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Students’ Handbook

B.Tech

Electronics and Communication Engineering

Semester-V

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering


Ambala College of Engineering and Applied Research, Ambala
(Affiliated With)
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

Mission and Vision of the Institute


Vision of the institute

To become a source of technology and start an Incubation Centre for entrepreneurs resulting in

this region developing into a vibrant industrial hub with many startup companies dealing with

new technology.

Mission of the institute

1. To impart quality engineering education to students through quality teaching, hands on

training, and applied research in practical and product oriented projects.

2. To impart such education that passing out students are ready with good theoretical and

practical knowledge to suite the current need of industry.

3. To expose students to applied research, especially the fact that research does not require

much money but does require great persistence.

4. To sow the seed of entrepreneurship in them so that our engineers become job providers

and not job seekers.

5. To train students as a complete person through extracurricular activities and with an


exposure to a transparent system based on ethics so that they believe that a successful
institution and a successful business can be run with ethics without corruption.

Mission and Vision of the Department


Vision of the Department

Vision of the department is to impart the students of Electronics and Communication engineering

quality teaching embedded with updated and upgraded technical knowledge based on research

and innovations by practical hands on training.

Mission of the Department

1. To make students capable to convert theoretical knowledge into practical knowledge.

2. To frame the students to follow heuristic approach i.e. learning while doing.

3. To impart the knowledge among students to have practical hands on latest software and

technical tools.

4. To inculcate students with hard skills and soft skills.

Programme Educational Objectives


The department has defined its PEOs, which are described as below.

1. To impart to the students knowledge in basic sciences, engineering sciences and humanities

to understand the societal context of engineering.

2. To impart technology based engineering education to students for developing their analytical

skills leading to optimization in system design.

3. To make students capable to be effective in multidisciplinary and diverse professional

environments so that they become capable to work with product based projects through

applied research.

4. To make students capable to function as an individual or as a part of a team, therefore,

enhancing their leadership and cooperative abilities to fulfill the needs of industry, locally

and globally.

5. To develop the desire to keep learning throughout life and a passion towards modern

technical engineering tools for understanding professional and ethical standards.

6. To motivate students to serve and to benefit the society in a constructive manner by

developing soft skills and hard skills in them through training of teachers.

List of Programme Outcomes


1. Knowledge of basic sciences, humanities and engineering.

2. Identify, formulate and analyze to solve complex engineering problems.

3. Capable to design and integrate the systems.

4. Able to work as an individual and in multidisciplinary team.

5. An ability to engage in life-long learning.

6. Ability to communicate effectively.

7. Knowledge of latest design tools.

8. To design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and understand data.

9. Understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental,

and societal context.

10. An ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary

for engineering practice.

11. To design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic
constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety,
manufacturability, and sustainability

Bachelor of Technology (Electronics and Communication Engg.)


Scheme of Courses/Examination
(5th Semester)
Sl. Course Subject Teaching Schedule Examination Schedule Duration
No No. (Marks) of Exam
. (Hours)
L T P/D Tot Th Sess P/VV Tot

1 ECE-301E Antenna and 3 2 - 5 100 50 - 150 3


Wave Propagation
2 ECE-303E Computer 3 1 - 4 100 50 - 150 3
Hardware Design
3 ECE-305E Information 4 1 - 5 100 50 - 150 3
Theory and
Coding
4 ECE-307E Linear IC 3 2 - 5 100 50 - 150 3
Applications
5 ECE-309E Micro-Electronics 4 1 - 5 100 50 - 150 3
6 ECE-311E Microprocessors 3 2 - 5 100 50 - 150 3
& Interfacing
7 ECE-313E Linear Integrated - - 3 3 - 50 25 75 3
Circuits(Pr)
8 ECE-315E Microprocessors - - 3 3 - 50 25 75 3
(Pr)
9 ECE-317E Training Report - - - - - 100 - 100 3
Total 20 9 6 35 600 500 50 1150

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


AMBALA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED RESEARCH, AMBALA
Subject : Antenna and Wave Propagation Semester : 5th
Subject Code : ECE-301E Lecture per Week :3
Theory Marks : 100 Tutorials per Week :2
Sessional Marks : 50 Practical : -

SYLLABUS
UNIT – I
Basic principles and definitions: Retarded vector and scalar potentials. Radiation and induction fields. Radiation
from elementary dipole (Hertzian dipole, short dipole, Linear current distribution), half wave dipole, Antenna
parameters : Radiation resistance, Radiation pattern, Beam width, Gain, Directivity, Effective height, Effective
aperture, Bandwidth and Antenna Temperature.

UNIT – II
Radiating wire structures and antenna arrays: Folded dipole , Monopole, Biconical Antenna, Loop Antenna,
Helical Antenna. Principle of pattern multiplication, Broadside arrays, Endfire arrays, Array pattern synthesis,
Uniform Array, Binomial Array, Chebyshev Array, Antennas for receiving and transmitting TV Signals e.g.
Yagi-Uda and Turnstile Antennas.

UNIT – III
Aperture type antennas: Radiation from rectangular aperture, E-plane Horns, H-plane Horns, Pyramidal Horn,
Lens Antenna, Reflector Antennas .
Broadband and frequency independent antennas : Broadband Antennas. The frequency independent concept :
Rumsey’s principle, Frequency independent planar log spiral antenna, Frequency independent conical spiral antenna
and Log periodic antenna.

UNIT – IV
Propagation of Radiowaves : Different modes of propagation, Ground waves, Space waves, Surface waves and
Tropospheric waves, Ionosphere, Wave propagation in the ionosphere, critical frequency, Maximum Usable
Frequency (MUF), Skip distance, Virtual height, Radio noise of terrestrial and extra terrestrial origin. Multipath
fading of radio waves.

Note: The question paper shall have eight questions in all organized into four sections, each section having two
questions from each of the four units. The candidate shall have to attempt five questions in all , selecting at least one
question from each unit.Each question will be of equal marks.

