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CURSO O MELHOR INGLES (34 LICOES) ANDREW

ABRAHAMSON, PH.D.
Andrew Abrahamson, Ph.D.

LINK DOWNLOAD: Download curso o melhor ingles (34 licoes) Andrew Abrahamson,
Ph.D.

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NOTA: Introdução

PORQUE É GRÁTIS?

Andrew Abrahamson, Ph.D. é um professor americano que lecionou por muitos anos no
Brasil. Hoje ele está aposentado, vive nos Estados Unidos e deixou como legado todo seu
curso gratuitamente na internet. Este site foi criado para divulgar American Eagle Easy
English - O Melhor Inglês e incentivar este maravilhoso trabalho, que com apenas 29 aulas
em video, uma apostila com 34 lessons e 34 áudios, fará você aprender inglês
fluentemente, como em qualquer curso - só que melhor! Você irá se surpreender com a
qualidade das lições transmitidas pelo carismático e simpático professor Abrahamson, que
auxiliam ainda mais no aprendizado. Abaixo os videos e apostilas para download gratuito.
A venda deste curso é proibida!

INÍCIO

 3 LESSON ONE PRONOUNS I – eu MY - meu, minha YOU – você YOUR
– seu , sua (você) OBJECTS BEER BROTHER WATER SISTER MILK
FATHER JUICE MOTHER COFFEE FAMILY WINE ENGLISH - inglês FISH
PORTUGUESE - português MEAT BRAZILIAN - brasileiro

 4 VERBS to EAT / ATE I eat fish . I eat meat. You eat my fish. to DRINK / DRANK I
drink beer. You drink juice. to SPEAK / SPOKE I speak English . You speak
Portuguese. to NEED / NEEDED precisar ne i I need water. I need my fam I ed m
lk. ily.

 5 ITH com other. e I eat fish AND meat. I drink wine AND beer. I need water AND
milk. QUALIFIERS W – I speak WITH my m I speak WITH you. I speak WITH my
family. AND – Qualificadores de When NOW – agora I need my wine NOW. I
need to eat NOW. NOW I need my mother. TODAY - hoje I need to speak English
TO DAY. I need to eat fish TODAY. A K YO o rigad UR NAME?” – Qual é
seu nome? EXPRESSIONS “TH N U” – b o “ PLEASE” - por favor
“WHAT`S YO “GOOD MORNING” – bom dia “GOOD
AFTERNOON” – boa tarde “GOOD EVENING” – boa noite
“GOOD NIGHT” – boa noite GRAMMAR I need – preciso I need to
speak – preciso falar I speak – falo I need to eat – preciso comer I eat -
como I need to drink – preciso beber NO INGLÊS SEMPRE USAMOS A
PARTà CULA †œTO† USAR DO ATOR ENTRE DOIS VERBOS

 6 A E S F R M er lis mas formas encaixam. A habilidade de fazer Estas estruturas


são chamadas de O aluno não precisa aprend tas completas das formas do
idioma sim a estrutura dentro do qual estas substituições corretas é muito
importante. “FRAMES” ou “quadros”. Para a ir fa dade automática
num dquir cili a lÃngua é preciso exercitar utilizando estes FRAM S E . . .
ortuguese. water. I _______Portuguese with João. ou. er and father. h. I drink
water_______you. You_______to eat meat ister. You_______to drink milk and
juice. You_______to speak with your sister. I EAT fish with Jane. ed at.
I_______meat with my family. ___milk. I_______fish and meat. 1 I DRINK beer. 2 I
SPEAK English and P I________ I________milk. I_______English with y
I________juice. I_______with my moth 3. I drink beer WITH you. 4. You NEED to
speak Englis I drink milk _________my s I drink juice_________my family. 5. I need
juice AND water. 6. I ne fish______me I need coffee____ need you______your
sister. I_______meat today. I 7. h TODAY. 8. I need my wine NOW. I need to speak
Englis I need to eat fish_____ eat____. __. I need my m I need my mother_______.
I need you_____. I need meat and beer______. I need to speak____. 9. I eat meat
with my family. I drink wine and juice with my father. I need to drink beer with my
brother. I need to speak English with you.

 L E S S O N T W O OBJECTS CUP GIRL GLASS BOY TEA SON HAM presunto


DAUGHTER CHEESE CHILDREN BREAD GERMAN

 VERBS *TO WANT / WANTED - querer I want ham. I want coffee. I want to eat. TO
PLAY / PLAYED - brincar – I want to play. I play with Bill. tocar - I play piano. I
play saxophone. jogar - I play tennis. I play basketball. TO WORK / WORKED -
trabalhar I work today. I work with you. I need to work. TO SEE / SAW - ver I see
your son. You see my brother. QUALIFIERS TOMORROW – amanhã A –
um, uma, (a boy, a family, a cup) BUT - mas EXPRESSIONS HELLO - olá IN THE
MORNING – de manhã HI – oi IN THE AFTERNOON – ã tarde GOOD
BYE - tchau IN THE EVENING – à noite “NICE TO MEET YOU” –
“muito prazer em conhecê-lo” EXCUSE ME - “com licença”

 GRAMMAR Para formar o negativo no inglês, temos que usar o verbo auxiliar
“DO” e juntá-lo com a palavra negativa “NOT”e então “DO” +
“NOT” = “DON’T”. I don’t want - não quero I don’t work -
não trabalho I don’t see - não vejo NÃO ESCREVER. REPETIR CADA
“FRAME”PELO MENOS 2 VEZES E SEMPRE REVISAR
“FRAMES”DE CADA LIÇÃO - F R A M E S – 1. I SEE a cup. 2. I see a
CUP OF COFFEE. I_______a glass. I want a___________. I_______a boy. I need
a___________. I________my sister. I drink a___________. 3. I WANT to eat. 4. I
WANT to EAT bread. I________to speak. I______to______cheese. I________to
drink. I______to______ham. I________to work. I______to______fish. 5. You
NEED to eat fish. 6. I WORK with you. You_____to drink milk. I_______tomorrow.
You_____to speak English. I_______in the morning. You_____to work tomorrow.
I_______and play. 7. I DON’T WANT to work now. 8. I work WITH my brother.
I_____ _____to drink beer. I play_______my daughter. I_____ _____to see your
sister. I speak______my children. I_____ _____to eat bread. I drink_______my
brother. 9. I see a boy AND a girl. 10. You eat with YOUR father. I see a
mother____a father You drink with_____mother. I see cheese_____ham with
bread. You speak with_____children. I see wine______beer. You work
with______brother.

 11. I need to play with MY daughter. 12. I eat IN THE MORNING. I need to work
with____daughter. I don’t play_____ ___ _______. I need to speak
with____daughter. I want to work_____ ___ _______. I need to
see______daughter. I speak German_____ ___ _______. 13. You want to work IN
THE AFTERNOON. You want to play____ ______ _________. You want to drink
beer____ ______ _________. You want to speak_____ _______ _________. 14. I
eat and drink IN THE EVENING. I work and play____ _____ ________. I see my
family____ _____ ________. I need milk____ _____ _________. 15. I need to
work today. I want to play tomorrow. I want to eat now. I want to work in the
morning.

 L E S S O N T H R E E PRONOUNS HE - ele HIS – d’ele SHE - ela HER - d


‘ela IT - neutro ITS – d’ele, d’ela [coisas neut] He wants to work. She
needs to see. It needs to eat. OBJECTS FRIEND SCHOOL MANAGER MOVIES
TEACHER CHURCH BUG STORE

 VERBS TO SLEEP / SLEPT - I sleep in the evening. I sleep with my son. *TO
LIKE / LIKED - gostar de You don’t like to work. I like to eat cheese. TO GO /
WENT - ir I go with you. I go tomorrow. She goes now. TO STUDY / STUDIED I
study English. I study German with you. QUALIFIERS OR – ou NOR – nem
ONLY – só, somente THE – o,a,os,as [art. Def.] TO - para [destino] FOR -
para AT - em TO THE – à , ao [para+a, para+o] AT THE - no, na [em+a, em+o]
Qualificadores de Where são verdes

 EXPRESSIONS WITH ME – comigo BY MYSELF – sozinho [eu]


“SORRY” desculpe BY YOURSELF –sozinho[você] MORE OR LESS
– mais ou menos “MY NAME IS_____________”. – “Meu nome
é___________.” GRAMMAR – Para formar o interrogativo, mais uma vez
usamos o verbo auxiliar “DO” e posicionamos ele na frente do pronome. Do
you want? Do you study? Do I like fish? Does he work? * Does she need my car? *
A forma do verbo na 3 pessoa do singular não tem a ver com o plural * Para
formar o plural, acrescentamos o som de “s” ou “z” no final do objeto.
The boy - o menino My friend – meu amigo The boys - os meninos My friends
– meus amigos

 - F R A M E S – 1. I LIKE my teacher. 2. I SLEEP in the evening. I_______my


friend. I________by myself. I_______my family. I need to_________. I_______my
manager. I want to___________now. 3. Do you study? Do you__________English?
Do you__________Portuguese? Do you like to__________? Pergunta Resposta 4.
Do you study OR work? 5. I don’t study NOR work Do you want_______need? I
don’t want________need. Do you eat________drink? I don’t
eat________drink. Do you play_______study? I don’t play________study. 6. I
like HER family. 7. I want to see HIS sister. I like_________store. I want to work
at_________store. I like_________manager. I want to speak with_________son. I
like_________coffee. I want to drink with_________glass.

 8. I study AT THE school. 9. Do you want to go TO THE church? I


work__________store. Do you need to go______store? I drink__________bar. Do
you like to go______movies? I eat__________restaurant. Do you need to
go______school? 10. I want to go TO THE movies. 11. DO you want the juice? I
want to go________school. ______you want the cup? I like to go________church.
______you want the bread? I need to go________store. ______you want the
cheese? 12. DO YOU LIKE to work? 13. I ONLY work in the morning.
___________to sleep? I_______study with my sister. ___________to play?
I_______like to eat. ___________to study? I_______work today. 14. He NEEDS a
manager. 15. She WANTS a son and a daughter. He_______a friend.
She________a glass and a cup. He_______a teacher. She________fish and meat.
He_______a father. She________only tea. 16. It LIKES to eat. It_______to sleep.
It_______to play. It_______to go with me.

 PRACTICE P H R A S E S 1. I like to drink wine with my friends. Do you like to drink


wine? 2. Sorry, but I like to drink beer. Only my father wants wine. 3. I need to work
tomorrow, and I want to sleep now. Good night! 4. Do you want to go to the store in
the evening? I work at the store! 5. I need to speak with my father today. Do you
want to go with me? 6. I don’t want to go to the store by myself. I want to go with
you. 7. Do you want to go to the church with my children tomorrow? 8. I don’t
need to speak German. I only speak English. 9. I like to eat bread and cheese. Do
you like to drink tea? 10. I want to drink a glass of water. Thanks, I need to go. 11. I
want to speak only English with my teacher and my family.

 L E S S O N F O U R Pessoas que imitam facilmente tem uma grande vantagem


em aprender uma lÃngua estrangeira. Mesmo assim algumas pessoas boas em
imitar, ficam intimidados quando tentam reproduzir sons estrangeiros, e suas
habilidades naturais são inúteis. Aprender uma lÃngua necessita imitação
cosciente. Isto quer dizer anotar com cuidado coisas como: as posições dos
lábios; a qualidade dos sons; a velocidade da fala; a entonação da voz; o rÃ-
timo das senteças, e até gestos caracterÃsticos. Imitar tais aspectos pode
parecer bobagem no inicio, mas é muito mais bobagem não fazer isto, mesmo
fazendo vários erros. Em geral nós temos que massacrar a lÃngua antes de
dominá-la, e este processo tem que iniciar imediatamente. Imitação tem três
aspectos: 1) observação constante e intensa 2) se “jogar”dentro da
imitação 3) treinamento contÃnuo Se “jogar” dentro do “modo” da
lÃngua é muito importante. No inÃcio, adotar conscientemente, hábitos
completamente diferentes de falar pode parecer terrivelmente embaraçoso, ou
até doloroso. Não é uma coisa normal, e sentimos que estamos ofendendo as
pessoas pela maneira consciente que imitamos cada palavra e gesto seu. Mas o
que é esquisito para nós, não é para eles. Treinamento contÃnuo é outra
parte importante no processo de imitação. Após pouco tempo esta imitação
não parecerá mais estranho a nós. Na realidade ele se sentirá muito natural, e
inconscientemente adotamos novas “maneiras” de falar o idioma
estrangeiro. 14

 SOUND STUDY Um dos erros mais comuns em aprender uma lÃngua é falhar
em treinar ouvindo. Só depois que aprendemos a sentar e escutar é que
podemos ficar de pé e falar. Nossa inabilidade de captar com os ouvidos a frase
ou sentença complementar, nos desanima. Ela vem com muita velocidade (numa
média de três a cinco sÃlabas por segundo). A única maneira de nos
familiarizar com a forma acústica do idioma é de escutar seletivamente um
aspecto e depois um outro aspecto. ( 1 ) O TOM DA VOZ - Se o tom da voz levanta
ou abaixa, ou fica nivelado é uma das primeiras coisas que uma criança
percebe sobre uma lÃngua,mas é geralmente a última coisa que um adulto
percebe. Uma criança quase inevitavelmente usa a intonação correta mesmo
quando está tagarelando. No adulto esta falta de intonção é que o trai como
estrangeiro quando ele fala o idioma não próprio. Sendo isto como for OUVIR
SELETIVAMENTE para a intonação é exatamente onde todos devem
começar a escutar uma lÃngua estrangeira. ( 2 ) SONS ESTRANHOS –
Quando estamos ouvindo seletivamente para as variações dos tons, certos
sons estranhos, vogais ou consoantes, vão nos atrair. Então a próxima coisa
que devemos fazer é escutar seletivamente estes sons estranhos. Se um som
é freqüente, devemos concentrar n’ele; apagando qualquer outra coisa da
mente e concentrando nas ocorrências dele. Quando alguém escuta com
cuidado aos sons estranhos, ele vai ver que está movendo sua lÃngua, seu
lábios e queixo, imitando este som estranho. A nossa mente automaticamente faz
com que os órgãos de falar se movam na direção e tempo certo para
reproduzir o som. Estas ligações entre ouvir e falar são uma das razões pela
importância de escutar. 15

 Os sons de uma lÃngua são a base de tudo nela, e os sons de cada lÃngua são
distintos. Para nossa conveniência podemos dividir os sons em duas classes
tradicionais: 1) consoantes e 2) vogais. As consoantes , na maior parte;
interrompem o ar saindo dos pulmões com vários pontos de articulação.
Estes pontos são efeituados com movimentação de órgãos do aparelho
fonador: pn – passagem nasal L – lábios d – dentes a – região
alveolar O primeiro passo é rp – região palatal Obter um quadro dos rv ⠀“
região velar Sons de cada sistema pl – ponto da lÃngua Para uma análise
contrastiva l – lÃngua Cv – cordas vocais INGLÊS Bilabial labiodental dental
alveolar palatal velar Oclusiva Surda sonora P b t d k g fricativa Surda sonora f v 0
o s z h africada Surda sonora c j Sibilante Surda sonora s z lateral Sonora l nasal
sonora m n n 16

 16 PORTUGUÊS bilabial labiodental Alvéolo dental palatal velar Oclusiva Surda


sonora p b t d k g Fricativa Surda Sonora f v s z h sibilante Surda Sonora s z
Lateral Sonora l ^ Nasal Sonora m n ~ n vibrante sonora I n O confronto dos
quadros fonêmicos das duas lÃnguas mostra que elas são diferentes quanto ao
seguinte: (1 ) Um certo número de fonemas do mesmo tipo tem pontos de
articulação diferentes nas duas lÃnguas; é o caso de [t, d, s, z, l, n] alveolares
em inglês, e [t, d,s, z, l, n, r] álveo-dentais em português. ( 2 ) O inglês tem
consoantes que não ocorrem em português: th, h, ch, i, ng. Lembramos que em
produzir as vogais a corrente de ar egressa dos pulmões sem encontrar nenhum
obstáculo, então não há pontos de articulção, e sim regiões de
articulação. Os diferentes efeitos acústicos são obtidos pelo arredondamento
ou distensão dos lábios, associados a maior ou menor abertura da boca. (as in
me) (as in ball) (as in day) (as in coat) (as in bat) (as in two) 17

 Estes diferentes efeitos acústicos também são obtidos com os movimentos


efetuados pela lÃngua. O espaço aproximado onde esses movimentos se
efetuam, ou seja onde a lÃngua adquire uma posição, é que classifica as
vogais em anteriores, centrais e posteriores e ainda em: baixas, médias e altas.
INGLÊS PORTUGUÊS O confronto dos quadros fonêmicos das duas là nguas
par vogais mostra que elas são diferentes quanto ao seguinte: ( 1 ) As vogais do
inglês são estranhas ao nosso sistema fonológico ( 2 ) As semivogais do
inglês não correm em português – Y, w, r As vogais mais comuns: beat, bit,
bet, bat, father, bought, boat, put, boot, but. A E I O U Comprido - Ei ii ái ou you
Curto - ah é e á uh à ‰Ã©Ã© u †œA menor unidade marcadora de significado
do sistema sonoro é o que chamamos de FONEMA.” O simples conhecimento
dos fonemas de uma lÃngua estrangeira nos possibilita a comunicação com
falantes nativos, isto se dominamos a estrutura fonética. Quando ouvimos uma
lÃngua estrangeira, tendemos a pensar que os sons dessa lÃngua são os
mesmos que os americanos pronunciam o “a” de maneira diferente, que o
“m” em alguns casos e igual, e etc. Trata-se na verdade, de dois sistemas
sonoros diferentes, que podem ter alguns sons muito parecidos.

 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISES O “a” em inglês, pode ter várias


pronúncias. Eis as três mais comuns: “a” = ei “a” = éé! “a”
= ah plane mad what name bad war fame band tall game land talk page rat fall lady
sad raw baby that ball “ai” = ei sailor - pain - rain – tailor - nail - rainbow
– tail - grain - paint – mail - railroad - paid – train - bait - brain - pail - daily -
main – REVIEW 1) Idiomas são sistemas de sinalização complexos que
separamos em partes para melhor entender. PRONOME OBJETOS GRAMà TICA
VERBOS QUALIFICADORES 2) Pronomes até agora: I MY FAMILY YOU YOUR
sister father HE HIS brother daughter SHE HER mother son IT ITS 3) Formas
negativas usam “DON’T”: I don’t need. You don’t like. I don’t
want tea. You don’t need to work today. * He doesn’t work. * It doesn’t
like you.

 4) Formas interrogativas usam “DO” antes do pronome: Do you work? Do I


need to go? Do you like fish? Do you go to school? * Does he drink beer? * Does
she study 5) “A “ é o artigo indefinido - um, uma. a boy a school a girl a
church 6) “THE” é o artigo definido - o, a, os, as the boy the boys the
church the churches o meu carro – my car (o inglês não usa do artigo o meu
filho – my son ** definido tanto como no o filho dele – his son português) a
irmã dela – her sister A preposição “TO” é para alguma direção. I
go to Rio. I go to church. You need to go to my store. A preposição “FOR”
não é para nenhum lugar. I want to work for you. I like to work for you. I want a
book for my son. A preposição “AT” significa em. I study at my school. I
work at his store. Juntamos as preposições com o artigo definido “THE”. I
want to go to the school. I need to speak to the boy. Do you need to go to the
store? I work at the store. I study at the school. Do you drink at the bar?

 L E S S O N F I V E PRONOUNS WE - nós OUR – nosso YOU ALL– vocês


(todos) YOUR – de vocês THEY – eles, elas THEIR – deles, delas We
need to sleep. You all need to see. They like to study. We don’t want ham. You
all work in the evening. They need to work. OBJECTS TIME SOCCER (football)
WEEK BREAKFAST BOOK LUNCH CAR DINNER(denr) TREE DOWNTOWN

 WEEKEND SPANISH WIFE HOUSE(haus) HUSBAND HOME (houm) MONEY AT


HOME VERBS TO BUY/ BOUGHT(bái)(bat) – comprar I buy fish and meat. Do
you buy ham at the store? TO SELL/ SOLD – vender I sell books. Do you sell
cars? TO UNDERSTAND/ UNDERSTOOD – entender I understand Spanish. I
don’t understand you. (has) TO HAVE/ HAD = got, got to “gotta” – ter,
ter que I have a brother. I have to work.

 QUALIFIERS Adjectivos são rosas NEW – novo WHAT – o quê, quê OLD
– velho WHERE – onde BIG – grande WHEN – quando SMALL –
pequeno THIS – this car, this book, this boy SOME – algum, alguns THAT –
that house, that store, that family Qualificadores de Quantia são amarelos
EXPRESSIONS HOW MUCH – quanto HOW MANY – quantos EVERYDAY
– todos os dias EVERY WEEK – toda semana ON THE WEEKEND – no
fim de semana BUCK(bâc) – “pau” (dinheiro) to “HAVE
BREAKFAST” – tomar café da manhã to “HAVE LUNCH” –
almoçar to “HAVE DINNER” – jantar “YOU’RE WELCOME”- de
nada “SEE YOU LATER” (si ya leirar) – até mais tarde “WHERE ARE
YOU FROM?” – de onde você é? GRAMMAR - MY – meu, minha (s)
ITS – dele, dela (coisas, animais) YOUR - seu, sua (s) OUR (âr) – nosso,
nossa (s) HIS- seu, sua (s) / dele YOUR – vosso, vossa (s) de vocês HER ⠀“
seu, sua (s) / dela THEIR – deles, delas Qualidades em geral e o adjetivo,no
inglês,sempre vem antes do substantivo. BIG CAR – carro grande OLD
HOUSE – casa velha SMALL GIRL – menina pequena GOOD BOY - menino
bom

 REPETIR CADA” FRAME” PELO MENOS DUAS VEZES. REVISAR


SEMPRE - F R A M E S – 1. WE need to work. 2. YOU ALL see the store.
_____want to sleep. _______ work today. _____have a car. _______ have a friend.
_____sell fish. _______ speak English. 3. THEY want some ham. 4. We want OUR
lunch. _______want some bread. We like_____teacher. _______need some fish.
We see_____mother. _______speak some German. We want_____money. 5. You
all need YOUR books. 6. They like THEIR house. You all need______cups. They
like_______mother. You all need______friends. They like_______sister. You all
need______home. They like_______church. 7. I BUY fish. 8. We want to SELL our
house. I_____my books. We need to______our car. I_____lunch. We don’
t______animals. I_____cars. We like to______to you. 9. Do you UNDERSTAND
English. 10. I HAVE a sister. (got) I only_______________Spanish. I_______a car.
(got) Does he_______________you. I_______a wife. (got) We don’
t_______________. I_______a new son. (got)

 11. I HAVE to work. (got) 12. I have a NEW home. I_________a car. (got) I have
a_______car. I_________to go. (got) I have a_______friend. I_________to sleep.
(got) I have a_______wife. 13. He likes OLD cars. 14. Do you like BIG stores? He
likes______friends. Do you like_______cups? He likes______books. Do you
like_______houses? He likes______homes. Do you like_______girls? 15. I want a
SMALL tree. 16. I want SOME small trees. I want a ________wife. I
want______small glasses. I want a_________house. I want _____big cars. I want
a_________glass. I want______big books. 17. WHAT do you buy? 18. WHERE do
they work? _______do you want? _______do they sleep? _______do you need?
_______do they play? _______do you see? _______do they study? 19. WHEN do
you have to work? 20. When do you have to sell THIS car? _______does she have
to study? When do you have to sell_____house? _______do they have to sleep?
When do you have to sell_____bread? _______do I have to go? When do you
have to sell_____cheese? 21. I want to buy THAT book. 22. When do we HAVE
LUNCH? I want to buy______glass. When do we__________with Bob? I want to
buy_______house. When do you want to_________? I want to buy________car.
Do you______ _______by yourself ? 23. Where do you want to HAVE DINNER?
24. I like to HAVE BREAKFAST. Where does he want to______ ______? I need to
_______________. Where do they want to______ ______? I want
to_______________. Where do we want to______ _______? I only________
_________.

 PRACTICE PHRASES 1. I want to speak with the manager. He doesn’t work


today. 2. Where do you want to go tomorrow ? I need to go to the school. 3. I need
to speak with your husband today. He needs to go to Rio. 4. What do you want to
eat now? I don’t want to have lunch now. 5. Do you want to sell your car? I need
to buy a new car. 6. When do you like to sleep? I don’t like to sleep in the
afternoon. 7. I need to buy some fish. I like to eat fish and drink wine. 8. Where do
you need to go this weekend? I want to go to the beach. 9. Do you have time to go
with me to the store to buy some ham? 10. Do you need to drink water? I want a
cup of tea, please. 11. I study French in the afternoon, and English in the evening.
12. I like to play with my children at the beach. We go on the weekend. 13. I want to
work at the store with my brother. Do you want to work? 14. Do you go to the
school by yourself, or with your sister? 15. Do you like to eat meat in the morning? I
only eat bread cheese.

