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INGLÊS

PROF. EDUARDO FOLKS


INGLÊS

ESTRATÉGIAS

1) CONHEÇA A BANCA EXAMINADORA.

• Resolva as provas passadas.


• Familiarize-se com a dinâmica das questões.
• Leia textos das fontes utilizadas pela banca examinadora.
(periódicos, sites de notícias, sites governamentais, etc.).

2) FAMILIARIZE-SE COM O VOCABULÁRIO


ESPECÍFICO DA ÁREA.

A pessoa que atua como Escriturário no BB deve ter boa capacidade de comunicação, pois as
atividades necessitam de relacionamento interpessoal quando há atendimento ao público
interno e externo, como, por exemplo: atuação no caixa (quando necessário), comercialização de
produtos e serviços do banco, contatos com clientes e prestação de informações aos clientes e
usuários. Além disso, há outras diversas funções bancárias e administrativas.
O profissional também pode fazer atualização/manutenção de dados em sistemas operacionais
informatizados e execução de outras tarefas inerentes ao conteúdo ocupacional do cargo, seja
na área de tecnologia de informação ou generalista.

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3) SAIBA GRAMÁTICA.

• Gramática costumeiramente cobrada pela banca.


• Gramática indispensável para compreender as passagens
• Connectors
• Verb Tenses
• Modal verbs
• Adjectives
• Pronouns
• Quantifiers
• Word formation

4) USE DICIONÁRIOS INGLÊS-INGLÊS.

5) COLOQUE MAIS INGLÊS EM SUA VIDA.

• Leia sobre temas de seu interesse em inglês (atualidades, esportes, música, cinema, séries, etc.).
• Use aplicativos de gramática e vocabulário.

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INGLÊS | EDUARDO FOLKS

GRAMMAR

CONNECTORS

1) Presenting Addition “And”

1.1) BESIDES / FURTHERMORE / MOREOVER /


IN ADDITION TO / WHAT´S MORE / BEYOND THAT
(“Além disso”; “Além do mais”)

I can’t go. Besides, I wouldn’t go if I could.


Sue always arrives on time. Furthermore, her work is always excellent.
The company provides cheap Internet access. In addition, it makes shareware available.
These detergents are environmentally friendly. What’s more, they’re relatively cheap.
Using language is a very complex enterprise. Beyond that, there is more to communication than
merely putting sentences together.

1.2) TOO = AS WELL


• “Too” e “as well” são usados no final das orações afirmativas ou interrogativas.
• It’s fast and comfortable. It’s economical, too/as well.
• Is it economical, too/as well?
• Martha and the kids are coming to visit. They’re bringing grandmother, too/as well.
• Are they bringing grandmother too/as well?

1.3) ALSO
• “Also” é usado antes do verbo principal ou depois do primeiro verbo auxiliar de orações
afirmativas.
• It’s fast and comfortable. It’s also economical.
• Martha and the kids are coming to visit. They’re also bringing grandmother.
• Nina runs a catering company. Also, she plans parties. (more emphatic)

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1.4) AS WELL AS = AND ALSO
We offer electronic toys as well as rent out video games
A new enterprise in a new land would require much capital and also credit.
When they go to Austria, they like walking as well as skiing.

1.5) EITHER (também)


• “Either” é usado no final de orações negativas.
• He doesn’t like baseball. He’s not fond of football either.
• EITHER (cada um;a/qualquer um;a) – em orações afirmativas.
• There’s tea or coffee – you can have either.
• We can offer a comfortable home to a young person of either sex.

1.6) LIKEWISE / SIMILARLY IN THE SAME WAY


(do mesmo modo, igualmente)
Nanny put on a skirt and told the girls to do likewise.
The cost of food and clothing has come down in recent years. Similarly, fuel prices have fallen
quite considerably.
• ‘You’re always welcome at our house.’
• ‘In the same way!’

2) PRESENTING PURPOSE
IN ORDER TO = SO AS TO = TO = FOR
• Lois came home early in order to see the children before they went to bed.
• I drive at a steady 50 mph so as to save fuel.
• Which vitamins should you take for (= in order to cure) skin problems?

3) PRESENTING
CAUSE / REASON

3.1) BECAUSE = FOR = AS = SINCE


(porque, por causa de, já que)

Since it was raining she took an umbrella


I almost missed my flight because there was a long queue in the duty-free shop.
• He found it increasingly difficult to read, for his eyes were failing.

