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Reforo Ssmico

de Edifcios Antigos de Alvenaria

Rita Bento

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


A deciso quanto soluo, dimenso e necessidade de
interveno deve basear-se na avaliao estrutural executada,
focando-se nos seguintes pontos:
Obteno de um nvel de resistncia ssmica adequado sem comprometer a
ductilidade global necessria;
Correo dos erros locais encontrados;
Melhoria da regularidade estrutural em altura e em planta;
Aumento local da ductilidade e/ou da capacidade de dissipao de energia;
Atuao atravs do reforo direto de certos elementos deficientes ou pela
introduo de novos elementos resistentes;
Minimizao dos custos de operao (anlise custo-benefcio)

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS

A interveno com vista ao reforo ssmico pode ser dividida:

1.Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel das fundaes


2.Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel local
3.Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel global

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS

Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel das fundaes

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel das fundaes

Reforo do terreno de fundao, nomeadamente por injeo e jet-grounding

!
(Loureno, P; U. Minho)

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


!"#$TCNICAS
%&'(&)*#+),)#-./01,),#1#
2.*.-+.'01#2.#34'2)56.*
Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel das fundaes
DECivil

a) Alargamento da fundao superficial existente


Reforo da fundao, alargamento da base com beto e conectores

(Appleton, J; 2003)

APPLETON, J., Reabilitao de Edifcios Antigos Patologias e tecnologias


de interveno, Edies Orion, 1 Edio, Setembro de 2003.

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

37

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS

Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel das fundaes


,"+"-'!.'.!#-+#/'%0#-+,"+
#,"%!#

Reforo da fundao a partir de micro-estacas


es - Execuo de
Micro-estacas

Abril de 2011

(Appleton, J; 2011)

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS

Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel local

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

$/'5(/0,C$.'2! -)()! -(%%43A%(! 3)&/$)$%'! /45%(/.(%'2! '%@)1! %*)'! 8/'',()'! .,! &)>/.'!!
>)$)!%1!/45%(&%46?%'!'.0(%!%$/8C3/.'!$%!(%3.4A%3/$.!&)*.(!)(5C'5/3.!
NR/+,()!SQ;!<!+()4,*.1%5(/)!$)'!3)*$)'!$%!/4@%367.!$%-%4$%!$)!$/1%4'7.!$)'!8%4$)'!.,!
! L! -)(5/3,*)(1%45%! /4$/3)$)! -)()! )! (%)0/*/5)67.! $%! )*&%4)(/)'! $%!
TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS
&)>/.';!M1!+%()*2!=!,')$)!,1)!3)*$)!$%!*/+)45%!3.1!O+,)!'%1!)(%/);!T.!%45)45.2!'%!.'!
1)!8/4)!(%$%!$%!&)>/.'!/45%(/.(%'2!3.1,4/3)45%'!%45(%!'/;!!
&)>/.'!'7.!$%!+()4$%!$/1%4'7.2!=!-(%8%(C&%*!,1)!)(+)1)'')!.,!,1!0%57.!$%!3.4'/'5E43/)!
Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel local
3.4'/'5%!4)!%1/''7.!$%!,1)!3)*$)!8*,C$)!N3/1%45C3/)2!A/$(O,*/3)!.,!
8*,C$);!
3)'Q2! %1! 8,(.'2! -(%&/)1%45%! %8%35,)$.'! %! 3.4&%4/%45%1%45%!
!
Injeo de '%@)1!
Fendas%*)'! 8/'',()'! .,! &)>/.'!!
-(%%43A%(! 3)&/$)$%'! /45%(/.(%'2!

.1%5(/)!$)'!3)*$)'!$%!/4@%367.!$%-%4$%!$)!$/1%4'7.!$)'!8%4$)'!.,!

,')$)!,1)!3)*$)!$%!*/+)45%!3.1!O+,)!'%1!)(%/);!T.!%45)45.2!'%!.'!

%!$/1%4'7.2!=!-(%8%(C&%*!,1)!)(+)1)'')!.,!,1!0%57.!$%!3.4'/'5E43/)!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!N)Q!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!N0Q0

R/+,()!SF!U4@%367.!$%!)*&%4)(/)'#!N)Q!'%*)+%1!$%!8%4$)'V!N0Q!3.4'.*/$)67.!1)5%(/)*;!

