examples: I cant afford to travel to England this year. You are to come here at nine. Dont forget. He decided not to go there. We hope to graduale in two years time. They refused to help us. Paul means to became an artist.

2) Veja agora os seguintes exemplos: The teacher doesnt permit smoking in the classroom.

Observe que: usamos o gerndio para nos referirmos a um sentido

The teacher didnt permit me to leave the classroom.

geral, e o infinitivo a um sentido particular (freqentemente com should ou would. 1) No texto, encontramos: [...] Ed Murphy was attempting to develop a project [...] Murphy resisted admitting it was his fault [...] Observe que o verbo attempt seguido por um infinitivo com to (to-infinitive), enquanto resist seguido por um gerndio. Em portugus usamos o infinitivo nos dois casos, mas certos verbos ingleses exigem o infinitivo, e outros p gerndio. Veja abaixo as listas dos mais comuns desses verbos:

Observe que o verbo permit exige o gerndio se no for seguido de pronome ou substantivo; caso contrario, exige o infinitivo (to-infinitive). Os verbos abaixo comportam-se da mesma maneira: Acknowledge Advise allow authorize encourage recommend

depois de uma preposio ou conjuno, usamos o gerundio, enquanto em portugues usamos o infinitivo: We began by sponsoring a desperately poor girl. [...] youll feel the personal reward of knowing your love and support can do. Before leaving, turn off the lights. 3) Observe os seguintes exemplos:

I saw the man crossing the roal. I saw the man cross the road. No primeiro exemplo, o uso do gerndio implica a observao do desenvolvimento da ao, e a orao pode se traduzida por Eu vi o homem atravessando a rua. No segundo exemplo, o emprego do infinitivo sem to indica apenas que a ao de atravessar foi executada , e podemos traduzir a orao por Eu vi o homem atravessar a rua. Essa diferenciao ocorre com os verbos que indicam percepo, tais como see, hear, feel, notice, etc. Veja mais alguns exemplos: She heard the car stopping. She heard the car stop. John noticed her coming. John noticed her come.


attempt begin bother cease hate intend

dislike detest like love need neglect

omit prefer propose start study

com os verbos dos seguintes exemplos, o emprego do gerndio ou infinitivo implica significados diferentes: I stopped smoking. (Eu parei de fumar) I stopped to smoke. (Eu parei para fumar) He regretted telling her the story. (Ele se arrependeu de contar a historia a ela.) I regret to inform you your son hs failed the test. (Lamento informar-lhes que seu filho no passou no teste.) He tried to play tennis but he failed. ( Ele tentou jogar Tnis,

4) Observe as duas seguintes formas: She doesnt like me smoking. She doesnt like my smoking. Ambas podem ser traduzidas por Ela no gosta que eu fume, mas a primeira, embora muito empregada na lngua coloquial, no gramaticalmente correta. Observe que, neste caso, o emprego do gerndio precedido de um possessivo corresponde ao modo subjuntivo em portugus. Veja outros exemplos: I cant satand your behaving like this. (No suporto que voc se comporte assim). She approved the girls apologizing. (Ela aprovou que a menina se desculpasse) they dont like jous complaining. (Eles no gostam que Joe se queixe.) Ex.: I like dancing. (Eu sempre gosto de danar; este um hbito geral.) I would like to dance tonight. (gostaria de danar esta noite, embora este no seja um hbito meu.) He prefers walking to driving. (general) He prefers to talk this evening. (particular) She usually begin working at seven. (general) Today she began to work at nine. (particular) Em portugus usamos apenas o infinitivo em todos esses exemplos. Os principais verbos que ocorre neste caso so os seguintes:

mas no conseguiu.) She remembered buying sugar when she got home, although she couldnt find it. (Ela se lembrou de que comprara acar quando chegou em casa, embora no conseguisse encontra-lo. Aqui, remember refere-se ao ato de recordar uma ao realizada.) She remembered to buy sugar. (Ela se lembrou de comprar acar. Nesse caso, remember refere-se a lembrana de realizar uma ao.) He forget meeting me last month. (Ele se esqueceu de que me conheceu no ms passado.) We arranged to meet at five but he forget to meed me. (Combinamos nos encontrar s cinco, mas ele se esqueceu de me encontrar) Holidays abroad mean spending a lot of money. (passar as frias no exterior implica gastar muito dinheiro.) He means to spead his holiday abroad. ( Ele tenciona passar as frias no exterior: )

INFINITIVE O infinitivo a forma original do verbo e pode aparecer com ou sem a partcula to. Usa se o infinitivo sem to. a)aps os verbos anmalos, os verbos auxiliares do e will e os verbos make e let Ex. I can swim. Do you like coffee? Let me go

b) aps as conjunes but e except. Ex. I will do nothing but cry. usa-se o infinitivo com to: a) aps os verbos tell, invite, teach, remind, wish, desire, want. Ex. I want to go home. He told me to stop. b) aps as palabras too, enougt, the first, the second, the last, the only. Ex. We are to youg to die. I was the first one to arrive. c) aps adjetivos. Ex. This exercice is difficult to do. Ateno! O verbo help aceita infinitivo com ou sem to. Ex. They helped us do our homework. They helped us to do our homework.


advise allow attempt begin continue love dislike

forget hate intend like stop neglect

permit prefer remember star


Ex.: I hate getting up early. I hate to get up carly. os verbos advise, permit e allow, acompanhados de objeto direto, so seguidos do infinitivo com to. No havendo objeto direto, esses verbos so seguidos apenas de gerndio. Ex.: He allowed us to smoke. He allowed us smoking. Observe o verbo stop: They stopped to talk. (Eles pararam para conversar.) They stoped talking. (Eles pararam de conversar.)

GERUND O gerndio uma forma verbal caracterizada pela terminao ing e funciona como substantivo. O gerndio tambm usado: a) aps preposies. Ex. She is tired of working. b) aps os verbos come e go (quando indicarem atividade fsica) Ex. Lets go shopping. c) aps os verbos: admit, avoid, appreciate, consider, continue, delay detest, deny, anjoy, escape, finish, imagine, keep, mind, miss, practice, resist, suggest, stop, try e understand. Ex. He admitted being wrong. Assim como o gerndio, o particpio presente tambm caracterizado pela terminao ing. O particpio presente usado para formar tempos contnuos. Ex. He is playing the guitar now.