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INGLÊS | EDUARDO FOLKS

We asked Philip to come with us, as he knew the road.


As it was getting late, I turned around to start for home.
* AS (while or when)
I saw Peter as I was getting off the bus.
As time passed, things seemed to get worse.
* AS (function)
She got a job as a nurse.
He worked as a journalist in the local newspaper.

3.2) DUE TO = BECAUSE OF


AS A RESULT OF = OWING TO (devido a)
• She has been absent from work due to illness.
• Owing to a lack of funds, the project will not continue next year.

4) PRESENTING CONCLUSION / RESULT “so”


4.1) SO / THEN
She was sick so she went to see a doctor.
If you plan the project well, then everything should fall into place.
If 2x = 8, then x = 4.
• Then (at a particular time in the past)
I wish I had known then what I know now.
• Then (what happens next or what you do next)
Mix the flour and butter, then add the eggs.
Byron travelled to Italy and then to Greece.

4.2) THUS = THEREFORE = HENCE = CONSEQUENTLY = ERGO


(Assim; Portanto; Desta forma)
• Most of the evidence was destroyed in the fire. Thus it would be almost impossible to
prove him guilty.
• It was clear Lucy was unhappy. Therefore, it comes as no surprise she has decided to
resign.
• Progress so far has been very good. Therefore, we’re confident that the work will be
completed on time.
• He’s just got a pay rise, hence the new car.

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• … there is no sound, ergo, no speed of sound, in the vacuum of space.
• After all they’re all human – ergo, they make mistakes, don’t they?
• The book has no narrator or main character. Consequently, it lacks a traditional plot.

5) PRESENTING CONDITION

5.1) IF=AS LONG AS = PROVIDED (THAT) = PROVIDING (se, contanto que)


We’ll start now provided you agree.

7.2) UNLESS (a menos que)


We’ll start now unless you don’t agree.
WHETHER (expressing doubt) = if
She asked me whether I was interested in working for her.
I was questioning whether we have the money to fund such a project.

5.2) OTHERWISE
We’d better send it express, otherwise it’ll take days.
(If we do not send it express, it will take days.)
Call home, otherwise your parents will start to worry.

6) PRESENTING CONTRAST “BUT”

6.1) DESPITE = IN SPITE OF (Apesar) REGARDLESS OF / NOTWITHSTANDING


I enjoyed the weekend despite the bad weather.
Notwithstanding the injuries, the team won the semifinal.
We earned the award, regardless of our mistakes.

6.2) (EVEN)THOUGH = ALTHOUGH = WHILE = WHEREAS (embora)


• Although the numbers of cases are small, it takes a long time to treat each person.
• While I don’t recommend a night-time visit, by day the area is full of interest.
• Whereas the city had spent over $1 billion on its stadium, it failed to look after its schools.

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6.3) ALBEIT / ALTHOUGH (despite the stated thing)


We welcome this package as a step in the right direction, albeit with some reservations.
He was making progress, albeit rather slowly.

6.4) HOWEVER / EVEN SO / NEVERTHELESS / NONETHELESS / STILL YET /


BUT (“Contudo”; “Entretanto”; “Ainda assim”)
• He’s overweight and bald, yet he’s attractive.
• It’s a nice dress, but it creases very easily.
• This is a cheap and simple process. However, there are dangers.
• Security at the event has been tightened since last year. Nonetheless, about 1000 managed
to get in without tickets.
• That guy is crazy. Still, he’s harmless.

6.5) THOUGH = NEVERTHELESS= HOWEVER


He can’t dance. He sings well, though.
The outcome of the Butler Report may have been predictable but it’s remarkable, nonetheless.

6.6) RATHER (THAN) / INSTEAD (OF)


(Em vez de; como) alternative or preference
I couldn’t afford a new car. RATHER, I bought a used one.
INSTEAD OF buying a new car, I bought a used one.
*RATHER (um tanto) It’s a rather lousy film.
She answered the phone rather sleepily.
*OR RATHER (melhor dizendo, corrigindo)
“My father, OR RATHER, my stepfather.”

7) PRESENTING TIME RELATION

7.1) AFTERWARD(S) = LATER (ON)


(mais tarde; posteriormente; depois)
A couple of years afterwards I bumped into her in a supermarket.
We had a swim and afterward we lay on the beach for a while.

