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Inglês Instrumental

Apostila
Sumário:
Datas e horários....................... Página 3
Aula 1........................................Página 4
Aula 2........................................Página 9
Aula 3........................................Página 16
Aula 4........................................Página 19

Datas e Horários

Aula 1
03/05 – 8:30h as 10:15h
Conteúdo: Identificação de palavras-chave; Identificação de cognatos.
Aula 2
04/05 – 8:30h as 10:15h
Conteúdo: Recursos visuais e tipográficos existentes em um texto; Leitura de
textos de gêneros diversos.
Aula 3
09/05 – 8:30 as 10:15h
Conteúdo: Exercícios de compreensão: Skimming e scanning; Tradução e
Interpretação de Texto.
Aula 4
11/05 – 8:30h as 10:15h
Conteúdo: Pronomes e grupos nominais; Exercícios de prática de leitura de
texto, skimming e scanning.

Aula 1

Identificação de palavras-chave; Identificação de cognatos.


Palavras-chave (keywords) são elementos que possuem relação direta com o
assunto tratado, elas podem ser identificadas pela repetição (por isso também
chamadas de palavras repetidas) ao longo do texto, por exemplo. O leitor
sempre deve estar atento as palavras-chave pois elas podem facilitar para a
compreensão do conteúdo do texto.
Palavras-chave são vocabulários adquiridos por cada pessoa. Pessoas que
leem muito em inglês terão um vocabulário maior do que pessoas que não
leem em inglês. Muitas dessas palavras-chave em inglês são semelhantes a
própria palavra em português.
Já palavras cognatas são aquelas que possuem a mesma origem que as
mesmas palavras que utilizamos em português, as grafias são iguais ou
semelhantes e o significado, na maioria das vezes, é o mesmo. E também
existem os falsos cognatos, que são palavras que possuem a grafia
semelhante, mas significados completamente diferentes.
Abaixo estão algumas palavras-chave e palavras cognatas úteis que estão
presentes em muitos textos de conhecimento geral e jornalísticos.

EXERCÍCIOS
- Palavras Internacionais:
1) Complete com os significados das palavras em português.
Inglês Português
President Presidente
Professor
Bank Banco
Calendar
Optimism
Element
Geography
Telephone Telefone
Program
Modern Moderno
Universe
Tragedy Tragédia
Stadium
Dance Dança
Economic
Tariffs Tarifas
Demands
Percent Por cento
- Palavras Semelhantes:
Inglês Português
Automatic Automático
Art
Control Controle
List Lista
Form
Limit
Solid
Dependent Dependente
Instrument Instrumento
Protest Protesto
Violent
Argument Argumento ou Discussão
Important
Note
Copy
Order Ordem
North Norte
Effect Efeito
System Sistema
Initial
Finalized Finalizado
Objections Objeções
Political
Considering Considerando
Administration
Pressure Pressionar
Including Incluindo
Negotiations
Discussions
Situation Situação
Promise
Organization
Decision Decisão
Government
Differences Diferenças
Delicate
Temporary Temporário
Director
Theater
Music
Paintings
Address
Car
- Palavras terminadas em “ly”:
Inglês Português
Clearly Claramente
Daily
Openly Abertamente
Normally
Possibly Possivelmente
Separately

- Falsos Cognatos:
Inglês Português
Anthem Hino
Pregnant Grávida
Mayor Prefeito
Pretend
Intend Pretender
Adapt Especialista
Application
Assume Supor
College
Data
Defendent Acusado
Lecture Plaestra
Medicine
Office
Retired Aposentado
Senior
Syndic Representante político

- Texto a ser trabalhado:


White House Delays Tariffs on E.U., Canada and Mexico for 30 Days

By ANA SWANSON APRIL 30, 2018 – The New York Times


WASHINGTON — The Trump administration said on Monday that it
would delay a decision to impose steel and aluminum tariffs on the
European Union, Canada and Mexico for another 30 days, giving key
allies a reprieve as the White House tries to extract concessions from
trading partners who have resisted those demands.

The extension reflects concerns by the Trump administration of a


swift retaliation on American products by European Union nations,
and will also give the Trump administration more breathing room to
work on a separate trade battle with China.