EXERCICIOS 01) Supply the infinitive with our without to. a) It is wrong _________ (treat) animals cruelly. b) Plase, let me __________(study) here. c) I cannot ___________(agree) to do that. d) We could do nothing but _________ (be) quiet. e) They told me ____________(sit) down. f) This ice is too thin _________(skate) on. g) I made him _____________(answer) the letter. h) It is bad luck ____________(spell) salt. i) I told them i would ____________ (be) home late. j) He was the only one ____________ (buy) her a present. k) They invited us ______________ (join) them. l) Would you like somenthing ___________ (drink)? m) You should ____________ (listen) to what she says. n) You are old enough ___________ (be) responsible for your acts. o) We wished them _____________ (go) but they insisted on staying.

INFINITIVE AND GERUND Os verbos feel, hear, notice, observe, see, watch podem ser seguidos de gerundio ou de infinitivo sem to. Ex. They watched the birds flying. They watched the birds fly. Verbos que podem ser seguidos de gerundio ou de infinitivo com to:

p) It is fun ______________ (drive) a car. q) What can I _______________(do) for you? r) It is easy _____________ (sing). s) She desires __________(meet) him at the dance ball. 02) Use gerund or infinitive: a) We usualy begin (work) at nine but today well start (sell) at ten.

b) They never bother (read) any books but theyll have (read) a lot of them for this test. c) She detests (wash up) but tonight shell have (do) it. d) We love (ride) in the contry. e) I know you prefer (stay) home, but Id love (visit) our friends tonight. f) Daniel hales (play) fottball. Why dont we try (play) basketball for a change? g) I dont like (walk). Lest take a taxi . h) Do you dislike (smoke)? Yes, very much. If you like (smoke) youll have (smoke) outside. 03) Use gerund or infinitive: a) A new room means (spend) more money. b) She didnt mean (offend) him. c) Dont worry. I wont forget (buy) your things. d) On my way to school l stopped (watch) the parede. e) Has Edward stoped (take) French lessons? f) I tried (do) the exercice but it was to difficult for me. g) Im fed up of swimming. Why dont we try (sail) This afternoon? 04) Complete the following senteces with gerund or infinitive (with to). a) They thief didnt admit (participate) in the robbery. c) I always avoid (talk) to that nasty girl. c) Im sorry, but l cant help (smoke) while lm working. d) Weve always condemnent (misbehave) in such conditions. e) James refused (send) the money back. f) Im sorry, but youre (tell) the truth. g) Shell consider (leave) the contry for good. h) They mean (enter) the university this year. i) My fathers just decided (live) by the sea. 05) Supl the Gerund or the Infinitive of the verbs in parenteses. a) I heard you _____________ (sing). b) We observed the bird____________ (make) its next. c) He advised us ______________ (study). d) She advised __________________ (study). e) The students attempted ____________ (cheat) during the examination. f) They started _______________ (look) for the criminal. g) I dislike _____________ (be) late. h) I saw you ____________ (write) on the wall. i) We began ____________ (study) French.


j) She loves ____________ (be) lazy. k) We tried ___________ (follow) her.

INTERROGATIVES what (o que, qual) what do you need? what is your favorite color? which (que,qual) Which is your favorite Color: red or blue?

Where (onde) Where are you going?

why (per que) Why is she crying?

When (quando) When did he arrive?

whose (se quem) Whose car is this?

Who (quem) Who helped you

how (como) how are you?

Obs.: Quando a pergunta for sobre o sujeito do verbo, no se usa verbo auxiliar: Who saw you? Tom saw me. What caused the accident? A ball caused the accident. How... Hom much/ many (quanto/quantos) How much is this book? Its 5 dollars. How many boys are there in the room? There are 10. How old (quantos anos). How old are you? I am 16 years old. How long (quanto tempo, qual o tamanho) How long is the concert? Its 2 houurs long. How far (qual a distncia) How far is the club? Its 2 km from here. How tall (qual a altura) How tall are you? Im 1,8 meter tall. How high (qual a altura, a altitude) How high can trat plane fly? It can fly about 1,000 feet high. How deep (qual a profundiade) How deep is the take? Its about 10 meters deep. How often (qual a freqncia ) How often do you go to the club? I go twice a week. How wide (qual a largura) How wide is the street? Its 15 meters wide. How big ( qual o tamanho) How big is your room? Its bigger than the kitchen.

INTERROGATIVOS (PRONOMES/ADVERBIOS) What, who, where, when, etc. What Where When Why How What time How many How often Who Whose Which Life Of these books Hours Do you Study ? o que onde quando por que como a que horas quantas (horas) quantas vezes quem (a vida) de quem Qual (destes)


(sujeito) what caused the accident? Bad weather caused the accident. (objeto) what did the accident cause? problems. *pode-se usar tambm which e how many: Whith came first, the chicken or the egg? (qual veio primeiro, a galinha ou o ovo?) How many people died in that war? (quantas pessoas morreram naquela guerra?) ** Whom tambm pode ser usado nas perguntas sobre o objetivo, mas no comum, por ser muito formal. It caused a lot of

EXERCICIOS 01) Write questions for the following answers. Follow the example. Who did you see? I saw Karen.

A estrutura das perguntas acima, comum maioria dos

a) _______________________________________________ Karen saw me. b)_____________________________________________ There were 10 apples in the basket.

interrogativos. prpria das perguntas a respeito do objeto do verbo:

Verbo auxiliar sujeito Verbo principal

c)_____________________________________________ There boys are in the garage. d)_____________________________________________




study? study history

The is Stephens gilfriend. e) _____________________________________________ That is Going to play the piano.


f) _____________________________________________ They arrived from China last week. g) _____________________________________________ I study English twice a week. h)_____________________________________________ She is Going to play the piano. i) _____________________________________________

Quando a pergunta sobre o sujeito do verbo, no se usa verbo auxiliar, sendo o interrogativo seguido da mesma ordem de palavras de uma frase afirmativa. Afirmao: Paul lives in Rio. Pergunta: Who lives in Rio? Paul lives in Rio.

They will study on Friday.


j) _____________________________________________ Mr. Douglas is terribly sad.

who e what* so os interrogativos mais comuns nas perguntas sobre o sujeito. Veja mais exemplos dos dois tipos de perguntas: (sujeito) who invited you? (objeto) who** did Mary invite? Mary invited me. Mary invited me

RELATIVE PRONOUNS Os pronomes relativos introduzem oraes

subordinadas (relative clauses). Who, whom e that (que, quem) so usados quando o antecedente do pronome relativo for pessoa.