 30 L E S S O N S I X Crianças não se preocupam com declinações,


conjugações, e subjetivos. Elas apenas escutam, repetem, e juntam palavras
que tenham ouvidos [muitas vezes com erros, mas estes são corrigidos com mais
tempo ouvindo]. Escutar é a base deste rocesso de aprendizagem e juntar as
palavras em diferentes combinações é o sultado natural da pessoa comunicar
seus objetivos e observações. O passo inicial este processo é o que
chamamos de OUVIR PASSIVAMENTE. Sendo que, mesmo sem um esforço
consciente as nossas mentes podem nos judar bastante na aprendizagem de um
idioma, devemos dar todas as oportunidades ara nossas mentes trabalhar em com
eficiência máxima. Fazemos isto da seguinte 1) Dar à mente bastante material
para escutar como gravações de palestras, o dio, fitas e televisão. 2) Relaxar.
Ansiedades até sobre aprender a lÃngua dão um curto circuito na mente. É
claro que poderão sar algumas expressões mas para ter o beneficio total de
“ouvir passivamente”, a s. to vo ê faz outras coisas. É uma boa técnica
jornal, ou brinca com arecer ridÃculo, mas s mais complicadas música que tocou
tantas vezes no rádio Precisamos entender que todo som em toda lÃngua
estrangeira é um som isso precisamos ter certeza de que stamos reproduzindo
estes sons adequadamente. Uma das melhores maneiras bservar a produção
dos sons é uma investigação cuidadosa da maneira que nós p re n a p
maneira: rá 3) Dar bastante tempo à mente. Muitas pessoas acham que devem
estar falando algo na lÃngua estrangeira depois da primeira semana. u pessoa tem
que deixar a mente fazer seu trabalho por alguns mese 4) Deixa a mente trabalhar
enquan c escutar uma gravação enquanto você faz a barba, come, lê o seus
filhos. Não é preciso sempre prestar atenção. Pode p considera que é
desta maneira que as pessoas decoram até a musicas sem prestar atenção.
Lembra daquela que os vez enjoar? Dominando sons estrangeiros estrangeiro e
é diferente do português. Por e o tentamos reproduzir um som.

 31 SOUND STUDY Grupos Consonantais de “SONS ESTRANHOS” Vamos


ver o problema das combinações fonotáticas, ou seja, as seqüências e
rupos de fonemas do inglês que são estranhos ao português. Em posição g
inicial, o ortuguês não tem os seguintes grupos consonantais do inglês: str p ike
through thwart twine shrew feud swine stay cute splash spy mute squat smile
beauty ls im sky pure spray snail view qu ick scream dwell

 32
***********************************************************************************************
**** Outro aspecto dos sons, que se resume em quatro pontos tão importantes
que somam 50% de aprender um idioma: 1) CONTEXTO quando estamos numa
conversação temos que saber o assunto sobre o qual conversaremos ou
estaremos “por fora”. 2) RÍTMO temos que estar usando o ritmo correto do
idioma para poder captar e também transmitir as “palavras chaves”. 3)
PALAVRAS CHAVES numa frase ouvimos apenas as palavras chaves que nos
permiti entender a frase sem ouvir cada palavrinha. Estas palavras chaves ocorrem
onde temos a batida do ritmo. O tom da voz também acompanha estas palavras
chaves e afeta a interpretação. 4) PENSAR EM INGLÊS com o contexto, ritmo,
e palavras chaves todos acontecendo em harmonia, podemos entender a
conversação e pensar em inglês. Uma pessoa pode treinar “o pensar”
na lÃngua estrangeira fazendo onversações imaginarias, compondo palestras,
ou recordar o que tem ouvido ou lido cabulário restrito, é muito importante
experimentar to usando as palavras e expressões da lÃngua proposta. icialmente
pode parecer desesperançoso, mas, cada vez que uma palavra ou frase mento
deve prosseguir os uma pessoa falando lês, sem tentar traduzir anto é preciso
muita com facilidade, sem c no idioma. Mesmo tendo um vo formular o pensamen
In de português entrar na mente, deve ser jogado fora, e o pensa somente com as
palavras e frases do inglês. Quando escutam inglês, devemos nos esforçar em
acompanhar pensando em ing as palavras para o português. Isto é difÃcil de
não fazer, port concentração para evitar. A fala tem que fluir naturalmente e
contorções mentais.

 33 “REVISAR É A CHAVE PARA APRENDER” SONS SEMELHANTES aos


semelhantes . Isto não se refere a semelhanças Depois de ouvir seletivamente
sons estranhos, devemos dirigir a nossa atenção com sons no português, mas
as o do “P”e ntre o espondente entre o “T”e o “D”, e outro entre
e diferenças nas lÃnguas são sistemáticas. Idiomas zação muitos
complexos, e tem que ser sistemas ou não será possÃvel lembrá-los. s sons
sem prestar atenção nas palavras ou seus sentidos. Mas nós não queremos
esperar e não é preciso. Podemos já notar semelhanças em palavras. seam
theme sick thick song thong sum thumb face faith pass path semelhanças de
sons da lÃngua estrangeira. Estas semelhanças são as com o “B”. Logo
veremos que estas semelhanças são agrupadas como: um som e “P” e o
“B” provavelmente terá um som corr os sons “K”e “G”. As
semelhanças são nada mais do que sistemas de sinali Uma criança escuta
somente o SOUND EXERCISES /s/ /th/ sin thin sigh thigh sink think 1) To SIN is
bad. [pecar] 2) You don’t want to SINK. [afundar] Too THIN is bad. [magro, fino]
You don’t want to THINK. [pensar] 3) We want a SONG. [canção] you have?
[soma] We want a THONG. [correia] 5) Do you see the PASS?[passe] 4) What
SUM do What THUMB do you have? [polegar] Do you see the PATH? [caminho,
trilho]

 34 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISES “ch” “sh” “o”, “ou” = a


chair she mother church shell brother chase sheet some cheese shine come
chicken sheep company children shirt something check shoe money beach
shampoo young R E V I E W 1) icado do sistema “A menor unidade marcadora
de signif sonoro é o que chamamos de FONEMA.” 2) Para dominar o sistema
sonoro escutamos seletivamente os seguintes: a de IMITAà ‡Ã ƒO consciente. WE
OUR YOU YOUR THEIR Pronomes com YOU HIS HER ITS OUR YOU YOUR
THEIR O TOM DA VOZ SONS ESTRANHOS – consoantes e vogais SONS
SEMELHANTES – “sin” / “thin” 3) Aprender uma lÃngua necessit 4)
Pronomes novos: THEY pletos: I MY YOUR HE SHE IT WE THEY

 35 5) A preposição “TO” = para alguém ou algum lugar tendo sentido de


com destino: I want to go to the store. I have to speak to the manager. 6) A
preposição “AT” – em algum lugar: I study at the school. I work at the
big store. I sleep at my house. CONTEXTO; e acompanhando com o RITMO certo;
vamos poder captar as PALAVRAS CHAVES; e então poder entender e PENSAR
em inglês. 8) WHAT do you buy? WHAT do you need? 7) Sabendo qual é o
tema ou WHAT does he want? WHERE do you work? WHERE are you from?
WHERE do you go on the weekend? WHEN do you have lunch? WHEN do they
sleep? WHEN do you got to go? 9) I want THIS book. He likes THIS car. S I have
THAT bike. He needs THAT ham. They go to THAT church. Do you need THI
money?

 36 L E S S O N S E V E N PARENTS OBJECTS ANIMAL BOSS HORSE WAITER


CHICKEN WAITRESS DOG MAGAZINE CAT NEWSPAPER BIRD

 37 MONTH LETTER BICYCLE/ BIKE NUMBER PRONOUNS “Pronomes


Objetos” SEE ME - me US – (âs) – nos GIVE YOU – o , a [você] YOU
ALL–os, as[vocês] ele] THEM os,as[eles, elas] You don’t want me HELP
HIM – o [ - NDE STAN U R D HER - a [ela] IT – o, a [neutro] . [me quer] O
PRONOME OBJETO I don’t see you. [o vejo] SEGUE O VERBO I don’t want
him. [o quero] I don’t need her . [a preciso] TO WRITE / WROTE VERBS I write
books. She w s newspape rite for a r. AD TO READ / RE (rid) (réd) You need to
read this. He doesn’t like to read.

 38 TO HELP / HELPED Do you want to help me? Please, we need to help her!
(guêv) (geiv) TO KNOW / KNEW - (nôo)saber, conhecer I don’t know you. Do
you know Spanish? TO GIVE / GAVE I want to give this to you. He wants to give
money. QUALIFIERS THESE (these books, these cars) 1 – one 1 – first cond
THOSE (those things, those hams) 2 – two 2 – se come ird HERE – aqui 3
– three 3 – th go TH 4 – fourth ERE – lá , ali 4 – four FROM - de
(procedência) 5 – five 5 – fifth cima de) 6 – six ON – em ( 6 – sixth
bre (por cima) 7 – seve OVER – so n 7 – seventh 8 – eight 8 – eighth
A CAR 9 – nine 9 – ninth AN ANIMAL (anânémal) 10 – ten 10 – tenth
AN INDIAN ABOUT – sobre, a respeito de , a cerca de, aproximadamente
WHY? – por quê? BECAUSE – (bikáz) - porque

 39 EXPRESSIONS “THIS MORNING” - nesta manhã (in the morning)


“THIS AFTERNOON” – nesta tarde (in the afternoon) “THIS
EVENING” / “TONIGHT”- nesta noite (in the evening) “WHAT DO YOU
(tráim t lern) – “Estou tentando aprender.” THINK?” (about) - “O
que você acha?” “I’M TRYING TO LEARN.”- GRAMMAR O verbo dar
– “to give”, funciona apenas para o ato de “entregar algo”, s c mo n
português: dar de frente com...;deu nas OMO HAV A CA . - T HAV TO G T NDO
SAM S O ERBO TEM ou ceder, não de tantas forma o o notÃcias...; deu nos
búzios...; dar para agüentar... O VERBO “HAVE”FUNCIONA C POSSE E
NECESSIDADE [posse] I E R enho um carro. [necessidade] I E O enho [que] ir. . - I
HAVE TO WORK. – Tenho [que] trabalhar. QUA U O VERBO “KNOW”
COM UM OUTRO V OS QUE ACRESENTAR HOW I KNOW YOUR FATHER -
Conheço seu pai. I KNOW HOW TO SPEAK ENGLISH – Sei [como] falar
inglês.

 40 LER CADA “FRAME”PELO MENOS 2 VEZES DESDE A LIÇÃO 01!


COMEà ‡ A à € LER COM MAIS VELOCIDADE. . You like ME. 2. We need YOU. _. .
I understand HIM. 4. I work with HER. ___. ___. ___ . ____. y. 1 He likes_______.
Your father needs_______ She likes______. She needs_______. They like______.
It needs ______. 3 They understand_______. He works with____ We
understand_______. We work with_____ She understands_______. You work
with____ . 5. I like IT. 6. They see US play He likes__ He sees _____pla She
likes_____. You see_____play. . They like_____. She sees_____play 7. I speak
with THEM. 8. They WRITE letters to me. We speak with_______
You______numbers. for us. She speaks with______. He______for a newspaper.
They speak with______. We don’t______to him. . I READ the newspaper. 10.
We need to HELP the boy. 9 You______the book. You have to______us today. We
want to________. I want to_______at home. He______magazines. Do
you_______your mother? 1. I don’t KNOW your name. 12. I want to GIVE you
bread. 1 Do you_______her husband? I want to_______them water. The waitress
doesn’t____ n . He wants to______me a car. __E glish The boss_______my
brother. I want to_______ you a book. 3. I want to sell THESE books. 14. Do you
see THOSE birds? 1 I want to sell_______cars. Do you see______dogs? I want to
sell_______cups. Do you see______bikes? I want to sell_______houses. Do you
see______cars?

 41 15. I buy meat HERE. 16. My sister works THERE. I sell books________. My
wife studies_________. I play soccer_______. helps__________. I read
books_______. My parents eat_________. My son 17. I have a l I have a
letter______my friend e____indian. I have a letter______your sister. I
see____apple. I have a letter______the boss. I see____ace. (pergunta) (resposta)
9. WHY do you work? 20. BECAUSE I need to. ______do you study? _______I
have to. I like to. etter FROM you. 18. I see AN animal. . I se 1 ______do you read?
_______ ______do you help? _______I want to. 21. They work at the THIRD
house. 22. I want the SECOND book. They play at the_______house. I want
the_________cat. They study at the______house. I want the_________waitress.
23. We want to work THIS MORNING. 24. You have to go TH We want to
play______ _________. You have to help____ _________. IS AFTERNOON.
_____ ________. We want to study_____ _________. You have to write We want
to read______ _________. You have to sell______ ________. 25. He works
TONIGHT. 26. Do you KNOW HOW to read? _____ _____to write? He
speaks__________. Do you_____ _____to work? _ _____to buy? He
studies__________. Do you He has dinner___________. Do you____ 27. I like to
speak ABOUT my family. 28. I have ABOUT three birds. I like to speak_______the
children. I know_______seven numbers. I like to speak_______my work. I
read________two books. I like to speak_______money. I write________fi ve
letters. ____ ______ ______him? 29. WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT the boss?
_____ ___ ____ ______ ______this? _____ ___ ____ ______ ______your work?
_____ ___
 42 Leia cada frase concentrando no rÃtimo, palavras chaves e pensando em
inglês SEM TRADUZIR. PRACTICE PHRASES 1. I want to understand my friend,
but I only speak English. 2. I have money today, but I don’t want to go. See you
later. 3. Why do you read in the morning? I don’t have time in the evening. 4.
When do you eat? I have lunch in the afternoon. 5. I like to speak English with my
family. We don’t speak Portuguese. 6. How many books do you have about
animals? I have four books. 7. I don’t eat at my home. I like to have dinner at the
restaurant. 8. Where do you like to study? I only study at the school. 9. You
don’t like to work at this store. Why do you work here? 10. We don’t have
time to go to the store with you today. 11. Do you want to buy a newspaper with this
money? I don’t read. 12. They want to write a letter this afternoon. Do y wou ant
to elp? h 13. I buy two books every week. Do you sell books or magazines? 14. Do
your friends go to the school with you? I go by myself. 15. Why do your children go
to the movies only on the weekend? VOLTE PARA NO 01 E TREIN O MÁXIMO A
C M O DE VELOCIDADE.

 43 L E S S O N E I G H T Há mais um aspecto na aprendizagem de um idioma em


que ouvir é im sendo ouvir a nós mesmos. Inconscientemente todos nós
escutamos nossa portante, maneira de falar. Assim podemos falar igual aos outros.
A pessoa que fica surda perde este poder de controle e em breve sua maneira de
falar fica distorcida. Primeiro controlamos os movimentos musculares que nos
dão controle constante. E segundo, controlamos os sons que saem da boca e
nos dão controle demorado. Este controle de nós mesmos necessita um
esforço consciente. Sempre devemos comparar nossa fala com o que ouvimos
dos outros. Com esta comparação cuidadosa com a maneira correta de falar,
podemos ter bons resultados em pouc tempo. o TUDY upos Consonantais de
“SONS ESTRANHOS” Aprender a falar uma lÃngua é relativo a aprender a
ouvi-la. SOUND S Gr Vamos ver o problema dos grupos de fonemas do inglês
que são estranhos ao português em posição final de palavra. Em posição
final os grupos consonantais de palavras simples são: mend trench burp ant soft
purse mist grasp heart (hárt) fence film serve bold bulge fears [rz] (firz) ox [ks] bulb
marsh (mârch) shelf welch [I bish] rth sink fields [Idz] corpse act kiln fi rst change
verb shirts (shêrts) solve third prompt belt surf b umps (bámps) desk iceberg
belch kelp large triumph[mf] false church stops milk park script health pearl lens
[nz] shrimp storm next [kst]

 44 In onaçt ão Nenhuma lÃngua é falada em monótono. Isto quer dizer que
sempre há alguma “modulação” da voz, e todas estas modificações
ao padronizadas e adquirem certos significados. Dominar a intonação necessita
muita paciência e determinação de imitar constantemente. Até conseguirmos
falar uma frase com sua intonação correta, não será dita corretamente.
SOUND EXERCISES “SONS SEMELHANTES” h/ 1) I see your TIES.
[ gravatas ] I your THIGHS. [ c thanks He is a TINKER. [ funileiro ] tinker thinker tick
thick ticket thicket tree three true through fate faith / t/ /t tin thin o thighs xas ] ties
tanks 2) He is a THINKER. [ pensador ] I have a FATE. [ destino ] 3) I have a
FAITH. [ crença, religião ] 4) Go to the FORT wall. [ for fort te ] fourth Go to the
FOURTH wall. [ quarta ] th/ /f/ / 1) It’s a beautiful REEF. [ recife ] first thirst It
‘s a beautiful WREATH.[guirlanda] fought (fat) thought three free 2) I have FREE
ticket fret threat s. [ de graça ] I have THREE tickets. [ três ] ) thrill ) death ] uêf)
with ) thin (rif) wreath frill (freil deaf (déf 3) Come WITH me. [ com whiff ( fén
Come WHIFF me. [ sentir cheiro ] fin ( reef 4) Are you DEAF? [ surdo ] LER E
REPETIR AS COLUNAS, Are you DEATH? [ a morte ] DEPOIS COMPA RE AS
DUAS

 45 “A memória auditiva pode ser aprimorada tanto quanto qualquer outra, e
alguém aprendendo um idioma faz bem em concentrar melhor neste fator”.
ow that here ) “ea” = i “ea” = é breakfast cream(crim) feather
(féder) – pena (ave) u e (mé r (wé PRONUNCIATION EXERCISES
“th” - (som sonoro) “h” – (espirado) this h the husband then head
(héd there heart (hart) mother hand father happy eat (it) bread (bréd) meat (mÃ-
t) beat (bit) - bater dead – morto clean (clin) deaf – surdo easy (isi) meas r jar)
– medida neat weathe der) – tempo, clima

 46 REVIEW 1) “pronome objeto”no inglês vem depois do verbo: Do you


know ME? Please, speak for US. I don’t see YOU. I speak to YOU ALL today.
She helps HIM. I have to go with THEM. He needs HER. T. 2) GIVE – muito
usado no imperativo e com o pronome objeto: I like I Give me the book! You
don’t want to give your time. I want to give you this. Give me that! 3) Nossos
“qualifiers” THIS e THAT agora tem THESE e THOSE: I like this book. --- I
like these books. Do you see this bird? --- Do you see these birds? I want this
magazine. --- I want these magazines. Give me that letter. --- Give me those letters.
I like that cat. --- I like those cats. 4) O verbo to know tem que ter “how”
adicionado quando estamos falando em saber “como” fazer algo. to re Do
you KNOW HOW to speak English? I KNOW HOW ad. We want to KNOW HOW to
go there. 5) I have to work IN THE MORNING . I have to work THIS MORNING. Do
you study IN THE AFTERNOON? Do you study THIS AFTERNOON? I go there IN
THE EVENING. (TONIGHT) I go there TONIGHT. (THIS EVENING) 6) Lugares
ambÃguos não recebem preposições. I go downtown everyday. I want to go
home now. I work downtown. I need to go north.

 47 L E S S O N N I N E OFFICE OBJECTS BEANS (bÃnz) APARTMENT RICE


WINDOW SALAD DOOR APPLE CITY PEAR

 48 COUNTRY BANANA TICKET – passagem, conta, FRUIT EGG ingresso,


multa T - prova NEIGHBOREST (neibr) – vizinho(a) ERBS V TO PREFER /
PREFERRD ( prefér) – preferir I prefer beans and rice. I prefer your office. TO
LIVE / LIVD (lêv) – morar I live with them. I like to live here. TO OPEN / OPEND
- abrir I need to open (open the…) the door. Please open the book. TO CLOSE /
CLOSD – fechar I don’t want to c (close the…) lose the window. TO TAKE /
TOOK (têik) - pegar, to, from) tomar, levar. ( They want to take the boy to the
school. Take it!

 49 QUALIFIERS 11 le– e ven 30 - thiry 12 – twelve 40 - forty 13 – thirteen


50 - fifty 1 ourtee4 – f n 60 - sixty 15 – fifteen 70 - seventy 16 – sixteen 80 -
eighty 1 eventee7 – s n 90 - ninety 18 – eighteen 100 - one hundred (hÃ
¢ndrêd) 1 inetee9 – n n 200 - two hundred 2 wen0 - t ty (twentii) 1000 - one
thousand ALREADY (alrédi) – já USUALLY (iujoli) – geralmente n
UNTIWhe L ( –ântÃl) até (I work until two o’clock.) BY – até (You
need to come home by nine o’clock.) THEN – depois, daà , então Palavras
de COLA – and,but,then,because.. VERBOS CAN – poder (....) AUXILIARES
1) I can read books in English. 2) He can go with us. 3) We can’t open the store
tonight. 4) I can’t sleep! 5) Can I go with you?

 50 **IMPORTANTE DOMINAR USO DE QUANTIDADES*** NO - nenhum,


nenhuma, nada - negativa SOME – algum, alguma, [alguns, algumas ] –
afirmativo How much ANY – algum, alguma (s) – interrogativo How many
nenhum, nenhumas - negativo várias SEVERAL – MORE – mais LESS –
menos MUCH – muito (adj.) quantidades MANY – muitos, vários (adj.)
numero plural “A LOT” – muito, “um monte” “A LOT F O ” (a
Lara) – muito (de) ... quantidades, e numeros FEW – poucos numeros A
LITTLE – um pouco (de) quantidade ANY MORE? A LOT MORE A LITTLE LESS
SOME MORE A LITTLE MORE A FEW LESS MUCH MORE FEW MORE A LOT
LESS MANY MORE NO MORE MUCH LESS NO LESS MANY LESS VERY –
muito super adj. obj. usar apenas com adjetivos. VERY OLD VERY MANY Palavras
TURBO VERY BIG VERY FEW very, so, pretty, too… VERY SMALL VERY GOOD
VERY MUCH

 51 EXPRESSIONS NOON – NOON – ao meio dia meio dia AT NIGHT –
noite AT NIGHT – à noite T UP” – levantar-se to “GE “WHAT TIME
IS IT?” Que horas são? – !” - vamo ( et’s “LET’S GO s L work,
study, eat…) “I DON’T KNOW!” – Sei lá! “TAKE YOUR TIME.”
– Toma o tempo que precisar. Para levar “TAKE OUT” – “BY
TOMORROW” – até amanhã “BY 10:00” – até às 10:00
“BY THE TIME I GO.” – até a hora que eu for AT HOME – em casa T
S OL – na escola A CHO AT CHURCH – na igreja – em paz AT PEACE AT
WORK – no trabalho T W – em guerra A AR 1:00 – “IT’S ONE
O’CLOCK” 2:00 – “IT’S TWO O’CLOCK” 3:00 –
“IT’S O’CLO K” THREE C 4:15 – “IT’S FOUR FIFTEEN”
5:30 – “IT’S FIVE THIRTY” 6:50 – “IT’S TEN TO SEVEN”/
“IT’S SIX FIFTY” A.M. – 0:00 ... 12:00 P.M – 12:00 ... 24:00
RAMMAR G At what time? – à que hora? I work at 8:00. – trabalho às 8:00 I
sleep at 12:00. – durmo às 12:00

 52 FRAMES 1. I PREFER salad. 2 . Do you LIVE here? I ________beans. Do you


________downtown? I ________the country. Do you ________ with Jim? I
________fruit. Do you ________by yourself? 3. They want to OPEN the d 4. I
CLOSE the office at 6:oor. 00. They want to _______the wind I ________the store
at 6:ow. 00. They want to _______the store. I ________the book at 6:00. They want
to _______the book. I ________the door at 6:00. . Do you want to TAKE the
tickets? 6. I want to TAKE the test. the boys? . le? car? . 5 Do you want to _______
You got to ______medicine Do you want to _______the app They want to
_______a taxi. Do you want to _______the We want to ________a bath 7. I have
ELEVEN books. 8. I see FORTY – FIVE bananas. I have _______children. I see
_________ap ples. I have _______pears. I see _________dogs. I have
_______eggs. I see _________cats. 9. She needs TWO HUNDRED FIFTEEN
tickets. 10. I ALREADY speak English. She needs ________numbers. I _______
know your name. She needs ________dollars. I ________know how to write. She
needs ________verbs. It’s ________ten o’clock.

 53 1 I USUALLY work until 8: 1 I work UNTIL 3:00. 1. 00. 2. I ________sleep until


8:00. I sleep ______3:00. I ________ play until 8:00. I play ______3:00. I
________study until 8 I study _____3:00. :00. 13. We need the book B 1 He
studies, THEN he worksY noon. 4. . We need the book _______this afternoon. He
studies, ______ he plays. We need the book _______ He studies, ______hthe time
I go. e sleeps. We need the book _____ He studies, ______he __tomorrow. reads.
15. She CAN work with us. 1 You CAN’T study here. 6. She _______study with
us. You ______ work here. She _______play You ______ live here. with us. She
_______live w You ______sleep here. ith us. 17. I want SOME windows. 18. Do
you want ANY letters? I need _______ new windows. Do you need ______apples?
I like ______ city window Ds. o you have ______ time? I have ______small win
Ddows. o you see _______girls? 19. I don’t want ANY letters. 20. I have NO
friends. I don’t need _______apples. They eat ______apples. I don’t have
_______ time. You can see _____ birds. 21. I have LESS children. 22. I need
MORE time. He reads _____books. He sells _______books. We need
______money. She studies_____in the morning.

 54 (quantidades) (numeros) 23. He drinks MUCH coffee. 24. I have MANY friends.
He eats _____rice. They eat ______apples. She sells _____ meat. You can see
_____ birds. ____neighbors. They take ______time. We know ___ 25. ooks. He
drinks A LOT OF coffee. 26. I read FEW b ______letters. He eats _____apples. He
writes ve______chickens. She sells _____ meat. We ha The windows. y see _____
birds. It needs ______ 27. p until NOON. He drinks A LITTLE beer. 28. I slee He
works until _____. We want _______juice. _____. I need ______ time. We get up
at _ ve lunch at _____. They have ______rice. They ha 29. GET UP. I work AT
NIGHT. 30. I need to __. He studies ________. They can’t ____ ___ ______.
They play ______. I sleep, then I _____ I can’t see ______. It’s time to ___
____! 31. IT’S 7:15 here. ______ at that country. ______ in the morning.
______ now.