Suggested Books:

 Robert E.Collin, Antenna & Wave Propagation, McGraw Hill


 John D. Kraus, Antennas, McGraw Hill.
 E.C.Jordan and K.G.Balmain, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems, PHI

LECTURE PLAN
LECTURE LECTURE TOPIC
No.
L-1 Introduction to Antenna, Antenna terminology
L-2 Retarded vector and scalar potentials
L-3 Radiation and induction fields
L-4 Radiation from elementary dipole
L-5 Hertzian dipole, short dipole, Linear current distribution
L-6 half wave dipole, Antenna parameters : Radiation resistance
L-7 Antenna parameters : Radiation pattern, Beam width, Gain
L-8 Antenna parameters : Directivity, Effective height, Effective aperture
L-9 Antenna parameters : Bandwidth and Antenna Temperature
L-10 Test of Unit I
L-11 Folded dipole , Monopole Antenna
L-12 Biconical Antenna
L-13 Loop Antenna, Helical Antenna
L-14 Principle of pattern multiplication
L-15 Broadside arrays
L-16 Endfire arrays
L-17 Array pattern synthesis, Uniform Array
L-18 Binomial Array, Chebyshev Array
L-19 Antennas for receiving and transmitting TV Signals e.g. Yagi-Uda and Turnstile Antennas
L-20 Test of Unit II
L-21 Radiation from rectangular aperture
L-22 E-plane Horns, H-plane Horns, Pyramidal Horn
L-23 Lens Antenna
L-24 Reflector Antennas
L-25 Introduction to Broad Band and Frequency independent Antennas
L-26 Rumsey’s principle, Frequency independent planar log spiral antenna
L-27 Frequency independent conical spiral antenna
L-28 Log periodic antenna
L-29 Test of Unit III
L-30 Different modes of propagation, Ground wave propagation
L-31 Surface Waves and Space Waves
L-32 Tropospheric Waves, Sky Wave Propagation
L-33 MUF, Critical Frequency, Skip Distance, Virtual Height
L-34 Radio Noise of terrestrial and extra Terrestrial Origin
L-35 Multipath Fading of Radio Waves
L-36 TEST

Tutorial sheet 1
1. Explain the concept of retarded vector potentials.
2. Explain the following terms:
i. Antenna temperature
ii. Effective length
iii. Directivity
3. What is radiation resistance? What are the factors affecting radiation resistance?
4. Derive a relation for average power radiated from a half wave dipole. Also calculate its radiation
resistance.
5. Calculate the effective length of a λ/2 antenna. Given Rr =73Ω, (Ae)max=0.13λ2 and η=120πΩ.
6. Calculate maximum effective aperture of
i. An antenna which is operating at a wavelength of 2 m and directivity of 100.
ii. An antenna having directivity of 900.

Tutorial sheet 2
1. Explain how impedance transformation is possible in folded dipole antenna? How folded dipole antenna
differs from conventional half wave dipole ?
2. Explain key advantages of using Yagi-Uda antenna.
3. Explain Biconical antenna. Calculate characteristic impedance of biconical antenna.
4. An array of two identical infinitesimal dipoles oriented as shown in Figures aand (b). For a separation d and
phase excitation difference β between the elements, find the angles of observation where the nulls of the
array occur. The magnitude excitation of the elements is the same.
5. Calculate the directivity of a broadside uniform array of 10 isotropic elements with a separation of λ/4
between them.
6. An endfire array composed of λ/2 radiators with axes right angles to line of the array required to have a
power gain of 20. Determine array length and the width of a major lobe between nulls.

Tutorial sheet 3
1. Explain Horn antenna. Calculate HPBW of optimum flare horns.
2. Differentiate between E-Horn and H-Horn. Calculate directivity and power gain of horn antenna.
3. Explain principle of lens antenna. Explain various types of lens antennas and their uses?
4. For parabolic reflector antenna prove that f= 0.25D cot(θ/2)
5. Calculate BWFN of a 2.5m parabolic reflector used at 6 GHz. Calculate the gain in db.

Tutorial sheet 4
1. What is the range of radio waves? Explain various modes of propagation of radio wave.
2. Discuss the concept of virtual height.
3. Discuss multipath fading of radio waves. How fading effect can be reduced on received signal Strength?
4. Discuss the structure of ionosphere.
5. Determine the charge in the electron density of E layer when the critical frequency changes from 4 MHz to
1 MHz between midday and sunset.
6. A television transmitting antenna mounted at a height of 120 m radiates 15 kW of power equally in all
directions in azimuth at a frequency of 50 MHz. Calculate:
i. Maximum line of sight distance
ii. Field strength at a receiving antenna mounted at a height of 16 m at adistance of 12 Km
iii. Distance at which the field strength reduces to 1 mV/m

Tutorial sheet 5
1. Explain the following terms:
i. Effective area
ii. Gain
iii. Directive gain
2. What is radiation pattern? Discuss various types of radiation patterns.
3. What do you mean by electrically small and electrically large antenna? Explain the concept of hertizian and
short dipole.
4. What is front to back ratio? What are the factors affecting FBR?
5. Calculate the approximate gain and beam width of a paraboloidal reflector antenna operating at frequency 4
GHz , 20 m diameter and illumination efficiency 55%.
6. Calculate gain of an antenna with circular aperture of diameter 3 m at a frequency of 5 GHz.

Tutorial sheet 6
1. Explain principle of pattern multiplication.
2. Explain key advantages of using turnstile antenna.
3. What are antenna arrays? Write a short note on chebyshev array.
4. Explain loop antenna in detail.
5. Differentiate between Axial and Normal mode of helical antenna. List various uses of helical antenna.
6. Find out length, width, half flare angles of a pyramidal horn with h=10 λ.

Tutorial sheet 7
1. What is Rumsey principle? Explain the concept of frequency independence of antennas.
2. Write a note on log spiral antenna.
3. Give analysis of log periodic array. Also discuss general characteristics of log periodic antenna.
4. Discuss various feed systems for parabolic reflector antenna. What are their merits and demerits?
5. Estimate the diameter of a paraboloidal reflector which produces a beam of 5o at 1.2 GHz.
6. A parabolic Dish provides a gain of 75 db at a frequency of 15 GHz. Calculate the capture area, it’s half
power beam width and null beam width.
Tutorial sheet 8
1. Discuss following terms in detail:
i. Maximum usable frequency(MUF)
ii. Skip Distance
2. What is critical frequency?
3. Discuss Radio noise of terrestrial and extra terrestrial origin.
4. Derive a relation between fmuf (maximum usable frequency) & fc (critical frequency).
5. At what frequency a wave must propagate for D region to have an index of refraction 0.5? Given: N=400
electrons/c.c. for D region.
6. Assume that reflection takes place at a height of 400 Km and that the maximum density in ionosphere
corresponds to a 0.9 refractive index at 10 MHz . What will be the range for which MUF is 10 MHz
i. Considering flat earth
ii. Considering curvature of earth

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


AMBALA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED RESEARCH, AMBALA
Subject : Computer Hardware Design Semester : 5th
Subject Code : ECE-303E Lecture per Week :3
Theory Marks : 100 Tutorials per Week :1
Sessional Marks : 50 Practical : -

SYLLABUS
UNIT-I
Basic structure of computer hardware and software :
Functional Units, historical Perspective, Register transfer and micro-operations. Information representation,
Instruction format, Instruction types, Addressing modes, Machine and Assembly Language programming, Macros
and Subroutines.