The girl who l saw was beautuful. Orao Subordina 1) Usa-se who ou that quando o pronome relativo tem a fino de sujeito do verbo. We saw a man who was asking for money. that


Oraes entre vrgulas

Quando a orao subordinada no for essencial para o significado da orao:

a) b)

ela vem entre vrgulas; o pronome relativo no pode ser omitido; no se pode usar o pronome that para introduzila.

2) Usa-se Who, whom, that ou omite-se o pronome quando oc) pronome relativo tem a funo de objeto do verbo. The girl who whom that X Which e that ( que, quem) sao usados quando o antecedente do pronome relativo for coisa ou animal. 1) Usa-se which ou that quando o pronome relativo tem a funo de sujeito do verbo. The horse which is sick that 2) Usa-se which, that ou omite-se o pronome quando ele tem a funo de objeto do verbo. The horse which I sold That X 3) Quando o pronome relativo precedido de preposio, usase whom (para pessoa) e which (para coisa e animal). Neste caso no se pode omitir o pronome. The man about whom we were talking hs arrived. The dog to which he gave food is still sick. e) belongs to my uncle. belongs to my incle. we saw was very beautiful.

The Titanic, which was a big ship, collided with na iceberg. Kennedy, who was an American president, died in Dallas.


01)Supply all possible relative pronouns.

a) Ellen looked at the boy_________ she loves and smiled. b) We met a basketball player_________ is a member of the Bulls. c) The volunteers helped the people

_________they found along the road. d) Those students____________ are late for class

are going to have extra homework. The scientists___________ discovered the HIV virus are going to talk on TV tonight. The mechanic ____________ we saw on the street is from North Chicago. g) The mechanic _____________helped us on the street is from North Chicago. I will never forget the surgeon ___________ operated on my father. i) There were many kids __________ had never seen a CD-ROM. j) Dont talk to people __________you dont know.

1) Usa-se whose (cujo, cuja, cujos cujas) com qualquer antecedente, no podendo ser omitido nem substitudo porf) that. 2) Usa-se somente that. a) quando houver antecedentes diferentes I know the writers and the books that he mentioned. h) b) aps the first, the last e superlativos. c) aps all, some every, any, any, no e seus compstos. He received everything that you sent him. Nothing that he says is true. Nota: That pode ser omitido quando tiver funo de objeto do verbo. This is the first time (that) she arrives late.

02) Choose all correct possibilities to complete the sentences. a) who/whom/that/X b) who/that c) none of the others

a) Thats the biker___________ was almost run over by the car.

b) She didnt find the book _____________ she was looking for. c) What do you think about the painter __________sold one of his paintings for 9 milion dollars? d) Dont tell anybody ___________ I know that lm going to get married. e) Is there any person in this room ____________ you dont know? f) I dont think shes the person __________ killed the old lady. g) I dont think shes the person ___________ you were talking about.


h)Children (that, who, X, whom) dont brush their teeth may have many cavities.

i)The book (that, X, who, which, whom) hes reading belongs to me.

j)People (who, that, whom, X) exercise regularly have a healthier life.

04)Check the correct alternative.

A) Einstein, _________theory is very famous, was not American.

h) Those are the trees _________ they cut down last night.

a) whom

b) which

c) whose

d) who

B)The research _________ you proposed is a very i)The one _________ committed this crime must be punished. important one. a) that b) whose c) who d) whom

j)Im the one ___________ you saw lcaving the room last night.

C) Dr. Braun, ________ we saw in the laboratory, has received a Nobel Prize. a) whose b) X c)whom d) who

03) Underline all correct possibilities. a)David fixed the table (who, that) was broken. D)Professor Hill, _________ is 69 years old, is studying solar energy now. b)The horses (which, who, that, X) were in the stable belonged to the fariner. E)Technology, ___________ brings us comfort, is the c)Shes showing the tiger about (who, that, whom, which) she wrote a book. result of scientific investigation. a) that b) who c) which d) X a) whose b) X c) whom d) who

d)The circus (that, which, X, whom) was in town went to the west

F) The woman, ___________ baby is sleeping, is an excellent mother. a) that b) whose c) who d) whom

e)She bought a violin (whom, X, which, who) cost 1,500 dollars. G) The salesman, __________ showed us the products, is sick. f)The violin (whom, X, which, who) she bought cost 1,500 dollars. H) Alice, _________ is Canadian, is my neighbor. g)Thats the man to (whom, which, that, who, X) you gave the keys. a) that b) who c) whom d) X a) whose b) X c) who d) which

I) The pilot, __________ saved the airplane from a crast, was on TV las night. a) whose b) X c) which d) who J) Helen, _________ husband is in England, is taking an Euglish course now. a) who b) which c) that d)whose


kind-kindly honest-honestly

Palavras como hard, fast, late, early, far e much podem se adjetivos e advrbios.

Ive bought a fast car. You run fast.

05) Choose all correct possibilities to complete the sentences. A) who/whom/that/X B) who/that C) which/that D) which/that/X E) whom diferentes. hard, hardly ( duro, dificilmente) late, lately ( tarde, ultimamente) near, nearly ( perto, quase) He arrived late I havent seen her lately a)This is the evidence _______ his lawyer needed. b)The girl ________ we know will help her. c)There is the housewife _______ we asked a question to. d)Where is the car ________ you liked? e)She is the dentist _________ talked about tooth decay. f)She is the dentist with ________ we talked about tooth decay. g)The girl to _______ we are writing lives in Germany. h)The car ________ Paul bought is made in Italy. i)Einstein formulated a law _______ changed the course of science. j)My brother is studying in the room ________ is near the kitchen. Advrbios de freqncia ( often, never, etc.) ou de modo ( kindly, fast, etc.) - no final da frase, antes do verbo principal ou aps verbo auxiliar. He drives fast. I always get up early She has never worked here ADVERBS Os advrbios modificam verbos, adjetivos ou outros advrbios. Advrbios de modo + lugar + tempo no final da frase, nessa ordem. He wrote the letter carefully at home yesterday. Advrbios de tempo ( now, yesterday, etc.) ou de lugar ( here, there, etc) geralmente no final da frase. They arrived yesterday. She lives there. Posio dos advrbios H advrbios com duas formas e significados

They speak slowly She is very gentle He lives too far.