 55 LEIA TREINANDO PRONÚNCIA RÁPIDA SEM TRADUZIR PRACTICE


PHRASES 1. Do you want to work with me today? Sorry, I don’t have time. 2. liI
ke to speak English with my friends. We study on the weekend. 3. Do you want to
buy my car? No thanks, I already have a car. 4. I don’t know where you work. I
want to go there tomorrow. 5. I need to study for my test tomorrow. What time is it?
6. Do you want to go to the church with me tomorrow? I don’t know. 7. I need to
speak with the manager of the bank about the money. 8. What do you know about
this city? I don’t know a lot. 9. Where do you want to live? I prefer to live here.
10. I already read magazines in english, but I need to study more. 11. Do you want
to buy my house? I already have a house. 12. What time do you like to have
breakfast? Usually at 7:00. 13. I don’t know how to close the window. Can you
help me? 14. I have some books to read tonight. She needs to write many letters.
15. How many books do you want to read this week? Only, about three.

 56 L E S S O N T E N As pessoas que não usam o que sabem não aprendem a


falar. Mesmo os NS ESTR N S” alunos com dificuldades que usam o que
sabem, e continuam tentando, quase sempre aprendem a falar o idioma. SOUND
STUDY Grupos Consonantais de “SO A HO existentes, criam outros Os sufixos
derivacionais, acrescidos a palavras já grupos consonantais: health sixth width
thousandth tenth twelfth fifth length eighth (tth) warmth (rmpth) fourth O idioma tem
que ser automático ou é inútil. Uma pessoa que sempre tem que ue estar na
ponta da ngua. tatear pelas palavras, não aprendeu o idioma. Expressões tem q

 57 SOUND EXERCISES /z/ /th/ n then lies (laiz) lithe athe cythe Do you want to
CLOSE it? [fechar] Do you want to CLOTHE it? [ vestir] tama ho] you see it RISE? [
levantar] That is my SCYTHE. [ foice] Can you see it WRITHE?[contorser] uz) r)
reed breathe ead (rid) wreathe seed (sid) seethe fodder father 1) You need to
READ it. [ler] You need to WREATHE it. [ entrelaçar em guirlanda] Ze tease (tiiz)
teethe close (clôuz) clothe boys b breeze breathe seize seethe rise (raiz) writhe
size (saiz) s 1) Do you want to study ZEN? [Zen] 3) Do you want to study, THEN?
[então] 2) That is my SIZE. [ n 4) Can /d/ /th/ dough (dou) though den then doze
(do those dare (dé there broader brother b r 2) The animals BREED here.
[ reproduzir-se] The animals BREATHE here. [ respira] 3) My FODDER is old.
[ração para animais] My FATHER is old. [ pai]

 58 PRON N “ow” = au “ou” = au “ow = ou clown our – nosso


snow – neve down – pa ch! – ai!, ui! low – baixo town (t un ra row –
remar tower – to se – casa show – mostrar power p e – camundongo
window – janela cow (cáu) – vaca found – achado now (náu) brown how
– como wow (uáu “o” = “oa” = ou rope – orda boat (bout) –
barco road (roud) – estrada note – float (flôt) – boiar hope –
esperança go oath – juramento joke (dhiók soup roast – assar lone -
solitário boast – ostentar load – carga phone pope – U CIATION
EXERCISES (cláun) – palhaço ra baixo ou á ) – vila out – fo rre hou
– oder mous – agora round – redondo (bráun) – marrom pound –
libra couch (cáut) – sofá ) – oba! shout (sháut) – gritar ou c nota coat
(cout) – casaco goat ( ut) – cabra ) – piada soap ( ) – sabão – fone
papa

 59 R E V I E W do estamos falando 1) O verbo to “KNOW” tem que ter HOW


adicionado quan em saber [ como] fazer algo: I KNOW HOW to read. W to speak
English. n’t KNOW HOW to write. I want to TAKE the train. AKE the bus. They
KNOW HO I do 2) Temos o verbo TAKE: She prefers to T I want to TAKE you there.
They need to TAKE a bath. ) quecer: 3 A palavra THEN, é muito útil e fácil de
es Palavras de COLA (but, and, because, then, so..) We study our homework,
THEN we have dinner. He works until 6:00, THEN he goes home. 4 O e u C) v rbo
a xiliar AN: afirmativo I know it CAN live here. He CAN study with you. negativo She
CAN’T speak English. They CAN’T go with us. interrogativo CAN I play with
John? wn? CAN you take the bus downto

 60 5) NO - nenhum, nenhuma SOME – algum, alguma [alguns, algumas] –


afirmativo ANY – algum, alguma [ alguns, algumas] – interrogativo nenhum,
nenhuma – negativo MORE – mais LESS – menos MUCH – muito (adj.)
quantidades MANY – muitos, vários (adj.) numeros A LOT – muito A LOT OF
– muito (de) quantidades ou numeros FEW – poucos numeros A LITTLE –
m pouco [de] quantidades u ) Qu ndo s trata 6 a e de horas ou tempo, usamos a
preposição AT como à , à s: I go work AT 7:30 A.M. He usually sleeps AT 10:00.
AT what time do you want to study? AT what time can you study with me?

 61 L E S S O N E L E V E N SUNDAY – domingo ON – no, na SATURDAY


– sábado MONDAY – segunda-feira FRIDAY – sexta-feira TUESDAY –
terça-feira THURSDAY – quinta-feira WEDNESDAY – quarta-feira
OBJECTS VACATION MEETING SWIMMING POOL CLASS BEACH RELATIVES
– parentes (KIN) SAND THING – coisa SEA [affirm.] SOMETHING –
alguma coisa alguma coisa? NOTHING - [int?] ANYTHING – [neg.] ANYTHING
– coisa alguma [nada] nada

 62 VERBS TO START / STARTED – começar When can you start? Let’s
start the meeting. TO COME / CAME - vir Please, come here. What time do they
come? TO SAY / SAID – dizer I need to say something. Do you want to say
anything? Y / STAYD – ficar TO STA Please, can you stay here with me ? It
doesn’t want to stay. QUALIFIERS P TY – linda, bonito RET BEAUTIFUL –
linda, bonito HANDSOME – bonito, charmoso [só para homens] GOO – D
bom BAD – mau OLD – velho NEW – novo, nova qualidade YOUNG –
novo, jovem (idade) SMALL – pequeno BIG – grande HAPPY – feliz SAD
– triste LONG – comprido SHORT – curto HOW – como em [dentro
especificamente IN - ] STILL - ainda [inicÃo ou meio de H – no, na [dentro do,
dentro da frase] IN T E ] YET – ainda [final de frase] T próximo (em ordem) NEX
–

 63 EXPRESSIONS “BY BUS” - de ônibus “BY CAR” – de carro e


avião em a pé “MAYBE” – talvez (Thank G ME F “BY PLANE”
– d “BY TRAIN” - de tr “ON FOOT” – “T. G. I. F.” – od Its
Friday) “WHAT IS THE NA O THAT?” – Qual o nome daquilo?
“ANYTHING ELSE?” – “Alguma coisa mais?” “ANYTHING
NEW?” - “Alguma novidade?” “ANYWAY...” – “Seja o que
for...” “ANYHOW” – “De qualquer modo.”, “Como quer que
seja.” “ANYWHERE” – “Qualquer lugar.” ATIVO TIVO? I
DON’T W N YOU WANT. YOU DON’T WANT DO YOU WANT? HE WANTS.
HE DOESN’T WANT DOES HE WANT? SHE NEEDS. SHE DOESN’T
NEED. DOES SHE NEED? IT HAS. IT DOESN’T HAVE. DOES IT HAVE? WE
DON’T . YOU ALL O THEY DO ’T NT? GRAMMAR AFFIRMATIVO NEG
INTERROGA I WANT. A T DO I WANT? WE WANT. WANT. DO WE WANT? YOU
ALL WANT D N’T WANT. DO YOU ALL WANT? THEY WANT. N WANT. DO
THEY WA

 64 MES FRA 1 I go to church on SUNDAY. 2 I go work on MONDAY. . . I see my


family on _______. I work from ______to Friday. I don’t work on _______. The
children go to school on _______. 3. I sell a lot on TUESDAY. 4. I go the movies on
FRIDAY. They don’t have lunch on _______. He studies Spanish on _______.
He buys cheese only on _______. We like to eat fish on ________. 5 They go to
club on SAT 6 Do you want to START the meetin. URDAY. . g? I like to eat
“feijoada” on _ Do you want to _______the clas_______. s? He plays soccer
on ______ Can you please _______the car? __. . ith us. . 7 They need to COME w
8 What do you want to SAY? He wants to _____ to the me Do you want to _____
anythingeting. ? My sister likes to ______h Why do you want to _____ere. _that?
Can you _______ with me? He doesn’t know what to ______. 9 I have to STAY
at my work 1 I can see the PRETTY girls. . 0. . I prefer to ______ at my home. I can
see the _____tree. We like to ______ there. I can see the _____beach. She
doesn’t like to ______with them. I can see the _____bird. 11. She is
BEAUTIFUL. You have a HANDSOME father. 12. My sister is _______. You have a
______brother. Your swimming pool is _______. You have a ______son. The sand
here is ________. You have a ______husband.

 65 13. He likes OLD cars. 14. We have a NEW magazine. I buy _____books. We
have a ____ swimming pool. They sell _____ things. We have a ___ manager. We
have many _____ magazines. We have a ___ office. 15. He has a YOUNG wife.
16. I want to buy a SMALL car. I see the _______ boy. She says she has a ______
apartment We have a _______boss. Those boys prefer _____ girls. They like
_______dogs. We want that ______ cat. the NEXT bus. ________do you like your
fish? We want to see the _______show. 17. HOW do you study? 18. You need to
take ________do you say that? I have to go on the ______train. _city?
________does the baby sleep? Do you know the ______ 19. I need to study YET.
20. I STILL need to study. We have to work _____. We _____have to work. Can
you drink _____? Do you ______ drink wine? Do they have time _____? Do the
children ______have time? 21. She studies IN THE car. 22. I know a VERY old
man. I work ___ ____office. They have a _______young son. He lives ___
____house. He reads _______good books. They play ___ _____sea. We prefer
________happy children. 23. I have VERY MANY friends. 24.We don’t need
VERY MUCH time. I read _______books. You don’t eat _______rice. She has
_______relatives. I don’t have ________money. We give _______things. They
want _______meat. 25. MAYBE he can stay with us. 26.They go to church BY
CAR. ________it needs to eat. We come home BY BUS. ________she has to go
home. I go to Miami BY PLANE. ________we can buy the car next week. She goes
to her parents BY TRAIN.

 66 RITM A Z E . O, R PIDE ,FLU NCIA PHRASES 1. I want to go to the States next


week. I need alot of money. 2. I don’t understand what you say. Can you speak
Spanish? 3. Do you want to help the teacher? I don’t know what book he wants.
4. I like to go there with my neighbor, because she knows German. 5. I need to
understand what you want, because I want to help you. 6. How do you go to
school? I like to go by car, but I don’t have a car. 7. The children sleep until 7:00
everyday because of school. 8. Where do you have to go tonight? I gotta go to the
office. 9. How many brothers and sisters do you have? Three brothers only. 10. He
doesn’t want to stay here. He wants to go to the movies. 11. I go to the movies
on the weekend, then I usually go home. 12. Do you understand me? I don’t
know where you want to go. 13. I still don’t have the money to buy his bicycle.
Do you have? 14. What magazines do you like to buy? I usually don’t buy
magazines. 15. I need to help my wife in the kitchen. What time is it? 16. I like to
have breakfast at 7:30. She has breakfast with me. 17. We usually buy the
newspaper everyday but Monday. Do you understand? 18. Do you know how to
play soccer? I only know how to play tennis. 19. Do you know how to read and write
in English? 20. Sorry, I don’t have time to help you today. Maybe tomorrow.

 67 L E S S O N T W E L V E ominando Sons Estrangeiros s do acento agudo no


inglês, mesmo assim temos que emorizar qual sÃlaba tem “batida. Este
sistema arbitrária sobre a colocação da sÃlaba aprendendo ler e escrever o
inglês. vo D Apesar de não usarmo m tônica torna-se muito difÃcil para quem
está Substanti Verbo rebel to rebel impact to impact insult to insult insert to insert
contest to contest protest to protest co nvert to convert project to project OUND
STUDY ntais de “SONS ESTRANHOS” pessoa singular do presente, em
inglês, to cria vários grupos consonantais. O “s” ou “es” tem o
som /s/, /z/, ou /ez/ quando ema surdo, sonoro, ou s,z,sh,ch,dge, oughs melts
bursts films thinks robs resolves asks begs disturbs fts lisps falls boards acts toasts
comes curls tempts lives harms works rings burns warps hold starves S Grupos
consona Adicionando o sufixo [s, es] da terceira is adicionado às palavras que
terminam com um fon respectivamente. c hopes fits li re engulfs milks helps s Falar
um idioma e tocar o piano são habilidades, e como qualquer perÃcia necessitam
de treinamento, sabendo que a pessoa vai cometer erros. Em fato errar e depois
corrigir os erros é a parte integral do processo de aprender.

 68 S OUND EXERCISES Sons Semelhantes /sh/ /ch/ cheap t sheep sheet chea
ship chip COMPARE OS SONS shoe chew shop chop chair hin chin cash ash l
wish . [carneiros] share s catch l atch witch 1) These are SHEEP These are
CHEAP. [barato] 2) Do you want my SH Do you want my CH ARE? [parte] AIR?
[cadeira] nela da perna] T o] /dj jeer Joyce chest jest choke joke chin gin char jar
chunk junk choose jews rich ridge ) The children CHEER. [aplaudir, torcer] The
children JEER. [zombar, escarnecer] 3) This is my SHIN. [ca his is my CHIN. [queix
/ch/ cheer choice 1 2) We don’t ha here. [ve a CHOICE escolha] We don’t
have a JO here. [Joyce] YCE 3) She doesn’t CHOKE. like it when I [engasgar]
She OKE . [fazer doesn’t like it when I J brincadeira]

 69 /shj/ (João) /dj/ ion virgin sion legion this VERSION . [versão] I don’t know
this VIRGIN. [virgem] to have PLEASURES. [prazeres] We need to have
PLEDGERS. [promissórias] vers pleasure pledger le 1) I don’t know 2) We
need PARA PENSAR – “Toda lÃngua segue suas róprias leis. p Estamos
estudando o que o idioma faz, não o por quê.” PRONUNCIATION
EXERCISES “g”= dj “j” = dj magician – mágico Jack – Jack
pigeon – pombo Joseph – José bridge – ponte jam – geléia large
– grande Japan – Japão gentle – pacÃfico jar – pote general –
general jail – prisão G z – jazz jeans job – emprego range – extensão
just – só, apenas erman – alemão jaz engine – máquina jeans –
engineer – engenheiro

 70 “i”= e “i” = ai “i” = ur like – gostar bird big o sick dirty brick
– tijolo light – luz, leve, clara birth – nasciment right – certo mind –
mente first fish five firm – firme dish – prato milk child – criança, filho sir
– senhor b le third icyc English th It give bike skirt – saia wi blind – cego
shirt side – lado flirt – coquetear, kind – bondoso “flertar” live pilot
this mile – milha fine – bem ripe – maduro hina ite – pipa C k

 71 WR E V I E ) Os dias da semana tem que ser memorizados. 1 SUN DAY,


MONDAY, TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY, DAY, FRIDAY, SATURDAY. THURS
eposição “ON” para no, *** usamos a pr na. ) O erbo She CAN’T read
English. 2 v auxiliar “CAN”: I CAN go with you. He CAN study in the evening.
CAN my sister have a glass of water? 3) Quantidade: SOME – algum, alguma [s]
– afirmativo a – negativo ANY - algum, alguma [s] – interrogativo - nenhum,
nenhum NO - nenhum, nenhuma – negativo MORE – mais LESS – menos
MUCH - muito [adj.] quantidade MANY – muitos, vários [adj.] numeros A LOT -
muito, um monte A LOT OF - muito [de] quantidade e numeros os FEW - poucos -
numer A LITTLE – um pouco [de] – quantidade any more a lot more many
less some more a little more a little less re a few more much less much mo many
more any less a few less lot less

 72 4) A palavra SOMETHING é usado apenas em frases afirmativas: I want to eat


SOMETHING. She needs SOMETHING. 5) A palavra ANYTHING é usado em
frases interrogativas: Do you want ANYTHING ? Does it need ANYTHING ? e
também em frases negativas: I don’t want ANYTHING. 6) YET sempre vem
no final de frases: I need to eat YET. We need to say something YET. 7) STILL
pode ser usado no inÃcio ou no meio de frases: I STILL want to read your letter.
She knows Portuguese and she STILL speaks English. 8) Qualidade: GOOD BAD
STRONG – forte WEAK (wik) – fraco OLD YOUNG PRETTY (préti) CHEAP
(tchip) EXPENSIVE 9) VERY + qualidade = TURBO QUALIDADE VERY GOOD
VERY CHEAP VERY BAD E V RY EXPENSIVE (ekspénsev) VERY STRONG
VERY MUCH VERY WEAK VERY MANY VERY OLD VERY LITTLE VERY YOUNG
VERY FEW VERY PRETTY

 73 L E S S O N T H I R T E E N OBJECTS COMPANY TAPE PHARMACY PARTY


JOB (diab) BRIDGE KIDS INFORMATION VERBS TO VISIT / VISITED I have to
visit my family. She likes to visit us. TO DO / DID – fazer [excutar] I want to do
my homework. What do you do there?

 74 TO COOK / COOKED My mother cooks very well. Can you cook beans? TO
FINISH / FINISHED (fênesh) – terminar They want to finish the meeting. I can
finish this. TO MAKE / MADE (meik) – fazer[construir, confeccionar] We know
how to make a house. I can’t make lunch today. QUALIFIERS ALWAYS (aluêis)
- sempre NEVER - nunca When DURING - durante SOMETIMES - Ã vs ezes ONE
TIME - uma e v z

 75 BEFORE – antes de AFTER – (ééftr) – depois de Where NEAR –
perto de FAR (fâr) - longe FAR FROM – longe de (procedencia) VERY WELL
– muito bem WHICH – qual, quais SO – por isso, então, tão so cheap
– tão barato (so that) para que so good – tão bom TURBO so many –
tantos so much – tanto so old – tão velho so far – tão longe
EXPRESSIONS TIME – tempo, h ra, vez o “MANY TIMES”- muitas vezes
“MUCH TIME” – muito tempo “ON TIME” – pontualmente, na
hora certa “MIDNIGHT” – meia noite “DAY AFTER TOMORROW”
– depois de amanhã to “DO TH HE” – o E DISHES” – lavar a
louça “HOW IS mo ele está? C “HE IS FIN ” está bem. E - Ele “HE
IS MORE OR LESS” – Ele está mais ou menos. “HE IS NOT Ele não
está bem. WELL” – ARS ” - choran “IN LOVE” - apaixonado “IN
BED”- na cama PERSON” - pes “IN TE do “IN soalmente “IN
TIME” – “IN TRO ol) – em apuros à tempo UBLE” (tráb

 76 GRAMMAR TO BE – ser, estar I AM I’M YOU A YOU’RE RE HE IS


HE’S HE IS IS E Negativo S SHE’S IT IT’S WE ARE WE’RE YOU
ARE YOU’RE THEY AR THEY’RE = NOT interrogativo I AM NOT. AM
I...................? YOU ARE NOT. ARE YOU..........? HE IS NOT. IS HE.................?
SHE IS NOT. IS SHE.................? IT IS NOT. IS IT...................? WE ARE NOT. ARE
WE............? YOU ARE NOT. ARE YOU..........? THEY ARE NOT. ARE THEY........?
 77 A M E S F R 1 We want to VISIT you tomorrow. 2. I DO my hom. ework
everyday. can’t_______the job. Can________your parents? He says he They
need to________their friends. They don’t have anything to______. He likes
to_________Brazil. We don’t want to_____this anymore. 3 he can COOK very
well. . S 4. We need to FINISH the job by this afternoon. They usually_______the
meat. They want to_______the meeting now. I like to_______many things. I have
to_______this book by Friday. He wants to_______for you. Can you________this
for me? 5. How do you MAKE the bread? 6. You need to go AFTER the girl. Where
do they________cheese? The bridge is ______the city. I like to_______many
things. My house is_______the pharmacy. I need water to________the rice.
Thursday comes______Wednesday. 7. The church is NEAR the store. 8. Maybe
you are BEFORE me. The car is ________the pharmacy. Usually they
start________us. My window is_______the door. I have to go home______9:00.
The fruit is_______the salad. I cook the meat_______the chicken. 9. ork.. I live
FAR FROM here. 10. I ALWAYS do my homew to cook. She works_____ _____her
house. She_______likes y. Take this_____ ______the city. We______need mone
prefer ham. The bus is_____ ______the school. I don’t______

 78 11. RING the week. They NEVER finish the book. 12. You have to come DU the
meeting. She________ goes to school on time I have to speak________ ___the
vacation. I ________ cook with wine. We have work ____ They _______study. She
needs to study______the class. 13. I SOMETIMES like to go to the movies. 14.
WHICH book do you want? We _______go to the beach. _______ door do I close?
She _______buys pears for us. I don’t know________window to open.
__________they visit their relatives. ________fruit is more expensive? 15. I work a
lot, SO I don’t go to school. He needs to study, ________he doesn’t play in
the evening. They don’t work, _________they don’t have much money. We
prefer the beach, _______we go there on Sunday. 16. He knows SO many people.
This house is _______ beautiful. They work ________much. The car is
________cheap.

 79 PHRASES 1. I have many things to do today. I need to finish this now. 2. Do you
want to stay at my apartment this weekend? I don’t know yet. 3. I want to visit
my parents this week. They live near the church. 4. My father wants to sell his old
car. He needs money for a vacation. 5. haI ve to do my homework before I go to the
party tonight. 6. They don’t know how to cook very well. She wants to help them.
7. Do you know where Janet has a stor r stoe? He re is near downtown. 8. I have to
take a test tomorrow, so I want to study a lot tonight. 9. Do you have time this
weekend to go to the swimming pool with me? 10. She wants to finish the job
before midnight, but I want go. 11. I usually go to Rio on my vacation. I always need
a lot of money. 12. She cooks very well but she doesn’t know how to read nor
write. 13. Do they want to sell their house? I don’t know anything about this. 14.
I live with their brother. He works with my father at the bridge. 15. He doesn’t
live downtown, so he has to go to work by train. 16. I don’t know how to do this.
Do you want to help me after dinner? 17. Where does your neighbor usually have
lunch? Sorry, I don’t know. 18. Do you know her parents? Her mother always
makes good pizza. 19. How many magazines do you have with you? Do you want
any more? 20. I need to sell my car because I want to buy a ticket to the States.

 80 L E F E NS S O N O U R T E is de “SONS E SOUND STUDY – Grupos


Consononta STRANHOS” a ição de “s” ou formar o plural realiza-se
igual a do morfema da terceira A d “es” para pessoa do singular que vimos
antes: muffs (máfs) nymphs [mfs] strengths cats tenths surfs wreaths banks
(bênks) barks widths scripts chirps lifts masks bags fifths wasps bells facts fists
(fêsts) beams gulfs eighths [tths] wives [vz] bulks texts [ s kingskst ] gulps sixths
[ksths] bulbs eltsb twelfths folds ealthsw attempts (atêmts) elms OUND
EXERCISES - Sons Semelhantes S /h/ / / heel (hiil) eel heat (hit) eat heart (hârt)
art harm (hârm) arm hear (hÃer) ear (Ãr) his is hold (hôld) old air hedge (héd)
edge (éd) hair (hér) 1) They want to eat the HEEL. [calcanhar] 2) We are at the
HEDGE. [ cerca viva] elétrico] They want to eat the EEL. [peixe We are at the
EDGE. [beirada] ) You T it. [aquecer, esq You can EAT it. [comer] 3 can HEA uentar]

 81 /h/ /r/ hat (héét) rat hole (hôl) honey heel hope ôup) (haid) ride (raid) hay
ray (rêi) hear (hÃir) rear hid rid (rêd) hose rose habit (héébet) rabbit
(réébet) ham ram (râm) role runny (râni) reel rope (r hide 1) We don’t
have any HOPE. [esperança] 2) Please, give me that HOSE. [mangueira] We
don’t have any ROPE. [corda] Please, give me that ROSE. [rosa] 3) Can you
HIDE the bike? [esconder] 4) He has an old HABIT. [ hábito, vÃcio] Can you RIDE
the bike? [andar de] He has an old RABBIT. [coelho] /n/ /em/ kin (kên) king (kem)
sin (sên) sing (sem) win (wên) wing (uiim) hun (hân) hung (rá) tan (téén)
tang (tem) thin thing ran (réén) rang (rem) bang (bem) tongue bung (bam) 1) N?
[pecar] ? [cantar] ban (béén) ton (tân) bun (bân) He is my KIN. [parente] 2)
Do you like to SI He is my KING. [rei] Do you like to SING 3) BAN ão] 4) They
have a TON. [tonelada] ke the BAN ncada] They have a TONGUE. [lÃngua] We
don’t like the . [proibiç We don’t li G. [pá

 82 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISES O h nicial das palavras, em in ês, é


pronunciado expirando levemente. “ ” i gl have head – cabeça half has
hair – cabelo heart – coração here hen – galinha help house ham high
– alto tle” = tal “ble” = bal “gle” = gal “ple” = pal “dle”
= dal agreeable – agradável sensible - sensato capable - capaz ble - capaz little
- pequeno possible - possÃvel oble - nobre candle - vela impossible – impossÃ-
vel credible - incrÃvel middle - meio “o”, “ou” – a “ angle - Ã
¢ngulo simple – simples tangle - enrolar a n in some – mel compass -
bússola honey come double – dobro money - dinheiro something – comfort
– co o algo rough – rude, áspero monkey – macaco nf rto tough – forte
mother – mãe color – cor touch – car from to company - companhia love
– amor

 83 R E V I E W ) fazer1 O verbo to DO – no sentido e DO this. xecutar: I


don’t want to She doesn’t DO anything in the morning. 2) O verbo to MAKE
– fazer no sentido construir, fabricar: How do you MAKE bread. I can’t MAKE
pizza. 3) Qualidades: GOOD BAD STRONG TURBO WEAK (wik) OLD VERY +
YOUNG (yan) PRETTY UGLY C AP (tchip) HE ENSIVE EXP 4) Where: BEFORE
AFTER NEAR FAR FROM 5) When: ALWAYS NEVER USUALLY SOMETIMES
DURING ONE TIME ON TIME BEFORE AFTER 6) A palavra TIME tem vários
usos: Tempo – I don’t have time. We have very little time. H What time do you
want to go? ora – What time is it? Vez – I eat three times a day They go to
church one time on Sunday. 7) WHAT – WHERE – WHEN – WHY –
WHO – HOW “HOW MUCH” - “HOW MANY” 8) Uma palavra que
dá seqüência é SO. I need money, SO I have to work. We want to go, SO we
have to buy the tickets. 9) SO também funciona como tão: I am SO happy
today. TURBO This car is SO expensive.