UNIT-II
Processor design: Fixed – point and floating-point arithmetic addition, subtraction, Multiplication and division,
Decimal arithmetic unit – BCD adder, BCD subtraction, decimal arithmetic operations, ALU design, Forms of
Parallel processing classification of Parallel structures, Array Processors, Structure of general purpose
Multiprocessors.
Control design:
Hardwired Control: design methods, Multiplier Control Unit, CPU Control unit, Micro programmed Control: basic
concepts, Multiplier Control Unit, Micro programmed Computers, CPU Control unit.

UNIT-III
Memory organization: Memory device characteristics, Random access memories: semiconductor RAMS, Serial –
access Memories – Memory organization, Magnetic disk memories, Magnetic tape memories, Optical memories,
Virtual memory, Main Memory Allocation, Interleaved memory, Cache Memory, Associative Memory.

UNIT-IV
System organization: Input-Output Systems – Programmed IO, DMA and Interrupts, IO Processors,
Interconnection networks – single bus, crossbar networks, multistage networks, hypercube networks, mesh
networks, Tree networks, ring networks, Pipelining – basic concept.

Note: The question paper shall have eight questions in all organized into four sections, each section having two
questions from each of the four units. The candidate shall have to attempt five questions in all , selecting at least one
question from each unit.
Suggested Books:
1. J.P.Hayes, Computer Architecture and Organization, Mc Graw Hill.
2. M.M. Mano , Computer System Architecture, PHI.
3. V.C.Hamacher, Z.G.Vianesic & S.G.Zaky, Computer Organization, Mc-Graw Hill.

LECTURE PLAN

Lecture Lecture Topic


Number
L1 Introduction
L2 Functional Units, historical Perspective
L3 Register transfer and micro-operations
L4 Register transfer and micro-operations
L5 Information representation
L6 Information representation
L7 Instruction format, Instruction types
L8 Addressing modes
L9 Machine and Assembly Language programming,
L10 Macros and Subroutines
L11 PROCESSOR DESIGN: Fixed – point and floating-point arithmetic addition, subtraction,
Multiplication and division
L12 PROCESSOR DESIGN: Fixed – point and floating-point arithmetic addition, subtraction,
Multiplication and division
L13 Decimal arithmetic unit – BCD adder, BCD subtraction
L14 ALU design,
L15 Forms of Parallel processing classification of Parallel structures
L16 Array Processors
L17 Structure of general purpose Multiprocessors
L18 Hardwired Control: design methods, Multiplier Control Unit, CPU Control unit
L19 Micro programmed Control: basic concepts, Multiplier Control Unit,
L20 Micro programmed Computers, CPU Control unit
L21 MEMORY ORGANIZATION: Memory device characteristics,
L22 Random access memories: semiconductor RAMS, Serial – access Memories
L23 Memory organization
L24 Magnetic disk memories, Magnetic tape memories, Optical memories
L25 Virtual memory
L26 Main Memory Allocation
L27 Interleaved memory, Cache Memory, Associative Memory
L28 SYSTEM ORGANIZATION: Input-Output Systems
L29 Programmed IO
L30 DMA and Interrupts
L31 DMA and Interrupts
L32 IO Processors
L33 Interconnection networks – single bus, crossbar networks
L34 multistage networks, hypercube networks
L35 mesh networks, Tree networks, ring networks
L36 Pipelining – basic concept

Tutorial Sheet 1

1. Discuss Computer Functional Units?


2. Discuss different micro operations?
3. What are registers?
4. What is register transfer language?
5. What is information representation?

Tutorial Sheet 2
1. What are different addressing modes?
2. What is machine language and assembly language programming?
3. Explain instruction format and instruction types?
4. What are macros?
5. What are subroutines?

Tutorial Sheet 3
1. 1’s complement, 2’s complement? Examples?
2. Fixed point and floating point arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
3. BCD adder and BCD subtraction?
4. What is full adder?
5. What is half adder

Tutorial Sheet 4
1. What is parallel processing?
2. What is ALU design?
3. What are different forms of parallel processing?
4. What are general purpose processors?
5. What are array processors?

Tutorial Sheet 5
1. What is hardwired control unit?
2. What are micro programmed control unit?
3. CPU Control Unit?
4. What is multiplier control unit?
5. What is CPU control Unit
Tutorial Sheet 6
1. Memory classification?
2. RAM, semiconductor memories?
3. Discuss the concept of Cache memory?
4. Discuss concept of virtual memory?
5. Discuss concept of associative memory?

Tutorial Sheet 7
1. What is tree network?
2. What is ring network?
3. What is mesh network?
4. What are interconnection network?
5. Discuss DMA

Tutorial Sheet 8
1. Explain various types of interrupts?
2. Explain Pipelining?
3. What is I/O system?
4. What is Programmed IO system?
5. What are cross bar networks?

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


AMBALA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED RESEARCH, AMBALA
Subject : Information Theory and Coding Semester : 5th
Subject Code : ECE-305E Lecture per Week :4
Theory Marks : 100 Tutorials per Week :1
Sessional Marks : 50 Practical : -

SYLLABUS
Unit I
Probability and random processes: Probability, random variables, Probability distribution and density functions,
Joint Statistics, Conditional Statistics, independence, Functions of random variables & random vectors, Expectation,
moments, Characteristic Functions, Convergence of a sequence of random variables, Central Limit Theorem,
Random Processes, mean and Auto Correlation, Stationary ergodicity, Power Spectral density, Response of
memoryless and linear systems, Gaussian Poisson, Markov processes.
Unit II
Elements of information theory and source coding: Introduction, information as a measure of uncertainty,
Entropy, its properties, Discrete memoryless channels, Mutual information, its properties, BSC, BEC. Channel
capacity, Shanon’s theorem on coding for memoryless noisy channels.
Separable binary codes, Shanon–Fano encoding, Noiseless coding, Theorem of decodability, Average length of
encoded message, Shanon’s binary encoding, Fundamental theorem of discrete noiseless coding, Huffman’s
minimum redundancy codes.
Unit III
Linear block codes: Introduction to error control coding, Types of codes, Maximum Likelihood decoding, Types of
errors and error control strategies, Galois fields, Linear block codes, Error detecting and correcting capabilities of a
block code, Hamming code, cyclic code, B.C.H. codes.
Unit IV
Convolutional codes and arq: Transfer function of a convolutional code, Syndrome decoding, Majority logic
decodable codes, Viterbi decoding, distance properties of binary convolutional codes, Burst error correcting
convolutional codes, general description of basic ARQ strategies, Hybrid ARQ schemes.
TEXT BOOK:

1. Das, Mullick and Chatterjee, Digital Communication, Wiley Eastern Ltd.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. F. M. Reza, Information Theory, McGraw Hill.
2. Shu Lin and J. Costello, Error Control Coding, Prentice Hall.
3. Communication Systems, Singh & Sapre

LECTURE PLAN
LECTURE No. LECTURE TOPIC
L-1. Introduction to ITC
L-2 Information as a measure of uncertainty
L-3 Entropy and its properties
L-4 Discrete memory less channels
L-5 Mutual information, its properties
L-6 BSC, BEC
L-7 Channel capacity, Shanon’s theorem on coding for memoryless noisy channels
L-8 Separable binary codes
L-9 Shanon–Fano encoding
L-10 Noiseless coding, Theorem of decidability
L-11 Average length of encoded message
L-12 Shanon’s binary encoding, Fundamental theorem of discrete noiseless coding
L-13 Huffman’s minimum redundancy codes
L-14 Revision
L-15 Introduction to error control coding
L-16 Types of codes
L-17 Maximum Likelihood decoding
L-18 Types of errors and error control strategies
L-19 Galois fields
L-20 Linear block codes
L-21 Error detecting and correcting capabilities of a block code, Hamming code
L-22 Cyclic code
L-23 B.C.H. codes.
L-24 Revision
L-25 Transfer function of a convolutional code
L-26 Syndrom decoding, Majority logic decodable codes
L-27 Viterbi decoding

LECTURE No. LECTURE TOPIC


L-28 Distance properties of binary convolutional codes
L-29 Burst error correcting convolutional codes
L-30 General description of basic ARQ strategies, Hybrid ARQ schemes
L-31 Revision
L-32 Probability, random variables
L-33 Probability distribution and density functions
L-34 Joint Statistics, Conditional Statistics
L-35 Independence, Functions of random variables & random vectors
L-36 Expectation, moments
L-37 Characteristic Functions, Convergence of a sequence of random variables
L-38 Central Limit Theorem
L-39 Random Processes
L-40 mean and Auto Correlation
L-41 Stationary ergodicity, Power Spectral density
L-42 Response of memoryless and linear systems
L-43 Gaussian Poisson, Markov processes
L-44 Revision

Tutorial Sheet 1
1. Explain different Distributions in detail.
2. Explain the basics of Probability Theory.
3. Explain Conditional Probability and Independence.
4. Explain Properties of Conditional Probability.
5. What is the Law of total probability?

Tutorial Sheet 2
1. What are Cascaded Channels? Explain.
2. Calculate the joint probabilities for the given channel.
3. What is source coding?
4. Explain Shannon’s First theorem (Shannon’s coding theorem)
5. Explain Shannon’s second theorem or channel coding theorem.
6. Explain Information capacity theorem.

Tutorial Sheet 3
1.
2. Consider the cyclic one error correcting Hamming code H(7,4) with g(x) = x3 + x +1 ; its encoding was
analyzed in example 2.
3. What is Hamming distance? Give an example.
4. Consider a code consisting of two codewords with Hamming distance dmin. How many errors can be
detected and Corrected?
5. Consider a code consisting of two codewords with Hamming distance dmin. How many errors can be
detected and corrected?
6. Explain parity check matrix of a linear block code.
7. Explain the encoding circuit for H matrix

Tutorial Sheet 4
1. Give an example of syndrome decoding.
2. Explain basic introduction to convolutional codes.
3. Explain the state diagram representation of convolution codes following its trellis diagram.
4. Explain Viterbi decoding algorithm.
5. Write distance properties of convolutional codes

Tutorial sheet 5
1. Give an introduction to probability theory.
2. What are events and Complements?
3. What are Probabilities of Event Intersections?
4. What are Posterior Probabilities?
5. Explain Syndrome decoding.

Tutorial sheet 6
1. Give an example for posterior probabilities.
2. What are deterministic and random variables?
3. Give the basic concepts in probability theory.
4. What are Random Variable and Distributions?
5. What are Hamming Codes? Give its construction rule.

Tutorial sheet 7
1. The symbols 0 and 1 are emitted at the input of a binary transmission channel. Statistical measurements
show that, because of channel noise, both symbols are 10% erroneous, the process being time invariant.
Knowing that the symbols 0 and 1 are transmitted in a ratio of 3/7, the transmission of a symbol is
independent of the previously transmitted symbols and that 1000 symbols per second are being emitted (the
duration of each symbol is the same), find:
a. The statistical characterization of the transmission system
b. The quantity of information obtained when 0 is emitted and the source average quantity of
information) source redundancy and efficiency
c. Rate of useful information transmitted through the channel
d. Channel efficiency.

2. Two binary symmetric channels given by p1=10-1 and p2=10-2 are cascaded. Find the:
a. Equivalent noise matrix of the cascade
b. Equivalent channel capacity
3.

4. Encode the source from Example 3 using a ternary alphabet (m=3) and determine the efficiency and the
compression ratio.
5. In Fig. assume that X is described by P{X = O} = P{ X = 1} =1/2, and that both DMC's are binary
symmetric channels with error probability p. Then

J(X; Y) = 1 - H2(P) bits,


J(X; Z) = 1 - H2[2p(1 - p)] bits.

Tutorial sheet 8
1. Consider the following channel

Calculate all the entropies.


2. What are Noiseless and Deterministic Channels?
3. The following channel with 6 outputs and 3 inputs is noiseless because we know, with certainty 1, which
input symbol {a1, a2, a3} was transmitted given knowledge of the received output symbol {b1, b2, b3, b4,
b5, b6}

4. What are Error Control Strategies? Explain.


5. What is Magitt decoder? Explain.
6. What is Syndrome decoding?

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


AMBALA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED RESEARCH, AMBALA
Subject : Linear IC Applications Semester : 5th
Subject Code : ECE-307E Lecture per Week :3
Theory Marks : 100 Tutorials per Week :2
Sessional Marks : 50 Practical : -

SYLLABUS
UNIT-1
DIFFERENTIAL AND CASCADE AMPLIFIERS: Balanced, unbalanced output differential amplifiers, FET
differential amplifier, current mirrors, level Translators, cascade configuration of amplifiers, operational amplifiers,
Introduction to ideal OP-AMP, characteristic parameters, Practical OP-AMP, its equivalent circuit and op-amp
circuit configurations.

UNIT-2
OP-AMP WITH NEGATIVE FEEDBACK AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE: Block diagram representation of
feedback amplifier, voltage series feedback, voltage shunt feedback differential amplifiers, frequency response
compensating network, frequency response of internally compensative op-amp and non compensating op-amp. High
frequency op-amp equivalent circuit, open loop gain V/s frequency, closed loop frequency response, circuit stability,
and slew rate.