Advrbios de lugar + modo + tempo (com verbos que indicam movimento) no final da frase, nessa ordem. They went to school by car yesterday.

Muitos advrbios so formados acrescentando- se a partcula ly ao substantivo ou adjetivo.

Advrbios do mesmo tipo ( tempo/lugar) - a unidade menor vem primeiro. I have breakfast at 7 oclock in the morning.


They went to a small village in Tucson, Arizona.




a) We never have been to Chicago before. b) The smiths are finally coming to Boston for a

concert. 01) Underline the correct form. c) I saw yesterday a very old school friend of mine at the library. a) My nephew learns everything very (quick/ quickly). b) Jeniffer is a (quick/ quickly) learner. c) We should be more (attentive/attentively) during classes. d) I dont understand why the teacher speaks so (slow/slowly). e) Im going to pass because I study very ( hard/hardly). f) He lost control of the car and (near/nearly) crashed against the wall. g) There have been many accidents on that corner (late/lately). h) Jack received a reward for acting very (honest/honestly). i) How (frequent/frequently) do you visit your grandmother? j) Be (frank/frankly) and tell us the truth. B) I cant believe how ______ my sister can play the piano. She is really a ______ player. 02) Choose the correct alternative. a) well good c) well well A) a) They buy groceries never at the supermarket on C) Her injury was not very ______ but it bled _______ a) seriously profuse c) serious profuse b) seriously-profusely d) serious profusely b) good well d) good good A) Although he doesnt have a _____ car, he drives very______ a) fastly fast c) fast fast b) fast fastly d) fastly fastly 03) Choose the correct alternative. d) If you have any questions, I gladly will help you.

Sunday. b) They never buy groceries on Sunday at the supermarket. c) They never buy groceries at the supermarket on Sunday. d) They buy groceries at the supermarket never on Sunday.

D) He smiled ______ when he saw his daughter was walking ______ a) happily freely c) happy free b) happy freely d) happily free

B) night.

a) Our team played against the Foxes superbly last


b) Our team played superbly against the Foxes last night. c) Our team played against the Foxes last night superbly. d) Our tem played last night superbly against the Foxes. C) a) The General Meeting is going to be held May 29 at 9 b) The General Meeting is going to be held at 9 oclock in the morning next May 29, Friday. c) The General Meeting is going to be held next Friday at 9 oclock in the morning, May 29. d) The General Meeting is going to be held at 9 oclock in the morning next Friday, May 29.

Em ingls os adjetivos e advrbios podem aparecer nos graus normal, comparativo e superlativo.


of equality

oclock in the morning next Friday. as ... as (to...quanto) I am as strong as you are

not as ... as ( no to... quanto) She is not as intellignet as Peter.

not so... as She is not so fast as Jane


far farther the farthest little less the least much more the most of inferiority many- more the most

less... than (menos...que) This book is less interesting than that You are less strong than Peter.


Regra geral Acrescentam-se er/-est

of superiority two or more syllable words more... than (mas...que) She is more intelligent than Peter. Strong stronger strongest Small smaller smallest



Of inferiority

1) Palavras terminadas em e recebem apenas r e st. Large larger largest

the least... (o/a menos...) He is the least strong of the boys. She is the least intelligent girl in the class.

Wide wider widest 2) Palavras terminadas em consoante + vogal + consoante dobram a consoante antes de receber er e est. Hot hotter hottest

Of superiority two or more syllable words the most... (o/a mais...) This is the most expensive car in town.

big bigger biggest 3) Palavras terminadas em consoante + y trocam o Y por i ao receber er e est. Happy happier happiest

Comparative and superlative of superiority one or two syllable works -er than... (mais...que) Jack is stronger than Paul. the ...-est (o/a mais...) Jack is the strongest boy I know

Heavy heavier heaviest


Usam-se more/most com palavras terminadas em Construes especiais ful, -ous, -re, -ing, -ed.

1) It is getting colder and colder.(cada ver mais frio). Life is getting more and more expensive. (cada vez mais cara) 2) The older the better. (Quanto mais velho, melhor.) The more difficult, the more fascinating. (Quanto mais difcil mais fascinante.) Formas irregulares

more/most hopeful more/most obscure more/most surprised more/most curious more most charming

Usam-se er/-est com palavras terminadas em le, -ow, -er. Simple simpler simplest

good better the best bad worse the worst

Narrow narrower narrowst Clever cleverer cleverest

EXERCCIOS 01) supply the comparative of superiority. a) Bobs motoreyele is ___________ (old) my car. b)The Eiffel Tower is ___________ (high) the Statue of Liberty. c) The cake is ______________ (sweet) the ice-cream. d) A car is ____________(safe) a motorcycle. e) My uncle is ____________ (tall) my father. 02) Supply the superlative of superiority. a) Linda is the __________ (short) girl among my friends. a) book b) c) Brazil. d) Jonathan is the __________ (tall) boy in our class 03) Supply the comparative or superlative of superiority. So Paulo is the ___________ (large) city in Brazil. i) Corsa is the ____________ (light) car produced in This is the ___________ (simple) exercise in this



My car runs 120 kilometers per hour. Your car runs 120 kilometers per hour too. My car is____________ (fast) yours. My car runs 10 kilometers on one liter of gasoline. Your car runs15 kilometers on one liter of gasoline. My car is ___________ ( ccomical) yours.


f) g)

A car is _____________ (heavy) a truck. Our house has 6 rooms. Marys house has 8 rooms. Our house is ____________ (big) Marys.


A house costs 50,000 dollars. Na apartment costs 45,000 dollars. Na apartment is ____________ (expensive) a house. Johnny weighs 130 kilos. Tommy weighs 120 kilos. Johnny is _________ (fat) Tommy.