The 25 percent tariffs on steel and 10 percent on aluminum were set


to go into effect on Tuesday and had set off a global scramble by
nations trying to secure permanent exemptions. The administration,
which granted temporary exemptions to a handful of countries in
March, said it had reached initial agreements with Argentina,
Australia and Brazil that would allow them to avoid the tariffs, at least
for now. Details of those agreements will be finalized in the next 30
days, the White House said.

President Trump’s decision puts off a move that could have enraged
key American allies at a delicate moment, as the United States heads
toward tricky negotiations with North Korea and is considering
abandoning the Iran nuclear deal over the objections of European
Union leaders. Despite the president’s tough stance on trade, many
of his advisers are leery of initiating trade clashes that could
destabilize stock markets and put other political goals at risk, like
updating the North American Free Trade Agreement. The White
House is also dispatching a delegation of top officials to Beijing this
week to try to soothe tensions in its trade battle there.

The Trump administration had been trying to pressure Europe,


Canada, Mexico and other nations to renegotiate trading terms in
America’s favor, including limiting the flow of foreign metals into the
United States, saying that it would grant exclusions to the tariffs for
countries that agreed to meet its demands. But while the threat of
tariffs had helped finalize a continuing deal with South Korea, there
has been little indication that other nations will bend.

The reprieve will come as a relief to major American allies that were
bracing for damage to their economy from lower sales of metals into
the United States. But it could fuel criticism that Mr. Trump is more
bark than bite and increase the pressure on the White House to
squeeze concessions from other nations.

In recent weeks, American negotiators have pressed allies to restrain


their own metal shipments to the United States voluntarily in
exchange for having the tariffs lifted.

“In all of these negotiations, the administration is focused on quotas


that will restrain imports, prevent transshipment and protect the
national security,” the White House said in its statement Monday
evening.

Aula 2
Recursos visuais e tipográficos existentes em um texto; Leitura de textos de
gêneros diversos.

Parte 1
Recursos visuais e tipográficos existentes em um texto.
Recursos visuais e tipográficos são elementos de um texto que auxiliam o leitor
na compreensão do texto. Como datas, números, tabelas, gráficos e figuras.
Alguns recursos dentro da escrita do texto também podem ser considerados
recursos tipográficos. Por exemplo:
• ... (três pontos) - indicam a continuação de uma ideia que não está ali
exposta;
• Negrito apresenta destaque a algum termo ou palavra;
• Itálico também destaca um termo, menos importante que o negrito;
• ‘’ ‘’ (aspas) salientam a importância de alguma palavra;
• ( ) (parênteses) introduzem uma ideia complementar ao texto.

Parte 2
Leitura de textos de gêneros diversos.
Gêneros Textuais são tipos de textos cuja a função comunicativa é reconhecida
social e culturalmente por uma determinada comunidade. Se caracterizam pela
organização, estrutura gramatical, vocabulários específicos.
- Como identificar gêneros textuais?
Formato (Layout); Recursos tipográficos (Negrito, itálico, etc.).
Gêneros Textuais:
Recipe:

E-mail:
Scientific Paper:
Daily Cartoon:
Biography:
Stephen Hawking Biography
Stephen Hawking was regarded as one of the most brilliant theoretical
physicists in history. His work on the origins and structure of the universe, from
the Big Bang to black holes, revolutionized the field, while his best-selling books
have appealed to readers who may not have Hawking's scientific
background. Hawking died on March 14, 2018.
In this brief biography, we look at Hawking's education and career — ranging
from his discoveries to the popular books he's written — and the disease that
robbed him of mobility and speech.
British cosmologist Stephen William Hawking was born in England on Jan. 8,
1942 — 300 years to the day after the death of the astronomer Galileo Galilei.
He attended University College, Oxford, where he studied physics, despite his
father's urging to focus on medicine. Hawking went on to Cambridge to
research cosmology, the study of the universe as a whole. 
In early 1963, just shy of his 21st birthday, Hawking was diagnosed with motor
neuron disease, more commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease or
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). He was not expected to live more than two
years. Completing his doctorate did not appear likely. Yet, Hawking defied the
odds, not only attaining his Ph.D. but also forging new roads into the
understanding of the universe in the decades since.

As the disease spread, Hawking became less mobile and began using a
wheelchair. Talking grew more challenging and, in 1985, an emergency
tracheotomy caused his total loss of speech. A speech-generating device
constructed at Cambridge, combined with a software program, served as his
electronic voice, allowing Hawking to select his words by moving the muscles in
his cheek.

