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WORDS OF CONNECTION

(CONECTIVOS)
Santa Cruz do Sul -Ricardo Schtz
Atualizado em 31 de janeiro de 2006

Words of transition, words of connection, transition devices, linking words ou discourse markers
so conjunes, advrbios, preposies, locues, etc., que servem para estabelecer uma relao
lgica entre frases e idias. Em portugus essas palavras so chamadas de articuladores ou palavras
conectivas. O uso correto destas palavras confere solidez ao argumento e conseqentemente
elegncia ao texto.
Writing clinics ou writing labs so departamentos nas universidades norte-americanas aos quais os
estudantes podem recorrer para obter auxlio e orientao sobre como redigir corretamente seus
trabalhos de pesquisa. Normalmente o primeiro e o mais freqentemente ponto abordado nessas
clnicas de redao o uso correto das palavras de transio. Words of transition so de
fundamental importncia, uma vez que a beleza do ingls moderno est na clareza e na integridade
lgica.
As listas abaixo constituem-se numa ajuda decisiva para quem compe um texto em ingls,
independente do nvel de capacidade do redator.
Os conectivos, mais freqentemente usados, so:
Em primeiro lugar, ... / Para comear, ...

First of all, ... / In the first place, ... / To


begin with, ...

Com relao a ...

Regarding ... / Concerning ...

De acordo com ...

According to ...

Principalmente ...

Especially ... / Mainly ...

A principal razo ... / O principal motivo ...

The main reason ...

A partir de agora ... / De agora em diante ...

From now on ...

Por enquanto (passado) ... / At agora ...

So far ... / Up till now ...

Por enquanto (futuro) ... / At que mude de idia.

... for some time. / ... for a while. / For


the time being ...

Ainda no ...

... not ... yet.

Nesse meio tempo, ... / Enquanto isso, ...

In the meantime, ... / Meanwhile, ...

Em meio a ...

In the midst of ...

Via de regra ...

As a rule ...

Sempre que ...

Whenever ...

medida em que o tempo passa, ...

As time goes by, ...

A propsito, por falar nisso, ...

By the way, / Speaking of that,

Pelo que eu sei, / Pelo que me consta, / Que eu


saiba,

As far as I know, / As far as I can


tell, / To the best of my knowledge,

No que se refere a mim, / No que diz respeito a


mim,

As far as I'm concerned,

Do ponto de vista de

From the standpoint of

Sem dvida

Without a doubt / Of course

Da mesma forma que

In the same way that

De maneira (forma) que

So that / In order that

Desde que

As long as

Em outras palavras, / O que eu quero dizer ... /


Quer dizer, / Ou seja,

In other words, / What I'm trying to


say ... / That is,

... por assim dizer.

... so to speak. / ... if you will.

Por um lado,

On the one hand,

Por sua vez, ...

In his/her/its turn, ...

Por outro lado, / Em compensao,

On the other hand,

Da mesma forma, / Por seu turno

Likewise

Enquanto que / Ao passo que

While / Whereas

Entretanto, / No entanto,

However,

Embora / Mesmo que

Although / Even though / Even if

Em ltimo caso,

As a last resort,

Mesmo assim,

Nevertheless, / Still,

Apesar de

In spite of / Despite

Alm disto,

Besides that, / In addition to that,

No apenas , mas tambm

Not only , but also

Afora isso,

Aside from that,

Pelo menos

At least

De qualquer modo, / Seja como for,

Anyway, / At any rate, / In any


case,

Seno / Caso contrrio / Sob pena de ...

Otherwise / Or else ...

