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ESCOLA SUPERIOR MADRE CELESTE

NÚCLEO DE EDUCAÇÃO À DISTANCIA

CURSO:
Letras - Inglês
DISCIPLINA: English Pragmatics
PROFESSOR:Harley Dolzane
DATA: 26/03/2020
DISCIPLINA: ENGLISH PRAGMATICS

SPEECH ACTS THEORY (Cont.)

Objetivos de aprendizagem:
ESCOLA SUPERIOR MADRE CELESTE
NÚCLEO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO LATO SENSU
- Rever conceitos essenciais da Teoria dos Atos de Fala.
- Interpretar enunciados a partir da teoria dos Atos de Fala.
- Introduzir o tema Felicity Condition relacionados aos atos de fala.

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DISCIPLINA: ENGLISH PRAGMATICS

SPEECH ACTS THEORY (Cont.)

Pensando a partir das teoria de Austin, anteriormente estudada, infira as


possíveis forças ilucutórias e perlocutórias dos diferentes enunciados a seguir:

• The governor goes against the health authorities.

• The governor's statements contradict medical guidelines

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DISCIPLINA: ENGLISH PRAGMATICS

Os enunciados abaixo contêm implicitamente uma força ilocutória não manifestada


pelo falante. Você deve reconstruir o enunciado de modo a tornar esses atos de
fala indiretos em atos de fala diretos.
Ex: “Hey, I’m hungry.” (dito por um amigo ao outro que está comendo)
Give me some food / Tell me where can I get some food.

a)  “The bill” (dito por cliente ao garçom no restaurante);

b) “Will you leave your dirty backpack on the chair?” (dito pela mãe para seu filho
de 10 anos quando ambos chegam em casa);

c) “It was not me.” (dito aos berros por um réu no tribunal);

d) “Do not leave the backpack on the chair.” (escrito em uma placa em uma
biblioteca).

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Na tirinha do slide anterior, um mesmo enunciado performa atos
diferentes dependendo das condições contextuais em que é
proferido.

• Qual é o referido enunciado?

• Quais os ilocutórios e perlocutórios do referido enunciado?

• Pensando no contexto, qual aspecto contextual é decisivo para


a variação de sentido do referido enunciado?
(pesquise aqui sobre alguns aspectos dos estudos pragmáticos, entre eles, o contexto:
http://www.sfs.uni-tuebingen.de/~dm/04/spring/201/03-pragmatics.pdf)
Felicity Condition - Definition and Explanation

Searle (1969) has set some more detailed rules concerning felicity condition for each illocutionary
acts. In his accordance, several conditions have to be fulfilled for a sentence to be felicitous.
These rules mostly regarding with psychological and the beliefs of the speaker or hearer and each
one of them has to be fulfilled in order to create a felicitous act. These rules are prepositional
content, preparatory condition, sincerity condition, and essential condition as explained in the
following:

1. Propositional content: Propositional content condition explains about the illocutionary


forces specify the acceptable conditions regarding with propositional content. In other words, it is
the proposed condition of the speaker or hearer.
2. Preparatory condition: In attempt to conduct a felicitous illocutionary act the speaker has to
have a certain beliefs about the speaker's act and conditions and also, the speaker is required to
have the power of authority over the hearer.
3. Sincerity condition: In performing felicitous act the performer must have a certain
psychological attitude concerning the propositional content of the utterance. For example, when
a person is making a promise, he/she must have an intention of keeping it.
4. Essential condition: Essential condition of an utterance has to do with its intention to get
the hearer to perform the intended act.
Felicity Condition - Definition and Explanation

These are some felicity conditions as proposed by Searle (1969, p.66-67):

1. Felicity conditions: Request


Propositional content: Future act A of H.
Preparatory condition: (i) H is able to do A.(ii) It is not obvious to both S and H that H will
do A in the normal course of events of his own accord.
Sincerity condition: S wants H to do A.
Essential condition: Counts as an attempt to get H to do A.

2. Felicity conditions: Asserting/Stating


Propositional content: Any proposition p.
Preparatory condition: (i) S has evidence (reasons, etc) for the truth of p. (ii) It is not
obvious for both S and H that H knows (does not need to be reminded of, etc) p.
Sincerity condition: S believes p.
Essential condition: Counts as an undertaking to the effect that p represents an actual
state of affairs.
Felicity Condition - Definition and Explanation

3. Felicity conditions: Question


Propositional content: Any proposition.
Preparatory condition: (i) S does not know the answer (ii) It is not obvious that H will
provide the information without being asked.
Sincerity condition: S wants this information.
Essential condition: Counts as an attempt to elicit this information.

4. Felicity conditions: Thanking


Propositional content: Past act A done by H.
Preparatory condition: A benefits S and S believes A benefits S.
Sincerity condition: S feels grateful or appreciative for A.
Essential condition: Counts as an expression of gratitude or appreciation.