Just before his diagnosis, Hawking met Jane Wilde, and the two were married
in 1965. The couple had three children before separating. Hawking remarried in
1995 but divorced in 2006.

News:

White House Delays Tariffs on E.U., Canada and Mexico for 30 Days

By ANA SWANSON APRIL 30, 2018 – The New York Times


WASHINGTON — The Trump administration said on Monday that it
would delay a decision to impose steel and aluminum tariffs on the
European Union, Canada and Mexico for another 30 days, giving key
allies a reprieve as the White House tries to extract concessions from
trading partners who have resisted those demands.

The extension reflects concerns by the Trump administration of a


swift retaliation on American products by European Union nations,
and will also give the Trump administration more breathing room to
work on a separate trade battle with China.

The 25 percent tariffs on steel and 10 percent on aluminum were set


to go into effect on Tuesday and had set off a global scramble by
nations trying to secure permanent exemptions. The administration,
which granted temporary exemptions to a handful of countries in
March, said it had reached initial agreements with Argentina,
Australia and Brazil that would allow them to avoid the tariffs, at least
for now. Details of those agreements will be finalized in the next 30
days, the White House said.

President Trump’s decision puts off a move that could have enraged
key American allies at a delicate moment, as the United States heads
toward tricky negotiations with North Korea and is considering
abandoning the Iran nuclear deal over the objections of European
Union leaders. Despite the president’s tough stance on trade, many
of his advisers are leery of initiating trade clashes that could
destabilize stock markets and put other political goals at risk, like
updating the North American Free Trade Agreement. The White
House is also dispatching a delegation of top officials to Beijing this
week to try to soothe tensions in its trade battle there.

The Trump administration had been trying to pressure Europe,


Canada, Mexico and other nations to renegotiate trading terms in
America’s favor, including limiting the flow of foreign metals into the
United States, saying that it would grant exclusions to the tariffs for
countries that agreed to meet its demands. But while the threat of
tariffs had helped finalize a continuing deal with South Korea, there
has been little indication that other nations will bend.

The reprieve will come as a relief to major American allies that were
bracing for damage to their economy from lower sales of metals into
the United States. But it could fuel criticism that Mr. Trump is more
bark than bite and increase the pressure on the White House to
squeeze concessions from other nations.

In recent weeks, American negotiators have pressed allies to restrain


their own metal shipments to the United States voluntarily in
exchange for having the tariffs lifted.

“In all of these negotiations, the administration is focused on quotas


that will restrain imports, prevent transshipment and protect the
national security,” the White House said in its statement Monday
evening.

Aula 3

Exercícios de compreensão: skimming e scanning; Tradução e interpretação de


textos.
Parte 1:

Exercícios de compreensão skimming e scanning.

Skimming. “Skim” em inglês é deslizar pela superfície, desnatar. Skimming


consiste em observamos o texto rapidamente apenas para detectar o assunto
geral do mesmo, sem nos preocuparmos com os detalhes. Para isto, é
necessário prestar atenção ao layout do texto, título, sub-titulo, cognatos,
primeiras e/ou últimas linhas de cada parágrafo, bem como à informação não-
verbal (figuras, gráficos e tabelas). No contexto acadêmico a técnica de
skimming é bastante empregada na seleção de material bibliográfico para
trabalhos de pesquisa.

Scanning. Em inglês quer dizer examinar, sondar, explorar. Scanning é uma


técnica de leitura que consiste em correr rapidamente os olhos pelo texto até
localizar a informação específica desejada. O scanning é prática rotineira na
vida das pessoas. Alguns exemplos típicos são o uso do dicionário para obter
informação sobre o significado de palavras ou a utilização do índice de um livro
para encontrar um artigo ou capítulo de interesse. Essa técnica não exige
leitura completa nem detalha do texto.

O Scanning é uma técnica excelente para resolver testes de proficiência em


leitura da língua inglesa de mestrados e doutorados que cobram a
interpretação de textos. 

1) Exercício de skimming. O que o trecho abaixo afirma?

“Using this integrated approach, the educator’s task is to carefully select among
the technological options. The goal is to build a mix of instructional media,
meeting the needs of the learner in a manner that is instructionally effective and
economically prudent.”

From: Engineering Outreach College of Engineering – University of Idaho.

