Thermosol

Consulting

Ar-Condicionado Térmico
Lucio Mesquita, Ph.D.
Thermosol Consulting
ABRAVA, Dezembro de 2011

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Solar AC

Elétrico

Térmico

PV-Peltier

PV- Compressão de
Vapor

Transformação
de Calor

Ciclo Aberto

Dissecante Liquido

Dissecante Sólido

Termomecânico

Ciclo Fechado

Absorção

Ejetor

Motores
Rankine

Adsorção

ABRAVA/DASOL

1

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting
49% do total é importado
País

Exportação de Petróleo para os EUA
( Milhares de Barris por Dia)

Set-11

Ago-11

ANO 2011

Set-10

ANO 2010

CANADÁ

2,829

2,637

2,670

2,479

2,537

ARÁBIA SAUDITA

1,479

1,075

1,187

1,093

1,086

MÉXICO

1,192

1,185

1,218

1,254

1,260

VENEZUELA

806

906

979

1,008

1,007

RÚSSIA

592

585

609

648

624

NIGÉRIA

580

892

876

1,174

1,053

COLÔMBIA

529

395

395

363

360

IRAQUE

404

637

473

422

464

EQUADOR

305

309

205

229

217

ANGOLA

304

331

335

417

422

ALGÉRIA

291

298

396

543

512

ILHAS VIRGENS

189

185

189

302

261

BRASIL

188

228

240

181

289

ARUBA

149

81

79

0

0

KUWAIT

145

165

165

172

206

ABRAVA/DASOL

2

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

AMBIENTE
EXTERNO

AC

ABRAVA/DASOL

3

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

4

Thermosol
Consulting

TR= Tonelada de Refrigeração
Energia necessária equivalente a para
derreter (ou produzir) 907 kg de gelo em 24 horas

UNIDADE DE POTÊNCIA
1 TR = 12.000 Btu/h = 3.517 kW = 3.024 kcal/h

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Calor Sensível = Temperatura
Calor Latente = Umidade

ABRAVA/DASOL

5

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Condensador a ar ou água
(rejeito).
Expansão direta ou indireta
(extração).
Distribuição: água gelada, ar ou
refrigerante.
ABRAVA/DASOL

6

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

7

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

8

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

9

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

10

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

100
90
80
70
60
50

87
73

40
30

56

20
10
0
1978

1997

2009

ABRAVA/DASOL

11

Thermosol
Consulting
100,00%
90,00%
80,00%
70,00%
60,00%
50,00%
40,00%
30,00%
20,00%
10,00%
0,00%
Antes 1940 a 1950 a 1960 a 1970 a 1980 a 1990 a 2000 a
1940 1949 1959 1969 1979 1989 1999 2009

Total 87% das residências
99 milhões de unidades habitacionais
23%(1978) a 61%(2009) central
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

0,88 quad BTU= 258.000 GWh
1.300 GWh Solar (PV+ Térmico) 2010
388.000 GWh Total Brasil 2009
ABRAVA/DASOL

12

Thermosol
Consulting

TYPE OF COOLING EQUIPMENT - COMMERCIAL PER FLOOR SPACE

Swamp
Coolers
2%

78% das edificações comerciais
88% do espaço
151.000 GWh

Other
2%

Residential-Type
Central
14%

Heat
Pumps
11%

Packaged
Units
37%

Individual
15%

Central Chillers
15%

District Chilled
Water
4%

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

CHILLERS - % OF FLOOR SPACE

PACKAGED - % OF FLOOR SPACE
Ten or More
6%

One
7%

Ten or More
30%

Two
17%

Four to Nine
14%

One
41%
Three
11%

Three
12%

Four to Nine
34%

Two
28%

ABRAVA/DASOL

13

Thermosol
Consulting

Lucio
Mesquita, PhD
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

14

Saturação de Mercado

Thermosol
Consulting

Graus-Dia de Resfriamento, base 18 C
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting
Localidade

Graus-Dia de Resfriamento (Tref = 18,3 ºC)