05) Supply the comparative of equality

a) My method is __________ (practical) yours. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) 01) Their car is _______ (new) ours. A sports car is ________ (fast) a truck. Mr. Clark drove _________ (fast) car in the world Oceans are __________ ( deep) rivers. Jane looks __________ (young) her sister Ann. I bought _________ (cheap) hat in the store. The lion is ________ (smart) of all animais. The Nile is _________ (long) river in the world. Margareth was ________ (clever) of the girls. Helen was __________ (clever) judith Supply the correct form of the adjectives in parentheses. a) The new dictionary is _____________ (complete) of our a) Francis bought his car in 1996. I bought mine in 1995. His car is not ___________ (old) mine. a) My answer was exact. Yours was exact too. My answer was________ (exact) yours. b) The Ericson Building has 95 floors. The Empire State Building has 102 floors. c) The temperature in Paris is 15C. The temperature in Moscow is 6C. The temperature in Moscow is __________ (cold) in Paris. Conditional tenses CONDITIONAL library. b) Harold is ___________ (intelligent) boy in my class. c) This is __________ (durable) metal there is. d) You are talking about ________ (important) aspect of the problem. 07) Supply The superlative of inferiority. a) Jennifer is ________ (popular) Mary. b) My sister is _________ (curious) my Brother. c) A bicycle is _________ (expensive) a car. 06) Supply the comparative of inferiority. b) alices class isnt _________ (interesting) Nancys. c) The presidents room is _________ (comfortable) The ministers.

Simple conditional

WOULD + verbo

She would go. ( Ela iria.)


were I rich, I would buy a big house.


WOULD HAVE + particpio passado She would have gone. ( Ela teria ido.) Formas abreviadas: D(WOULD) Shed go.

05) Unless ( se no, a menos que) pode ser usado no lugar de if not. He wont come if you don't call him. He wont come unless you call him.


Conditional sentences

01) Supply the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. a) She__________ (tell) you the story if you ask her.

As oraes condicionais expressam uma condio e so geralmente usadas com outros tempos verbais. a) simple present + simple future expressa uma condio provvel. If she invites me, Ill visit her.

b) III explain the lesson again if she __________ ( understand-negative) it. c) If they __________ (call) me, I will tell them the truth. d) The refugees ___________ (abandon) the camp if the enemies come back again. e) If he ____________ (study) for the test, he will pass.

b) simple past + simple conditional expressa uma condio improvvel. If she invited me, I would visit her. 02) Supply the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. a) If I knew you were coming, I __________ (make) a cake. b) Helen _________ (come) to the party if we invited her. c) past perfect + conditional perfect expressa uma condio impossvel If she had invited me, I would have visited her. c) If he __________ (compare) the fact, he would conclude that I was right. d) I would study today if I ____________ (have a test tomorrow. Particularidades e) The President __________ (approve) the project if he accepted the idea. 1) Pode-se usar o simple present com o imperative. If you have any problem, call me. 03) Supply the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. a) Those men wouldnt have cut the trees if we __________ ( 2) Pode-se usar o simple present com outro simple present para expressar leis naturais ou verdades iniversais. If you put wood on a fire, it burns. If you heat iron, it melts. protest). b) If they had paid attention, they _________ (learn) the lesson. c) We ___________ (go) to the movies, if we had had money. d) If we had stored the information, we ___________ (save) 03) O verbo to be no simple past tem a forma were para todas as pessoas. I would visit her if I were you. time. e) You would have found your book, if you ___________ (look for) it in the teachers room.

04) O if pode ser omitido, fazendo-se a inverso do sujeito com o verbo. If I were rich, I would buy a big house.

04) Write sentences using the given words. Follow the example. he ask I tell the story ( probable condition)

If he asks, I will tell the story. a) They play well they win the game ( probable condition) b) we-buy a car we have money (improbable condition) c) he save the house he call the fire departament (impossible condition) d) it rain we not go to the beach (improbable condition) (afirmativa) INDEFINIDOS (interrogativa) (negativa) Some Any *Frases *Frases afirmativas *Frases interrogativas e negativas *Frases No, none no ( adjetivo) none ( pronome) Frases negativas com o verbo na forma positiva


Which of those two dresses do you want? - Neither.


Observe os exemplos: There are some articles about planets in our library. Are there any articles about planets in our library? -There arent any articles about planets in our library. -There are no articles about planets in our library.

Some: alguns, algumas. usado em frases afirmativas. Any: alguns, algumas. usado em frases interrogativas e negativas.

interrogativas afirmativas (significando qualquer) *Frases com if e palavras como: seldom, never, without, rarely etc. someone somebody something somewhere sometime anyone anybody anything anywhere

No: nenhum, nenhuma. usado em frases negativas


Observe os exemplos:

Would you like some coffee? oferecimento no one nobody nothing nowhere
Some usado em frases interrogativas quando se trata de: a) oferecimento b) pedido

Can you give me some money? pedido


Observe os exemplos:

- Pode indicar uma escolha entre vrios. Which of those three records do you prefer? - Any. - Pode indicar uma escolha entre dois. Which of those two records do you prefer? - Either. - Pode indicar uma escolha entre vrios. Which of those dresses do you want? - None. - Pode indicar uma escolha entre dois.

If you have any difficulty, ask me for help. Any book about cells will explain mitosis. We seldom see any flower in their garden.


Observe os exemplos:

I want some apples.

Some e any podem ser adjetivos ou pronomes.

No funciona apenas como

I want some


I dont want any apples. I dont want any They live somewhere near the North Pole. (Eles vivem em algum lugar perto do Plo Norte) I want no apples I want none

Would you like something to drink? (Voc gostaria de algo para beber?)

So usados em frases afirmativas ou em perguntas em que se no no one nobody nothing nowhere

Anybody (ou anyone)
(algum) algum lugar)

Some Someone Somebody Something Somewhere

any anyone anybody anything anywhere

deseja resposta afirmativa, como quando se oferece algo para beber; etc.
anuthing anywhere

(alguma coisa)

Os indefinidos compostos de some, any e no seguem as mesmas regras de uso destes. Did anybody call while I was out? (Algum ligou na minha

Any usado em frases afirmativas quando: a) a frase comea com if; b) significa qualquer; c) h uma palavra de sentido negativo na frase.

ausncia?) Did you say anything? (Voc disse alguma coisa?) So usados em perguntas gerais.

(not) anybody (ou) (not) anything (not) anywhere (not) anyone (ningum) (nada) (em/a nenhum lugar

Algumas palavras de sentido negativo: Did anybody call while I was out? (Algum ligou na minha Never Seldom rarely hardly barely scarcely ausncia?) Did you say anything? (Voc disse alguma coisa?) So usados em perguntas gerais. INDEFINIDOS (PRONOMES/ADVRBIOS) COMPOSTOS: something, somewhere, ect.