UNIT-3
OP-AMP APPLICATION: DC, AC amplifiers, peaking amplifier, summing, scaling, averaging and instrumentation
amplifier, differential input output amplifier, voltage to current converter, current to voltage converter, very high
input impedance circuit, integration and differential circuit, wave shaping circuit, active filters, oscillators

UNIT-4
SPECIALIZED LINER IC APPLICATIONS: 555 timer IC (monostable & astable operation) & its applications,
Universal active filter, PLL, power amplifier, 8038 IC.

NOTE: The question paper shall have eight questions in all organized into four sections, each section having two
questions from each of the four units. The candidate shall have to attempt five questions in all, selecting at least one
question from each unit. Each question will be of equal marks.

Suggested Books:
1. R.A. Gayakward, OP-amps and Linear Integrated circuits.
2. K.R.Botkar, Integrated circuits

LECTURE PLAN

LECTURE No. LECTURE TOPIC


L1. Introduction to DIFFERENTIAL AND CASCADE AMPLIFIERS
L2 Balanced, unbalanced output differential amplifiers
L3 FET differential amplifier, current mirrors
L4 level Translators, cascade configuration of amplifiers
L5 operational amplifiers, Introduction to ideal OP-AMP
L6 characteristic parameters
L7 Practical OP-AMP, its equivalent circuit
L8 Op-amp circuit configurations.
L9 REVISION OF 1st UNIT,
L10 Introduction to op-amp with negative feedback and frequency response
L11 Block diagram representation of feedback amplifier, voltage series feedback
L12 voltage shunt feedback differential amplifiers
L13 frequency response compensating network,
L14 frequency response of internally compensative op-amp
L15 frequency response of internally noncompensating op-amp
L16 High frequency op-amp equivalent circuit
L17 open loop gain V/s frequency,
L18 closed loop frequency response
L19 circuit stability, slew rate
L20 REVISION OF 2nd UNIT
L21 OP-AMP APPLICATION: DC, AC amplifier
L22 peaking amplifier, summing amplifier
L23 scaling, averaging and instrumentation amplifier
L24 differential input output amplifier
L25 voltage to current converter, current to voltage converter
L26 very high input impedance circuit, integration and differential circuit
L27 wave shaping circuit, active filters, oscillators
L28 REVISION OF 3rd UNIT
L29 555Timer IC
L30 monostable & astable operation
L31 Applications of 555 IC
L32 Universal active filter
L33 PLL
L34 power amplifier
L35 8038 IC
L36 REVISION OF 4th UNIT

Tutorial sheet 1
1. Draw and explain the block diagram representation of op-amp. Discuss why open loop op-amp is unsuitable for
linear applications.
2. Explain the following parameters of op-amp:-
(a) Input offset voltage
(b) SVRR
(c) CMRR
(d) Output voltage swing
(e) Input bias current
(f) Slew rate
3. For the dual input, balanced output differential amplifier, Vbe = 0.715V, βdc = βac = 100, supply voltage ±10V, Rin
= 50ῼ, Re = 4.7k and Rc = 2.2k. Determine:-
(i) Operating current and voltage values for each transistor.
(ii) Voltage gain.
(iii) Input resistance.
(iv) Output resistance.
4. Give the characteristics of an ideal operational amplifier. What is a practical op-amp? Give its equivalent circuit.
5. Describe a current mirror source.
6. Discuss the ac and dc analysis of dual input balanced output differential amplifier.

Tutorial sheet 2
1. Sketch an op-amp non inverting amplifier circuit. Also sketch a basic op-amp circuit connected to function as a
non inverting amplifier and explain its operation.
2. What is cascade amplifier? List its characteristics.
3. Determine the output voltage in case for the open loop differential amplifier with Vin1 = 10mV rms, Vin2 = 20mV
rms and A = 200,000. The output voltage swing is ± 14V.
4. For a 741C op-amp, CMRR = 105 and differential gain is 105. Determine the common mode gain Acm of the op-
amp.
5. (a) An operational amplifier has a slew rate of 2V/µ s. If the peak output is 12V, what is the power bandwidth?
(b) For the given circuit in figure1 Iin(off) = 20 nA. If Vin (off) = 0, what is the differential input voltage? If A =
105, what does the output offset voltage equal?
Figure1

6. For the cascaded differential amplifier shown in the figure, determine:


The collector current and collector to emitter voltage for each transistor.

 The overall voltage gain.

 The input resistance.

 The output resistance.

Assume that for the transistors used hFE = 100 and VBE =
0.715V

Tutorial sheet 3
1. For inverting amplifier with feedback, R1 = 470Ω & RF = 4.7KΩ. The op-amp is 741 having the following
specifications – A = 200,000, Ri = 2MΩ, Ro = 75Ω, fo = 5 Hz, supply voltage = ±15V, output voltage swing = ±13V.
Calculate the value of AF, RIF, ROF, FE & VOOT.
2. Explain the voltage follower circuit in detail
3. Calculate all parameters of voltage follower circuit using specifications given in Question No 1.
4. What are two differential amplifier configurations? Determine the voltage gain of configurations.
5. An inverting amplifier is implemented with R1 = 1K and Rf = 100 K. Find the percentage change in the closed
loop gain A is the open loop gain a changes from 2 x 105 V / V to 5 x 104 V/V.
6. Repeat, but for a non-inverting amplifier with R1 = 1K at Rf = 99 K.

Tutorial sheet 4
1. What is slew rate? List causes of slew rate & explain its significance in applications.
2. An inverting amplifier with R1 = 10Ω and R2 = 1MΩ is driven by a source v1 = 0.1 V. Find the closed loop gain
A, the percentage division of A from the ideal value - R2 / R1, and the inverting input voltage VN for the cases A =
100 V/V, 105 and 105 V/V.

3. Find VN, V1 and VO for the circuit shown in figure

4. What is frequency response? Briefly, explain the difference between compensated & non-compensated op-amp?
5. Derive an expression to determine the closed loop voltage gain of inverting amplifier.
6. The following specifications are given for the differential amplifier with two op-amps, R1 = R3 = 680Ω, RF = R2 =
6.8KΩ, VX = -1.5V pp & VY = -2V pp sine wave at 1 KHz. The op-amp is a 741C. Calculate:- (a)Voltage gain &
the input resistance. (b) The output voltage of the amplifier. Assume that output is initially nulled.

Tutorial sheet 5
1. What is an instrumentation amplifier? Explain the working of a differential instrumentation amplifier using a
transducer bridge.
2. Prove that the network shown in figure is a non-inverting integrator with.

3. Design a low pass filter at a cutoff frequency of 1 KHz with a pass band gain of 2.
4. Design a Wien-bridge oscillator that oscillates at 25 kHz.
5. Describe the circuit of voltage to current converter, if the load is floating and grounded.