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7.2) MEANWHILE = IN THE MEANTIME (Enquanto isso)
The doctor will be here soon. In the meantime, try to relax.
The incomes of male professionals went up by almost 80%. Meanwhile, part-time women
workers saw their earnings fall.
The computers should be working again soon. Meanwhile, let`s get on with some paperwork.

7.3) HITHERTO = SO FAR = UNTIL NOW (até agora)


So far we’ve made £32,000.

7.4) HENCEFORTH = FROM NOW ON = HEREAFTER


(de agora em diante, daqui para a frente)
Posts here will henceforth become briefer.
* the hereafter – life after death.
She had a firm conviction that they would meet again in the hereafter.

7.5) PRESENTLY – SOON – IN A WHILE


We will be leaving presently.

7.6) IMMEDIATELY – RIGHT AWAY – AT ONCE


Ingrid answered Peter’s letter at once. I need someone to help me right away.

7.7) AS SOON AS – WHEN – ONCE


• As soon as she entered the room, she knew there was something wrong.
Once you begin, you’ll enjoy it.

8) COMPOUND CONNECTORS

8.1) NOT ONLY… BUT ALSO


The war caused not only destruction and death but also generations of hatred between the
two communities.
Not only will they paint the outside of the house but also the inside.

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8.2) WHETHER… OR (NOT)


(two options or alternatives)

She didn’t know whether he was laughing or crying.


We’re not sure whether he’ll stay here for dinner or go somewhere else.
Whether you like it or not, you’re going to have to work now.

8.3) BOTH…AND
We use ‘both … and’ to emphasise the link between two things. This makes a stronger
connection than ‘and’ alone:
Both Britain and France agree on the treaty.
(stronger link than Britain and France agree on the treaty.)

8.4) EITHER…OR
‘Either… or…’ connects two choices:
It’s either black or grey. I can’t remember.
You can stay either with me or with Janet. (connecting phrases)

8.5) NEITHER…NOR
(It connects two or more negative alternatives)
We got so wet. We had neither umbrellas nor raincoats with us.
Neither our families nor our friends know that we are getting married!
Neither Italy nor France got to the quarter finals last year.

9) EMPHASIS

INDEED = REALLY = CERTAINLY = IN FACT = ACTUALLY


• Evidence suggests that errors may indeed be occurring.
• Indeed, it could be the worst environmental disaster in Europe this century.
• He was in fact near death by the time they reached him.
• They suspected that she’d killed him but they could never actually prove that it was her.

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AUXILIARY MODAL VERBS

WILL / SHALL / WOULD / CAN / COULD / MAY /


MIGHT / MUST / SHOULD / OUGHT TO
Os verbos auxiliares modais têm significados que variam entre graus de certeza, obrigação,
liberdade de ação, habilidade (física ou mental) e possibilidade. Também podem ser usados para
demonstrar o grau de polidez e tato do falante.
Funcionam como verbos auxiliares, sendo usados antes de um verbo no infinitivo sem “to” (com
exceção de ought, que só funciona com to).
Não recebem o ‘-s’ na 3ª pessoa do singular do presente (he,she,it). Não possuem formas como
‘ing’ (gerúndio) ou ‘ed’ (part. passado).
Na formação de perguntas ou negativas não usamos nenhum auxiliar e sim os próprios verbos
modais.

Modal Auxiliary Verbs    Verbo no Infinitivo


WILL
Play
SHALL
Study
WOULD
Wave
CAN
Achieve
COUL
Beg
MAY
Portrait
MIGHT
MUST
SHOULD = OUGHT TO

WILL
• Capacity plans WILL be examined further in the next few months, but are not expected to
change.
• Americans WILL do anything to avoid a drawn match.
• * He won because he had to win; because for him, the WILL to win is as strong as the WILL
to live.
(WILLPOWER / GOODWILL)
• Not long after that, we found out that Mom and Dad had left us all a lot of money in their
WILLS.

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SHALL
• Strangers SHALL not (shan’t) enter this room.
• No employee SHALL smoke in this area.
• The primary residence of the children SHALL remain with the mother.
(legal documents, rules, regulations)
SHALL we leave now? / SHALL I turn the air conditioner on? (suggestion, invitation)

WOULD
• CONDITIONAL – We WOULD purchase a new house IF we had money.
• WOULD = USED TO – The company WOULD have impressive profits in the 90s.
• WOULD RATHER – I WOULD RATHER stay here for a while.
• WOULD (OFFER) – WOULD you LIKE some more coffee?