 84 L E S S O N F I F T E E N OBJECTS COUSIN (kâzn) - primo(a) CHRISTMAS


AID M EASTER (Ãstr) TRIP – viagem DOCTOR HO KITCHEN UR (áuor) –
hora [60 min.] DISHES MINUTE – minuto

 85 CUT TURKEY ARM GAME - jogo – aprender I want to learn VERBS TO
LURN / LURND your name. He can learn the game. TO WAK / WAKT andar,
caminhar I like to walk to the store. She can’t walk yet. TO WASH / WASHT You
need to wash the car. She wants to wash the dog.
 86 TO TAK / TAKT I need to talk to you. They never talk with us. HURT TO HURT /
ferir, machucar, doer I d on’t want to hurt you. She hurts me. QUALIFIERS WHO
– quem Quando usamos WHO, o ve recebe o som “s” ou “z” como
n 3ª pessoa do singular: rbo a WHO wants to work with me? Do you know WHO
likes fish? Comparativos MORE (....) LESS (....) THAN THAN ( Big, happy, tired,
expensive, f ar...) mais ( ) o menos ( ) eno ( s men ( o a mais ( ) a menos ( ) os
mais ( ).. de THE MOST (...) os m s ) ... de THE LEAST (...) as mais ( ) a os )
GOOD (gôd) – bom BAD – mal BETTER THAN – melhor qu WORSEe
THAN – pior que THE BEST – o melhor THE WORST – a pior
IMPORTANTE MEMORIZAR

 87 EXPRESSIONS “AT THE VERY WORST” – “no pior dos casos”
“A DAY” / “ PER DAY” – “por dia” TIMES “A WEEK” /
“ PER WEEK” – “por semana” ês” “A MONTH” / PER
MONTH” – “por m “A YEAR” / “PER YEAR” – “por
ano” “FOR BREAKFAST” – “no café da manhã” “FOR
LUNCH” – “no almoço” “FOR DINNER” – “na janta”
“HOW MUCH” – quanto [quantidade] “HO “W “JU GR W
MANY” – quantos [numeral] AIT A MINUTE!” – “Espere um minuto!
” ST A MINUTE!” – “Só um minuto!” AMMAR BIG PARTY – festa
grande NEW STORE – loja nova LITTLE GIRL – menina pequena

 88 1. You need to LEARN the lesson. 2. We like to WALK to the church. He never
________ to the beach. I can’t _______this. I usDo they want to
______English? ually________ for two hours. They never _________. e can
_______ . Sh to your house 3. He needs to WASH the horse. 4. We need to TALK
with you tomorrow. They want to ________ their car. Can the baby ________? You
need to ________ your kitchen. Can she _________ to me? The maid __________
the dishes I always______ to her at church. 5. I have a GOOD car. 6. They don⠀™t
want to HURT the animal. I have a _______ wife. Sorry that I_______you. We have
a _______teacher. This cut doesn’t _____very much. He has a ________job.
I_______my arm in the game. 7. Do you know WHO likes turkey? 8. He has a
BETTER car. _________is your new doctor? You don’t have a _______wife.
_________washes the dishes for you? Our class is _____ than their class. I
don’t know _______does these things. Do you want to be a _______doctor? 9.
She is the BEST maid. 10. He is a BAD teacher. We are ______ friends. This is a
_________time. Who has the _______car? Don’t be a ________ boy. This is
the _________store. You don’t want a _______maid. 11. This car is WORSE
than that car. 12. You are the WORST student. Your cut is ______than my scrape.
They have the ______job. This year is _______than before. That is the
_______trip. She washes dishes______than I. My cousin is the _______boy.

 89 13. I eat only two times A DAY. 14. HOW MUCH time do we have? We study one
time ________. _________fruit do you want to buy? They go five times _________.
_________meat do they want? He drinks water four times ________. _________is
this car? 15. HOW MANY children do you have? 16. I like eggs FOR BREAKFAST.
________ birds do you see? He eats meat FOR LUNCH. Do you know______ girls
are here? What do you want FOR DINNER. _______ hours does this take? We
want something __________. PHRASES 1. I don’t know how to do this. Do you
want to help me? 2. I don’t need to write to them this week. I can write next
week. 3. He wants to go to the store with Sally, so he needs some money. 4. You
need to wash he t dish s befe ore we can go to the movies. 5. Where can I learn to
make those things? You have to go to the class. 6. I talk with my brother in Utah
two times a month. He works there. 7. Do you know that maid? How many children
does she have? 8. Our manager doesn’t live in this city. He lives in the country.
9. How much time do we have for this job? We don’t have a lot of time. 10. They
don’t like to go to the swimming pool with their neighbors. 11. I take my kids to
the beach two times per week. They always like this. 12. She doesn’t take her
kids to school. They usually go by bus. 13. I want to buy this book for him. He likes
to read these books. 14. Do you want to sell this tape to her? She says she needs a
tape. 15. Where do you work? I don’t work, I only study. My wife works. 16.
They want to give you a ticket to Disney World. They like you. 17. You can make
anything but rice. We don’t like to eat rice. 18. You need to take them to the
beach on Wednesday. 19. Our old neighbor never closes his windows. Maybe he
wants to. 20. We don’t have any information about the test. It is very long.

 90 X T E E NL E S S O N S I SOUN TRANHOSD STUDY - Grupos Consonantais


de “SONS ES O passado e o particÃpio passado dos verbos regulares em
inglês são formados pela adição d] ao verbo. Aqui ta onantais estranhos ao
português: [lsht] crunched [ncht] inced [nst] rent rag rage weed read wide ride rill
row writ 1) You ) He is in the WEST room.(sala oeste) You ROOM. (toalete) 3) Sh
no an you see to WEED? (limpar mato) She r) de um morfema [-d] ou [-e mbém
se formam grupos cons robbed [bd] world [rld] welched begged [gd] armed [rmd]
enraged [djd] darned [rnd] m formed [rmd] carved [rvd] linked [ngt] /w/ /r/ west rest
went wag wage weep reap will woe wit don’t need to WEEP. (chorar) 2 don’t
need to REAP. (ceifar) He is in the REST e t in the WILL. (testamento) 4) C is is not
in the RILL. (riacho) Can you see to READ? (le

 91 RONUNCIATION EXERCISES - A letra “u” , em inglês pode ser


pronunciada de diversas maneiras. “u” = a P much – muito cut – cortar
drum – tambor brush – escova nut – noz ugly – feio number sun – sol
under – embaixo de fun – divertimento uncle – tio gun – arma de fogo
dumb – mudo truck – caminhão duck – pato bus mud – lama lunch
“u” = iu union – união utensil - utensÃlio universe accuse - acusar
university – (iunevÃrciti) pupil - aluno unit – unidade muse - musa – usic
fuel - combustÃvel use usar mule - besta m pure – puro excuse me “u” = u
“w” = W blue – azul woman stupid – bobo wear – v s e tir, usar uit
what fr juice where tube – tubo when nutrition (nutrÃxén) why? produce –
produzir word - palavra student – estudante wood - madeira

 92 PARA PENSAR – Lembra que o inglês é um idioma estranho, e não


nossa lÃngua “mãe”. Então as vezes é preciso (e válido) criar
lembretes mentais, ou maçetes para lembrar coisas problemáticas. Como para
nós no inglês é difÃcil sempre de lembrar PUXE sendo que PUSH em inglês
é empurrar, e toda vez que chegamos numa porta tem que lembrar. REVIEW 1)
Uma palavra que dá seqüência é SO. I need money, SO I have to work. to
go, SO we have buy t 2) SO também funciona como tão We want to he tickets. :
I am SO happy today. This car is SO expensive. 3) São três maneiras de dizer
no natal ou na páscoa ou outra data: ON Christmas / ON Easter / ON your
birthday– no dia AT Christm FOR Christmas birthday – a razão por que as /
AT Easter / AT your birthday – no perÃodo / FOR Easter / FOR your 4) A palavra
TRIP é viagem. 5) Temos o verbo TO HURT: O verbo TRAVEL é viajar. I HURT
their dog. I need to make a TRIP. She always HURTS me. I need to TRAVEL. 6)
WHO é quem e o verbo tem “s” n WHO needs this book? Do you know
WHO wants to go? o final: 7) Comparativos. GOOD BETTER THAN THE BEST
BAD WORSE THAN THE WORST 8) HOW MUCH – quanto [quantidade] 9)
HOW MANY - quantos [numeral] 10) FOR BREAKFAST – no café FOR
LUNCH – no almoço FOR DINNER – na janta 11) No inglês a adjetivo vem
antes do substantivo: BIG BOY – menino grande OLD HOUSE – casa velha
NEW STORE – loja nova Treinar muito!

 93 O N S E V E N T E E N L E S S OBJECTS UNCLE tio FOOD AUNT – tia


COOKIES BOX CAKE DESSERT CORNER GARAGE ICE
 94 BIRTHDAY ICE CREAM FARM PINEAPPLE ROAD AVOCADO BUILDING
ROAST VERBS EED / NEEDED I needed N to finish this. She needed to go with
us. SPEAK / SPOKE I spoke to your father. They spoke at the meeting. DRINK /
DRANK He drank a lot tonight. We drank juice last night. AT / ATE We ateE turkey
for Christmas. They ate fish.

 95 QUALIFIERS ALREADY (alrédi) – já ALL – todo, toda EVERY – todo,
cada EACH - cada YESTER DAY - ontem LAST – último, passado t (las w ) eek
POOR – (pó ) rer - pob RICH – (rêtch) - rico SAD – triste RIGHT –
certo WRONG – errado WONDERFUL ravilhoso – ma EXCITING - em n ocio
ante “SOFT DRINK” - refrigerante EXPRESSIONS “SODA” -
refrigerante “A LITTLE” (lê um pouco rol) – “HOW LONG” –
quanto tempo “WHAT ABOUT...?” – que tal...? nd) – O que aconteceu?
“WHAT HAPPENED” (hépe “DAY BEFORE YERTERDAY” -
anteontem “NIGHT BEFORE LAST” – anteontem à noite I DIDN’T
LIKE. SHE DIDN’T WANT. DID YOU GO ? – você foi? LIKE ? - ele gostou ?
GRAMMAR DID HE

 96 - F R A M E S - 1. We NEEDED to study tonight. 2. She SPOKE to the


manager . I______with your father. The girl______to them. I________to go.
She________to help me. They________their mother. We______to your mother. 3.
He DRANK beer at the party. 4. The kids ATE the food. They________juice with
their lunch. W e____the cookies in the kitchen. I never________ coffee. Your
sister_____all the cheese. She________wine at the dinner. They______our dinner.
5. She ALREADY ate her dinner. 6. I know ALL your family. They________can
speak English. She knows____their birthdays. It’s________ten o’clock. We
ate____the cake. The taxi is______here. Do you know____the names? 7. I go to
school EVERY week. 8. I need the name of EACH boy in the class. We
study______ lesson. She already finished _____cake. I know______corner of this
city. He started ____ conversation. They want to buy_____pineapple. They want to
take one for_____daughter. 9. Did you go to work YESTERDAY? 10. I spoke LAST
week. Did she do her homework_________? She spoke_______year. Did you go
to the beach_________? They wanted to speak_____ night. We didn’t close the
store_________. He is the______boy. 11. I want to help my POOR friend. 12. I
have a RICH uncle. Can you see the ______children? We know a_____ _man.
This is a_______city. Frank is very________. The teachers are very_______. You
have to be______to live there.

 97 13. The teacher doesn’t like SAD students. 14. You need to do the RIGHT
thing. Today is a very_____day for us. He never does what is_____for him. You
don’t want to be____today. Do you know the______road to go? I see
my____mother. u didn’t buy the Yo _____ice cream. 15. Why di ou go the
WRONG road? 16. I have WONDERFUL friendd y s. This is the_______book. She
has________parents. They have the_______box. You have a________family. That
is the_______building. These are_______cookies. 17. They need to buy more
SODA. 18. I need A LITTLE more time. We like to drink_________. We still
have_________food. I drank_______ at the party. She only ate______dessert. She
doesn’t drink__________. It needed_________ice. 19. We DIDN’T like the
new manager. 20.Do you know HOW LONG we’re here? They______speak to
us yet. I don’t know_____ ____it can take. I_______do my homework. ___
___do you know this girl? She______want to go to the beach. __ ____can we
stay? 2 WHAT HAPPENED at the bank y1. esterday? Do you
know__________here? __________with your car? I don’t know__________to
him.
 98 22. We didn’t work DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY. She didn’t
study___________. Where did you go__________? They drank beer___________.
23. DID they study with you? ______you know the boss? _____she work
yesterday? P H R A S E S 1. I needed to talk with my uncle yesterday morning
about the farm. 2. She spoke very much at my party. She spoke about her family. 3.
I ate cookies, cake and pineapple for breakfast yesterday. 4. They drank all the
juice at the school . ’t eat anythi gparty I didn n . 5. I already spoke with my boss
on Mon b is bir daday a out h th y. 6. Did you eat anything before the class today? I
ate some cake. 7. I have to go home now, because my o like to st h lf. son d
esn’t ay by imse 8. We spoke with our parents about t ei iti p to New York.h r exc
ng tri 9. I drank a glass of milk, because I didn’t want to have dinner. 10. Did you
say to him why we didn’t go th y day? No, I didnere ester ’t. 11. How did you
know where I lived? I n d k to y u t eede to tal o abou this. 12. Each year we learn
more and more about his family. 13. Did you know that Frank wants to go to the
movies with you? 14. My brother eats avocado for dessert. I always prefer ice
cream. 15. Her boss didn’t like the coffee. She makes coffee every day. 16.
Those children never come to any meetings. They live very far. 17. Why do you
have to go now? Because I have to get up in the morning. 18. How many times a
year do you go to visit your relatives? 19. What happened to your uncle day before
yesterday? He drank a lot. 20. She says, she can’t understand why these are so
expensive.

 99 L E S S O N E I G H T E E N U SOUND ST DY - Grupos consonontais de


“SONS ESTRANHOS” Certos grupos consonontais em inà cio de palavras,
por serem estranhos ao nosso sistema, acabão recebendo uma vogal de apoio
– uma reação normal – mas ue cria problemas: q estate – patrimônia
state - estado espy - avistar spy - espionar, espião espouse - desposar spouse -
cônjuge esteem (estÃm) – respeito steam - vapor estrange – afastar strange
- estranho Islam – islã slam – bater com força SOUNDS EXERCISES sons
semelhantes de superar. A produção correta dos alofon pode ser difÃcil es /b/
/p/ pear (per) in árvore) Do you want the pill? (pÃlula) The PARK is very dark.
(parque) ) We didn’t buy BEARS. (ursos) 4) She has an old BUN . (pãozinho)
We didn’t buy PEARS. (peras) She has an old PUN . (jogo de palavras) ) Can
you see the BALL? (bola) Can you see the PALL? (paleta) bear bin p bay pay bark
park bill pill bun (bân) pun (pân) bunch punch bus pus (pâs) beach (bitch)
peach (pitch) ball pall ) Do you want the bill? (conta) 2) The BARK is very dark.
(casca de1 3 5

 100 1) This is a very sad DALE. (vale) /d/ /t/ This is a very sad TALE. (conto) dame
tame deer (dÃr) tear (tir) 2) To drink is the DOOM of many. (destino) deem (dim)
team (tim) To drink is the TOMB of many. (túmulo) doll tall dale tale 3) Give them
more DIPS. (mergulhos) dare (dér) tear (tér) Give them more TIPS. (dicas) den
ten duck tuck 4) I can see many DUCKS here. (patos) dent tent I can see many
TUCKS here. (pregas) dip (dêp) tip (têp) doom tomb (t úm) Dick (dêk) tick /k/
/g/ 1 That is a very small GAUGE. (bitola) goal (gôal) coal ) (cóal) That is a very
small CAGE. (gaiola) gall call coat (côt) ) ghost (gôst) coast gash cash goat (gôt)
2 She can’t see the GUARD. (guarda) gauge cage She can’t see the CARD.
(cartão) 3) He never sees the GHOST. ( fastama) gauze (gaz) cause (cáas) He
never sees the COAST. (litoral) gay kay (kei) cold guard (gárd) card (cárd) gold 4)
They always like to buy GOATS. (cobras) They always like to buy COATS.
(casacos)

 101 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISES A pronúncia do “ed” no final dos


verbos regulares na forma do passado, pode ser feita de três maneiras diferentes:
. 1 “ed”= id – sempre que o verbo terminar por ted ou ded , no passado,
pronuncie o ed: to end – ended (terminou) to paint – painted (pintou) to start
– started (começou) to rest – rested (descansou) to want – wanted
(desejou) to wait – waited (esperou) to add – added (acrescentou) to last ⠀“
lasted (durou) to invent – invented to decide – decided (decidiu) to pretend
– pretended (fingiu) 2. “ed”= t - o ed é pronunciado t se vier depois de
um som surdo como os sons k – – – talk (falo kiss – kissed (beijou) to
ask – asked (perguntou) to miss – missed (faltou) to look – looked (olhou)
to dance – danced (faltou) to like – liked (gostou) to march – marched
(marchou) to stop – stopped (parou) to watch – watched (assistiu) 3.
“ed”= d – o ed p s sh – ch – f – th : to talk – ed u) to é
pronunciado d depois de sons sonoros como os sons dos cleaned (limpou) to fill
– filled (encheu) to explain – explained (explicou) to call – called (chamou)
to answer–answered (respondeu) to cry – cried (chorou) to change –
changed (trocou) to show – showed (mostrou) to live – lived “ee” = i
“ea” = i (ver) eat (comer) bee (abelha) tea (chá) tree (árvore) cream
(creme) need dream (sonho) seed (semente) eagle (águia) sleep team (time)
week meat beet (beterraba) beat (bater) t (pés) leave (partir) vogais,b, g, j, l, m, n,
r, v, z, th: to play - played to clean – see fee

 102 R E V I E W 1 HOW MUCH – qua) nto [não contável] 2) HOW MANY -
quantos [contáveis] 3) FOR BREAKFAST - no café / FOR LUNCH – no
almoço/ FOR DINNER – na janta 4) O adjetivo vem antes do substantivo:
RICH man OLD house NEW store 5) DESSERT – sobremesa / desert –
deserto 6) BIRTHDAY – é dia de nascimento então só usa para quando
alguém faz anos e ) O afirmativo não uma empresa ou aniversário de
casamento 7 no passado adiciona “ed” nos verbos regulares: NEEDED
WANTED LIKED Verbos irregulares tem suas formas próprias no passado: ATE
DRANK SAW SPOKE 8) O negativo e o interrogativo no passado muda apenas o
verbo auxiliar DO para DID: I DIDN ‘T like the boss. We DIDN’T go to New
York. I don’t like the boss. We don’t go to New York. DID you like the cake?
Do you like the cake? 9) ALL – todo, toda 10) EVERY – todo, toda I work all
week. I go to work every day. They drank all the juice I speak to every girl at the
party. 11) EACH - cada 12) I studied LAST week. I have to study each book two
times. She worked with me LAST Thursday. They need to learn each expression.

 103 L E S S O N N I N E T E E N OBJECTS NIECE (nÃss) – sobrinha HOLIDAY


- feriado NEPHEW (nêfiu) – sobrinho ANIVERSARY - aniversário
GRANDMOTHER ADVANTAGE - vantagem GRANDFATHER DISADVANTAGE -
desvantagem WOMAN POST OFFICE - correio MAN MUSEUM - museu HUMAN
BEING GYM

 104 DENTIST FACTORY JUDGE FIELD CLERK PARK GUITAR TED ted VERBS
WANT / WAN They wan to go with us. I wanted to see you. SEE / SAW She saw
the pretty field. e W saw them yesterday. WORK / WORKED I worked all week.
They worked for Bob. LAYED PLAY / P

 105 My kids played in the park. One time he played sax. QUALIFIERS SOON –
logo, em breve AGAIN – de novo, outra vez BETWEEN – entre (dois pontos)
AMONG – entre (no meio de) UNDER - embaixo de OVER – por cima de
ACROSS – através (po ro do, cruzando) r cima, do out la EXPRESSIONS
“ALL DAY” – o dia todo “DAY AFTER DAY” – s a dia apó di
“NIGHT AFTE te pós noite R NIGHT” – noi a “YEAR AFTER
YEAR” – ano após ano “HOUR AFTER HO ora após hora UR” – h
“SOONER OR LATER s cedo ou mais tarde ” – mai “THE SOONER TH
” – quanto antes melhor E BETTER “FOR SURE” – com certeza,
certamente “I’M SURE” – tenho certeza, estou certo que... “I’M
NOT SURE” – não tenho certeza “to TAKE ADVANTAGE OF…” –
aproveitar-se de ESTA TEM QUE SER MEMORIZADO! – IMPORTANTISSIMO!
“THERE IS” – existe [singular] an at the door. There is a m “THERE
ARE” – existem [plur re three kids here. al] There a “IS THERE?” –
existe? Is there a dog in the car? “ARE THERE?” – existem? Are there
kids at this school?

 106 EXSISTE / OBJET O / LUGAR BANK MANAGER – gerente de banco WHO
ate? – quem comeu? AN – CAN’T – poder [presente] GRAMMAR
SOCCER GAME – jogo de futebol ENGLISH TEACHER – professor de
inglês WHO needed? – quem precisou? WHO spoke ? – quem falou? WHO
was? -quem era? C COULD – COULDN’T – poder [passado] To BE
(passado) I WAS I WASN’T WAS I? YOU WERE YOU WEREN’T WERE
YOU? HE WAS HE WASN’T WAS HE? SHE WAS SHE WASN’T WAS
SHE? IT WAS IT WASN’T WAS IT? REN’T WERE WE? YOU ALL WERE
YOU ALL WEREN’T WERE YOU ALL? WE WERE WE WE THEY WERE THEY
WEREN’T WERE THEY?

 107 - F R A M E S - 1. tore. They WANTED to see the animal. 2. We SAW you at


the s __me. She______to speak with you. I______your sister yesterday.
He______to take the guitar. She says she ______ e car. I______to study this
afternoon. They ____ your cat in th 3. AYED at the park. I WORKED all week. 4. My
kids PL _____soccer all afternoon. They _____ for my father. They She ______ in
the kitchen yesterday. He _______ with them until 4:00. before. We _______ there
last year. I never ______this 5. I want to eat SOON. 6. We want to travel AGAIN
soon. work ___. We need to go _______. You gotta do the home ____please?They
have to sleep ________. Can you say that_ ts to work _______. He wants dessert
________. She wan 7. We are BETWEEN two beaches. 8. You are AMONG
friends. They are ________those buildings. The cats are _______the trees. It⠀™s
_______ them. The field is _____ the factories. The car is _____ me and you. He is
______ those that study. 9. Your book is UNDER the guitar. 10. Now we are OVER
the building. The man was ________ my car. The birds were ______the fields. I
can see the dog _______ the house. It’s _________ the new window. The boy
is _________ the tree. The window is ________ you. 11. The cat is ACROSS t LL
DAY. he road. 12. I worked A He goes ________ to the church. She didn’t want
to study ______. They live ________ the sea. They wanted to stay _________. She
walks __ ___ at the park. ____ the beach. We played _____ 1 to study DAY AFTER
DAY. 14. She studied NIGHT AFTER NIGHT. 3. I have They worked
___________at the job. He is at the gym ____________. ____________ we see
them play. I have to work _____________. He plays guitar ____________. We go
to school_____________.