(not) anybody (ou) (not) anything (not) anywhere (not) anyone (ningum) (nada) (em/a nenhum lugar
We didnt go anywhere. (Ns no fomos a nenhum lugar.) There isnt anyone at home.(No h ningum em casa.) So usados em frases negativas, com o verbo na forma negativa. para lugares
(em/a algum

Os pronomes e tambm advrbios de sentido indefinido seguem, quando compostos, os usos das suas formas simples. Assim, empregamos:

para pessoas

para coisas

Somebody (ou something someone)

(algum) lugar (alguma coisa)

Nobody (ou nothing no one*) (ningum (nada) nenhum lugar.)

nowhere (em/a



01) Check the correct alternative. A) __________ of my brothers speaks English. a) None b) Any Nobody knows the secret of those centenarians. (Ningum sabe o segredo daqueles centenrios.) B) We must save _________ money to buy a new house. a) Some b) no I want nothing from those dishonest peaple. ( Eu no quero nada daquelas pessoas desonestas.) C) They didnt give us ________ invitation to the concert. a) no So usados em frases negativas, sem que o verbo esteja na forma negativa. D) I didnt go to the party because my car had ____________ fuel. b) some c) any c) any c) No

Anybody (ou anything anywhere anyone) (qualquer pessoa) (qualquer coisa) (em/a qualquer lugar.)

a) some b) none c) no

E) Are there _________ doctors in the audience? a) none b) any c) some

F) _________ students were playind the guitar yesterday. Anybody can do that. Its very easy. (Qualquer pessoa pode fazer isso. muito fcil.) - Where can I leave this? (Onde que eu posso deixar isto?) - Leave it anywhere. (Deixe-o em qualquer lugar.) G) Did they save________ money last year? a) some b) any c) none a) None b) Some c) Any

So usados em frases afirmativas, com o sentido de qualquer um, no importa qual.

H) I drank ________ alcohol at the party last night. a) any b) none c) no

Eveybody (ou everything everywhere everyone) (todos) (tudo) (em/a todo lugar)

I) Does he have ________ French books? No, he has ________ a) any-none b) any-no c)some-any

J) Im sorry you cant sit down. There are ___________ empty seats a) no Everybody knows the value of education. (Todos sabem o valor da educao.) They are looking for you everywhere. (Eles esto te procurando em todo lugar.) 02) Underline the correct word. a) She didnt say (nothing/anything/something) when she heard the news. She just cried. b) ( Some/Any) economists say that its hard to stop inflation. So usados em, afirmaes e perguntas. c) Nancy was crying because she couldnt find her wallet (somewhere/anywhere). EXERCCIOS d) Mrs. Taylor was worried because her little son wasnt (anywhere/nowhere) in the neighborhood. e) Do you see (nothing/anything) strange in Martha? b) none c) some

03) Check the correct alternative. A) Scientists have found ________ signs of water on the surface of Mars. a) any b) nobody c)some d)nothing


l) Theres ________ written on that wall, but I cant read it. m) There isnt________ to eat in the refrigerator. n) Are you going to take _______ for your headche? o) Dont put _________ books on the table.

05) Check the correct alternative. B) This faxi can take you _________ near the museum. a)some b) anything c)somewhere d) someone A) The teacher said we could ask him about________ a) anything b) any c) somewhere d) no

C) Has this detective solved________mysterious case? a)something any D) Are you waiting for ________ ? No, Im waiting for ________ a)anybody somebody b)nobody-ayone c)anyone-anybody d)anybody-nobody b)anyone c) nothing d)

B) My friend Fred sent me ______ very funny postcards from London. a) some b) anything c) somewhere d) someone

C) If I had a million dollars, I could travel _________ a)somewhere b)anywhere c) nothing d) anything

D) Would you like to have _______ to eat now? a) anything b) something c) nothing d) anywhere

E) We seldom see _______ in thar restaurant. E)They never greet________ when they enter the office. a) someone b)nobody c)anyone d) something a) anybody b) somebody c) no d) nobody

F) Ask me if you have ______ problem. a) some b)no c) any d)something

F) Is there ________ I can do for you? No, _________ a) nothing-nothing b) anything-nothing

G) I know she will have _______ problem. a) nothing b)no c) any d)anything

c) anything-something d) something- anything G)My sister doesnt go ______ on Monday nights. a) somewhere b) anyone c)nowhere d) anywhere

H) Hardly ________ believes in ghosts nowadays. a) somebody b) anybody c) nobody d) someone

H) I think ______ is knocking at the door. a) somewhere c)anybody b) somebody d) anything

I) Can we bring _______ to the party? a) somebody b) anyone c) nobody d) anywhere

J) Yes, you can bring _______ you want. a)somewhere b)somebody c) anybody d) anything

04) Supply some, any, no, and compounds. a) Is there _________ you want to ask me? b) I asked him for _________ money, but he didnt have__________ c) I cannot tell you _________ about him. d) Dont make __________ noise. There is __________ sleeping. e) ____________ has takem my umbrella. I cant find it. f) Did you see my pen? I can find it ________ g) Did you go ________ last night? h) There are_________ students here. Thet must be_________ else. i) Have you read _________ good books lately? j) Has __________ here lost o book? Ive found a red one on the table. k) _________ has broken my radio. 06) Supply some, any, no, and compounds. a) She wont finish her work if she doesnt have __________ help. b) This game is so easy that _______ can play it. c) Dont talk unless you need________ help. d) She was very angry and left the room without saying __________ e) ___________ is calling you. I can hear it. f) If theres _________ I can do for you, just let me know. g) Would you like to have _______ hot tea now? Its a little cold. h)Yes, please. Id like _________ tea without sugar. i) I went to your house yesterday, but there was ________ in. j) They never bring ________ food for the picnic. k) I saw you keys _________ near the door.

l) Do you have _________ books about Mozart? No, I have_________ m) The box is empty. Theres _________ in it. n) Do you have _________ to tell me? o) There is __________ in the garden. It must be the mailman.


Passado perfeito

The Smilths had called, hadnt they? The Smilths hadnt called, had they?


You can help me, cant you? You cant help me, can you?