CAN ( IS / ARE ABLE TO – KNOW HOW TO )


CAPACIDADE / HABILIDADE
He can lift 200 pounds.
She can speak Russian.
Possibility – It can rain tonight.
Request – Can you open the door?
OBS. Permissão (be permitted to)
Some places can stay open for longer because they have an entertainment licence.

CAN (Noun) / (UK – tin)

a can of soup/beans
An oil can

Cans = I was wearing cans so I didn’t hear anything.


Can = prison He spent ten years in the can for armed robbery.
(Verb) – CAN/CANNED/CANNED
He works in a factory where they can fruit.
CANNED peas; CANNING company

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COULD
CAPACIDADE / HABILIDADE NO PASSADO
( WAS / WERE ABLE TO – KNEW HOW TO )
I was raised around horses and could ride before I could walk.

POSSIBILIDADE
This new drug could be an important step in the fight against cancer.

PEDIDO POLIDO
Could I use the phone?

MAY
PERMISSÃO – is / are allowed to
A reader may borrow up to six books at one time.
POSSIBLIDADE CONCRETA
The explosion may have been caused by a faulty electrical connection.
It may rain tonight.

MIGHT
(PAST) PERMISSION = WAS / WERE ALLOWED TO
He asked if he might accompany her.
Might I ask a question?

SLIGHT POSSIBILITY
It might rain tonight.
I might come and visit you next year, if I save enough money.

MIGHT = FORCE = POWER


She struggled with all her might to get free.

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MUST

OBRIGAÇÃO / FORTE NECESSIDADE ( HAVE / HAS TO )


To calm public opinion, police must arrest the culprits and solve this case.
Must (be) – dedução / suposição
The lights are on. They MUST be at home.
Must not – proibição
Children MUST NOT watch that movie.

SHOULD = OUGHT TO = HAD BETTER

RECOMENDAÇÃO / SUGESTÃO / CONSELHO


You SHOULD see a doctor since you’re not feeling well.
She really ought to apologize.

INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS

SOME – Algum(a), alguns(as)


AFIRMATIVAS
Some players watched the game yesterday. Some slept.
Exceções:
1) em interrogativas expressando um oferecimento ou um pedido.
Would you like some tea?
Would you send me some brochures?
2) começo de frases negativas.
Some workers will not come tomorrow.

COMPOSTOS DE SOME (AFIRMATIVAS)


Something – alguma coisa
Somebody / Someone – alguém
Somewhere / someplace – algum lugar
Someway / Somehow – de alguma maneira
Sometime – algum dia

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Please, get me something to eat.
They saw somebody in the parking lot.
You must have put their letter somewhere!
I’m not sure how, but somehow or other we’ll raise the money.
We really should meet sometime soon to discuss the details.

ANY – Algum(a), alguns(as)


NEGATIVAS E INTERROGATIVAS
Do you have any Christmas records? No, I don’t have any.
“Is there any more soup?” “No, I’m afraid there isn’t any left.”
Quando for usado em frases afirmativas será traduzido como “qualquer”.
(not important which)
She can play any game.
Any food would be better than nothing at all.
“Which of these cakes may I eat?” “Any.”

COMPOSTOS DE ANY (INTERROGATIVAS E NEGATIVAS)


Anything – alguma coisa
Anybody / Anyone – alguém
Anywhere – algum lugar
Anyway / Anyhow – de qualquer maneira
He doesn’t buy anything with U$ 5,00.
Did you see anybody last night?
I can’t find my keys anywhere.
Did you go anywhere interesting this summer?
Of course I don’t mind taking you home – I’m going that way anyway.
NO – Nenhum(a). Determiner. usado antes de substantivos.
There are no pockets in these trousers.
That’s my kind of holiday – no email, no phone, and no worries.
NONE – Nenhum(a). Pronome. Não é usado antes de substantivos.
I have searched the shelves for either packet or tinned pumpkin soup but alas there is none!
Despite the pledges and promises of money, none had actually materialised.
NONE OF – Nenhum(a) do(e;a;s)
None of them traveled abroad last year.
None of the brokers have/has invested in the stock market. None of my children has/have blonde
hair.
The estate agent had pictures of the house from the outside but none of its interior.

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none other than – Used to emphasize the surprising identity of a person.