!
(Tese de Mestrado de Lisandra Miranda)
<!%8/3O3/)!$%'5)!5=34/3)!5%1!'/$.!0%1!',3%$/$)!%1!)*&%4)(/)'2!3.1!,1!C4$/3%!$%!

&)>/.'!3.1-(%%4$/$.!%45(%!.'!WX!%!.'!SYX;!<0)/D.!$%!WX!.'!(%',*5)$.'!'7.!%1!+%()*!
(Roque, 2002)

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!N)Q!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!N0Q0
!

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

!
)*&%4)(/)'#!N)Q!'%*)+%1!$%!8%4$)'V!N0Q!3.4'.*/$)67.!1)5%(/)*;!

"!

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


!"##$%$&$'(')#*')*+),"+-"*)*+)(%$&$.(-/"
Tcnicas
de Interveno ao nvel local
! 45->*>-+"'#5*+")-5"*1"?'%-"#1+*%*"'*'21>*5'*"'%17-5-+#-"'7&2@*"'
%-'A*5-%B8&.'&$'"-.'"-2*>-.'A&5'.*#-51*2'21>*+#-C
! "#$%&$'(#)*+,'-*).'(#+,/*0'$&0'/*$.*1

Confinamento transversal das Paredes


H I1>*%&5-"'5E>1%&"

H I1>*%&5-"'72-JE)-1"

Colocao de confinadores
apertados mecanicamente
colocados face a face em paredes

(Cias, 2007)

Aumento substancial da resistncia da alvenaria


Reduzida intrusividade

DE#&5'F61*"?'9::G

Reversibilidade
O Efeito do confinamento interessa a totalidade
da espessura da parede

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel local
Reforo de nembos/colunas:
aplicao de folha ou tecido
compsito

(Coias, 2007)

Reforo de paredes de alvenaria com


tecido de fibras de carbono

(http://evstudio.info/carbon-fiber-reinforcement-of-masonrywall-for-new-7-eleven/)

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS

Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel Global

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS

0123043(51(6781960:6;

Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel Global

"'()*+,-+./

DECivil

F) Reforo da ligao dos pisos de madeira com alvenaria


Reforo
decom
pisos
e ligaes
pisos-paredes
chapas metlicas
exterior
recurso
a peas
metlicas (cont.):
Fixao de perfis de ao em paredes para reforo de
frechais e apoio dos barrotes do pavimento

(Edifer)
!"#$"%&

(Foto Edifer)

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel Global
Reforo de pisos
Fibras de Carbono na parte
de baixo do piso

(Calvi, 2012)

Laje de Beto

(www.tecnaria.com)

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE
REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS
F./*)#!K@IM!N!A(.3.?#+0&!5-!(.)#'(-$!:#)#!3./#)!:#)-5-$!
O$(#!Interveno
(B%'.%#! -$(6! #7:3#7-'(-!
5.C*'5.5#! -! (-7! 2.'5&! #! $-)! #:3.%#5#! 5-! *7#! C&)7#!
Tcnicas de
ao nvel Global
$.$(-76(.%#! #&! 3&'/&! 5&$! (-7:&$;! C./*)#! K@IJ! -! (#74B7! -7! .'(-)2-'+,-$! )-%-'(-$! '&$!
UtilizaoP+&)-$;!C./*)#!K@KQ@!
de Tirantes/Barras Roscadas (Tie-Rods)

!
F./*)#!K@IJ!R!A(.3.?#+0&!5-!(.)#'(-$!:#)#!3./#)!:#)-5-$!
(A. Costa, 2008)
!
!

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

!"#$%!&'$%#())*)'(%+,%,+!()-')!./'$!+0!)-')"'-+!!

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel Global
!

Utilizao de Tirantes/Barras Roscadas (Tie-Rods)

! An alternative solution, very useful in particular situations

components (in steel or timber), glued to the extrados of


"#$%&'!()(9!+!:0;%/4'0!</!3#$'-=5!/12&/!>'&/</0!6(*8!

to the vault and in which the barrier effect is much less se

!
"#$%&'!()(?!+!@#&'12/0!>'&'!'A05&B/&!'0!C54>51/12/0!D5&#E512'#0!<50!#4>%3050!