 108 1 16. I’M SURE that Joh5. He wants to see her HOUR AFTER HOUR. n
wants to go. _________ theyThey play the guitar _________________. want to
help you. ________you can sThe human being lives _______________. tay here
tonight. __________he__________ the judge saw problems. saw the advantages.
1 T SURE we have time for this. They need to TAKE ADVAN7. I’M NO 18. TAGE
of the job. He wants to _____________ she needs a doctor. ___ of our time.
__________ of what I need to do. d. I want to _______ of this brea You have to
________ of your tr__________ where my nephew is. ip. 1 IS a cat at the door.
THERE’RE t9. THERE 20. hings in the museum. ______some pr______ some
cake in the kitchen. oblems with my car. _______five judges in this city. I know
where ________a pretty park. ________ pineapple for dessert. I can’t see
where_____ advantages. 21. IS THERE more juice? 22. ARE THERE any
disadvantages? ________ any more coffee? _____children that need to go home?
________ time to see Jane? _______ many problems today? ________ a cat in
the tree? _______ girls at the party? 23. I spoke with the BANK MANAGER. 24.
WHO needs to go to the store? We didn’t go to the SOCCER GAME. ____
understands the lesson? She talked with the ENGLISH TEACHER. _____ is the
dentist? Did you see the POST OFFICE CLERK? Do you know ______ is here? 25.
I COULD go to th 26. I COULDN’T stay at the hotel. e beach today. ive us th
mation. They _______ do their homework. She_______g e infor We ________
have a wonderful time. He _______ sell his house. You ___ We _______ unde nd
our nie __ __ do the job by yourself. rsta ce. 2 They WERE at the party. . My car
WAS very old. 7. 28 The ___ The horse _______ so big. y _ __ never on time. The
kids ______ always at school. My dog this m ______better orning.

 109 The cookies ______ with Susan. His hou en lasse _______ op t night.
PHRASES 1. We don’t want to go to the States this year. We don’t have
money. 2. I can’t go downtown with you today. I have to work all day. 3. He
worked in my office until noon. Yes y, he P.M.terda worked until 3:00 4. Do you have
time to take me to the post office this afternoon? 5. She never writes letters to he n
She e. r gra dmother. doesn’t have tim 6. He likes to read to his kids t, the y
sleep. at nigh n the 7. They want to come here at Christmas. They always come by
train. 8. I need to go to the store again. I didn’t buy the things I needed. 9. I
worked yesterday but I don’t work today. Today is a holiday. 10. My nephew
likes to eat cak m ikes to play e and y niece l the guitar. 11. I need to go to the
dentist this month. Do you know a good dentist? 12. M child the end. We g k. y ren
like to play with me on week o to the par 13. Their niece wants to go to th ce bea h,
but they have to work tomorrow. Bob says he only likes cake. 15. Who opened the
door? I don’t know. I couldn’t see. 14. Do you like to eat cookies? 16. I need
to take my car downtown. There are many garages there. 17. They always want to
do things that we don’t like to do. 18. They manager usually goes to his job by
bus. Does he have a wife?. 19. When do you like to do your homework? Do you do
it by yourself? 20. I have to go to the pharmacy. I was hurt by the animal.

 110 L E S S O N E N T Y T W S U O ND STUDY onsonantais de “SONS


ESTRANHOS”Fonemas C Nessa orrência de certos fonemas ncia, pois a
tendência a se em a utra palavra de significado e: brandy (brandi) – conhaque
marca cookie a dusty – empoeirado dust – poeira monkey – macaco monk
- monge patty (páti) – bolinho achatado pat – tapinha de leve ready (rédi)
– pronto red – vermelho roomy (rumi) room – quarto, sala, espaço study
(stâdi) stud – tacha, prego, reprodutor sunny (sâni) – enrolado sun – sol
tidy (taide) – arrumado tide – maré coffee cough – those forty (fórti) fort
– forte distribuição dos fonemas sendo a não-oc em posição final, no
português, cria dificuldades de pronú acrescentar uma vogal de apoio dá orig
uma o diferent brand – cook – cozinheiro, county (câunti) – condado
count – contar dirty – sujo dirt – terra, sujeira

 111 SOUND ISES - Sons Semelhantes EXERC /r/ /t/ ou know prop.) éuri) patty
ou know e prop.) Betty tter pettish ttie tic y didn’t fin REL. (barril) petty battle
rima) jetty started th /al/ he give y e same ROW? (file goal Did he give you the
same ROLE? foe foal (papel, desempenho no teatro) bow bowl (boal) mow mole
(moal) 1) Do y HARRY? (nome parry (p Do y HATTIE? (nom berry bearer (bérer)
be 2) We can see CAROL. (nome pro.) perish We can see CATTLE. (gado) Harry
Ha Erick at 3) The ish the BAR perry They didn’t finish the BATTLE. (batalha)
barrel Carol cattle 4) We started the PARRY. (defesa, em esg Jerry We e PATTY.
(bolinho) /ou/ 1) Did ou th ira) go 2) She wants to buy a new BOW. (arco) row roll
(roal) She wants to buy a new BOWL. show shoal tow toll ) My FOE can’t walk.
(inimigo) sew (sou) soul (soal) My FOAL can’t walk. (potrinho) hoe hole (hoal)
dough dole (doal) 3 4) I was near the HOE. (enxada) I was near the HOLE.
(buraco)

 112 / /i iu/ l/ ue (kÃu) ill chew (tiu) chill few fill hew hill mew mill ewe (Ãu) ill 1) You
have to CUE the speaker. (dar sinal) 2) She needs to CHEW it. (mastigar) You have
to KILL the speaker. (matar) She needs to CHILL it. (esfriar) /L seguido de
consoante/ boat (bout) bolt (bôlt) coat colt code (côude) cold goad (gôud) gold
hoed (rôude) hold mode (môud) mold ode (ôud) old road rolled (rôuled) c k 1)
That’s a very old BOAT. (barco) 2) He wants to buy a new COAT. (casaco)
That’s a very old BOLT. (ferrolho) e wants to buy a new COLT. (potro) H

 113 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISES – “ou” ‘/ “au” / “aw” =


“ou” = au o boundary – fronteira ught – procurou ntar ought – pen
ngar r – hora house ud – alto-som laundry –lavanderia lounge – sala de
estar ughty – travesso lousy – sem voltar mountain – montanha mouse –
camundongo Austrália mouth – boca Austrian – austrÃaco out – fora
automatic outlaw – a fora-da-lei a auxiliary – auxiliar round – redondo viu,
serra uch! – a uta brought – trouxe bound – limite bought – comprou so
count – co fought – lutou counsel – conselho th sou doubt – dúvida
caught – pegou fountain – fonte taught – ensinou ground – chão
haunted – assombrado grouch – resmu sausage – salsicha hou cause –
causa daughter lo na nought – zero August – agosto utomobile –
automóvel outside – exterior saw – south – sul law – lei couch –
sofá raw – cru o ai! brawn – forç br about gout – artrite

 114 “ow” = ou “ow” = au “ou” now would – low – baixo
condicional cow – vaca should – devia below – abaixo how could –
podia blow – soprar wow! - oba bow – arco o bowl – tijela bowling –
boliche power – poder grow – crescer towel – toalha mow cortar grama
town – vilarejo own – possuir flower – flor row – fileira owl – c ruja
tower – torre

 115 R E V I E W 1) No passado verbos regulares + ed, mas faz 3 sons (éd) (t) (d)
) No passado verbos irregulares tem sua forma própria: SPOKE ATE (êit)
DRANK (draink) SAW ) O passado negativo NEEDED (nided) PLAYED (pléid)
LIKED (láikt) 2 3 e interrogativo troca “DO” por “DID”: ’T want to
stay. DID you speak to her? We DIDN She DIDN’T e the food. DID she say
anything? lik 4) ALL – todo, toda 5) EVERY – todo, c ada 6) EACH – cada 7
s os GRAND para palavras como neto, avó, avô, neta etc...: ) U am ANDSON
NDDAUGHTER PARENTS GRANDCHILDREN IECE EPHEW ISTER AUNT
MOTHER DAUGHTER KIDS ) ANIVERSARY é aniversário de casamento ou
empresas etc., passagem de ano. 0)BIRTHDAY é “dia de nascimento” só
usado para celebrar o dia em que naceu. 1) O qualificador AGAIN é importante e
frequentemente usado. GRANDMOTHER GR GRANDFATHER GRA GRAND
GRANDKIDS / 8) Para pessoas da famÃlia já temos: COUSIN N FATHER
BROTHER UNCLE N SON S 9 1 1 12) ALL DAY – o dia todo EVERYDAY –
todo dia – There is a dog at the door. IS THERE? ARE THERE? (kên) –
CAN’T (kênt) – poder [presente] 13) THERE IS THERE ARE – There are
two boys at the door. 14) CAN

 116 N’T – poder COULD – COULD [passado] L E S S O N T W E N T Y


– O N E JANUARY DECEMBER (dicémbr) (dÃenueri) (nouvémbr)
FEBRUARY (fébiuari) MARCH (marte) APRIL (eipról) SEPTEMBER (setémbr)
MAY (mêi) AUGUST (ágôst) (diún) JULY IN - em NOVEMBER OCTOBER
(aktôbr) JUNE (diulái) OBJECTS RIVER MOTORCYCLE BLOCK INSTRUMENT
CLUB PRICE

 117 CIRCUS CUSTOMER (câstamr) – freguês PO CLOWN (cláun) PCORN


VERBS GO / WENT (wênt) Last night I went to the circus. They went with me.
STUDY / STUDIED Yesterday we studied a lot. She studied the lesson. SLEEP /
SLEPT (slépt) I slept at their house. We slept in the car. (láik) (láikt) LIKE /
LIKED My mother liked the new house. She liked the doors. QUALIFIERS EARLY
(êrli) – cedo, adiantado LATE (lêit) – tarde, atrasado SLOW (slôu) –
lento (slôuli) – lentamente SLOWLY MIDDLE OF(mêdol) – meio de ALONG
(alan) – junto, junto-a [ WITH] TOGETHER – junto [duas partes] [WITH]

 118 EXPRESSIONS “TOMORROW MORNING” – amanhã de manhã


“DAY AFTER TOMORROW”- depois de amanhã “NEXT WEEK”
“THERE IS NOT” / “THERE ISN’T” – não existe (singular)
“THERE ARE NOT” / “THERE AREN’T” – não existem (plural)
“THERE WAS” – existia (singular passado) “THERE WERE” -
existiam (plural passado) “BY MYSELF” “BY ITSELF” “BY
OURSELVES” (baiârselvs) “BY HIMSELF” “BY YOURSELVES”
(baiôrselvs) SELVES” GR Par “BY YOURSELF” (baiôrseilf) “BY
HERSELF” “BY THEM AMMAR a formar o futuro usamos o verbo auxiliar
“WILL”. arn. I go. They learn. I WILL go. They WILL le She studies It eats
She WILL study It WILL eat. with me? study. y. kids come? T come. WILL he go
today? WILL they study He WILL NOT go. They WILL NOT He WON’T go. They
WON’T stud WILL you do this? WILL the I WILL NOT do this. The kids WILL NO
I WON’T do this. The kids WON’T come.

 119 - FRAMES - . I visit my friends in JULY. 2. We needed to work in JANUARY. 1


We went to the beach in_________. I went to many parties in________. She wants
to come here in _______. They want to buy the car in_______. My class finishes in
________. She doesn’t have school in ______. 3. WE WENT to the circus. 4. I
STUDIED all night. She ______ to the store. He ______ his verbs. I _______ to his
farm. We ______ the English book. They ______ with us. They ______ at Oxford.
5. She SLEPT in the car. 6. She LIKED the dessert. They ______ at the hotel. They
______ our food. We ______ at their house. I ______ your family. The dog ______
near my door. We _______ to talk with you. 7. I ha RLY. ve to sleep EA 8. The store
closes LATE. You need to work _______. My class finishes very ________. We
want to go there _______. The boy was _______ to school. The ________. Your
bus is ________ tod party finished ay. 9. The cars went SLOWLY. The car is in the
MIDDLEof the road. 10. Please speak ________! The animals are in the___of the
city. She opened the door _________. This is the ________of the trip. I studied the
letter __________. I didn’t read the_______of the book. 11. She wants to go
ALONG with you. 12. I don’t want to see them TOGETHER. He needs to come
______ with us. The cat and the dog are __________. I _________ with frienlike to
study ds. You can make juice _______ with wine. We traveled _________ the road.
Jim and Sue live __________. 13. I have to work DAY AFTER TOMORROW. We
need to go there __________________. He can finish by ___________________.
Do you want to travel ________________?

 120 14. THERE ISN’T any time. 15.THERE AREN’T any students here. They
say ________ food. ______________more books. ____________ more ice.
______________any good movies. In this house __________ a door. Did you
know________customers? 16. We live BY OURSELVES. 17.THERE WERE many
children. We like to study ____________. I know _________ some cats. We go to
the park ____________. ____________ dogs in the garage. We never p s. lay
____________. ____________ few fruit 18. She WILL eat the rice. 19. THERE
WAS a boy here yesterday. They _________ go with you. ___________a new
building downtown. I _________ need to sell this. ____________ something wrong.
He ________ need to know your name. ____________ a lot of pop corn to eat. 20.
They WON’T go to the game. He says he _________ finish the lesson. e you
again. She ________ visit those customers. W ___________ see
 121 PHRASES 1. Why did you play soccer with your friends in the field? 2 I needed
to help my wife, because the maid didn’t come to wo. rk today. 3. She didn’t
open the windows, but she wanted to open the door. 4. I need to write to my
customers this month. I didn’t write in May. 5. We didn’t go to the circus,
because we didn’t have any money. 6. What did he say to you yesterday? We
spoke about his family. 7 I don’t know why my cousin didn’t . have to work
this last month. 8. It didn’t eat anything all this week. It’s not very well. 9. We
didn’t finish the homework yet. Do you know how to do it? 10. I was at the bank
with my sister. They didn’t have the money. 11. We saw you at the museum
yesterday. Maybe we will see you again. 12. She didn’t have time to go to the
dent this week. Sheist works a lot. 13. My niece went to Los Angeles last year. I
want to go this year. 14. I want to take my kids to the circus. They always like the
clowns. 15. He didn’t have anything to do this week, so he drank alot of beer.
16. I need to have a vacation soon. You don’t know how much I work. 17. She
says there w s a chicken in the sa kitchen. I’m not ure. 18. We needed to finish
the meeting before noon. What time is it now? 19. she wants to know who he is.
Jane saw the handsome doctor, and now 20. Will you know the price of these
guitars by next week?

 122 L E S S O N T W E N T Y – T W O PRONUNCIATION EXERCISES Letras


mudas whole – todo, inteiro muscle (mâsal) – músculo Christ mas often
– freqüentemente coul d should (shúd) - devia hal f – metade talk (ták)
honest – honesto walk (wák) honour (anr) – honra psalms (sálmz) –
salmo hour n” = xan “tio station - estação position - posição tion -
invenção ão vacation - nation (neixan) - nação addition (adéixan) -
adição inven relation - relaç dedication - dedicação férias protection
(protécxan) - proteção reaction - reação inflation (enflêixan) –
inflação

 123 L E S S O N T W E N T Y - T H R E E BJECTS O MECHANIC WATCH


SECRETARY CLOCK BUSINESSMAN TELEVISION COP STREET

 124 BUSINESS (bêznes) - n GAS egócio STATION FLOWER GAS STATION AIR
– ar VERBS HAVE / HAD I had a horse last year. We had to study English.
UNDERSTAND / UNDERSTOOD I never understood that judge. She understood
you. SELL (sél) / SOLD I sold my house. They sold their animals. BUY / BOUGHT
(bat) We bought a new clock. He bought a television. UALIFIERS ALMOST (ólmÃ
´st) - quase TOO – também (final de frase) ALSO - também, incluido Q
EVERYTHING – toda coisa, tudo ALL – tudo ALONE – sozinho

 125 XPRESSIONS “MERRY CHRISTMAS!” - Feliza natal! E “HAPPY


NEW YEAR!” – Feliz ano novo! “HAPPY BIRTHDAY!” – Feliz
aniversário! “REALLY” – realmente, de verdade “REALLY?” - é
mesmo? “ARE YOU MARRIED?” – “Você é casado?” “ I’M
SINGLE” - “Sou solteiro” “SHE IS TIRED” - “Ela
está cansada.” “IT’S HOT - “Está quente” GRAMMAR WOULD -
usado para formar o “condicional” er. They WOULD work with us for sure.
We WOULD like to see h I WOULD visit more but I don’t have time. She
WOULD prefer to go there tomorrow. VERBOS AUXILIARES DID DIDN’T
SHOULD – “dever” CAN CAN’T / COULD COULDN’T You
SHOULD finish your homework. WILL WON’T DO DON’T / He SHOULD sell
his ca WOULD WOULDN’T r now. She SHOULD never drink so much.
SHOULD SHOULDN’T I SHOULD take you to your house.

 126 FRAMES 1) Yesterday he HAD to work. 2) I UNDERSTOOD the lesson. We


lems. ______turkey for Easter. She ________ their prob She _______ to speak
with you. We ________ your English. I always have ______ to know a dentist. He
________ my letter. 3) That man SOLD his house. 4) We BOUGHT a new car. Th
They ______ Th wom ose kids _______ magazines. __ a watch for her. is an
_______ her bike. I _______ tickets for the circus. ese clocks are __________. He
_____Th ____ his television downtown. 5) 6) I know how to read and write TOO.
The train is ALMOST here. It’s _______ ten o’clock. She sold her house
_____. They have ________ finished. They want to buy a car _____. I ________
sold the car. He is a clown _____. 7) She ALSO visited a museum. 8) He bought
EVERYTHING in the store. We _____ need to go home. We saw _______ there
was to see. She reads ________ in the newspaper. They ______ sold their
swimming pool. Those horses are _____ expensive. They help him with
___________. 9 at was ALL there was to say. 10) Th ) The poor old lady was very
ALONE. I’m sure he doesn’t know ____ city. The girl spoke:”I’m so
________!” We sold ____our animals. I was ________ with my problems. Can
you give me _____ of you? She doesn’t like to be ________ . de tand you. 12) I
like to give money. “REALLY?” 11) I REALLY want to un rs You ________ talk
a lot. She doesn’t like parties. “_________?” He ________ knows how to
write. He bought ten magazines. “________?” Those birds are ________
from Burma. They were cops. “_________?”

 127 13) That girl is very TIRED. 14) She WOULD prefer to write. After the trip we
were ______. I ________ never go there by myself. ow that you’re _______.
We______go,but we don’t have moneI kn y. was ______ of his job. He _______
like to see you. He 1 ULD you sell your house? )Y HOULD always do your work. 5)
WO 16 ou S They _______ almost be finished. _______ they like to go along?
_______ he have to sell flowers? He ________give you the money today. _______
you prefer more meat or fish? I________visit my relatives today. this? ar? 17)
SHOULD you do that? ________ I know about ________ we buy this c ________
she read the letter?

 128 L E S S O N TWENTY - FOUR BJECTS O PANTS (slacks) COUCH SHIRT


(shârt) LIVING ROOM – sala de estar SHOES Mr. (mister) Wilson DRESS rs.
(missus) Wilson (Ms.Wilson) M SKIRT iss Wilson (Ms. Wilson) M GIRLFRIEND -
namorada QUESTION TRUCK (truak) BOYFRIEND – namorado

 129 VERBS to ASK / (AST)ASKED – perguntar, pedir (ASK FOR ) ..OBJETOS
… He wa/nts to a!/sk a ion. I a/st quest for a dress. to ANSWER / ANSWERED(rd)
- responder I couldn’t answer the question. She didn’t answer me. to
REMEMBER / REMEMBERED lembrar de (REMIND) t emem er I didn’ r b her
name. I don’t remember how. to FORGET / FORGOT - esquecer de You forgot
my birthday I didn’t forget! the letter. QUALIFIERS qual, dos quais a qual , as
quais WHO – quem WHOSE – de quem, cujo, do WHOM – que, quem , IF
– se I WOULD visit more...if... IF...........THEN........... TIRED - cansado WHOLE
– todo, inteiro ALL EVERY / EACH

 130 EXPRESSIONS “WELCOME TO....” – bem vindo à ... to PUT ON –
vestir pants “RIGHT AWAY” – imediatamente to TAKE OFF – tirar shoes
to GET ON - subir, entrar (work,play) PART TIME – meio perà odo to GET OFF
– descer de , sair de FULL TIME – perÃodo integral pois da pessoa ou
GRAMMAR A forma do possessivo fazemos utilizando “ ’s ” de coisa que
está possuindo: My sister’s car. Mr. Brown’s wife. The church’s
windows. The tired little boys’ shoes. AM I? SHE IS SHE’S NOT IS SHE? IT
IS IT’S NOT IS IT? WE ARE WE’RE NOT ARE WE? YOU ARE YOU’RE
NOT ARE YOU? THEY ARE THEY’RE NOT ARE THEY? WAS WERE WILL BE
CAN BE COULD BE SHOULD BE WOULD BE TO BE I AM I’M NOT YOU ARE
YOU’RE NOT ARE YOU? HE IS HE’S NOT IS HE?
 131 - F R A M E S – 1. I want to ASK something. 2. I never have time to
ANSWER letters. She likes to_____questions. Can you____________my
questions? to_______ his. Can I________your name? I know you can_______the
teacher. Did you________the cop? I don’t know _t 3. I don’t REMEMBER
this store. 4. She wants to GET OFF downtown. Why did you_______the bike? Did
you_________to buy ham? We_______Mrs. Jones. They always_______the bus
here. I_______those shoes. He needs to______the building. 5. I don’t want to
FORGET you. 6. WHOSE are these shoes? Did you_______where you live? I
don’t know______dresses those are. They always________to study.
_____telephone number do you need? I didn’t______to go to the museum.
_______truck is near the bike? 7. To WHOM did you speak? 8. I don’t know IF
we should do this. With______does she want to start? She’d know____ they
went home . I liked the girl________I saw. We’ll ask____he came tonight.
___you work, then you will have money. We asked him_______he forgot. 9. The
children are very TIRED. 10. I worked the WHOLE day. After the game we
were_______. My girlfriend studied______week. The teacher is_______of class.
We talked the______trip.

 132 The students are________of the teacher. I want to know the_______question.


11. The kids like to play ALL day. 12. WELCOME TO our home. I sold ____the
shoes. ____________Brazil. I don’t want _____ of them. ________my new
store. We ____went with my parents. ____________the game. 13. I need to go
RIGHT AWAY. 14. I have to GET ON the bus now. She needed to buy the
dress_______. They want to________this train. We want to go__________. Did
he________the plane? He answered the question_________. Can I_______your
horse? 15. She wants to TAKE OFF her shoes. 16. I need to PUT ON my shirt.
They need to________the dishes. They need to_______their shoes. I didn’t
________the new shirt. We want to______our pants. Did you_______the dress I
like? I saw him_______his pants. 17. Do I always have to REMIND you?
Please_______me about the game tomorrow. This paper is to________you of the
test. I usually have to_______them to buy pants.

 133 PRACTICE PHRASES 1 e en h ch, I talked to my father about. Wh n I w t to t e


bea the car problem. 2 a n e y last night. What did you drink? . I dr nk wi e at th part
him. 3. John lives together with his sister. I asked Mr. Jones about 4. I didn’t eat
rice and beans for dinner yesterday. I only ate salad. 5. Did you see the birds in the
garden? They are very happy today. 6. Mrs. Johnson lives in that apartment
building. She works at the bank. 7. Did you play the new game with your children?
Did you know how to play? 8. Last week I visited my cousin at the beach. I slept on
his couch. 9. I like to study when I am at home. My sister and I study together. 10. I
understand your problem with the maid. She never gets up on time. 11. Whose
house is that one on the corner? Maybe it’s the judge’s house. 12. Who is
her boyfriend? He’s my cousin Frank. Where does he live? 1 o o can finish the
whole test in just one hour. 3. I d n’t kn w if I 14. Mr. Perry works downtown in
the old bank building. He is a clerk. 15. Did you go to the store by yourself? Did you
go by bus or by car? 16. Do you know who is in the living room? It’s your uncle
Jack. 17. I don’t know if they will remember how to go to the park. 18. I bought a
d for me to go to arty tonigh new ress the p t. Mrs. on’s W ll I ha19. Who can
answer (missus) Anders question? i ve to answer it? 20. We need to get off this
train right away! There is a problem.