2) Exercício de scanning. A quem o pronome “Their” na segunda linha se refere


?
Teaching and learning at a distance is demanding. However, learning will be
more meaningful and “deeper” for distant students, if students and their
instructor share responsibility for developing learning goals: actively interacting
with class members; promoting reflection on experience; relating new
information to examples that make sense to learners. This is the challenge and
the opportunity provided by distance education.

Parte 2
Tradução e interpretação de textos.
1)Leia o texto utilizando a estratégia Skimming. E discorra sobre o assunto
central do texto.
H1N1 flu is also known as swine flu. It's called swine flu because in the past,
the people who caught it had direct contact with pigs. That changed several
years ago, when a new virus emerged that spread among people who hadn't
been near pigs.

In 2009, H1N1 was spreading fast around the world, so the World Health
Organization called it a pandemic. Since then, people have continued to get
sick from swine flu, but not as many.

While swine flu isn't as scary as it seemed a few years ago, it's still important to
protect yourself from getting it. Like seasonal flu, it can cause more serious
health problems for some people. The best bet is to get a flu vaccine, or flu
shot, every year. Swine flu is one of the viruses included in the vaccine.

How do you catch it: When people who have it cough or sneeze, they spray tiny
drops of the virus into the air. If you come in contact with these drops, touch a
surface (like a doorknob or sink) where the drops landed, or touch something an
infected person has recently touched, you can catch H1N1 swine flu.

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2)Leia o texto novamente utilizando a técnica scanning e responda as
perguntas abaixo.

a)Como a gripe h1n1 pode ser transmitida?

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b)Por que a gripe h1n1 é também conhecida como gripe suína?

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Aula 4
Pronomes e Grupos nominais; Exercícios de prática de Leituras de textos,
skimming e scanning.
Parte 1:
Pronomes e Grupos nominais.
Pronomes:

Grupos Nominais:

Grupos Nominais são estruturas dentro de uma frase que tem por núcleo um
substantivo. Este núcleo normalmente vem acompanhado de determinantes
e/ou modificadores. Por exemplo:

“The most impressive proposal will also be the most effective parking
spaces.”

Sujeito: the most impressive proposal

Verbo: will also be

Complemento: most effective parking spaces

Primeiramente temos o sujeito, depois o verbo e depois o complemento. Aqui


fica claro que dentro do sujeito tem um grupo nominal, no qual a última palavra
é um substantivo (proposal) que está precedida de um adjetivo no superlativo
(the most impressive). Para compreender bem esse sujeito temos que
considerar que no grupo nominal primeiramente traduzimos o substantivo.
Portanto: A proposta mais impressionante. No complemento temos outro grupo
nominal: Os espaços de estacionamento (observe que o verbo parking virou
adjetivo para o substantivo spaces. Os espaços de estacionamento mais
efetivos.

A tradução completa é: A proposta mais impressionante também será os


espaços de estacionamento mais efetivos.

- Quando se identificar um grupo nominal, comece a ler a oração de trás para


frente aplicando estes conceitos.

EXERCÍCIOS

1) Traduza as frases abaixo conforme o exemplo.


a) A special first cycling route
Adjetivo: Special first
Verbo que funciona como adjetivo: cycling
Substantivo: route
Tradução: Uma primeira rota especial para ciclista.
2) Specially Constructed pavements

Advérbio:

Verbo no Particípio Passado Funcionando como Adjetivo:

Substantivo:

Tradução: 

3) Environmental studies classes

Adjetivo:

Substantivo que está funcionando como Adjetivo:


Substantivo:

Tradução:

4)  Childhood respiratory disease

Substantivo que funciona como adjetivo:

Adjetivo:

Substantivo:

Tradução:

5) Grown children

Verbo irregular funcionando como adjetivo:

Substantivo:

Parte 2:
Exercícios de prática de leitura de textos, scanning e skimming.
Disponíveis em: https://inglesufvjm.wordpress.com/conteudos-e-exercicios/
EXERCÍCIOS DE SCANNING:
1)Leia o texto e marque a alternativa correta em cada questão de acordo com a
técnica scanning.
EXERCÍCIOS SKIMMING
1)Use todas as técnicas de leitura aprendidas até o momento, leia estes dois
textos abaixo e explique a relação entre eles.
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2)Leia o texto abaixo com a técnica Skimming e responda as perguntas abaixo.


a)Que título você daria para esse texto?
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b)De que se trata esse texto? Retire três informações relevantes sobre esta
pessoa.