Ao contrrio de

Unlike

Em vez de / Ao invs de

Instead of / In place of

A no ser que

Unless

A no ser por / Com exceo de

Except for

Uma vez que / J que

Since

Afinal

After all

Por exemplo,

For example, / For instance,

Em funo de / Devido a

In face of / Due to

Por esta razo, / Neste sentido / Desta forma,


For this reason, / With this in mind,
/ Diante do exposto, / Levando isto em

considerao,
Portanto,

Therefore, / So,

Finalmente, / Por fim,

Finally, / At last,

Levando tudo isso em considerao, / Em


resumo,

All things considered, / Finally, /


In summary,

Abaixo segue uma lista abrangente de palavras e locues conectivas, agrupadas por tipo de ligao
que estabelecem. Esta lista de utilidade especialmente para alunos avanados que possuem boa
familiaridade com redao em ingls:
INTRODUCTION

as referred to
(at) first
by the way
changing the subject
AGREEMENT

according to
as per

after (all)
alternatively
although
as opposed to
at the same time

COMPARISON

comparing
likewise
EMPHASIS

above all

regarding
speaking of
to begin with
to start with

in accordance
in agreement
in conformity

CONTRAST

but

concerning
first of all
in the first place
initially
on the one hand

by the same token


conversely
despite
even though
for all that
for (my, his, ...) part
however
in contrast

in (the) face of
on the other hand
in (the) light of
in spite of (that)
still
then again
meanwhile
though
nevertheless
unlike
nonetheless
whereas
notwithstanding
while
yet
on the contrary

in comparison (with)
in the same way
similarly
in any event
indeed

particularly
positively

the key point


the main reason

a key feature
a major concern
definitely
primarily
especially significant in fact
in
particular
principally
even more
more important(ly) specifically
ADDITION

both ... and


either ... or
equally important
further
furthermore
in addition (to)
indeed
jointly

again
also
and (then)
as well as
at the same time
besides

TIME RELATIONSHIP

after a while
afterward(s)
as time goes by
at last
at present
at this point
currently

here
immediately
in the meantime
lately
later
meanwhile
now

last but not least


likewise
moreover
neither ... nor
next
not only ... but also
not to mention
not to speak of

nowadays
presently
shortly (after)
simultaneously
since
so far
soon
temporarily

SEQUENCE OF EVENTS

first
second
third

following
then
next

later
after that
finally

EXPLANATION OF CAUSE OR CONSEQUENCE

as
because
due to
for

in order that
now that
since

RESULT

so (that)
that is because
that is why

hence
in short
accordingly
so much (so) that
as a consequence
so ... that
as a result
such ... that
consequently
for this reason
CIRCUMSTANCES

then
thereby
therefore
thus
truly

unquestionably
valuable to note
without a doubt
on top of that
or
plus
similarly
together with
what's more

then
thereafter
throughout
thereupon
until
up until now
while
yet at the same time

in my opinion
in terms of
in the midst of
on the part of

as a last resort
as a rule
from the standpoint of

PARTIAL COMMITMENT

as far as I know
as far as I'm concerned

CONDITION

as far as I understand
as well as I know
for the time being
so far

if not
in case of
in case (that)
in the event of

as long as
even if
if

in the event (that)


only if
or (else)
otherwise

provided (that)
providing (that)
whether or not

DISMISSAL

anyway
at any rate

in any case
whatever the case may be

EXCEPTION / EXCLUSION

aside from
except for

not ... yet


unless

EXAMPLE

including
in particular
for example
in this case
for instance
in another case in this manner

the following example


namely
to illustrate
such as
take the case of
that is

PURPOSE

for this reason


for your information
in an effort to

in order to
in return for
to the purpose of

SUBSTITUTION

in place of or rather
instead of in exchange for
REITERATION / REFORMULATION

as I have said

rather

to this end
with this in mind
with this purpose

in other words that is


more simply
to put it another way
INTERMEDIATING

in doing so
this way
through (which)

by
by means of
CONCESSION

at the same time


granted that
I admit

after all
although it is true that
although this may be true
EVIDENCE

as you (anyone) can see


certainly
evidently

indeed
it's no wonder
naturally
needless to say

CONCLUSION / SUMMARY

after all
all in all
all things considered
as I have said

it may appear that


naturally
of course

obviously
of course
without question
without a doubt

in conclusion
as we have seen in short
in summary
at last
last(ly)
finally
on the whole
in brief

overall
thus
to conclude
to summarize
to sum up

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Source: http://www.sk.com.br/sk-conn.html
Online: February 9th, 2006.