 L E S S O N TWENTY - FIVE OBJECTS STRANGER – estranho (pessoa) MEAL


(mÃel) - refeição FOREIGNER – estrangeiro FRIES (fráis) NATIONALITY
– nacionalidade HAMBURGER COAT PEACH BAG DESIRE (desáire) –
desejo, vontade CAMERA NEWS - notÃcias FURNITURE - mobÃlia, móveis
OPPORTUNITY - oportunidade PIANO CAN HEALTH – saúde
 VERBS to STOP (stáp) / STOPPED(stapt) – parar I can’t stop the car.
He’ll have to stop the meeting. to DRIVE / DROVE (dróuve) – ir de carro,
dirigir, pilotar, impulsionar We drove to the store. I don’t know how to drive. to
WAIT (to wêit) / WAITED – esperar We had to wait for the bus. I don’t like to
wait. to LAUGH (to láf) / LAUGHED(láft)(laugh at) rir, dar gargalhada We all
laughed at the party. You never laugh. QUALIFIERS SICK (sic) - doente FAST –
rápido , ligeiro STRANGE – estranho (adj.) SPECIAL - especial SILLY – tolo ,
bobo, ridÃculo

 AGO – atrás (tempo) SINCE – desde, desde que, sendo que WHILE (as) -
enquanto AS – como, conforme LIKE – como, do mesmo modo, parecido
CLOSE TO – perto de EXPRESSIONS “AS USUAL” – “como
sempre” “NEVER MIND” – “não importa”, “esquece”
“ALL RIGHT” – “certo”, “está bem” “WELL,...” –
“Bem,....” AS.....AS – tão.......como NOT AS...... AS – não tão.....
como “AS SOON AS” – assim que “WHAT’S JOHN LIKE?” -
como é João? “WHAT DOES HE LOOK LIKE?” – qual é a
aparência dele to Be SICK – estar doente to FEEL SICK – se sentir doente
to Be ABLE TO - poder, estar em condições de GRAMMAR WILL BE + Adj.
WILL BE + ABLE TO - Will be fun - Will be able to work - Will be happy - Will be
able to go WILL NOT BE SHOULD BE WOULD BE CAN BE COULD BE
SHOULDN’T BE WOUDN’T BE CAN’T BE COULDN’T BE

 FRAMES 1. We had to STOP the party. 2. I didn’t know to DRIVE. The horse
didn’t want to _______. She can _____my car if she wants to. I have to
_______ at the bank. We ___ to the beach every afternoon. He didn’t _______
the meeting. Which car do you _______? 3. I don’t want to WAIT for the bus. 4.
He doesn’t usually like to LAUGH. She didn’t ________ for me yesterday.
Sometimes we ______ at the clowns. Why can’t you _______ for your sister? I
never see her ________. 5. I am very SICK today. 6. It is a FAST horse. We are
very _______ today. You have a _______ camera. They’re very _______ today.
We aren’t very _______. She’s very ________ today. You shouldn’t drive
______. 7. I know a STRANGE man. 8. Saturday will be SPECIAL for us. She
spoke to the ________ woman. I made a _______ meal for you. We like to read
________ books. She bought a ________ bag. Your brother is very ______. You
are a very ______ person. 9. My sister is a SILLY girl. 10. She had the party two
weeks AGO. That’s a _______ question. We went to Japan one year ________.
We all say _______ things. I bought this furniture one day _______. He bought a
_______ coat. You had the opportunity three hours____. 11.SINCE when do you
work here? 12. I work WHILE they study. I work here _______ last year. Can you
see ________ you sleep? He has to wait ______ he’s late. You should
work______ you can. We have no news ______yesterday. I drive_____ he sleeps.

 13.The job finished AS you wanted. 14.You shouldn’t drive LIKE he drives. She
is ______a new baby. They need to speak ____she speaks. Do you see things
______I see them? They play _____children. We live ______a big family. He talks
______ a foreigner. 15.I live CLOSE TO your house. 16.The game WILL BE very
fast. She is _______the door. She ___happy to go home. My house is_______the
park. I know the books ______new. We are_______the shopping center. If we wait
we ______ late. 17.Tomorrow he WILL BE ABLE TO go home. Now we
_______________finish our work. Soon they _______________start classes. He
says we____________ stop at the gas station. 18. They WON’T BE ABLE TO
work. You _________________stay. We __________________help. I
____________________wait.
 PHRASES 1. I needed to take my daughter to the dentist this morning. 2. He
didn’t learn how to work with the truck nor with the bus. 3. I want to write a letter
to the newspaper. Do you want to help me? 4. She doesn’t like to talk to
strangers on the street. 5. I drank beer and now I am sick. My wife isn’t home to
help me. 6. We laughed all afternoon. Mr. Johnson is a very silly man. 7. The maid
washes the windows every Friday. She’s not married. 8. The teacher needs to
understand better my son. He’s not able to study. 9. I opened a can of peaches
for them. Last night they ate with us. 10. I finished my lesson before her. She is not
very fast. 11. She read in the magazine about our country. She liked the news. 12. I
want to cook a special meal for my parents. They like fish. 13. I sold my furniture
because I want to go to the States this year. 14. She works while I study. She is
very happy with her new job. 15. Did you buy the cake for you neighbor? How is
she today? 16. What time did you come home from the soccer game last Thursday.
17. Do you live close to downtown? No, I live on the beach. 18. I always visit my
friends on Wednesday. We like to drink beer. 19. I want to play but I need to work.
That’s very strange. 20. Did you talk with the stranger? I spoke with him one
hour ago.

 LESSON TWENTY-SIX OBJECTS EXERCISE WALL BARBECUE BED


SANDWICH JACKET FILM MEN AIRPORT WEMEN PILOT (páilet) BALL

 ZOO END – fim ROOM DRIVER TOWEL ACCIDENT ROSE BABY VERBS to
LOSE / LOST - perder, ficar sem (objeto, competição) Did you lose your books?
They lost the game. to MEAN / MEANT - significar, querer dizer, pretender,
tencionar Do you understand what I mean? What do you mean? to CHOOSE /
CHOSE - escolher (choice) He chose his friend. I’ll always choose you. to FIND
(faind) / FOUND - achar - descobrir (“to FIND OUT”) I need to find a
restroom. Did you “find out” where she lives?

 QUALIFIERS BEHIND – atrás de NICE – bom, bonito, agradável UNDER
– debaixo, embaixo de, sob DELICIOUS - delicioso NEXT TO - junto a, ao lado
de SMART – esperto, inteligente WITHOUT - sem DIFFICULT – difÃcil HARD
- duro UGLY – feio EASY - fácil FUNNY – engraçado SO – então, por
isso, tão EXPRESSIONS “CONGRATULATIONS” – parabéns “SO
FAR” – até agora “ON PURPOSE” – proprositadamente to “LIE
DOWN” – deitar-se “LOST AND FOUND” - achados e perdidos “Are
you in Rio?... I MEAN São Paulo?” – quer dizer GRAMMAR TOO FAR –
longe demais TURBO TOO BIG – grande demais INTONAÇÃO TOO SLOW
– lento demais TOO MUCH – demais (quantidade) TOO MANY - demais
(contáveis) MANAGER – gerente SINGER - cantos BUYER – comprador
CARRIER - carregador TEACHER - ensinador PLAYER - jogador

 Em inglês formamos gerúndios e particÃpios com o sufixo – ING nos verbos.
I’M READING – estou lendo YOU’RE HELPING – você
está ajudando {1} TEMPO CONTÍNUO HE’S SLEEPING – ele
está dormindo SHE’S COOKING – ela está cozinhando To BE + ( )ING
IT’S STARTING – está começando WE’RE SELLING – estamos
vendendo YOU’RE LEARNING – vocês estão aprendendo THEY’RE
CHOOSING – eles estão escolhendo A WALKING DOLL – uma boneca
andante. A WORKING MOTHER – uma mãe trabalhadora. {2} ( )ING = **** A
SLEEPING BABY – um bebê adormecido. {3} To walk = walking WALKING IS
GOOD EXERCISE – andar é bom exercÃcio. To work = working WORKING IS
DIFFICULT TO LIKE – trabalhar é difÃcil de gostar. To drink = drinking
DRINKING TOO MUCH ISN’T GOOD – beber demais não é bom. HE
STARTED WORKING – Ele comçou a trabalhar. I STARTED PLAYING –
Comecei a jogar. {4} start,begin,finish,stop,quit ( )ING THEY FINISHED DOING
– Eles terminaram de fazer. No inglês usamos a forma do “perfeito” ou
na forma simples ou progressiva, para expressar uma ação que começou no
passado e ainda continua no presente: O presente “perfeito” no inglês é
formado com o presente do verbo HAVE usado com o particÃpio do verbo
principal. He has lived here for a year. - Faz / Há um ano que ele mora aqui.

 I have been studying French for three months. - Faz / Há três meses que estou
estudando francês. I haven’t spoken English for a long time. - Faz / Há muito
tempo que não falo inglês. I have gone to California one time a year during these
last five years. - Tenho ido a Califórnia uma vez por ano durante estes últimos
cinco anos. Have you seen my new car? - Você já viu meu carro novo?
PARTICÍPIO USO #2 BE + particÃpio - This is done. This can’t be eaten. - He
will be finished. They should be paid. - It was bought. It wouldn’t be understood .
SHOULD BE WOULD BE CAN BE COULD BE

 F R A M E S 1. Did you LOSE your books? 2. I MEAN to visit you this week. I
don’t want to ________this jacket. What do you______? How did you
_________your shoes? She always says what she_______. He never _________
the ball. Does this _______I have to leave? 3. You need to CHOOSE which ball. 4.
Where did you FIND that rose? Can I _______the next film? We couldn’t
________the airport. I _______ to stop participating. They didn’t ________the
pilot yet. You have to ________a towel. I can never _____time for exercise. 5. Your
jacket is BEHIND the door. 6. Your book is UNDER the piano. The room is
________that wall. The baby isn’t _______the bed. The towels are
________the bed. There is something _______here. My car isn’t _________this
store. They live _______the bridge. 7. The towel is NEXT TO the bag. 8.This horse
is very FAST. The stranger is ______the window. Your car is very________. The
men are ________the truck. He plays piano________. The airport isn’t
_______the zoo. That foreigner speaks ______. 9. She bought an UGLY dog. 10.
That movie is very FUNNY. They have a very ________house. The clown at the
circus is ______. They only found _______furniture. We laughed at the
______stranger. He says many _______things. He is a _________waiter. 11. She
is a very NICE girl. 12. This meal is DELICIOUS. You have _____ parents. The
sandwich is __________. This is a _____ room. We had a _______ barbecue. You
should be a _____ son. Peaches are__________.

 13. Your dog is SMART. 14. This test is very DIFFICULT. She said the boy
is______. Her name is ______ to say. I have _______ children. It’s ______ to
choose. A pilot has to be_______. The game is very_______. 15. This book is
EASY to study. 16. You are really SO special. It’s _______ to find my house.
This train is ____ fast. It’s ________ to lose the game. Those birds are _____
ugly. More film is ________ to buy. Your kids are ______ nice. 17.The airport is
TOO far. 18.You are LEARNING English. This building is _____old. She is
SPEAKING with her father. Our work is _____ difficult. Are you LIVING with your
family? This book is ____ strange. They are CHOOSING a new player. 19. He HAS
LIVED here for a month. They __________ here for years. I __________ here
since 1987. She ________ in this city many years.

 PRACTICE PHRASES 1. We went to a party on the farm last Sunday. We had


barbecue for lunch. 2. You should be studying with that student. He knows
everything. 3. She never had the opportunity to study, so she won’t be able to
read. 4. The waitress asked if we are foreigners. “Well, we aren’t from
here”. 5. The accident happened because the student driver didn’t know
English. 6. The whole class said goodbye. Sooner or later they will come again. 7. I
’m sorry I didn’t go to your mother’s birthday party. 8. I have never gone
to the States, but I will be going in a few months. 9. He said there are no
opportunities for him here. I really don’t think so. 10. I always forget your name.
Never mind, it’s a difficult name to remember. 11. They read and wrote some
letters while I slept. She likes to write. 12. I asked Jon. “Have you seen if the
sandwiches are behind the couch?” 13. We will not be having class next week
because of the holiday. 14. You didn’t understand what I meant. We
shouldn’t be waiting here. 15. I haven’t had time to do exercises this week.
I’ve been working. 16. There is a buyer for your house on 4th street. Do you still
want to sell? 17. I meant to close the office windows but I forgot. Could you do it?
18. Janet is very happy. She has waited for her birthday all year. 19. Mary’s
health is very good. She has been walking 3 Km, a day. 20. I have gone to
California one time a year during these last five years. 21. Congratulations, you
cook very well. You should open a restaurant. 22. Your son is very smart. You
should talk to him about his new lesson. 23. I’m drinking too much, my health is
not very good. Let’s go to the doctor. 24. It’s already twelve o’clock. We
will be late to lunch for sure. 25. The driver didn’t take the new couch to my
office downtown.

 LESSON TWENTY-SEVEN Nos primeiros módulos concentramos nosso estudo


de lÃnguas dentro do contexto dos SONS. Sons semelhantes e diferentes. O tom
da voz e o ritmo também fazem parte desta primeira base. Agora nestes últimos
módulos vamos concentrar em mais fases importantes na aprendizagem do
inglês, que são: - Juntando MORFEMAS para formular palavras; - Juntando
palavras para formar sentenças e cláusulas; - Os significados dos morfemas,
palavras e as combinações destas palavras. LANGUAGE STUDY –
“MORFEMAS” – Formas Morfemas são as menores partes individuais
de um idioma que tem significado. Morfemas podem ser uma palavra inteira ou
parte de uma palavra. A palavra “CAT” por exemplo é um morfema
singular. Não pode ser dividido em partes significativas. Porém, a palavra
“CATS” se dispõe de dois morfemas – a palavra cat significando um
quadrúpede da famÃlia “felidae”, - e o “s” que significa plural. Este
“s” não é usado sozinho em conversa normal, não sendo então uma
palavra, porém, sendo uma parte com significado das palavras CATS, BOOKS,
BOYS etc., sendo então um morfema.LÃnguas são muito diferentes na maneira
em que juntem e agrupem morfemas. Observações crÃticas sobre morfemas e
a maneira que são combinados para formar palavras pode ser muito útil para
quem está aprendendo inglês. Por outro lado, não devemos substituir saber
sobre o idioma por realmente conhecer o idioma. Procedimentos analÃticos são
ajudas básicas, permitirão ao aluno evitar muitos erros e facilitarão seu
progresso rápido.

 CONTEXT – RYTHM – INTONATION – THINKING - Animal Babies –
Many baby animals – lions and elephants and turtles and thousands of others
– look much like their fathers and mothers. But many do not. A baby butterfly
looks more like a worm than like a grown-up butterfly. Baby starfish do not have five
arms. Oysters when first hatched do not have shells. Baby toads look very much
like fish. Ants, bees, and jellyfish are other animals that change greatly in looks
while they grow up. Some baby animals weigh millions of times as much as other
baby animals. The biggest baby of all is a baby blue whale. It weighs more than a
grown-up elephant. A horse usually has only one colt at a time. A cow usually has
only one calf. One baby at a time is the rule with elephants, kangaroos, and many
other animals. Dogs and cats and pigs usually have several babies at a time. So do
turtles and many others. And some animals have hundreds or even thousands of
babies at a time. A cod fish can lay a million eggs. Not all of them will hatch. But
usually thousands of them do. Only a few live long enough to grow up. Tiny cod are
good food for bigger fish. Some baby animals are well cared for by their parents.
Some are not taken care of at all. A baby robin would not live long if its parents did
not protect it and bring food to it. A baby turtle, on the other hand, can take care of
itself as soon as it comes from its shell. Some animal babies grow up fast. A
hamster is naked and helpless when it is first born. But baby hamsters grow so fast
that a hamster can have babies of its own when it is only two months old. An
elephant, however, stays a baby for two or three years. Baby animals many times
have special names. Baby butterflies and moths are called caterpillars. Baby toads
and frogs are called tadpoles. The list gives the names of some other baby animals.
BEAR - cub KANGAROO – joey ELEPHANT – calf SWAN– cygnet CAT
– kitten LION – cub FOX – cub TIGER – cub COW – calf MOOSE
– calf GOAT – kid TURKEY – poult DEER – fawn OYSTER (oÃster) –
spat HORSE – colt WHALE – calf DOG – puppy SEAL – pup DUCK –
duckling SHEEP – lamb

 OBJECTS FLIGHT – vôo WEATHER PASSENGER CLOTHES COOK PURSE


MAILMAN MOVIE MENU FLOOR

 BOTTLE PAPER BOWL PHONE GRAPES ENVELOPE TOMATO STAPLER


FAULT – culpa, falta

 VERBS to RUN / RAN correr, administrar, andar, funcionar, concorrer He wants to


run to the store. I can’t run this store. to LISTEN / LISTEND (to, for) – escutar
I don’t want to listen to you. He wants to listen for you. to PLAN / PLANND ⠀“
planejar I plannd to study Spanish next. I didn’t plan anything. to GET (guet) /
GOT (gat) – obter, pegar, conseguir, ficar…. Where did you get that? I got it at
the museum. QUALIFIERS (to be) COLD – frio (to be) COOL – refrescante (to
be) RELIGIOUS – religioso PINK – cor-de-rosa (to be) READY – pronto (to
be) BRAZILIAN – brasileiro (to be) AMERICAN – americano

 to ARRIVE(airáiv) – chegar HAPPY (hápi) – feliz ARRIVAL (airával) –
chegada HAPPINESS (hapines) – felicidade to SURVIVE (survaiv) –
sobreviver SOFT (sóft) – suave SURVIVAL (survaival) – sobrevivência
SOFTNESS (sóftness) – suavidade to ATTEND (atend) – atender,
freqüentar COMPLEX(compéx)– complicado ATTENDANCE (atêndans)
– comparência COMPLEXITY – complexidade ACCORD (acórd) –
acordo ABLE(êbol) – apto ACCORDANCE (acórdans) – concordância
ABILITY (abÃliti) – aptidão to FLATTER (fláter) – lisonjear REAL (rial) –
real FLATTERY (flátori) – lisonja REALISM (rialism) – realismo to BREAK
(brêik) – quebrar DYNAMIC (dainâmic) – dinâmico BREAKAGE
(brêikedi) – quebradeira DYNAMTICISM – dinamismo EXPRESSIONS
“WHOSE FAULT IS IT?” – De quem é a culpa? to “FALL ASLEEP”
– adormecer to “GO TO BED” – ir dormir to “TRY ON” –
experimentar (roupa) to “GET SICK” – ficar doente to “GET WELL”
– ficar bem to “GET OLD”– ficar velho to “GET MARRIED” –
casar-se to “GET HURT” – ficar machucado to “GET BLAMED” –
ser acusado “YES, OF COURSE” – sim, é claro “NO, OF COURSE
NOT” – não, é claro que não “AT LEAST” – pelo menos
“GREAT!” – ótimo! “HURRY” !! – depressa!! “IT’S
RAINING” – está chovendo. “IT’S SNOWING” – está nevando
“IS IT RAINING?” – está chovendo? “IS IT SNOWING?” -
está nevando? “IT’S NOT RAINING” – não está chovendo
“IT’S NOT SNOWING” – não está nevando

 GRAMMAR to BE (passado) I WAS I WASN’T WAS IT? YOU WERE YOU


WEREN’T WERE YOU? HE WAS HE WASN’T WAS HE? SHE WAS SHE
WASN’T WAS SHE? IT WAS IT WASN’T WAS IT? WE WERE WE
WEREN’T WERE WE? YOU WERE YOU WEREN’T WERE YOU? THEY
WERE THEY WEREN’T WERE THEY? FRAMES 1. The kids like to RUN. 2. He
wants to RUN the company. I saw him ________ across the field. She doesn’t
like to ____ the factory. We usually ______ in the morning. You will ______ this
office. She needs to ______ to the store. I need to_____ my business by myself. 3.
I want to LISTEN to the man. 4. We need to LISTEN FOR the train. You have to
______ to me. You should ____ _____ your bus. They never _______ to us. I have
to ______ ______ the mailman. We want to _______ to the radio. Can you _____
______ the phone? 5. I need to PLAN the party. 6. I want to GET a new car. Did
you ______ anything for tomorrow? Where did you ______ you shoes? How can
we ______ anything? They went to _______ ice cream. He doesn’t _______ to
study here. I never _______ the menu. 7. We didn’t GET TO go. 8. I ate a
COLD sandwich. Did you ____ ____ see the judge? We like to drink _______ beer.
When do you ____ ____ be a pilot? She prefers ________ weather. You always
___ ___ have what you want. The kitchen floor is ______.

 9. The water was COOL. 10. Are you READY to go? Do you have any _____
rooms? The movie is ______ to see. Yesterday was a _____ day. Can you be
______ at 8:00? Today the weather is ______. He is never _______. 11. I like
BRAZILIAN food. 12. I WAS at the bank. We bought some ______ grapes. I know
she ______ with him. He has a _______ wife. He ______ eating a ham sandwich.
They want a _______ cook. It _____ sleeping on the floor. 13. We never WERE in
Texas. 14. It WASN’T raining in Madrid. They ______ at your house. She
______ saying anything. Where _______ you yesterday? He ______ at church
Sunday ______ they in the car? I ______ by myself at the movies.

 PHRASES 1. How many apples did you get? Only five, where is the bowl? 2. The
new maid comes here everyday. She doesn’t live with us. 3. My flight is here.
I’m traveling to Chicago to visit my relatives. 4. He wants to take his kids to the
zoo. They will stay until 4:00. 5. It’s getting late. What time do you plan to make
dinner? 6. Their daughter cooks very well. We went to her house last Sunday. 7.
When will you finish your homework? I plan to finish tomorrow. 8. Where did you
buy those pants? I bought them in Miami last year. 9. I wouldn’t know anything
about this if you hadn’t said something. 10. They started working late yesterday.
After the job they went to run. 11. I didn’t have the opportunity to try on the new
dress you bought for me. 12. We finished planning our party for this Saturday.
Listen to this. 13. I should have talked to him yesterday, but I didn’t have time.
14. Do you know where we could get an envelope for my letter? Yes, of course! 15.
How can you listen to that music? The animals are running. 16. The mailman
stopped when the dog ran after him. He’s ready for anything. 17. My family is
very religious, but they still have faults. 18. The waiter asked which wine we’d
prefer. 19. I saw two foreigners trying on Brazilian clothes when I was downtown.
20. We have waited too many years to buy a new house. Now we will buy it.

 LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT LANGUAGE STUDY – “MORFEMAS” –


Formas Tipos de Morfemas Cada morfema numa lÃngua tem vária caracterÃ-
sticas baseado no seu relacionamento distribucional com os outros morfemas; na
base destas diferenças, morfemas podem ser classificados de várias formas: a)
morfemas “livres” e “limitados” – certos morfemas podem ser
pronunciados sozinhos, enquanto outros morfemas sempre ocorrem ligados a
outro morfema. Por isso: morfemas que podem ocorrer sozinhos são chamados
de formas “livres”; morfemas que não ocorrem sozinhos são chamados
de formas “limitadas”. b) “RaÃzes” e “Afixos” – num passo
mais adiante com um tipo de classificação similar é de distinguir “raà -
zes” e “afixos”. Em geral “raÃzes” são morfemas singulares que
levam o sentido básico da palavra; uma “raiz” é a base da palavra.
“RaÃzes” podem ser livres ou limitados. “Afixos” são morfemas
limitados que correm com “raÃzes” e que mudam o significado da
“raiz” de alguma forma. Vários tipos de “afixos” acontecem
dependendo da maneira que ocorrem com as “raÃzes”; prefixos precedendo
as “raÃzes” e sufixos seguindo as “raÃzes”: prefixos raiz sufixo un true
un happy in valid cat s slow ly accord ance

 OBJECTS SLEEVE (slÃv) COURSE (córss) – curso, percurso GLASSES


SCHEDULE - agenda, tabela de SUNGLASSES horários CONTACT LENSES
IDEA (aidÃa) – idéia BATTERY EXPERIENCE - experiência T. V. (tivi) –
FLAVOR – sabor PACKAGE GARDEN LADY COLLEGE – faculdade

 BANKER banqueiro HOSPITAL – hospital OCCUPATION - ocupação ANGER


- raiva DOCUMENT TRY - tentativa VERBS to TRY / TRIED – experimentar,
tentar I want to try the rice. He tried to do his homework. to MEET / MET –
encontrar, reunir-se, conhecer We have to meet the bus. Where did you meet
Jane? to LIE / LIED – mentir I think he usually lies. You shouldn’t lie. to
CHANGE / CHANGED – mudar, trocar, alterar I want to change my clothes.
They changed the teachers.

 QUALIFIERS PAIR – par pair of shoes pair of pants FAVORITE – favorito,
predileto SERIOUS – sério ANGRY – com raiva EVEN – sequer, até
mesmo NOT EVEN – nem sequer, nem mesmo GOOD – bom BETTER THAN
– melhor que THE BEST – o melhor BAD – mau WORSE THAN – pior
que THE WORST – o pior EXPRESSIONS - BEHIND SHEDULE – atrasado
“I THINK SO” – acho que sim “I DON’T THINK SO” – acho
que não “I DO, TOO” – eu (faço), também I
(can,will,did,should...),too. “I DON’T EITHER” – eu também não I
(can’t,didn’t,won’t...),either. “BY THE WAY” - a propósito
“YOUNG LADY” – moça “YOUNG MAN” – moço SKY CAP -
carregador de mala (aeroporto) BAGGAGE CARRIER – carregador de mala
(aeroporto, hotel) BELL HOP – carregador de mala (hotel) BELL BOY –
carregador de mala (hotel) “I’M IN A HURRY” – estou com pressa

 to BE IN A HURRY – estar com pressa to BE HUNGRY – estar com fome to
BE THIRSTY – estar com sede to BE TIRED – estar cansado to BE AFRAID
(afrêid) – estar com medo to BE SORRY FOR – estar com pena de to BE
SLEEPY – estar com sono, sonolento to “HAVE A HEADACHE” – estar
com dor de cabeça to “HAVE A SORE THROAT” – estar com dor de
garganta to “HAVE A STOMACHACHE” (stomaquik) – estar com dor de
barriga GRAMMAR BEAUTY (bÃuti) – beleza FLAME (flêim) – chama to
BEAUTIFY (biutifái) – embelezar to INFLAME – inflamar JUSTICE (gÃostice)
– justiça DEAR (dÃer) – querida, amada to JUSTIFY (giostifái) –
justificar to ENDEAR – fazer-se estimado LIQUID (là quid) – lÃquido HARD
(hârd) – duro to LIQUIDIFY (liquÃdifai) – liquidificar to HARDEN –
endurecer IDOL (aidôl) – Ãdolo LIGHT – leve to IDOLIZE (aidoláis) –
idolatrar to LIGHTEN – aliviar o peso PHILOSOPHY (filósofi) – filosofia
EQUAL – igual to PHILOSOPHIZE (filósofaiz) – filosofar to EQUALIZE (à -
colaiz) – igualar JOY (diói) – gozo to ENJOY – gozar, desfrutar

 SUN – sol SUNNY – ensolarado FUN (fan) – divertido FUNNY –
engraçado FRIEND – amigo FRIENDLY (frêndli) – amigável ANGER –
raiva ANGRILY – furiosamente BOY – menino BOYISH (boich) – com jeito
de menino SICK – doente SICKISH – com jeito doente PIG – porco
PIGGISH – com jeito de porco CUBE – cubo CUBIC – cúbico PERIOD
(perÃod) – perÃodo PERIODIC (periádic) – periódico FRAMES 1. You need
to TRY to eat. 2. She TRIED make bread. They want to ______ the turkey. We
____to do our homework. Can I ______ your swimming pool? He _____ to start the
car. Don’t ______ to run from me. They have______to find work. 3. Where can
we MEET you? 4. We MET the judge on Monday. I want to _____ your sister. They
______ in the park. He needs to ______ with us. She ______ him last year. Did you
_____ the boss? I ______ her at a party 5. You should never LIE. 6. They LIED
about my car. I don’t like to _______. He _____ if he said that.