07) Underline the correct word. a) Do you have (some/any) doubt? b) I offered him (some/any) moncy but he wanted (no/none). c) Julie was sad yesterday but she told me she had (no/some) problems. d) May I offer you (some/any/no) coffee? e) If you hear (some/any/no) noise, call thje police. f) These are all my books. You can take (some/any) one you want. g) Im not thirsty. Bring me (some/no/none) water. h) The doctor didnt have (some/any/no) good new for us. i) She helped us without (none/any/no) interest. j) They seldom buy (any/some/none) fruit at the street market. I am late today, arent l? She may come late, may she not? TAG QUESTION Presente simples Paul likes coffee, doesnt he? Paul doesnt like coffee, does he? Lets dance, shall we? Open the door, will you? There are four students in classroom, arent there? Notas: Caractersticas do tag question: 1) sempre formado por um verbo auxiliar e um pronome. 2) Quando a frase negativa, o tag question afirmativo. 3) Quando a frase afirmativa, o tag question negativo. 4) No tag question negativo o verbo auxiliar aparece sempre contrado com a forma not

Passado simples

You wrote the letter, didnt you? You didnt write the letter, did you? EXERCCIOS

Futuro simples

The Browns will travel, wont they? The Browns will travel, will they? 01) supply tag questions. a) He is early, _________________________________

Presente continuo Karen is working, isnt she? Karen is working, is she?

b) We must go now, ____________________________ c) I was very tired, _____________________________ d) They ought not to be here, _____________________

Passado continuo

They were playing werent they?

e) You cant speak French, _______________________ f) they play tennis well, __________________________ g) He had been to Rio, ___________________________

They werent playing were they?

Futuro contonuo You will be traveling tomorrow, wont you? You wont be traveling tomorrow, Wont you?

h) They offered us some tea, ______________________ i) I am a little late today, _________________________ j) John always comes at five, ______________________ k) Lets not be sentimental, _______________________ l) You wont cry, _______________________________

Presente perfeito

Lucy has arrived, hasnt she? Lucy hasnt arrived, has she?

m) Their questions been answered, ________________ n) Bring those chairs to me, ______________________

o) She was sleeping when you arrived, ______________ p) There were 20 apples in the basket, ______________ q) Lets give John a book for his birthday, ___________ r) Jane saw you at the party, ______________________ s) Come here, _________________________________ t) I am not right, _______________________________


Uso: para dizer que algum fez algo por voc. Voz ativa: I painted my house. ( Eu mesma pintei a casa) Voz passiva: I had my house painted. ( Algum pintou a casa para mim.)

Voz ativa Simple Present

Voz passiva am/ is/ are + past participe The exercises are done. was/ were+ past participle The exercises were done. am/is/are being + past participle The exercises are being done.


He does the exercises Simple Past


He did the exescises. Present Progressive

Ao passarmos uma sentena da voz ativa para a passiva :

He is doing the exercises.

1) O sujeito da voz ativa passa a ser o agente da passiva ( Past Progressive was/were being + past participle precedido de by). He was doing the exercises. The exercises were being done. 2) O objeto da voz ativa passa a ser o sujeito da voz passiva. Present Perfect have/has been + past participle 3) Introduzimos o verbo to be no mesmo tempo verbal do verbo principal da voz ativa. He has done the exercises. The exercises have been done. had been + past participle The exercises had been done. am/is/ are going to be+ past

Past Perfect 4) O verbo principal da voz ativa passa para o participio He had done the exercises. passado na voz passiva. Future with going to Exemplo: He made the house. (voz ativa) The house was made by him. ( voz passiva) Future with will Notas: He will do the exercises.

He is going to do the participle exercises The exercises are going to be done. will be + past participle The exercises will be done.

1) Quando o sujeito da voz ativa estiver indeterminado ( they, Future Perfect will have been + past participle someone, people, one), nao se coloca o agente da passiva nem He will have done the The exercises will have been by. exercises. done. Someone has closed the door. ( voz ativa) Future Progressive will be being + past participle The door has been closed. (voz passiva) He will be doing the The exercises will be being done. 2) A sentena que na voz ativa tiver um objeto direto e um exercises. indireto pode ser transformada de duas maneiras: Modal Verbs can/ could/ may be+ past a) o objeto indireto da voz ativa torna-se sujeito da voz He can do the exercises. participle passiva. The exercises can be done. b) o objeto da voz ativa torna-se sujeito da voz passiva. Modal Perfect can/ could/ may have been + He gave a present to her. He can have done the past participle a) She was given a present by him. exercises. The exercises can have been b) A present was given to her by him. done. Causative Form
Verbo to have ou get + particpio passado

Uso : para enfatizar a ao. They will carch the tiger. The tiger will be caught.


I had my house painted.



a) We followed the leader. b) The children have lost your keys. c) That man built the new doghouse. 01) Rewrute the senteses in the passive voice with the correct form of the verbs. a) They are preparing the meal. The meal _______________________________________ b) People always admire this picture. This picture __________________ always ____________ c) He hurt his leg in an accident. His leg _________________ in an accident. d) Someone has invited you to lunch tomorrow. You _________________ to lunch tomorrow. e) We will discuss the matter tomorrow. The matter _____________ by us tomorrow. Reported speech usado para relatar aquilo que alguma pessoa falou, no utilixando necessariamente suas palavras. 02) Put the sentences into the passive voice. a) Beethoven composed this piece. b) The girls had answered all the questions when I arrived. c) We have written two letters since this morning. d) They are building a new airport there. Observe os exemplos: Fred said, I work on Saturdays. Direct speech (discurso direto) fred said that he worked on Saturdays Reported speech (discurso indireto) REPORTED SPEECH d) Max had corrected all l the tests. e) Justice punishes crimes. f) My brother spent all my money. g) The girls would accept your invitation. h) He is showing the pictures. i) They will climb that mountain. j) We heard a beautiful song.

03) Put the sentences into the passive voice. a) Someone took my pen from the table. b) They will build a new hospetal here. c) People should preserve nature. d) Somebody is painting that house. e) They closed the roads last night. Exemplos 04) Supply the correct form of the verbs in the passive voice. a) Jonathan raises cows and pigs. Cows and pigs __________________ by Jonathan. b) Janice received two letters yesterday. Two letters __________________ by Janice yesterday. c) Mr. Hill will explain the Greek mythology. The Greek mythology _____________ by Mr. Hill. d) They are showing the pictures. They pictures _______________ by them. e) Bob Was studying the Laws of Mendel. The Laws of Mendel _________________ by Bob.