Tutorial sheet 6
1. Explain a second order low pass filter with its frequency response.
2. Sketch the circuit of a single stage band pass filter. Discuss the low pass and high pass operation of the circuit.
Show how band stop filter can be constructed by the use of band pass filter and a summing circuit.
3. Design a band pass RC active filter with mid band voltage gain of 30, centre frequency of 200 Hz, and Q = 5.
Choose C1 = C2 = 0.15µF.
4. Consider the inverting configuration with three inputs and can be used as a summing, scaling and averaging
amplifier with Va = 1V, Vb = 2V, Vc = 3V, Ra = Rb = Rc = 3KΩ, RF = 3KΩ, ROM = 270Ω and supply voltages =
±15V. Assume that the op-amp is initially nulled, determine the output voltage Vo.
5. Design the phase shift oscillator so that fO = 100 Hz.

Tutorial sheet 7
1. An Astable 555 Oscillator is constructed using the following components, R1 = 1kΩ, R2 = 2kΩ and capacitor C =
10uF. Calculate the output frequency from the 555 oscillator and the duty cycle of the output waveform.
2. What is PLL? Explain basic building blocks of PLL. List the various applications of PLL.
3. In case of monostable multivibrator, Ra = 10kΩ, the output pulse width tp= 10ms. Determine the value of C.
4. In an astable multivibrator Ra = 2.2KΩ, Rb = 3.9KΩ and C = 0.1µF. Determine the positive pulse width, negative
pulse width and free running frequency.
5. Explain Universal Active Filter FLT-U2.
6. List important features of LM 380 power audio amplifier. Also draw its schematic diagram.

Tutorial sheet 8
1. Write short notes on the following:-
(a) Switched Capacitor filters.
(b) IC 8038
2. Using, a universal filter FLT-U2 Design second order Butterworth band pass filter with Q = 10 and center
frequency f1 = 5 KHz.
3. Consider the circuit of multivibrator used as a divide by 2 networks. The frequency of the input trigger signal is 2
KHz. If the value of C =0.01µF, what should be the value of Ra?
4. Draw the block diagram of 555 timers IC. List its important features.
5. Design 555 timer as an astable multivibrator with duty cycle 60% and output signal frequency 800 Hz.
6. What is the difference between analog and digital PLL.
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
AMBALA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED RESEARCH, AMBALA
Subject : Micro-Electronics Semester : 5th
Subject Code : ECE-309E Lecture per Week :4
Theory Marks : 100 Tutorials per Week :1
Sessional Marks : 50 Practical :-

SYLLABUS

UNIT-I:
Crystal Growth: MGS, EGS, Czochralspi crystal Puller, Silicon shaping, Wafer Preparation. Oxidation: Thermal
Oxidation Kinetics, Oxidation Techniques, Oxide Properties, Oxidation induced defects. Thin film deposition
techniques: Epitaxy, VDE, CVD, PECVD, MOCVD, PVD, Sputtering , MBE and epitaxial layer evaluations.

UNIT-II:
LithoGraphy, Photolithography, E-beam lithography, X-ray Lithography, reactive Plasma Etching, Plasma
Properties, Feature Size control and anisotropic etching, Plasma etching techniques and equipment.

UNIT-III:
Diffusion : A Qualitative view of atomic diffusion in Solids, diffusion mechanisms, Fick’s one dimensional
diffusion equation, constant source and limited source diffusion, Diffusion of Grp3 and 5 impurities in Silicon
Impurity Sources, diffusion apparatus, Characterization of diffused layers. Ion Implantation: Introduction, Range
Theory, Implantation Equipment Annealing.

UNIT-IV:
Isolation Techniques, Bipolar IC fabrication Process Sequence, N-MOS IC fabrication Process Sequence.C-MOS IC
fabrication Process Sequence .Assembly & Packaging: Package Types, design considerations, Package fabrication
technologies, Future trends reference to MEMS packaging.

NOTE:
The question paper shall have eight questions in all organized into four sections, each section having two questions
from each of the four units. The candidate shall have to attempt five questions in all , selecting at least one question
from each unit. Each question will be of equal marks.

Suggested Books:
 S.M.Sze, VLSI Technology, Mc Graw Hill.
 S.K.Ghandhi, VLSI Fabrication Principles.

LECTURE PLAN

LECTURE LECTURE TOPIC


No.
L-1 Introduction about Micro-Electronics
L-2 Crystal Growth, MGS, EGS
L-3 Czochralspi crystal Puller process
L-4 Silicon shaping, Wafer Preparation, wafer grinding, wafer lapping.
L-5 Oxidation: Thermal Oxidation Kinetics
L-6 Oxidation Techniques
L-7 Oxide Properties, Oxidation induced defects
L-8 Thin film deposition techniques
L-9 Epitaxy, VDE, CVD, PECVD
L-10 MOCVD, PVD, Sputtering .
L-11 MBE and epitaxial layer evaluations
L-12 Discussion on Various Issues of UNIT-1
L-13 Test of UNIT-1
L-14 Litthography
L-15 Photolithography
L-16 E-Beam Lithography
L-17 X-ray lithography
L-18 Reactive Plasma etching
L-19 Plasma Properties
L-20 Feature size control
L-21 Anisotropic etching
L-22 Plasma Etching techniques
L-23 Test of Unit II
L-24 Introduction to Diffusion
L-25 Atomic Diffusion in solids
L-26 Fick’s Equation
L-27 Constant and Limited source diffusion
L-28 Diffusion of grp 3 and grp 5 Impurities
L-29 Characterization Of diffused Layers
L-30 Ion Implantation
L-31 Annealing
L-32 Test of Unit 3
L-33 Isolation Techniques
L-34 BJT IC fabrication process
L-35 NMOS Fabrication
L-36 CMOS fabrication
L-37 Assembly and Packaging
L-38 MEMS
L-39 Test of Unit 4

Tutorial sheet 1
1. Explain CZ method in Detail.
2. Explain the various steps of wafer preparations.
3. Explain the methods of Silicon Shaping.
4. Determine the points at which a given crystal plane intersects the three axes, for example at (a, 0, 0), (0, b, 0), (0,
0, c). If the plane is parallel an axis, it is said to intersect the axis at infinity.
5. Calculate the maximum fraction of the volume in a simple cubic crystal occupied by the atoms. Assume that the
atoms are closely packed and that they can be treated as hard spheres. This fraction is also called the packing
density.