Her first customer was none other than Elvis Presley.
NOBODY/NO ONE – Ninguém. Pronome usado para pessoas.
More than 100 people attended the lecture. Nobody/No one from Rio has appeared.
NOTHING – Nada. Pronome usado para coisas.
There’s nothing in the drawer – She took everything out.
NOWHERE – Nenhum lugar. Pronome usado para lugares. These young people have nowhere to
go.
EVERY – todo(s), toda(s). Seguido por substantivo no singular.
The hotel assures every guest of personal attention.
The police want to interview every employee about the theft.
EVERY OTHER – There is an accident every other week purely because of the narrow road and
its nasty corners. / There is a flight to Rio every other day.
EVERYBODY/EVERYONE – Todos. Verbo no singular.
Would everyone who wishes to attend the dinner let me know by Friday afternoon?
Everybody has their own ideas about the best way to bring up children. EVERYTHING – Tudo.
Pronome usado para coisas.
I’m not surprised everything has come together so well, because the team was blended.

PAY ATTENTION!

HARDLY
BARELY
SCARCELY
NEVER
RARELY
The night was so dark that they could barely see ANYTHING.
Peter hardly sees anything without glasses.
We never call anyone after 11 PM.
ATENÇÃO: Em inglês não usamos duas negações numa mesma oração.
They don’t have no one to go with them. (errado)

They don’t have anybody to go with them. (correto)


They have no one to go with them. (correto)

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VERB FUNDAMENTALS

AUXILIARY VERBS

Como sugere a denominação, são os verbos que funcionam como “assistentes”, “ajudantes” dos
verbos convencionais/completos e ajudam a formar os tempos verbais. São eles:
1) TO BE (is, are, was, were, will be, has been, had been, etc.);
2) TO DO (do, does, did);
3) TO HAVE (have, has, had, will have);
4) MODAIS (will, shall, would, can, could, may, might, must, should)

ORDINARY (FULL) VERBS

Os verbos “convencionais” (comuns) são aqueles que possuem as formas verbais do infinitivo,
passado, particípio passado e particípio presente (-ing). Também podem ocorrer em qualquer
tempo verbal (present tenses, past tenses e future). São divididos em duas categorias: regulares
e irregulares.

V1 V2 V3 V4
Work worked worked working

Agree agreed agreed agreeing

win won won winning

Take a look: AUXILIARY VERB / MAIN VERB


• Mike is being rude to her.
• We had been trying to open the door for five minutes when Jane found her key.
• This time next week I will be sunbathing in Bali.
• Did she do her homework?
• I will have been here for six months on November 6th .
• She could have done all on her own.
• Laurie may achieve her ambition.
• You should be resting.

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REGULAR VERBS

Caracterizados pela terminação “–ed” no passado (V2) e no particípio passado (V3). São a
maioria dos verbos da Língua Inglesa.

V1 V2 V3
Work worked worked
Accomplish accomplished accomplished
Love loved loved
Manage managed managed
Beg begged begged
Marry married married

IRREGULAR VERBS

São os verbos que não formam o passado e o particípio passado com a terminação –ed (eat,
drink, speak, run, make, etc.). São minoria na classe dos verbos. Porém são os mais frequentes
verbos da língua inglesa.

V1 V2 V3

Tear tore torn


Bleed bled bled
Split split split
Run ran run

VERB TENSES

SIMPLE PRESENT
(I play / He sings)
SUJEITO + V1 (+”s” ou “-es” para “he/she/it”)
• We open every day from 9am to 7pm.
• The company accomplishes its annual goals.

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DO/DOES(he/she/it) + SUJEITO + V1?
• Do you open every day?
• Does the company accomplish its annual goals?
SUJEITO + DO/DOES NOT(don’t/doesn’t) + V1
• We don’t open every day.
• The company doesn’t accomplish its anual goals
Ações ou eventos que ocorrem regularmente, habitualmente.
• That convenience store opens every day.
Verdades universais, gerais.
• Water boils at 100 degrees celsius.
• The sun rises in the east.
Timetable future
• The train leaves at 11:00.
• The game starts at 5:00.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
(I`m playing / He is singing)
SUJ + AM-ARE-IS + V4 (-ing)
• Mary is working now.
• The boys are playing at this moment.
AM-ARE-IS + SUJ + V4 (-ing)?
• Is Mary working now?
• Are the boys playing at this moment?
SUJ + AM NOT / ARE NOT (AREN’T) / IS NOT (ISN’T) + V4 (-ing)
• Mary isn’t working now.
• The boys aren’t playing at this moment.
• ação ou evento que está ocorrendo no momento em que se fala. É o presente real.
Smell it! Mum is cooking dinner.
• arrangement
She’s getting married in the spring.
Dad is travelling tomorrow at noon.