Figure 30 Tying of masonry vaults with tie-rods in

!
!

steel (21)

(A. Costa, 2008)

(Santos, 2003)

Figure 3

tim

When blocks have become out of position, an adequate


by rebuilding in the correct position. In very severe situa
! has been heavily changed, it can be more appropriate
AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013
its reconstruction using materials similar to the original o
!"#$%!&'$%#())*)'(%+,%,+!()-')!./'$!+0!)-')"'-+!!

In the case of filled vaults, one possible solution

Simulating an intervention where the roof structure can be temporarily removed, a reinforced concret
TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS
ring beam, 20 cm high
and 32 cm wide (as the wall below), was cast at the roof level, on top of th
de Interveno
nvel Global
perimeterTcnicas
faades (Fig.
2, left). Theao
reinforcement
consisted in 4!16 longitudinal bars and !8 stirrup
at a spacing of 20 cm, coherently with the prescriptions of the Italian Building Code (NTC08, 2008).

Wall and Diaphragm Interaction

Utilizao de vigas de B.A. ao nvel dos pisos

a- Wood ( flexible) diaphragm without ties


with
Figure 2.b-Wood
Detail of the diaphragm
reinforcement of the
joint atties
the base of the gable wall (left). Operation of drilling the
timber spreaderwith
beam and
concrete ring beam (right)
c- Rigid diaphragm
tiethebeams
(Ahmad, 2012)

(Magenes et al, 2012)

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel Global

e shear walls.

Colocao de Paredes Resistentes de B.A.

F igu re 6: typical retrofitting by shear wall !


(Mahdizadeh et al, 2012)

method was achieved by experience of other countries and different


buildings. In this method,
the peripheral of one story masonry building
AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013
dimension, arrangements and thickness of shotcrete are determined

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel Global

!"##$%&'()!&"!*++$++#$%&!'%,!-#.("/$#$%&!"0!1%($2%0"(3$,!4'+"%()!5627,2%8+!0"(! >?@?A>>
Utilizao de Prticos de BA ou Metlicos
9'(&:;6'<$!=$+2+&'%3$! !
!

!
&'()*+"!"#!$,-"."/01/*+2+"303+12"4*53+"'16'7+"28+"45957+"04"5":5*(+";<=">)':7'1("'1"
(Edifcio em Welllington, Dunning Thornton Consultants )
?+::'1(201"@A)11'1("B80*1201"!016):25126CD"
AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

5('3$,!0('#$+!'($!'!/$()!$00232$%&!#$&:",!"0!&('%+0$((2%8!:"(2K"%&'7!0"(3$+!B6&!:'/$!+28%2023'%&!
+$&B'3<+D! '%,! &:$2(! 6+$! 2%! 0'L',$! J'77+! 2+! 6+6'77)! .($376,$,! B)! &:$! .($+$%3$! "0! J2%,"J+D! '+!
TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS
,2'8"%'7!B('3$+!3("++2%8!J2%,"J!".$%2%8+!'($!8$%$('77)!3"%+2,$($,!&"!B$!.""(!,$+28%H!-&!2+!'7+"!
,2002367&!&"!8$&!'!B('3$,!0('#$!&"!3"%0"(#!&"!'%!$M2+&2%8!'(3:2&$3&6('7!3:'('3&$(N!:"J$/$(!&:$)!
Tcnicas
de Interveno ao nvel Global
3'%!B$!6+$,!&"!/$()!8"",!$00$3&!J2&:2%!+$3"%,'()!+.'3$+D!'%,!3'%!B$!#',$!&"!02&!'(3:2&$3&6('77)!
2%! +"#$! +2&6'&2"%+! J2&:! 3'($067! 3"%+2,$('&2"%H! O286($! !>P"?>! '%,! O286($! !>P"??! +:"J! B('3$,!
Colocao
de Trelias Metlicas
0('#$+!2%!6+$H!Q$%$('77)!+.$'<2%8D!+&$$7!B('3$,!0('#$+!:'/$!'!8"",!,$8($$!"0!($/$(+2B272&)!'%,!
3'%!.("/2,$!$M3$77$%&!+&($%8&:$%2%8!J:$%!6+$,!'..(".(2'&$7)H!