5. Felicity conditions: Advising


Propositional content: Future act A of H.
Preparatory condition: (i) S has some reason to believe A will benefit H (ii) It is not
obvious to both S and H that H will do A in the normal course of events.
Sincerity condition: S believes A will benefit H.
Essential condition: Counts as an undertaking to the effect that A is in H‘s best interest.
Felicity Condition - Definition and Explanation

6. Felicity conditions: Warning


Propositional content: Future event E.
Preparatory condition: (i) S thinks E will occur and is not in H’s interest (ii) S thinks it is not
obvious to H that E will occur.
Sincerity condition: S believes E is not in H’s best interest.
Essential condition: Counts as an undertaking that E is not in H’s best interest.

7. Felicity conditions: Congratulating


Propositional content: Some event, act, etc., E related to H
Preparatory condition: (i) E is in H's interest.
Sincerity condition: S is pleased at E.
Essential condition: Counts as an expression of pleasure at E.

8. Felicity conditions: Greeting


Propositional content: None
Preparatory condition: S has just encountered (or been introduced to, etc.) H.
Sincerity condition: None
Essential condition: Counts as courteous recognition of H by S.
Felicity Condition - Definition and Explanation

9. Felicity conditions: Promising


Propositional content: Future action A by S
Preparatory condition: (i) S believes H wants A done (ii) S is able to do A. (iii) A has not
already been done. (iv) H will benefit from A.
Sincerity condition: S is willing to do A.
Essential condition: Counts as attempt of S to make H believes about the future act A to be
done by S.

There are also some other revelation of felicity conditions by another linguists. According to Cook
(1989), felicity condition of an order are:

10. Felicity Conditions: Order


Propositional content: Future act A by H
Preparatory condition: (i) S believes A needs to be done (ii) H is able to do A (iii) H has the
obligation to do A (iv) S has right to tell H to do A
Sincerity condition: S wants H to do A
Essential condition: Counts as an attempt to get H to do A. (p.36)

The difference with the requesting is that in ordering the speaker needs to have a right to do so
and the hearer needs to have the obligation to do the act.
Felicity Condition - Definition and Explanation

Another revelation is made by Anne Barron (2003). She deduce the felicity condition of offering as
2 types of commisives (offer to do x) and commisives-directives as following:

11. Felicity Conditions: Offer (commisives)


Propositional Content: S predicates a future act x of S
Preparatory condition: (i) S is able to perform x (ii) H wants S to perform x
Sincerity condition: S intends to do x
Essential condition: Counts as the undertaking by S of an obligation to do x,
should S want H to do so. (p.126)

12. Felicity conditions: Offer (commisives-directive)


Propositional Content: S predicates a future act x of S
Preparatory condition: (i) S is able to perform x. (ii) H wants S to perform x
Sincerity condition: (i) S intends to do x. (ii) S wants H to do x
Essential condition: (i) Counts as the undertaking by S of an obligation to do x, should S want
H to. (ii) As an attempt by S to get H to do x. (p.126)
Felicity Condition - Definition and Explanation

She also points out the felicity condition for refusal for an offer as following:

13. Felicity condition: Refusal of offer


Propositional Content: S predicates a future act x of H
Preparatory condition: (i) H is able to (not) perform x. S believes H is able (not)
to perform x. (ii) It is obvious that H would (not) do x without being asked.
Sincerity condition: S wants H (not) to do x
Essential condition: Counts as an attempt to get H (not) to do x. (p.128)

Para alguns exercícios acerca deste tema acesse: (https://


benjamins.com/sites/z.156/exercise/c11q5)
DISCIPLINA: ENGLISH PRAGMATICS

A seguir estão dispostos alguns atos ilocutórios. Para cada ato estão sugeridas
quatro ‘condições de felicidade’. Em cada caso somente duas condições estão de
fato corretas. Você deve indicar com um (X) quais são elas.

a) to request:

( ) o ouvinte deve ter a intenção de fazer a coisa pedida; e isto é óbvio para o
enunciador;
( ) o enunciador deve ter status inferior ao ouvinte;
( ) a coisa pedida deve ser algo que o ouvinte está em condições de fazer;
( ) o enunciador quer que o ouvinte faça a coisa pedida.

b) to warn:

( ) o enunciador é responsável ou co-responsável pelo que está avisando;


( ) a coisa avisada é um evento ou um estado futuro;
( ) a coisa avisada deve ser moralmente errada;
( ) o ouvinte não deseja que a coisa avisada aconteça.

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c) to greet:

( ) o enunciador e o ouvinte devem ser de sexos diferentes;


( ) o enunciador e o ouvinte não devem estar no meio da conversa;
( ) o enunciador deve supor que o ouvinte sofreu uma perda recentemente;
( ) o enunciador sente algum respeito e/ou compartilha de espírito comunitário
com o ouvinte.

d) To protest:

( ) o enunciador e o ouvinte devem ter brigado recentemente;


( ) o enunciador deve desaprovar o estado de coisas contra o qual protesta;
( ) esse estado de coisa, objeto do protesto, deve ser desaprovado pela
comunidade em geral;
( ) o ouvinte deve ser considerado (pelo enunciador) de algum modo responsável
(ou co-responsável) pelo estado de coisa contra o qual se protesta.

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