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SIMPLE PAST
(I played / He sang)
SUJEITO + V2(-ED/ irregulares)
• They worked last night.
• The manager spoke to his team the day before yesterday.
DID + SUJEITO + V1?
• Did they work last night?
• Did the manager speak to his team the day before yesterday?
SUJEITO + DID NOT (didn’t) + V1
• They didn’t work last night.
• The manager didn’t speak to his team the day before yesterday.
Ações ou eventos que ocorreram num momento DEFINIDO, DETERMINADO do passado.
É fundamental que ocorra uma expressão de tempo que funcione como resposta para a
pergunta “Quando?”.
• The company hired some workers last week.
• The boss went to London four days ago.
• Did Jane talk to uncle Joe yesterday?
• The last week incidents didn’t have links with the local community.
Palavras e expressões que pedem o uso do Simple Past
• Yesterday – ontem Ago – atrás
• Last night/week/month – noite passada/semana passada/ mês passado
• In 2017 / in March / in my childhood

Used to
usado para falar de algo que acontecia regularmente no passado mas não mais acontece.
• SUJ + USED TO + V1
• She used to eat meat (but now she’s a vegetarian)
• DID + SUJ + USE TO + V1?
• Did she use to eat meat?
• SUJ + DIDN’T USE TO + V1
• She didn’t use to eat meat.

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PRESENT PERFECT
(I have played / He has sung)
SUJEITO + (HAVE/HAS) + V3 (ED / Irregulares)
• I have worked hard.
• The company has cut some costs.
(HAVE/HAS) + SUJEITO + V3(ED /Irregulares)?
• Have you written the report?
• Has the company hired new employees?
SUJEITO + (HAVE/HAS NOT – HAVEN’T/HASN’T) + V3
• We haven’t talked to them for ages!
• The CEO hasn’t traveled to Malasya since 2013.
Ações que ocorreram num passado indefinido, indeterminado.
• The team has played well.
Ações iniciadas no passado e que estendem-se até o presente (ações não finalizadas).
• Mr Ottis has worked here since 1993.
Ações recém finalizadas.
• Mary has JUST arrived.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


(I have been playing / He has been singing)
• Ações iniciadas no passado e que estendem-se até o presente (ações não finalizadas.
Normalmente, as ações são mais temporárias).
• They have been waiting in line for 10 hours.
• Ação recentemente finalizada mas cujo efeito possa ser sentido no presente.
• Someone has been smoking in here.
• It has been raining heavily.
• I have been correcting tests since this morning.
• “Sorry I’m late.” “That’s ok. I haven’t been waiting long.”
• What have you been doing since we last met?

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FUTURE FORMS AND USES

WILL
S + WILL + V1 (Base form)
She’ll work tomorrow.
WILL + S + V1?
Will she work tomorrow?
S + WILL NOT (WON’T) + V1
She won’t work tomorrow.
Prediction
• I think/guess it`ll rain tomorrow.
Spontaneous intention
• I`ll fetch your suitcase.
• We’ll have grape juice, please. Thank you, waiter.
With the verbs ‘promise’ and ‘swear’
• We promise/swear that we’ll do a better job next time.
Request
• Will you give that to Tony when you see him, please?

BE GOING TO
S + AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO + V1 (Base form)
Mike is going to start college next month. They are going to be here soon.
AM/IS/ARE + S + GOING TO + V1?
Is Mike going to start college next month? Are they going to be here soon?
S + AM/IS/ARE + NOT (ISN’T / AREN’T) + GOING TO + V1
Mike isn’t going to start college next month. They aren’t going to be here soon.
Intention
• He’s going to be a pilot in the Air Force.
Evidence now
• Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain any minute.

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SHALL – In formal contexts, mostly with ‘I’ and ‘we’.
S + SHALL + V1 ( Base form)
We shall win.
SHALL + S + V1?
Shall we win?
S + SHALL NOT (SHAN’T) + V1
We shall not win.

SHALL – In formal contexts, mostly with ‘I’ and ‘we’.