&'()*+"!"#!$"-"F//+12*'/">*5/'1("'1"5"
G5:HG5I"@A)11'1("B80*1201"!016):25126CD"

&'()*+"!"#!$$-".1"+//+12*'/5::I">*5/+7"/0*+"
(Dunning Thornton Consultants )
@A)11'1("B80*1201"!016):25126CD"

AVALIAO
SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013
!

argamassa ou microbeto Edifcios pombalinos em Lisboa

!"#$%&%'#()*+,"+"-'!.'.!#-+#/'%0
Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel Global
#&1"/#!%#+"+2#,"%!#
TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS

Reforo de Paredes de Alvenaria Reboco Armado

Reforo de paredes de alvenaria com recurso a lminas arm

argamassa ou microbeto Edifcios pombalinos em Lisboa

(Appleton 2011 )

AbrilAVALIAO
de 2011 SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

and replacement of all such dwellings is both unfeasible and undesirable, given that they are often the
embodiment of local culture and tradition. It is therefore often more feasible to consider low-cost
retrofitting of such buildings. Experiments and advanced numerical simulations have shown that PPband mesh can dramatically increase the seismic capacity of adobe/masonry houses [P. Mayorka and K
REFORO
DE EDIFCIOS
Meguro, 2008TCNICAS
]. This is mainly DE
achieved
by increasing SSMICO
the structural ductility
and energy dissipation
capacities. Under moderate ground motions, PP-band meshes provide enough seismic resistance to
guaranty limited
and controlled cracking
of the
retrofitted structures. Under extremely strong ground
Tcnicas
de Interveno
ao nvel
Global
motions, they are expected to prevent or delay the collapse, thus, increasing the rates of survival.
Experimental verification (full scale) was done in the laboratory of Tokyo University [Nesheli K et al,
2006] and also in Kathmandu, (small scale 1:6) demonstrating reliable performance improvement in
the integrity
the structure
preventing
material loss. This method is good for one storey
Reforo
de of
Paredes
PP and
Bands
- Polipropileno
buildings and can be used for a maximum of two storeys. To protect the Polypropylene from ultra
violate rays, mud plaster is used on the outside, providing adequate cover to ensure the durability of
the material.

Fig 3.5 Implementation of PP band method of retrofitting in Kathmandu Valley (left) and anchorage throughout
the wall (right)
(Shrestha et al. 2012)

A pilot scheme implementing the PP-Band technology in Nepal was conducted in a rural village just
outside Bhaktapur, in Nepal, by National Society for Earthquake Technology-Nepal (NSET) in
collaboration with Mondialogo Engineering Award Team. The project is titled Improving the
AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013
Structural Strength under Seismic Loading of Non- Engineered Buildings in the Himalayan Region
and outlines training courses for rural masons and public demonstrations for community members in

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel Global
Incluso de tecido compsito plstico/fibras de vidro - RFIX Sisma Calce

um tecido plstico de fibra de vidro com quatro


direes da fibra
(Urban and Stempniewski, 2013 )
AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel Global

Incluso de material compsito plstico/fibras de vidro - RFIX Sisma Calce

(Urban and Stempniewski, 2013 )


AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

TCNICAS DE REFORO SSMICO DE EDIFCIOS


Tcnicas de Interveno ao nvel Global

Incluso de material compsito plstico/fibras de vidro - RFIX Sisma Calce

(Urban and Stempniewski, 2013 )


AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013

Referncias

LOURENO, P. Reabilitao de edifcios de alvenaria e adobe. Apresentao de apoio a aulas de Reabilitao de Estruturas de Alvenaria.
Universidade do Minho.
Ahmad Hamid, 2012, Design and Retrofit of unreinforced Masonry Structures, FUNDEC course on Lisbon, February 6, 2012.
Amadio C., Gattesco N., Dudine A., Franceschinis R., Rinaldin G., 2012, Structural performance of spandrels in stone masonry buildings, Proc.
of the 15th World conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp 5077, Lisbon, Portugal.
Appleton J, 2009, Tcnicas de reabilitao de estruturas de alvenaria, Seminar Patologia, Inspeco e Reabilitao de Edificios
tradicionais (in Portuguese).
Appleton, J., Reabilitao de Edifcios Antigos Patologias e tecnologias de interveno, Edies Orion, 1Edio, Setembro de 2003 [in
Portuguese].
Arifuzzaman S. and Saatcioglu M., 2012, Seismic Retrofit of Load Bearing Masonry Walls by FRP sheets and Anchors, Proc. of the 15th World
conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp 4501, Lisbon, Portugal.
Calvi, G.M. 2012, Alternative Choices and Criteria for Seismic Strengthening, Keynote Lecturer, Proc. of the 15th World conference on
Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal.
Cias e Silva V (2007) Reabilitao Estrutural de Edifcios AntigosAlvenaria, MadeiraTcnicas pouco intrusivas. Ed. Argumentum &
Gecorpa, Lisbon, Portugal (in Portuguese).
Costa A., 2008, Notes from the post-graduation course on rehabilitation of constructions Stone Masonry structures.
Cruz H., FUNDEC course on Rehabilitation techniques of constructions, wood structures, IST - 23 Jan to 3 February 2012.
Ingham, J., 2012, FUNDEC one day lecture on the Seismic assessment and improvement of unreinforced masonry buildings, IST.
Kabir M. Z., Kalali A., Shahmoradi R., 2012, Cyclic Behavior of Perforated Masonry Walls Strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers, Proc.
of the 15th World conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp 3734, Lisbon, Portugal.
Loureno, P. Reabilitao de edifcios de alvenaria e adobe. Lectures on the rehabilitation of masonry structures, University of Minho.
Ma R., Jiang L., He M., Fang C., Liang F., 2012, Experimental investigations on masonry structures using external prestressing techniques for
improving seismic performance, Engineering Structures 42 (2012) 297307.
Magenes G., Penna A., Rota M., Galasco A. , Senaldi I., 2012, Shaking table test of a full scale stone masonry building with stiffened floor and
roof diaphragms, Proc. of the 15th World conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp 5320, Lisbon, Portugal.
Mahdizadeh A., Borzouie J., Raessi M., 2012, New Approach to seismic Rehabilitation of Masonry School Buildings, Proc. of the 15th World
conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp 2851, Lisbon, Portugal.
Mayorka P. and Meguro K, 2008, "A step towards the formulation of a simple method to design PP-Band mesh retrofitting for Adobe/Masonry
houses", 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, October 2008.
Meireles, HA, 2012, Seismic vulnerability of Pombalino buildings, PhD Thesis, IST, Portugal (in English).
Parisi M.A., Chesi C.,Tardini C. , 2012, The Role of Timber Roof Structures in the Seismic Response of Traditional Buildings, Proc. of the 15th
World conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp 2394, Lisbon, Portugal.
Robinson L, Bowman I, 2000, Guidelines for Earthquake Strengthening, New Zealand, Historic Places Trust, Wellington, NZ.
Roque, J. A., 2002, Reabilitao Estrutural de Paredes Antigas de Alvenaria. Master Thesis University of Minho, Setembro 2002.
(www.civil.uminho.pt/masonry) (in Portuguese).
Santos S.P. (reporter), 2010, Guide for the Structural Rehabilitation of Heritage Buildings, CIB Publication 335, June 2010.
Santos, S.P., 2003, Structural Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings, 40th Meeting of Commission CIB W023, Padova, Italy, (in CD-ROM).
Shrestha H., Pradhan S., Guragain R., 2012, Experiences on Retrofitting of Low Strength Masonry Buildings by Different Retrofitting
Techniques in Nepal, Proc. of the 15th World conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp 2012, Lisbon, Portugal.
Urban M., Stempniewski, L., 2013, Evolution of a strengthening system for masonry buildings
- from prototype to practical implementation RFIX Sisma Calce, SE-50EEE, Skpia, Macednia.

AVALIAO SSMICA E REFORO DE EDIFCIOS ANTIGOS DE ALVENARIA, 6 e 7 de Junho 2013