Aracaju

3114

Belém

3338

Belo Horizonte

1644

Brasília

1346

Campinas

1439

Campo Grande

2563

Curitiba

603

Florianópolis

1320

Fortaleza

3423

Recife

3432

Rio de Janeiro

2504

Salvador

3022

São Paulo

1123

Vitória

2585

ABRAVA/DASOL

15

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

16

Thermosol
Consulting

89% SPLIT

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

17

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

18

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Percentual de empresas que dispõem de sistemas
de ar condicionado e/ou ventilação

Ventilação e
exaustão

33

Aparelhos
parede e "split"

77

"Roof top" e
"Self contained"

25
16

Água gelada
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

(% empresas)

ABRAVA/DASOL

19

Thermosol
Consulting
Percentual de prédios que dispõem de sistemas de
ar condicionado e/ou ventilação
Ventilação e exaustão

36
82

Aparelhos parede e "split"
"Roof top" e "Self contained"
Água gelada

34
32
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
(% prédios)

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

IPCC = 4-5%/ano
ABRAVA/DASOL

20

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

21

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

22

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

23

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

24

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

☺Acesso setor comercial
☺Aumento do mercado total
☺“SEXY”!!!

ABRAVA/DASOL

25

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

26

Reservas Mundiais de
Energia Primária

Thermosol
Consulting

Urânio

Gás

Petróleo

Carvão

Consumo
Energético
Mundial

Introduction

1-2
ABRAVA/DASOL

Recurso Solar

Thermosol
Consulting

Reflexão, Espalhamento

Radiação
Direta

Radiação Difusa

Albedo

Solar Resources - Solar Radiation

2-6
ABRAVA/DASOL

27

Thermosol
Consulting

Recurso Solar

Solar Resources - Solar Radiation

2-9
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

28

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Recurso Solar

Thermosol
Consulting

Irradiação
Global Hor

ABRAVA/DASOL

29

Thermosol
Consulting

Recurso Solar

Solar Resources - Solar Radiation

2-6
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Recurso Solar

Solar Resources - Solar Radiation

2-6
ABRAVA/DASOL

30

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Recurso Solar

Thermosol
Consulting

Irradiação
Total Incl

ABRAVA/DASOL

31

Thermosol
Consulting

Recurso Solar

Solar Resources - Solar Radiation

2-6
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Recurso Solar

Solar Resources - Solar Radiation

2-6
ABRAVA/DASOL

32

Thermosol
Consulting

Recurso Solar

Solar Resources - Solar Radiation

2-6
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Recurso Solar

Solar Resources - Solar Radiation

2-6
ABRAVA/DASOL

33

Thermosol
Consulting

Recurso Solar

2-6
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Recurso Solar

2-6
ABRAVA/DASOL

34

Thermosol
Consulting

Recurso Solar

Solar Resources - Solar Radiation

2-6
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

35

Thermosol
Consulting

Components and Subsystems of Solar Thermal Installation

3-15
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

36

Thermosol
Consulting

E0 Radiação Solar
E1 Perdas óticas
Q1e2 Perdas Térmicas
Q3 Energia Útil

Components and Subsystems of Solar Thermal Installation

3-9
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

37

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Components and Subsystems of Solar Thermal Installation

3-9
ABRAVA/DASOL

38

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Components and Subsystems of Solar Thermal Installation

3-11
ABRAVA/DASOL

39

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Components and Subsystems of Solar Thermal Installation

3-7
ABRAVA/DASOL

40

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

Components and Subsystems of Solar Thermal Installation

3-8
ABRAVA/DASOL

41

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

42

Thermosol
Consulting

Components and Subsystems of Solar Thermal Installation

3-12
ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

43

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

ABSORVEDOR
ABERTURA
EXTERNA OU BRUTA

ABRAVA/DASOL

44

Thermosol
Consulting

ABRAVA/DASOL

Thermosol
Consulting

http://www.estif.org/solarkeymark/regcol.php

http://www.solarenergy.ch/index.php?id=111&L=6&no_cache=1

http://www.inmetro.gov.br/consumidor/pbe/ColetoresSolares-banho.pdf

http://www.solar-rating.org/ratings/og100.html

ABRAVA/DASOL

45

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