• I shall send it to you tomorrow. (formal / old fashioned)
• We shall have to provide that right away. (formal / old fashioned)
• The primary residence of the children shall remain with their mother. (legal decisions,
documents)
• The management shall not be responsible for damage to personal property. (SHALL NOT –
EMPHASIS – VERY FORMAL)
• This door shall be kept closed at all times. (COMMANDS / INSTRUCTIONS – very formal)
• Shall I carry your suitcase? (offer)
• Shall we eat out tonight? (suggestion)

Future PERFECT
S + WILL HAVE + V3 (Past Participle)
Mike will have finished the task by midnight.
WILL + S + HAVE + V3?
Will Mike have finished the task by midnight?
S + WILL NOT (WON’T) HAVE + V3
Mike won’t have finished the task by midnight.
Ações ou acontecimentos já estarão finalizados em determinado momento no futuro.
• On 14 November Maggie will have worked here ten years.
• By the year 2050, newspapers will have died out.

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INGLÊS | EDUARDO FOLKS

IMPERATIVE

FORMS
V1 = INFINITIVE WITHOUT `TO` (AFFIRMATIVE)
Plug the keyboard cable in at the back of the computer. (instruction)
Stand closer to us. (invitation)
Bring the snacks (, will you?) (request)
DON`T (DO NOT) / NEVER + V1 (INFINITIVE WITHOUT ‘TO’)
Don’t enter that room. (command)
Don’t eat so much greasy food. It might harm you. (advice)
Never take that medicine twice a day. (warning)
LET’S (NOT) + INFINITIVE WITHOUT ‘TO’ (speaker included)
Let’s eat out tonight. (, shall we?) (invitation)
Let’s not travel this weekend. (, shall we?) (advice / request)
Let’s not miss the main focus of interest. (advice)
Match the sentences to the purposes they convey.

a) Put your clothes away, now! ( ) command


b) Turn left after the mall. ( ) request
c) Come over to my place later. ( ) invitation
d) Don’t eat greasy food. It may harm you. ( ) instruction
e) Bring the snacks, please. ( ) advice

TESTS ON VERBS

Which of the sentences below has a correct verb form?


a) I haven’t met my Chinese friends since July.
b) The children have read a Chinese story yesterday.
c) Have you learned Mandarin when you were in school?
d) They have seen many Chinese films last year.
e) His parents have lived in China in the 1960’s.
Since the introduction of MP3 music player headphones many minor street accidents ­______
a) Occurs
b) Is occurring
c) Had occurred
d) Have occurred
e) Were occurring

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Choose the best alternative to complete the sentence below:
“Mexico __________ many difficult crises in history, but now it __________ its own future.”
a) has faced – is shaping
b) faced – was shaped
c) have faced – shapes
d) have been facing – shaped
e) faces – has been shaped
Test- adapted (Cefet-PR)
All sentences below are in the imperative, except:
a) Express your anger in a jornal.
b) Don’t go for a walk.
c) Be aware that you are eating to manage your feelings.
d) It may be a sign to try something new.
e) Let’s eat slowly and savor the taste.

FORMAÇÃO DE ADJETIVOS PELO PARTICÍPIO


PASSADO (V3 -ED) E PELO PARTICÍPIO PRESENTE (V4 -ING)

ING ADJECTIVES
(someone or something that generates a feeling.)
• An amazing number of people registered.
• She`s got a boring job in an office.
• That movie is very interesting.
• There is some shocking and disgusting stuff in this book.
• That was the most surprising discovery of the day.

-ED ADJECTIVES
(Someone’s state or feelings.)
• The singer was amazed by the number of people in the arena.
• She is bored with her job in an office.
• The viewers are very interested in that movie.
• The readers became shocked and disgusted by some stuff in this book.
• Researchers were surprised at that discovery.

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INGLÊS | EDUARDO FOLKS

PRINCIPAIS VERBOS IRREGULARES


AGRUPADOS POR AFINIDADE

V1 V2 V3
TRADUÇÃO
(Infinitivo) (Passado) (Part. Passado)

Beset Beset Beset Atacar, Recuar


Bet Bet Bet Apostar
Burst Burst Burst Estourar
Cast Cast Cast Arremessar
Cost Cost Cost Custar
Cut Cut Cut Cortar
Hit Hit Hit Bater, Golpear
Hurt Hurt Hurt Ferir, Machucar
Let Let Let Deixar, Permitir
Put Put Put Por, Colocar
Quit Quit Quit Desistir, Parar
Read Read Read Ler
Set Set Set Ajustar, Estabelece
Shut Shut Shut Fechar
Split Split Split Rachar, Partir
Spread Spread Spread Espalhar, Difundir
Wet Wet Wet Molhar, Umedecer