Como podemos observar, somos obrigados a modificar os tempos verbais e, s vezes, os advrbios de tempo. Veja outros exemplos no quadro a seguir: Verbo Direct Reported Speech She said, l have to study today she Simple said that she had to study that day. Jack worked said, 5 I hours Jack Simple Past Past perfect Before Yesterday the day Present Simple past Today day that speech Advrbio Direct Reported Speech speech


said that he had worked 5 hours the day before.

Bill said, I will Simple travel 05) Put these sentences into the passive voice. tomorrow. next


Bill said that he Conditional would travel the Future day Tomorrow


She says(that) she is tired

They will say(that) they are late.

next day. They said, We are working now Present

2) Interrogativas a) Iniciadas por palavras interrogatives ( who, whose, wich. Now then Past Perfect before Continuous b) No iniciadas por palavras interrogativas: Nest the ago Etc) o verbo say passa para ask; a frase passa para a forma afirmativa; no se usa that. He said, Where is she going? asked where is she going. He said to me, What do you want? He asked me what I wanted.

They said that they Past were working then. Continuous continuous He said, Jane was reading 5 minutes ago. He said that Jane had been Past

reading 5 minutes before.

I said, I will be traveling next

o verbo say passa para ask; a frase passa a forma afirmativa; introduz-se if. He said, Will they help you? He said, Is anyone there?

week. I said that l would be traveling Future the following week. Conditional continuous continuous Jim said I have lived here since last year. Jim said that Present he had lived there Perfect since before Alice said, I witt have finishe my The two After days Tomorrow later day the year Perfect Past Last thebefore Here there Followins

He asked if they would help me. He asked if anyone was there.

3) Imperativo Ao passarmos uma sentena no imperativo do direct para o indirect speech: o verbo say muda para tell, ask, order etc.; o imperativo passa para infinitivo com to; o imperativo negativo passa para not + infinitivo com to; a pessoa a quem a ordem dada vem logo aps o verbo introdutrio. He said, Close the window, Tom. He asked Tom to close the window.

work the day after Future tomorrow. Alice conditional

said that she would perfect have finished her perfect work later. two days

She said, Dont open the door She told me not to open the door.

4) Say e tell Notas: 1) Quando o verbo da orao introdutria estiver no presente simples, no presente perfeito ou no futuro simples, nao haver mudanas nos tempos verbais do reported speech. She says, I am tired They will say, We are late a) Say usado quando: no houver objetivo indireto; houver objeto indireto precedido de to. John said that he was late.

Jonh said to Mary, Lets dance.


B) The direct speech of the sentence Jane asked Paul whether he wanted to go to the matinee too is:

b) Tell usado quando houver objeto indireto nao precedido de to. Jonh told Mary that he was late.

a) Jane to Paul, I have never gone to the matinee too. b) Jane to Paul, Where are you going today? c) Jane to Paul, Do you want to go to the matinee, too? d) Jane to Paul, When are you going to the matinee?


C)The teacher said, Most students will succeed in their examination.

01) change the following sentences from direct to indirect speech. a) I asked the man, How much does it cost? b) Mary said to me, Are you going to eat in the restaurant? c) He said, What time is it? d) He said, Have you seen him anywhere? e) I said to Jane, Where are you going?

a) The teacher answered that most students succeed in their examination. b) The teacher told that most students succeed in their examination. c) The teacher said that most students would succeed in their examination. d) The teacher says that most students will succeed in their examination.

02) Change the following sentences from direct to indirect speech. a) John said to me, Wait for me. b) He told me, Thy to come on time. c) The teacher said to me, Dont talk so much. d) She told her husband, Bring some bread. e) I said to him, Dont go by bus?.

D) Have you bought a house? Will you marry Peter?, he asked. a) He asked me if l would buy a house and if l would marry Peter. b) He asked me if l have bought a house and if l would marry Peter. c) He asked me if had bougt a house and if l would marry Peter.

03) Supply say or tell in the simple past. a) Peter _______________Jane that he loved her. b) He ______________ me to help them. c) He _______________ , Where is Linda? d) Patty ______________ to us, Dont interrupt me. e)The people ___________ that the lecture was very interesting.

d) He asked me if l had bougth a house and if will marry Peter. E) He said, When did you arrive? a) He asked me when l had arrived. b) He asked me when l did arrived. c) He said me when l had arrived. d) He asked me when l have arrived. F) The movies is ____________ good, but its _______ late to go now.

04) Choose the correct alternative. A) Mother to her son Play with your toys, but dont break them in the reported speech becomes: a) The mother told her son to play with his toys, but not to break them. b) The mother told her son to played with his toys, but didnt break them. c) The mother told to her son to play with your toys, but dont break them. d) The mother told her son to played with your toys, but dont break them.

a) very very c) very too

b) too very d) too too

G) Escolha a alternativa correta que tenha o mesmo significado da frase: I had my shoes claned. a) I had clened my shoes. b) I cleaned my shoes. c) I asked someone to clean my shoes for me. d) I asked someone to clean me. H) Mary said, I have been writing this article since last week.

a) Mary said that she has been written that article sonce last week. b) Mary said that she was writing that article since the week before the last . c) Mary said that she had been writing that article since the week before. d) Mary said that l have been writing this article since last week. l) We have shared ____________ happy moments together. a) a lot b)much c) any d) many


J) Dont put too ____________sugar in my coffee. a) more b) much c) few d) many

05) Change the following sentences from direct to indirect speech. a) He asked me. Are you enjoying yourself? b) Mother said, Ive just finished your dinner. c) She said to me, Can you hear a noise? d) He said, Ill be here at noon. e) She said to me, How do you know that? f) The man said, The telephone is out of order. g) Mary said to John, I cannot go to the movies with you. h) She said to me, Drive slowly. i) Peter said, I have convinced her. j) She said, The lights have gone out.

06) Put these sentences into the Indirect Speech. Introduce them using told in sentences 1 to 4 and He said in sentences 5 to 8. 1) John said to Mary, I hate you. 2) I said to the porter, I am Mr. Spencer. 3) He said to Jone, I am always here on Fridays. 4) I said to the boy, Leave the room now. 5) I must go to the library before it closes. 6) Nobody could paint a picture as well as you. 7) You should leave the contry at once. 8) You ought to visit her tomorrow.

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