Tutorial sheet 2

1. Calculate the angle between the (111) and (200) planes.

Planes 100 110 010 001 101


100 0.00 45.0 90.0 90.0 45.0
011 90.0 60.0 45.0 45.0 60.0
111 54.7 35.3 54.7 54.7 35.3

2. Calculate the density of Si from the lattice constant, atomic weight, and Avogadro's number. Recall: Avogadro's
number (6.02 × 1023 ) is the number of molecules/atoms in a gram molecular weight of a substance. Lattice constant
= a = 5.43 x 10-8 cm
3. Explain the various methods for deposition of thin film over substrate.
4. Explain CVD method with their various advantages.
5. What is Sputtering? Explain it’s advantages.
6. What is the technique used to deposite the aluminum for contact formation.
7. What is epitaxial layer and what are it’s significances.

Tutorial sheet 3
1. What do you mean by Lithography and what is their use in IC fabrication.
2. Explain Silicon Epitaxial Growth Process?
3. Explain the difference between E-beam and X-ray lithography.
4. Write a short note on Thermal Oxidation of Silicon?
5. What is the process of Etching?
6. Compare UV, X-ray, Ion beam and E-beam Lithography.
7. Why X-rays are not very commonly used in photolithography process.
8. Explain Kinetics of SiO2 Growth?

Tutorial sheet 4
1. What is wet chemical etching?
2. How can you minimize proximity problem.
3. Draw an equivalent circuit for an RF plasma discharge.
4 .What is the difference between wet and dry etching.
5. Explain how feature size can be controlled.

Tutorial sheet 5
1. Explain the diffusion mechanism in detail.
2. Explain steps of fabrication of IC in terms of lithography
3. Drive Fick’s one dimensional equation?
4. What is channeling? How does it affect implantation?
5. Explain the mechanism of diffusion of Grp3
6. Explain the phenomenon of Annealing.

Tutorial sheet 6
1. Explain the characteristic of diffused layer’s
2. Explain Rage Theory.
3. Explain various methods of Ion Implantation.
4. Explain the mechanism of diffusion of Grp5
5. Explain various factors affect the deposition layer.
6. Explain the characteristic of diffused layer’s

Tutorial sheet 7
1. Make a sketch showing the structure of a pnp BJT. Explain how the device is fabricated.
2. Explain the fabrication process of npn and pnp devices.
3. How does the oxide charge affect a bipolar transition?
4. How diodes can be formed using bipolar technique.
5. Explain steps of fabrication of CMOS.
6. What do you mean by packaging?

Tutorial sheet 8
1. Describe various packages in details.
2. What are the different technologies for package fabrication?
3. What do you mean by MEMS and explain the advantages of this technology.
4. What are different package types? Explain through hole (TH) and Surface mount(SM).
5. Explain the future trends of MEMS technology.
6. Explain various design consideration for packaging.
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
AMBALA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED RESEARCH, AMBALA
Subject : Microprocessors and Interfacing Semester : 5th
Subject Code : ECE-311E Lecture per Week :3
Theory Marks : 100 Tutorials per Week :2
Sessional Marks : 50 Practical : -

SYLLABUS
UNIT 1
INTRODUCTION:
Evolution of microprocessors, technological trends in microprocessor development. The Intel family tree. CISC
Versus RISC. Application of Microprocessors.
8086 CPU ARCHITECTURE:
8086 Block diagram, description of data registers, address registers, pointer and index registers, PSW, Queue, BIU
and EU. 8086 Pin diagram descriptions. Generating 8086 clk and reset signals using 8284. WAIT state generation.
Microprocessor Bus types and buffering techniques, 8086 minimum and maximum mode CPU module.

UNIT 2
8086 INSTRUCTION SET:
Instruction formats, addressing modes, Data transfer instructions, string instructions logical instructions, arithmetic
instructions, transfer of control instructions, processor control instructions, Assembler directives.
8086 PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES:
Writing assembly language programs for logical processing, arithmetic processing, timing delays, loops, data
conversions. Writing procedures, Data tables, modular programming, Macros.

UNIT 3
MAIN MEMORY SYSTEM DESIGN:
Memory devices, 8086 CPU Read/Write timing diagrams in minimum and maximum mode. Address decoding
techniques. Interfacing SRAMs; ROMs/PROMs. Interfacing and refreshing DRAMs. DRAM Controller- TMS4500.

UNIT 4
BASIC I/O INTERFACE:
Parallel and Serial I/O port design and address decoding. Memory mapped I/O Vs Isolated I/O. Intel’s 8255 and
8251- description and interfacing with 8086.
ADCS & DACS:
Types, operation and interfacing with 8086. Interfacing keyboards, alphanumeric displays, multiplexed displays, and
high power devices with 8086.
INTERRUPTS AND DMA:
Interrupt driven I/O.8086 Interrupt mechanism, interrupt types and interrupt vector table. Intel’s 8259. DMA
operation. Intel’s 8237. Microcomputer video displays.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. D.V.Hall, Microprocessor and Interfacing, McGraw Hill 2nd ed.
2. J Uffenbeck, The 8086/8088 family, (PHI).
3. Liu, Gibson, Microcomputer Systems- The 8086/8088 family, (2nd Ed-PHI).

LECTURE PLAN
LECTURE LECTURE TOPIC
No.
L-1. Evolution of microprocessors, technological trends in microprocessor development.
L-2 The Intel family tree. CISC Versus RISC. Application of Microprocessors.
L-3 8086 Block diagram, BIU and EU
L-4 Description of data registers, address registers, pointer and index registers, PSW, Queue
L-5 8086 Pin diagram descriptions
L-6 Generating 8086 clk and reset signals using 8284.
L-7 WAIT state generation. Microprocessor Bus types and buffering techniques
L-8 8086 minimum and maximum mode CPU module.
L-9 Instruction formats
L-10 Addressing modes
L-11 Data transfer instructions
L-12 String instructions
L-13 Logical instructions
L-14 Arithmetic instructions
L-15 Transfer of control instructions, processor control instructions
L-16 Assembler directives
L-17 Writing assembly language programs for logical processing, arithmetic processing
L-18 Timing delays, loops, data conversions.
L-19 Writing procedures, Data tables, modular programming, Macros
L-20 Memory devices, 8086 CPU Read/Write timing diagrams in minimum mode.
L-21 8086 CPU Read/Write timing diagrams in maximum mode.
L-22 Interfacing SRAMs; ROMs/PROMs.
L-23 Interfacing and refreshing DRAMs. DRAM Controller- TMS4500.
L-24 Parallel and Serial I/O port design and address decoding.
L-25 Memory mapped I/O Vs Isolated I/O. Intel’s 8255
L-26 Intel’s 8251
L-27 ADCS : Types, operation and interfacing with 8086.
L-28 Intefacing of 8086 with keyboard, 7-segment displays
L-29 Interrupts, Type of interrupts
L-30 IC 8259, Command words of 8259
L-31 DMA Controller 8237
L-32 Interfacing of 8237 with 8086
L-33 Microcomputer video displays

Tutorial sheet 1
1. Discuss the advantages of segmentation of address space in 8086 microprocessor.
2. Discuss how 8086 operates in maximum mode. Compare minimum and maximum mode of operation.
3. Give the pin diagram of 8086 Microprocessor chip. Discuss the functions of each pin.
4. What are the functions of IC 8284 in the 8086 systems?
5. Draw the functional block diagram of 8086 Microprocessor.