(AS TRÊS COLUNAS SÃO IGUAIS: INFINITIVO = PASSADO = PARTICÍPIO PASSADO)

Bleed Bled Bled Sangrar


Breed Bred Bred Criar, Gerar
Feed Fed Fed Alimentar
Lead Led Led Liderar
Meet Met Met Encontrar, Reunir-se
Shoot Shot Shot Atirar
Speed Sped Sped Acelerar

(AQUI A ÚLTIMA VOGAL CAI E ASSIM O VERBO ESTÁ NO PASSADO E TAMBÉM PARTICÍPIO)

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Bring Brought Brought Trazer
Buy Bought Bought Comprar
Fight Fought Fought Lutar, Brigar
Seek Sought Sought Procurar
Think Thought Thought Pensar, Achar

(DINÂMICA INFINITIVO – OUGHT – OUGHT)

Bend Bent Bent Dobrar


Build Built Built Construir
Lend Lent Lent Emprestar
Send Sent Sent Enviar, Mandar
Spend Spent Spent Gastar, Passar

(DINÂMICA _D / _T / _T )

Creep Crept Crept Rastejar


Feel Felt Felt Sentir
Keep Kept Kept Guardar, Manter
Sleep Slept Slept Dormir
Weep Wept Wept Chorar, Lamentar
Sweep Swept Swept Varrer

(DINÂMICA DA QUEDA DE UM “-E” E ACRÉSCIMO DE UM “T” PARA O PASSADO E PARTICÍPIO


PASSADO)

Deal Dealt Dealt Lidar, Negociar


Mean Meant Meant Significar, Querer
Dizer
Hear Heard Heard
Ouvir

(AQUI HÁ O ACRÉSCIMO DE UMA CONSOANTE À FORMA DO INFINITIVO. ASSIM O VERBO


ACONTECE NO PASSADO E PARTICÍPIO PASSADO)

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INGLÊS | EDUARDO FOLKS

Begin Began Begun Começar


Drink Drank Drunk Beber
Ring Rang Rung Tocar, Soar
Shrink Shrank Shrunk Encolher
Sing Sang Sung Cantar
Sink Sank Sunk Afundar
Spring Sprang Sprung Saltar
Swim Swam Swum Nadar

(DINÂMICA I/A/U)

Blow Blew Blown Soprar


Grow Grew Grown Crescer
Know Knew Known Saber, Conhecer
Throw Threw Thrown Arremessar

(DINÂMICA _OW / _EW / _OWN )

Arise Arose Arisen Emergir, Originar


Drive Drove Driven Dirigir, Conduzir
Ride Rode Ridden Passear, Cavalgar
Write Wrote Written Escrever
Rise Rose Risen Ascender, subir
Smite Smote Smitten Punir, bater
Strive Strove Striven Lutar, esforçar-se

(DINÂMICA _I-E / _O / _EN )

Lay Laid Laid Pôr, Colocar


Pay Paid Paid Pagar
Say Said Said Dizer

(DINÂMICA _AY / _AID /_AID )

Sell Sold Sold Vender


Tell Told Told Dizer, Contar

(DINÂMICA _ELL / _OLD /_OLD )

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Cling Clung Clung Aderir
Dig Dug Dug Cavar
Hold Held Held Segurar, Prender
Sit Sat Sat Sentar-se
Win Won Won Ganhar
Get Got Got / Gotten* Pegar, Obter, etc.

(AQUI A VOGAL DO INFINITIVO É TROCADA POR OUTRA VOGAL NO PASSADO, QUE É IGUAL AO
PARTICÍPIO PASSADO)
*O PARTICÍPIO PASSADO DE “GET” ADMITE AS FORMAS “GOT” E “GOTTEN”

Come Came Come Vir


Become Became Become Tornar-se
Overcome Overcame Overcome Superar
Run Ran Run Correr
Forerun Foreran Forerun Antecipar, Antever
Overrun Overran Overrun Alastrar, Exceder

(INFINITIVO É IGUAL AO PARTICÍPIO)

Saw Sawed Sawed / Sawn Serrar


Sew Sewed Sewed / Sewn Costurar
Sow Sowed Sowed / Sown Semear
Show Showed Shown Mostrar

(CUIDADO! NÃO CONFUNDA-OS.)

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