 The man didn’t ______ about this. We ___about the document. 7. I want to
CHANGE the word. 8.The college CHANGED my schedule. He always has to
_______ the battery. She ____the idea of the show. I need to _____ my glasses.
How I think has _______. Can I ______ my course? He is a _______ man. 9. I
have a PAIR of sunglasses. 10. This is my FAVORITE music. She bought a _____
of shoes. These are my _______ friends. I need a new ______ of pants. This is his
______ ice cream flavor. It has a _____ of batteries. That’s our ______ T.V.
program. 11. We have a SERIOUS problem. 12. I don’t usually get ANGRY. Mr.
Jones is ______ today. She is always ______. Your cut is _____. Please, don⠀™t
be ______. Their job is ______ . My girlfriend is very _____. 13. They EVEN need a
new kitchen. 14. You’re NOT EVEN ready to go. He wants _____ more money.
She’s ____ _____ at home. She didn’t ______ speak to me. They’re
_____ ____ studying. We don’t _____ know his address. I’m _____ _____
angry. 15. I had GOOD time at the party. 16.We were IN A HURRY to finish. She
has a _____ doctor. I’m ______ to change colleges. You bought a ______ car.
He’s ______ to meet the girls. He is a ______ boss. They are never
__________. 17. These ideas are BETTER THAN your ideas. You can remember
things _______ ____ I can. I read ______ _____ I write. She cooks ______ _____
she washes dishes.

 PHRASES 1. I have to leave now. It’s late and I have been trying to go home. 2.
My daughter needs to buy a new dress, because she has a party tomorrow. 3. I will
meet you at the station. Great, buy they changed my schedule. 4. Mr. Sanchez
always asks about his pretty nieces when he visits Brazil. 5. I’m studying
English three times a week, because I want to learn fast. 6. I didn’t understand
anything that he said. What about you? 7. I don’t know what I want to do now. I
finished reading this book. 8. The bell boy tried, but he couldn’t carry my bag. I
laughed a lot. 9. When I have time, I like to play volleyball with my neighbors. 10.
Her happiness is real. I don’t understand what you mean. 11. If you don’t get
ready soon, we won’t be there on time. 12. I stayed there until three-thirty, then I
had to go to the bank. 13. Difficult questions always make me sleepy. They’re
not easy to answer. 14. I was talking to him about business while they washed my
car. 15. I took my son to the doctor. The doctor says he needs glasses. 16. If he has
so much experience, then I don’t know why he works here yet. 17. My kids are
great. I want to help them while they are still in college. 18. Your daughter is always
studying. She’s the best student in class. 19. It was raining very much while I
was talking to him on the phone. 20. Mr. Jones couldn’t meet us tonight, so I
have changed our planning.

 L E S S O N TWENTY-NINE LANGUAGE STUDY – MORFEMAS – Formas


Além das distinções entre “raÃzes” e “não- raÃzes” (uma
diferença de distribuição) precisamos notar certas outras diferenças entre
morfemas baseado no relacionamento dos morfemas entre si. Estas diferenças
são entre morfemas aditivos, multiplicativos, substituÃveis, e subtrativos.
Morfemas aditivos – são os mais comuns. Nestes estão incluÃdos “raÃ-
zes” e “afixos”, chamamos estes de aditivos porque são adicionados
uns aos outros. Por exemplo raÃzes adicionadas à raÃzes: blackbird, kingfish,
bellhop. Morfemas multiplicativos – são raÃzes que são repetidos: tut-tut,
choo-choo, put-put. Morfemas substituÃveis – como seu nome implica,
substituem partes de outros morfemas. Destes o inglês tem muitos. Por exemplo
o plural de TOOTH (dente) é TEETH. Para fazer o plural neste caso o som de
“u” é substituÃdo por um morfema substituÃvel “iy”: plural –
objeto – verbo foot / feet sheath – to sheathe mouse (máus) / mice (mais)
wreath – to wreathe louse / lice (lais) teeth – to teethe man / men safe (sêif)
– to save woman / women strife (stráif) – to strive thief – to thieve advice
– to advise house (háus) – to house

 OBJECTS CLASSROOM SIGN - placa, sinal NOTEBOOK KEYS SUITCASE


MESSAGE – recado BLANKET LIFE – vida PILLOW ATTENTION –
atenção BOOTS ADDRESS

 TOYS HIGH SCHOOL – 2O Grau FRIDGE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL –
ginásio VERBS to THINK / THOUGHT – pensar, achar (que) I need to think
about this test. He doesn’t think. to SHOP / SHOPPED - fazer compras We
shopped all day. They were shopping for shirts. to LOOK / LOOKED (like) –
parecer (for) – procurar (at) – olhar He looks like a clown. They looked for
you. Look here! to LEAVE / LEFT – deixar, partir, sair You left your kids
downtown. Can I leave this here?

 QUALIFIERS UP – para cima, cima BLUE – azul DOWN – para baixo,
abaixo RED (réd) – vermelho ACROSS – através GREEN – verde
TRUE (trúu) – verdadeira, real, verÃdico YELLOW (iélou) – amarelo
FALSE(fáls) – falso, enganoso, errôneo ORANGE (ôrandi) – alaranjado
BUSY – ocupado BLACK (blék) – preto OTHER – outro WHITE (wáit)
– branco ANOTHER – um outro, uma outra GRAY (grei) – cinzento BOTH
– ambos BROWN – marrom, castanho AWAY (awêi) – embora, pra
lá PURPLE (pôrpol) – roxo KIND (káind) – tipo SILVER (sÃlver) –
prateado ON – sobre, em cima GOLDEN (gôlden) – dourado
EXPRESSIONS APPLE TREE PEACH TREE FRUIT TREE LUGGAGE (lâgadh) /
BAGGAGE (bâgadh) – bagagem EVERYBODY – todos, todo o mundo
“GO AWAY!”, “STAY AWAY”, “RUN AWAY” to PAY ATTENTION -
prestar atenção to HANG UP (HUNG UP) – pendurar, desligar o telefone
PROBABLY - provavelmente to STAND UP (standâp) – ficar em pé to SIT
DOWN –sentar-se to GET DOWN – descer “I WISH!” (wÃch) – quem
dera! “FROM NOW ON” – daqui em diante “ALL OF A SUDDEN”
– repentinamente “SUDDENLY” – repentinamente “GIVE MY
REGARDS TO ...” - dê minhas lembranças à ... “FOR EXAMPLE” (exÃ
¢mpol) – por exemplo “SEE YOU LATER” – até mais tarde

 - FRAMES - 1. I need to THINK about this. 2. I THOUGHT you went home. They
_____ I did this. They _____ we had finished. I _____ you should go. We ___ they
were going along. You should ______ in English. She _____ much about life. 3. I
like to SHOP. 4. We SHOPPED in all the stores. You need money to ____. They
______ in the morning. They’ll _____ with us. I _____ with my kids. She has to
______ for a book. She always _______ here. 5. I think you LOOK LIKE a clown. 6.
She LOOKED FOR her shoes. You _____my sister. We ______ a new house. They
don’t ______ friends. I ______ the baby’s bottle. He ______ a cop. They
_____ my son. 7. She didn’t LOOK AT me. 8. He always LEAVES at 9:00. They
want to ____ __ the bridge. We want to _______ soon. Did you ____ __ the
message? I have to ______ you now. I have to ___ __ my notebook. They don’t
want to ______. 9. I LEFT my shirt in your car. 10. I looked ACROSS the street. We
_____ our books at school. We went ______ the field. They ______ the city after
lunch. The cat ran ______ the garden. She ______ me her address. They didn’t
go _____ the river. 11. This is a TRUE mailman. 12. I’m very BUSY today. Your
message was not ______. She was _______ yesterday. I need the _______ idea.
You are always too ______. Is that ______ what he said? He likes to be _____.
 13. I want ANOTHER soda. 14. He is in THE OTHER classroom. He has ____
girlfriend. I sold ______ bed. They need _______ teacher. She is _______ sister.
We bought ______ car. I am in _____ city. 15. I knew BOTH parents. 16. You have
to go AWAY. We saw _______ movies. I need to take this toy ______. I bought
______ dresses. The children ran ______. She has ______ suitcases. She gave
______ my new pants. 17. What KIND of car do you have? There is only one
_______ of ice cream. I bought two ______ of notebooks. She sells many _______
of toys.

 PHRASES 1. I think that New York City is beautiful. I went there last year. 2. I want
to visit my parents next Sunday. They live in the country. 3. John left early this
morning because he is working in another city. 4. They thought we had left the party
very early but we were still there. 5. Give my regards to your uncle. I don’t have
is address to write him. 6. I didn’t plan my schedule for last week because I went
to Rio on business. 7. I think the stranger lied about the weather. It’s not
snowing here. 8. There are too many children needing to go to Jr. high school. 9. I
didn’t read the letter yet, but I want to read it after dinner. 10. Suddenly the
skycap stopped. He was very tired. 11. Those people are looking for you. I don⠀™t
want them to find me. 12. My mother finished her work, and now she wants to stay
here for a week. 13. I need to take my coat downtown to be washed. Who washes
your clothes? 14. We didn’t travel last night because Peter drank too much. 15.
The high school teacher lost all his keys. Everybody looked for them. 16. There are
some ladies waiting to speak with you about this problem. 17. By the way, did you
remember to take some blankets for the trip? 18. That kid said the answer was
false. The teacher asked another question. 19. We don’t have time to finish our
shopping today. See you later. 20. I haven’t looked at a book in years. I really
should read more.

 LESSON THIRTY LANGUAGE STUDY- Morfemas – Significados A definição


de “morfema” incluiu a frase “partes significativas”. Há um
relacionamento entre o significado e as formas do idioma. Nas lÃnguas, as formas
não podem ser separadas dos seus significados. Não seria interessante e nem
proveitoso estudar apenas os sons de um idioma sem qualquer consideração
pelos seus significados. O sistema de significados de um idioma não poderá ser
analisado à parte de suas formas e a distribuição das mesmas... Não
há significado sem formas. Por isso consideramos estas duas partes – forma e
significado – inseparável. O fato de um idioma ser um sistema formal é
indiscutÃvel. Mas o idioma é também comunicação; um sistema de
comunicação com o relacionamento “forma-significado” para sua base.
Toda lÃngua é um sistema de sÃmbolos extremamente complexo, tão
complexo que uma descrição minuciosa de qualquer um levaria uma vida inteira
de estudo por um lingüista profissional. Precisamos lembrar que há muitas
ambigüidades e distinções obscuras dentro do inglês. Muitos dos contrastes
de forma no inglês parecem muito inconsistentes. Distinções minuciosas dos
significados não deveriam nos desanimar nem fazer com que imaginemos que a
pessoa falando está inconsistente. Em fato eles devem nos estimular a dominá-
los como uma maneira de falar eficientemente com as pessoas no inglês.

 OBJECTS DESK DRAWER CUPBOARD (kâbrd) BATHROOM, RESTROOM


SHOWER (sháuer) BEDROOM

 CHINESE (tiániz) FACT (fect) – fato KNOWLEDGE – sabedoria,


conhecimento GATE SEAT BELT SONG – canção, uma música TIP (têp)
– gorteja, dica, ponta GENTLEMAN (diêntelman) – cavalheiro, senhor
“Ladies and gentlemen...!”
 SUIT (sut) – terno, traje bathing suit TIE (tái) WALLET RIDE - carona

 VERBS to PAY / PAID (pêid) – pagar Did you pay the maid? He didn’t pay
us. to WEAR / WORE – usar (roupa), vestir I want to wear this dress. What
should I wear? to SING / SANG – cantar He sings in the bathroom. I like to sing.
to PUT / PUT – por, colocar Where did you put the box? I put it in the car. to
STAND / STOOD – estar de pé. erger-se, levantar-se, estar em posição
vertical, por de pé, suportar, agüentar. We can stand next to the wall. He will
stand soon. to RIDE (ráid) / RODE (rôud) – montar, andar de, andar em Can I
ride your horse? We want to ride your bike. to ALLOW (aláu) / ALLOWED (aláud)
to LET / LET (lét): deixar, permitir to PERMIT (prmêt) / PERMITTED (prmêted)
Is that permitted? I can let you do this. Why did you allow this? QUALIFIERS
THROUGH – através de, pelo meio de, por UNDER (ândr) – em baixo de,
debaixo BESIDE - do lado, ao lado ON – seguindo em frente.“Go on”,
“Pass on”, “Roll on”, “From now on”….

 EXPRESSIONS EVERYBODY (évribari) – todos, todo o mundo EVERYONE


(évriwan) – todos, todo o mundo SOMEONE (sâmwan) – alguém
ANYONE – alguém (interrogativo, negativo) NO ONE (nôwan) – ninguém
PAYBACK – acerto de contas, vingança BROKE (brôuk) – liso, sem
dinheiro IN FRONT OF – em frente de to “GIVE A RIDE” – dar carona
to “TURN OFF” (to trnóf) – desligar to “TURN ON” (to trnon) –
ligar HOWEVER – de qualquer modo WHOEVER – qualquer pessoa
WHEREVER – de qualquer lugar WHICHEVER – quaisquer WHATEVER –
qualquer coisa WHENEVER - qualquer hora “NEXTDOOR NEIGHBORS” -
os vizinhos do lado “HAVE A NICE DAY” – “tenha um bom dia”
“EVERY OTHER DAY” – “dia sim, dia não” “HOW OLD ARE
YOU?” – “Quantos anos você tem?” “HOW OLD IS SHE?” –
“Quantos anos ela tem?” “SHE’S FIFTEEN.” – “Ela tem
quinze.” “I’M TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OLD.” - “Tenho vinte e cinco
anos de idade.” GRAMMAR “HAD BETTER” – deve (com
conseqüências) - “She had better go.” (Had + better verbo .) - “You
had better (‘dbetter) stop!” - “The students (‘dbetter) go early.” “
‘DBETTER ” Immediate Future ** SEMI-VERBO AUX.** “I’m going to
study.” “GONNA” “She’s not going to (gonna) go.” To be (Going
+ to verbo .) “What are you (gonna) wear?” “What are we (gonna) do?”

 - FRAMES - 1. We have to PAY the bill. 2. I think he PAID them. I want to _____ the
ticket. I _____ for my bedroom. You don’t have to ______ more. Do you think he
______. Can you ____ this for me? She _____ for the suit. 3. Can I WEAR this
shirt? 4. She WORE a pink dress. You can _____ anything. We ____ our boots. I
usually ______ a suit. They _____ nothing in bed. Are you gonna ______ a tie? I
_____ those pants yesterday. 5. He SINGS in the bathroom. 6. You SANG at my
party, remember? We think she _____ at church. She _____ at the club every night.
She _____ soprano. She said they _____ sometimes. He always _______ the
“blues”. They ______ our song. 7. You have PUT the facts on paper. 8. We
were STANDING at the station. Where do you want to ____ the desk? He is _____
near door. What did you _____ in your cupboards? I’m ________ under the
bridge. Where did you _____ the wallet? Why are you _____ here? 9. They
STOOD with me. 10. I can’t STAND this anymore! I _____ your bike there. She
couldn’t _____ the neighbors. He _____ on the chair. We can’t ______ the
manager. We ______ at the bank for hours. He will have to_____the headache. 11.
Can I RIDE your motorcycle? 12. He RODE the horse. Do you want to _____ my
horse, too? We _____ the train downtown. Where did you learn to ______ a bike? I
think she ____ on a bus. I always _____ in the morning. They _____ with us.
 13. Who PERMITED this? 14. He won’t ALLOW us to go through. He _____ us
to see. She doesn’t _____ any parties. When am I ______ to leave? Will he
______ you to wear that? They _____ the tragedy. I do what the law ______. 15.
Will your mother LET you go? 16. The chair is BESIDE the bed. We ______ our
dog come in. Are you ______the church? I _____ them go to the movies. The horse
ran ______ the truck. Your father won’t _______ you do that. It’s ________
you!. 17. I worked THROUGH the night. 18. They live UNDER the bridge. You
can’t see _____ a wall. We are ____ the 2nd floor. They went ____ the tunnel.
She was ____ water. I slept ____ the show. It’s _____ the desk. 19. She’s
not GOING to go. 20. She HAD BETTER pay her sister. Tonight, I’m GONNA
study. You ‘DBETTER stop! What are you GONNA wear? I ‘DBETTER go.
Do you know what you’re GONNA say? The meeting ‘DBETTER finish soon.

 PHRASES 1. My sister doesn’t like to wash the dishes, but she likes to cook. 2.
She wanted to wear her new red blouse next week. Are you going with her? 3. I
need to take my two sons to the doctor. Both got sick last night. 4. I shopped for a
suit and tie, but then I bought only a shirt. 5. We shouldn’t allow those sick
children to be together with the others. 6. I’m going to take along both kinds of
soda. Do you prefer another soda? 7. My sister is learning how to sing with my
cousin. I don’t like to sing 8. Did you remember the tip? No I only paid the waiter
for the meal. 9. You didn’t understand what I meant. Is the newspaper on the
couch? 10. Does your mother cook well? What kinds of food do you like to eat? 11.
She said she didn’t know how to go home from where she was. 12. They
opened the window, because it was very hot in the bedroom. 13. How much money
does he already have for the trip? He ‘dbetter have more. 14. How could you
allow him to do this? I don’t know how to help him. 15. Is she waiting for a taxi?
Does she want a ride? 16. Where did you put the wine? I put it in the fridge to get
cold. 17. She already finished her homework and now she is playing in the park. 18.
I thought I saw someone driving your car. By the way, where’s the key? 19. You
‘dbetter not go in there. Do you know what you are going to find? 20. Our maid
was at the gate. She was riding a green bicycle.

 LESSON THIRTY - ONE LANGUAGE STUDY- MORFEMAS – Significados


Principais A ciência de significados se baseia em alguns princÃpios importantes e
definitivos, os quais devemos entender se iremos descobrir os significados dos
morfemas, palavras e frases. Muitos destes princÃpios são conexos e alguns
são relacionados a outros. 1. Não há sinônimos exatos numa lÃngua. O que
queremos dizer é que não há duas palavras que são completamente
equivalentes em seus significados. Por exemplo, as palavras “TRUTH”
(verdade), e “VERITY” (verdade). Podemos dizer “he spoke the truth”,
mas nunca dirÃamos “he spoke the verity”. Nem no inglês e em nenhum
outro idioma acharemos palavras completamente idênticas. 2. Não
há equivalência exata entre idiomas. Temos que aprender que cada palavra em
cada lÃngua tem seu próprio significado especial e que nós não podemos
presumir que as duas lÃnguas têm quaisquer detalhes que concordam. Uma das
maiores dificuldades vem de presumir que palavras parecidas com o português
têm o mesmo significado. 3. Ambigüidades ocorrem em todas as lÃnguas.
Nenhum idioma é perfeito, nem mesmo o grego. O hábito de construir piadas
(em inglês puns) sobre aparências entre palavras é quase universal. 4.
Historicamente – todas as lÃnguas vão mudando os significados de algumas
palavras. “Kid” – filhote de cabra – começou a ser usado como filhos
nossos porque parecem como “cabritinhos”. A palavra “gay” antes
significava apenas “alegre, p’ra cima”. 5. As formas tem “áreas”
de significados. Estamos muito acostumados em pensar nas palavras tendo pontos
especÃficos de significado, enquanto devemos tratá-las como áreas de
significado. Algumas áreas são extensas enquanto outras são muito restritas,
mas todas são áreas. A palavra LOVE por exemplo tem muitas áreas de
significado: I love my wife, I love to do it, I love apples, I love the way you laugh.

 6. As palavras revelam diferenças culturais. Isto é natural porque as palavras


simbolizam os traços da cultura. Em fato não podemos entender a lÃngua de
um povo sem também entender sua cultura. Uma vez que a pessoa reconhece
que a cada palavra de um idioma tem sua história especial e área de significado,
ela evitará muitos erros sérios que vem de ignorância ou negligência. As
palavras não devem ser traduzidas literalmente do inglês para o português.
OBJECTS THOUGHT AMUSEMENT PARK LETTER CLOSET HUMOR – humor
NAPKIN JUSTICE HAT

 CONCERT GIFT / PRESENT STADIUM KISS REPORTER MARRIAGE (ato)


INTERVIEW – entrevista WEDDING (evento) STORY – estória, conto BRIDE
- noiva HISTORY – história BRIDEGROOM – noivo (fiancé) ELECTRICITY
– GARTER

 SOUP(súp) RING SOAP VOWS – votos VERBS to TELL / TOLD - contar,
narrar I’m gonna tell you about it. He told us his story. to PARTICIPATE /
PARTICIPATED – participar He didn’t participate in the meeting. We
participated. to SIGN / SIGND (saind) – assinar I didn’t sign the document.
Did you sign your name? to BORROW / BORROWD – pedir emprestado
(FROM) Can I borrow your bike? He borrowed Jane’s hat. to LEND / LENT –
emprestar (TO) The bank wouldn’t lend me more money. I lent my suit to him. to
DIRTY / DIRTID – sujar She dirtied my new floor. I didn’t dirty your car. to
CLEAN (clin) / CLEAND – limpar Did you clean your room? I have to clean the
kitchen.

 QUALIFIERS BEHIND – atrás de SUN – sol INSIDE – dentro SHADE –
sombra OUTSIDE - fora SHADOW – sombra DIRTY – sujo SUNNY –
ensolarado CLEAN – limpo SHADY – escuro, sombrio WRONG – errado
BRIGHT – claro, brilhoso RIGHT – certo AGAINST – contra HEALTHY –
saudável FULL – cheio WISE – sábio EMPTY - vazÃo EXPRESSIONS
ONE – um tal, um certo, um SUMMER – verão this one FALL – outono
which one WINTER – inverno any one SPRING – primavera the big one ONE
PERSON – uma pessoa TWO PERSONS - duas pessoas TWO PEOPLE –
duas pessoas INTENTIONAL – intencional UNINTENTIONAL – não
intencional PARKING LOT – estacionamento PARKING SPACE –
estacionamento, vaga to“TURN IN TO” – tornar-se “I’M AFRAID”
– tenho medo, receio “GO BACK” – volte para lá! “COME
BACK”- volte para cá! “MADE IN THE SHADE” – fácil, sem problema
to “HAVE TO DO WITH” – ter a ver com to “HAVE NOTHING TO DO
WITH” – ter nada a ver com to “TAKE TURNS” – alternar, ir por vez

 GRAMMAR HE IS OLD – Ele é velho. I AM OLDER THAN PETER – sou
mais velho que Peter. JOHN IS THE OLDEST – John é o mais velho. SHE IS
HAPPY – Ela é feliz. JANE IS HAPPIER THAN MARY – Jane está mais
feliz que Mary. JANE IS THE HAPPIEST – Jane é a mais feliz. PEGGY IS
BEAUTIFUL – Peggy é linda. SUSAN IS MORE BEAUTIFUL THAN BETH –
Susan é mais linda que Beth. SUSAN IS THE MOST BEAUTIFUL – Susan é
a mais linda. o mais ( ) o menos ( ) a mais ( ) MORE a menos ( ) LESS os mais
( ) ... de THE MOST os menos ( ) ... de THE LEAST as mais ( ) as menos ( ) Letters
of the Alphabet Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu
Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
 FRAMES 1. He wants to PARTICIPATE tonight. 2. They PARTICIPATED in the
show. I didn’t _______ in the meeting. She ________ in the interview. Do you
want to _________ in the wedding? I had ________ in the story. We have to
__________ in the game. He ___________ in writing the book. 3. Did you SIGN
the document? 4. They SIGNED the vows. I can’t _______ this paper. I have
_______ your passport. Will you ________ your name? They _________ all their
names. How did you ________ it? She _________ that yesterday. 5. Can I
BORROW this? 6. They could LEND their time. Did she ________ your car? I
can’t _______ any more money. We need to _________ a napkin. She’ll
_______ her apartment. She always _________ from him. Jim wants to ______ his
suit. 7. Did you TELL her? 8. She TOLD me what happened. He wants to ______ a
story. They ______ where he was. What can you _____ me? I think he ______ his
mother. There is nothing to ______. We ______ stories all night. 9. She will DIRTY
her dress. 10. They DIRTIED their hands. Did you _______ the floor? He ________
my new car. I don’t want to _______ this. The cat ________ the new couch. You
shouldn’t _______ your shoes. You ________ the present. 11. Please CLEAN
your room. 12. We CLEANED the church. Can you _______ my glasses? They
never _______ their garage. I want to ________ the closet. I _________ your ball
with soap. He needs to ________his face. He ________ his floor.