Tutorial sheet 2
1. Discuss the role of Wait state in the operation of 8086 Microprocessor. How these are generated?
2. If the Data Segment Register DS contains 4000 H, what physical address will the instruction MOV AL, [234B H]
read?
3. Explain Intel family tree.
4. Explain the technological trends in microprocessor development.
5. Explain the function of Pointer & Index register with the help of suitable examples.

Tutorial sheet 3
1. Explain the following instructions:
SAR, POPF, XLAT, JNP/JPO, STD
2. Explain the following assembler directives:
ASSUME, SEGMENT
3. What do you mean by MACROS? Explain the difference between Macros and Subroutines.
4. What are addressing modes available in Intel 8086 Microprocessor? Give example.
5. What are the instruction types used in Intel 8086 Microprocessor?
Tutorial sheet 4
1. Write a program to compute factorial for a Number between 1 and 8.
2. What do you mean by an instruction format? Explain the following instructions with the help of suitable examples
: ADC, LEA, PUSH, INC, JNZ
3. What is the use of assembler directives and macros?
4. Write a delay loop which produces a delay of 500 microseconds on an 8086 with a 5 MHz clock.
5. Explain the functions of the following pins:
NMI, TEST, DEN, BHE, READY.

Tutorial sheet 5
1. What do you understand by the term DRAM controllers? Discuss the working of TMS 4500 Controller in brief.
2. Draw and discuss the timing diagram of 8086 Microprocessor during Read and write operation.
3. How address decoding is done in 8086 Microprocessor while interfacing ROM chips?
4. What is the difference between Memory mapped I/O and direct I/O? Give the main advantages and disadvantages
of each.
5. Explain the concept of Segmented memory.

Tutorial sheet 6
1. Interface two 4K * 8 EPROMS and two 4K * 8 RAMS chips with 8086 Microprocessor and draw the suitable
circuit showing their interfacing.
2. Draw the timing diagram for read and write cycle in minimum and maximum mode.
3. Explain the advantages of DRAM over SRAM? Explain the concept of interfacing and refreshing of DRAM with
the help of a functional block diagram of DRAM.
4. What are different types of memory devices available and their advantages?
5. What are the different functions of an address decoder? Explain with the help of an example.

Tutorial sheet 7
1. Explain the operation, characteristics, specifications, applications and interfacing of D/A converters with 8086.
2. Write short note on 8255 description and interfacing with 8086.
3. Write short note on interfacing alphanumeric displays.
4. What is intel 8259 chip? Discuss its use and operation in a 8086 Microprocessor based system.
5. Define an interrupt. Describe the interrupt response of an 8086 Microprocessor.

Tutorial sheet 8
1. Draw the block diagram of 8251 and explain the function of each block.
2. Define an Interrupt. Describe the interrupt response on an 8086 microprocessor.
3. What is intel 8259 chip? Discuss its use and operation in a 8086 Microprocessor.
4. Sketch and explain the interfacing of 8255 to the microprocessor in minimum mode.
5. Draw the internal architecture of USART and explain the operating modes in detail.
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
AMBALA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED RESEARCH, AMBALA
Subject : Linear Integrated Circuits Practical Semester : 5th
Subject Code : ECE-313E Lecture per Week :-
Theory Marks : 25 Tutorials per Week :-
Sessional Marks : 50 Practical :3

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. To study OP-AMP as adder and subtractor circuits(IC-741).
2. To study clipping circuits using OP-AMP(IC-741).
3. To study clamping circuits using OP-AMP(IC-741).
4. To study OP-AMP as Schmitt trigger(IC-741).
5. To study an instrumentation amplifier using OP-AMP(IC-741).
6. Study of current to voltage and voltage to current convertor using OP-AMP(IC-741).
7. To study Astable multivibrator circuit using timer IC-555.
8. To study monostable multivibrator circuit using timer IC-555.
9. To study Voltage Controlled Oscillator using timer IC-555.
10. 10.To study Frequency divider using IC-555.
11. 11.To design 2nd order low pass butterworth filter.
12. 12. To design 2nd order high pass butterworth filter.

NOTE: At least 10 experiments are to be performed with atleast 7 from above list, remaining 3 may either be
performed from the above list or designed & set by concerned institution as per the scope of the syllabus.

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


AMBALA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED RESEARCH, AMBALA
Subject : Microprocessors Practical Semester : 5th
Subject Code : ECE-315E Lecture per Week :-
Theory Marks : 25 Tutorials per Week :-
Sessional Marks : 50 Practical :3

Before starting with the experiments, teacher should make the students conversant with the following essential
theoretical concepts.
A. i) Programming Model of Intel’s 8086.
ii) Addressing Modes of Intel’s 8086.
iii) Instruction formats of Intel’s 8086
Instruction set of Intel’s 8086.
Assembler , and Debugger.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Familiarization with 8086 Trainer Kit.


2. Familiarization with Digital I/O, ADC and DAC Cards.
3. Familiarization with Turbo Assembler and Debugger S/Ws.
4. Write a program to arrange block of data in
i) Ascending and (ii) descending order.
5. Write a program to find out any power of a number such that Z = XN.
i) Where N is programmable and X is unsigned number.

6. Write a program to generate.


i) Sine Waveform (ii) Ramp Waveform (iii) Triangular Waveform Using DAC Card.
7. Write a program to measure frequency/Time period of the following functions.
(i) Sine Waveform (ii) Square Waveform (iii) Triangular Waveform using ADC Card.
8. Write a program to increase, decrease the speed of a stepper motor and reverse its direction of rotation
using stepper motor controller card.
9. Write a programmable delay routine to cause a minimum delay = 2MS and a maximum delay = 20 minutes
in the increments of 2 MS
10. a) Use DOS interrupt to read keyboard string/character.
b) Use BIOS interrupt to send a string/character to printer.
11. Write a program to :
i) Create disk file.
ii) Open, write to and close- a disk file.
iii) Open, read from and close a disk file.
iv) Reading data stamp of a file using BIOS interrupt.
12. Erasing UVPROMs and EEPROMs
13. Reprogramming PROMs using computer compatible EPROM Programmer.
14. Studying and Using 8086 In-Circuit Emulator.

NOTE: At least 10 experiments are to be performed with atleast 7 from above list, remaining 3 may either be
performed from the above list or designed & set by concerned institution as per the scope of syllabus.