 13. We were BEHIND the stadium. 14.The animals are INSIDE the corral. He is
________ the reporter. My book was _______ your car. It’s _________ the
door. They are _______ the building. I am _________ you. It was _______ our
garage. 15. There are few WISE men. 16. Your car is DIRTY. Is that ______ to do?
This field is _____. Older people are usually _____. Our windows are _____.
That’s a ______ answer. She has _____ napkins. 17. What a CLEAN boy! 18.
This is the WRONG store. It was a _______ job. You made the _______ cake.
Their closet looks _______. I bought the ________ shoes. Her boyfriend is very
______. I chose the ________ feature. 19. You are always RIGHT. 20. My uncle is
very WEALTHY. I have the _______ story. Everyone wants to be ________. You
have to know the ________ people. I know a ________ businesswoman.
What’s the _______ time? She chose the ________ husband. 21. This meal is
very HEALTHY. 22. We are living OUTSIDE the city. They have a _________ baby.
They put the soap______ the cart. You look very _________. Your tie is _________
your coat. My animals are all _________. The dishes are______ the cupboard. 23.
Their glasses are FULL. 24. They are AGAINST the project. My car is _____. I put
the gift ________ the wall. The streets are ______ of people. He ran _________
the clock. The stadium is _____ tonight. She is _________ marriage. 25. The sun is
very BRIGHT. 26. They are in the SUN. Your face is _______. I left my dog in the
_______. That color is ________. The ______hurts my eyes. You have a ________
kitchen. I want to stay in the ______.

 27. Put the baby in the SHADE. 28. Today is a SUNNY day. I prefer the ________.
This is a ______ city. We had the meal in the _________. Yesterday had
______afternoon. I hung up my clothes in the _________. We visited a ______
field. 29. Which ONE do you want? 30.It will TURN INTO something special. I will
take any ______ that there is. They can ____ ____ flowers. Will this ______ be
good? She wants to ____ ____ a lady. I prefer the blue _____. He’s gonna ____
____ a monster. 31. They didn’t want to TAKE TURNS You should always
______ ________. With many people you have to ______ _______. Can I _____
______ with you?

 PHRASES 1. I looked at her while she looked at the dirty couch. I cleaned the
couch. 2. I saw your dog in the street. The children were afraid of your dog. 3. Did
you take the gift to your aunt? She liked it very much. 4. I need to clean my closet,
then my house inside and outside. 5. I thought that you were working at night.
You’re going to be wealthy. 6. Would you like to try on another dress? This one
is very beautiful. 7. She remembered to buy the soap. I knew she was going to buy
it today. 8. Did you like the soup last night? I was so good the restaurant was full. 9.
I paid the telephone bill and now I don’t have money for the ice cream. 10.
Where did you put the keys? I left them on the table. Didn’t you see? 11. Is her
bicycle in the car? I put it inside the garage. 12. Jack borrowed a coat for the
interview. His was at the cleaners. 13. John is telling a story. It’s one about
learning to participate in life. 14. A popular story is usually easy to tell. Can you
remember one? 15. That information is easy to get. All that you need is enough
money. 16. Sooner or later you’ll have to borrow something from someone. 17. I
can’t lend any more money to you. You still haven’t paid me. 18. Jane
wanted to have nothing more to do with her boyfriend. 19. He started reading when
he was five years old. I think he will be smart. 20. Is it very far to where you live?
Never mind, we’ll go by car.

 LESSON THIRTY-TWO LANGUAGE STUDY “MORFEMAS” – Categorias


de Significados As lÃnguas são diferentes na variedade de significados distintos
como também na maneira particular em que estas variedades são divididas por
categoria. Algumas das categorias de significados que o aluno de inglês deve se
preocupar são estas: Número - muitas lÃnguas mostram uma diferença entre
números singulares (um) e plurais (mais do que um); Pessoa – no inglês
temos indicadores de “pessoas” tais como, o possessivo, sujeitos ou objetos
do verbo, como classes separadas de palavras chamadas “pronome”.
Dentro dos grupos de indicadores de “pessoas” (pronomes ou afixos) as là -
nguas são diferentes na maneira que separam os referentes de “pessoas⠀
de acordo com variedade dos quais são destacados 1a pessoa, 2a pessoa e 3a
pessoa e também na maneira que dividem gênero masculino, feminino, etc.
Gênero – masculino, feminino, neutro. Tempo – temos o “passado”, o
“presente” e o “futuro”, que poderemos sub-dividir para remoto, perto
e regular. Tensos relativos definem o tempo em relação a outros tempos ie.: o
tenso “perfeito”, referindo-se a alguma ação do passado em relação
ao presente. Voz – a voz indica o relacionamento dos participantes da ação.
No inglês, tais relacionamentos são indicados na forma da frase. Contrastes da
voz tem alguns dos seguintes: ativo - John hit the ball. passivo - Bill was hit.
reflexivo - John hit himself. transitivo - John hit Bill. intransitivo - John ran.
OBJECTS

 LIGHT RESEARCH pesquisa DARKNESS COST (cóst) WAY (wêi) WARNING


GOVERNMENT REQUEST (riqüest) – pedido (ORDER) WINNER RUG

 LOSER CARPET FUTURE BUTCHER SOURCE – fonte (de onde vem) CANDY
LAUNDRY (lândri) – lavanderia TRASH(tréch) KNIFE

 VERBS to PRACTICE (práctes) / PRACTICED – praticar, treinar You need to


practice playing your guitar. to SHOW / SHOWED (chóud) – mostrar I want to
show you my new car. He showed us his cut. to FEEL (fil) / FELT(félt) – sentir-
se, sentir no toque, passar a mão How do you feel? I can feel the hot water. to
FIX / FIXED (fikst) - concertar My brother can fix your car. I fixed it! to ARRIVE
(arráiv) / ARRIVED (arráivd) – chegar He will arrive at 9:00. They arrived last
night. to SAVE (sêiv) / SAVED (sêivd) – salvar, poupar, reservar Save the
rainforest! You have to save your ticket. to ARRANGE(arénd) / ARRANGED ⠀“
arrumar, combinar, arranjar He didn’t arrange for your meeting. Please, arrange
this. QUALIFIERS FANTASTIC (fentástic) – fantástico BORING (bórin) –
tedioso, sem graça STRONG – forte WEAK (wik) – fraco EMPTY (êmpti)
– vazio
 WITHOUT – sem USEFUL (iúsifol) – útil CAREFUL (kerifol) – cuidadoso,
tendo cuidado FORGETFUL (forguétfol) – esquecido LIGHT (lai) – claro,
leve DARK (dark) – escuro WEIRD (wÃrd) – esquisito, estranho BADLY
(bédli) – (com jeito) ruim SADLY (sedli) – tristemente CAREFULLY
(kérifoli) – cuidadosamente STRANGELY (strêngili) – estranhamente
EASILY (isili) – facilmente HAPPILY (hépili) – felizmente STRONGLY (strÃ
´ngli) – fortemente EXPRESSIONS DIFFERENT THAN – diferente de SAME
AS – mesmo que, igual à ONCE IN A WHILE (uancenawáil) – de vez em
quando USED TO – costumava DRIVER’S LICENSE (dráiverláicens) –
carteira de habilitação “ON THE OTHER HAND” – por outro lado
“YOU DRIVE ME CRAZY” – você me deixa louco “YOU DRIVE ME
UP THE WALL”-v. me faz subir as paredes to SAVE MONEY – poupar
dinheiro to BE NERVOUS – estar nervoso ( to Get nervous) to BE CALM –
estar calmo (to Get calm) to BE USED TO – ser / estar acostumado à (to Get
used to) “WHERE DO YOU COME FROM?” – De onde você vem?
“WHERE ARE YOU FROM?” – De onde você é? “I COME FROM
LOS ANGELES.” – Venho de Los Angeles. “I’M FROM DALLAS.”
– Sou de Dallas.

 - FRAMES – 1. They PRATICE in the field. 2. I have PRATICED my English. I


have to ________ yet. They ________ in my room. We __________ everyday. The
band _________ all night. Can you ___________ with me? He _______ speaking
Spanish. 3. I want to SHOW you my car. 4. She SHOWED me her horse. Can I
_______this to her? They _____ us their new baby. I need to ________ you the
future. The butcher _____ all the meat. He didn’t ________the trash. He
________ us the way home. 5. Do you FEEL better? 6. The box FELT empty. Can
you _____my hand? I _______ her soft face. I didn’t ______ at home. They
_______ different than me. She ______ tired. We all ______ strangely light. 7. I
want to FIX my house. 8. They FIXED my glasses. Did he ______ the car? The boy
_______ his bike. You didn’t _______ it! My brother _______ my camera. He
can ______ anything. She _______ my old dress. 9. When will you ARRIVE? 10.
They ARRIVED last night. I ___________ in the morning. We _________ on this
flight. Can we __________ at 8:00? He ___________ late as usual. They should
__________ soon. I _________ without my candy. 11. I need to SAVE today’s
paper. 12. I SAVED a candy for you. ________ the rainforest! He ________ my
research. Can you ________ my seat? We _______ the best until last. I will
_________ your letter. The warning ________ his life.

 13. I will ARRANGE your documents. 14. Who ARRANGED my bedroom? You
should ________ your things. She __________ the napkins. Could you ________
an interview? I ___________ your schedule. She needs to _________ her closet.
They _________ a bus for our trip. 15. He told a FANTASTIC story. 16. The
meeting was very BORING. You are a ___________ maid. We listened to the
______speaker. Your research is ___________. Her party is never _______. The
future will be ___________. His humor was too _______. 17. I gave her a
STRONG kiss. 18. Your story is very WEAK. You have a ________ personality. The
electricity is _______ today. She bought _______ horses. They have a _______
government. The sun was very _______ . He is a _______person. 19. The room
was EMPTY. 20. This is a WEIRD story. This bottle is _______ . They are a
________ family. Your head is _______ . She has a _________ bird. I want an
_______ box. You talk _________ . 21. I’m WITHOUT any money. 22. The knife
is very USEFUL. You’re __________ reason. She is a ________ person. They
are __________ the kids. I always give _______ presents. We’re ___________
time. Electricity is _________ . 23. Please, be CAREFUL! 24. This judge is very
FORGETFUL. You are never ________. Children are always ________. He is a
_____________ driver. You shouldn’t be so _________. You’re not
____________ enough. She is a ____________ reporter. 25. The classroom is
very LIGHT. 26. I like the color DARK green. His humor is always _______ . Those
windows are all ______ .

 We carried the ________ closet. This room is too ______ to see. I bought a
________ jacket. The weather is very _______ . PHRASES 1. I drove the car
yesterday, because my wife doesn’t drive yet. 2. We arrived late at the circus on
Saturday. The clowns had already left. 3. Don’t forget to close the door. It’s
cold and dark outside. 4. The cost of this swimming pool is the same as that one.
Really? 5. He doesn’t remember the way because he went there at night. 6.
They listened to the girl’s request, but neither one of the judges spoke. 7. He
didn’t pay the bill. I think that he left his wallet at home. 8. I don’t remember
which day he came. Did he come on Monday or Sunday? 9. He gave her the keys
but she wanted a kiss. I think she was right. 10. She arranged the beautiful flowers
on the table. It’s almost time for dinner. 11. I forgot to take clothes to the laundry.
I even lost the ticket. 12. Their research is going to answer many questions about
the universe. 13. When you drive, you have to be careful or you will have an
accident. 14. I waited for you all day. Where were you? Why are you so late? 15.
The manager arranged for us to stay in the shade because the sun was hot. 16. I
was practicing all afternoon because I want to be a good player. 17. He left at 2:30.
He went to the airport to meet his brother’s flight. 18. Everyone wants to know
the source to be healthy, wealthy and wise. 19. There was a warning on the bottle.
This made me feel nervous. 20. You will be a winner if you have the right ticket. I
lost it. LESSON THIRTY-THREE LANGUAGE STUDY “SINTAXE” –
Juntando as Palavras

 Muitos alunos de inglês conseguem dominar as formas das palavras do inglês,


pelo menos aquelas palavras que ocorrem com mais freqüência, mas alguns
nunca aprendem a juntar as palavras em frases naturais. Usam as palavras, mas o
“sintaxe” (o arranjo e ordem das palavras) está completamente
“abrasileirado”. Mesmo com uma pronuncia boa muitas vezes
demonstramos nosso lado brasileiro com o “tradução ismo” que fica
evidente na nossa maneira de falar inglês. É verdade que uma pronuncia ruim
nos marca como estrangeiros, mas tendo uma ordem de palavras desordenada
construções incorretas será mais irritante ainda para quem é nativo do
inglês. Em nenhum lÃngua são as palavras restritas a uma ordem apenas. Não
podemos esperar que as distinções de um idioma podem ser completamente
paralelas às de um outro idioma; na verdade relativamente poucos paralelismos
ocorrem de verdade sendo que as diferentes categorias são tão numerosas.
Nossa tarefa é de descobrir os tipos de distinções que o inglês faz e
examinar todas as possibilidades de usar tais contrastes na nossa própria
maneira de falar inglês. As lÃnguas não são apenas diferentes no tamanho
médio das palavras mas também são diferentes no tamanho médio das
sentenças. Para entender corretamente os arranjos difÃceis nas construções
de sinstaxe, precisamos considerar as caracterÃsticas de tais arranjos. A ordem
é um dos traços mais importantes de um arranjo e é usado para marcar
muitos relacionamentos significantes. Por exemplo, no inglês, geralmente
distinguimos entre sujeitos e objetos apenas por ordem: John likes Sue., Sue likes
John. Em alguns casos, no português, a mesma palavra numa ordem diferente
terá um significado diferente. Por exemplo a palavra “pobre” pode significar
– sem sorte – quando usado antes de um substantivo, e – sem dinheiro
– quando vem seguindo o substantivo. Por exemplo: “A pobre mulher” -
“A mulher pobre” Nós temos a tendência de relaxar a nossa atenção ao
detalhe da ordem das palavras quando achamos que o nosso “inglês” pode
ser entendido parcialmente mesmo quando empregamos a ordem errada das
palavras. Este é um erro triste, porque não apenas impede nosso domÃnio do
inglês mas também nos impede de adquirir fluência natural e impede as
 pessoas de entender completamente e apreciar o que nos temos para dizer. Não
há nada que irrita mais o ouvinte do que a ordem errada das palavras. OBJECTS
FRIDGE (frÃdh) GROCERIES (grôuchoriz) – suprimentos alimentà cios PIE
(pai)

 PIECE (pÃice) – pedaço ADVICE (edvaice) – conselho BELT (bélt) –
cinto, correia SOLUTION (saluchan) - solução MAIL BOX DIRECTIONS
(dirékchans) – direções, instruções AD (ed) – anúncio, publicação
FEVER ( fÃver) – febre

 POPULATION ERROR ( éror) – erro EDUCATION GUTTER – sargeta


SQUARE VERBS to KEEP (kip) / KEPT (képt) – guardar, manter, continuar,
ficar com I keep my hats in my closet. He keeps arriving late.

 to PUSH (pôx) / PUSHED (pôxt) You should not push people. Please, don⠀™t
push . to PULL ( pôl) / PULLED (pôld) – puxar, arrastar Can you pull my car?
They didn’t pull the door. to INVITE (envait) / INVITED (envairéd) –
convidar Did you invite them ? They invited us to their wedding. to BELIEVE (bliv) /
BELIEVED (blivd) – acreditar, crer Do you believe me? I can’t believe this
story. to CALL ( cál) / CALLED (cáld) – telefonar para, chamar Jack called me
yesterday. Did you call your sister? QUALIFIERS OVER – acima de, sobre,
terminado PRIVATE (práivet) – privado REASONABLE (rÃsonabal) –
razoável WILD (waild) – selvagem UNKNOWN ( anáun) – desconhecido
TAME (têim) – manso , domado PUBLIC (pablic) – público EXPRESSIONS

 “WHAT’S THE MATTER?” – o que há, qual é o problema? “IN


THE MEANTIME” – entretanto, no entanto “ FINE WITH ME” – por
mim tudo bem “FIRST I... THEN I...”- primeiro eu... depois eu... “IF I...
THEN I...” – se eu... então eu... to GET RID OF – livrar-se de THERE
USED TO BE – havia, costumava ter THERE WAS - houve THERE IS –
há FRONT ROOM – sala da frente BACK ROOM – sala de trás FRONT
WINDOW – janela da frente BACK WINDOW – janela de trás FRONT SEAT
– assento da frente BACK SEAT – assento de trás FRONT WALL –
parede da frente BACK WALL – parede de trás FRAMES 1. Did you KEEP the
ring? 2. I KEPT all the letters you wrote. You_____this. They_____talking the whole
night. They______calling. She_____the money. Where do you______the bread?
We_____the children at our house. 3. Could you PUSH my car? 4. He was
PUSHED into the gutter. I never______people. She________the little boy. Did
you______your bike? I______the fridge into the corner. They always_______.
They_______me through the door. 5. Will you PULL a tooth? 6. I PULLED his
bicycle. She likes to______hair. They______him from the gutter. They can _______
our boat. She _______her driver’s license. They will _______ the rug We
________our desk together.

 7. I have to INVITE my friends. 8. I INVITED your uncle. Who did you _______?
She ________ me to her wedding. How could you ________ him? I was ________
to the meeting. Will you _________ your family? They_____Bill to be a member. 9.
I can never BELIEVE you. 10. I always BELIEVED her. Can you _________ this?
They _________ the ad. I don’t __________ your story. We ________ his
strange story. You had better _________ it. He _________ in my project. 11. Did
you CALL your sister? 12. She CALLED me at my office. When can you ______
me? They _______ at midnight. I will ________ for the waiter. John ________ me
yesterday. What do you _______ this? He was _______ “Mr. Fantastic”. 13.
Our plane is OVER the city. 14.Your cost is not REASONABLE. I’m _______ the
wall. You have to be ____________. The party is _________. She is never
___________. Is the meeting ________? Please, be ____________. 15. These
books are UNKNOWN. 16. This is a PUBLIC park. This was __________ to me.
They are at a _________ meeting. His history is __________. He loves the
_________. It’s _________ if he went there. I am a _________ man. 17. This is
a PRIVATE road. 18. Those are WILD horses. His life is very ________. She
bought some______animals. We are in _________property. We found
many_______flowers. They have a ___________ driver. These chickens are
________. 19. THERE USED TO BE a church here. I know where _____ _____ __
___ a park.

 ____ _____ __ ___ time to everything. ____ ____ __ ___a secretary in this office.
PHRASES 1. I left my purse in your house. I think you left it at the snack bar. 2. The
kids were neither hungry nor thirsty after playing. 3. Did you invite Jane to travel
with us? I invited her but she can’t go. 4. I couldn’t believe when she called
me last month. She never calls. 5. Let’s go shopping. First I have to close the
back door. 6. The taxi driver was helping the old lady with her groceries. 7. Mike
called me because he wanted me to help him push his car. 8. Our teacher needs to
come to our party. Why don’t you invite him? 9. They can never believe his
stories, because they always have errors. 10. What are they doing in the rain?
They’re pulling their toys. 11. I called you because I need your help. I’m a
little sick today. 12. Did you keep the directions that came with the new camera? 13.
This course is unknown to many people. I had no knowledge of it. 14. My mother
made a delicious pie for my niece. Do you want a piece? 15. He had better call the
telephone company about the last bill. 16. Yesterday I got a reasonable tip from a
very wealthy customer. 17. My nephew called me two months ago. I really don’t
know where he is now. 18. The children wanted to keep the wild bird. They found it
yesterday. 19. If you don’t get rid of these ugly shoes I can’t buy a new pair.
20. Could you please put the groceries in the fridge? I have a fever. LESSON
THIRTY-FOUR LANGUAGE STUDY

 “SINTAXE” – Tipos de Unidades de Sintaxe Ao examinar a maneira que


palavras são juntadas e as funções que elas realizam, precisamos ter alguma
noção dos tipos de palavras e das combinações delas. Por exemplo, no
inglês temos uma classe grande de palavras que chamamos de “partà -
culas” que são apenas morfemas singulares. Mesmo assim na sintaxe
precisamos diferenciar entre elas. Algumas são classificadas como
preposições – in, by, with, at, of – outras são conjunções ou para
introduzir cláusulas pos-posição – and, but, or, for – ou para introduzir
cláusulas de pre e pos-posição – when, because, while, as – e ainda
outras como as interjeições – ouch!, oh!, wow!, great! Também precisamos
olhar os tipos de combinações que ocorrem e como estes funcionam dentro do
inglês, porque há restrições em relação às palavras que podem ser
usadas. Por exemplo, podemos colocar um número de tipos de palavras na frente
de substantivos como: adjetivo – good man, substantivo – gold ring, ou
advérbio – following statement. “SINTAXE” – Descobrindo as
Estruturas As primeiras observações sobre a estrutura do sintaxe acontecem
quando começamos expandir os “frames” para frases e cláusulas.
Precisamos anotar: 1) a ordem das palavras; 2) os relacionamentos das palavras,
e 3) os tipos de palavras que podem ser combinados. Estas observações tem
que ser confirmadas. Pode não ser possÃvel fazer uma análise detalhada da
sintaxe, mas há certos tipos de detalhe que precisamos observar: 1. O tamanho
médio das sentenças. 2. As maneiras que as cláusulas são combinadas. 3. A
ordem das coisas principais da sentença como verbo, sujt. obj. 4. Os tipos de
construções que podem constituir sentenças e aqueles que geralmente não
constituam sentenças.

 Vacilar entre palavras numa sentença não é tão ruim quanto parar no meio
de uma palavra para descobrir o final correto. Mesmo assim, todos os traços do
inglês têm que vir à ser perfeitamente automáticos. Não é possÃvel
dominar os detalhes do sintaxe sem praticar ouvindo o inglês e treinar, reconhecer
e produzir expressões antes não encontradas. Precisamos ficar tão
acostumados em perceber expressões que ao falar começamos a nos
expressar automaticamente através destes modelos de frase naturais. OBJECTS
EMPLOYER (emplóier) – empregador, patrão EMPLOYEE (emplói) –
empregado MOMENT (môment) – momento

 THEATER PLACE (plêic) – lugar FAVOR (feiver) – favor LEISURE (là ger)
– lazer SUITCASE SHIP (chêp) BOAT (bôut) VERBS to ACCEPT /
ACCEPTED – aceitar He didn’t accept the job. I accepted the gift.

 to OWE/ OWED – dever You owe me some money. I don’t like to owe. to
RENT / RENTED – alugar How much is the room to rent? Are you renting now?
to RECEIVE / RECEIVED – receber Can you receive this package? I didn⠀™t
receive anything. to GO OUT / WENT OUT – sair When do you want to go out? I
want to go out with you. to ORDER / ORDERED – ordenar, mandar, encomendar
I want to order a dress. You can’t order things here. Let’s order!

 to SHAVE / SHAVED – barbear, raspar I need to shave. Can you shave this ice?
to PROMISE / PROMISED – prometer He promised to come. I don’t want to
promise anything. to CUT / CUT – cortar Can you cut the paper? He wants to cut
his hair. QUALIFIERS SOMEBODY – alguém ANYBODY – alguém,
ninguém ( interrogativo, negativo) NOBODY – ninguém (negativo) ENOUGH
– bastante, suficiente NOT ENOUGH MILLION – milhão HALF – metade
QUARTER – quarto MUST - deve (indica a autoridade do falante mas é
basicamente igual à “should” e “have to”) Adicionando o sufixo en:

 HARD ( hárd) – duro to HARDEN – endurecer SOFT (saft) – maçio to
SOFTEN (sófen) – amaçiar RIPE (ráip) – maduro to RIPEN – madurar
SICK (sêk) – doente to SICKEN – adoeçer GOLD (gôld) – ouro
GOLDEN – dourado WOOD (wôd) – madeira WOODEN – de madeira
EXPRESSIONS FORTUNATELY (fórtnateli) - felizmente UNFORTUNATELY (Ã
¢nfortnateli) – infelizmente DISHWASHER (dêshwacher) – lavador de
pratos, louça ONE AND A HALF – um e meio “I DOUBT IT!”- “Duvido!
” IN LAWS (en lás) – parentes de casamento MOTHER IN LAW - sogra
FATHER IN LAW – sogro SON IN LAW – genro DAUGHTER IN LAW –
nora BROTHER IN LAW – cunhado SISTER IN LAW – cunhada GRAMMAR
1. He swims. 10. He will have swum. 2. He swam. 11. He will be swimming. 3. He
will swim. 12. He has been swimming. 4. He could swim. 13. He had been
swimming. 5. He might swim. 14. He will have been swimming. 6. He has swum.
15. He could not have been swimming. 7. He had swum. 16. He was not swimming.
8. He is swimming. 17. He has not swum. 9. He was swimming. 18. He would not
have swum.

 FRAMES 1. Will you ACCEPT this? 2.She ACCEPTED me in her house. I


________ the job. They ________ what we planned. Can we _________ his idea?
He _________ the present. I can’t __________ your story. I think they ______
the money. 3. You OWE me money. 4. I OWED Frank a big favor. I don’t _____
anything. She never _____ them any money. Can I ______ you? They ______ us
their tickets. She ______ her life to him. He said I ____ this month’s rent. 5. I
want to RENT an apartment. 6.She RENTED the house on the corner. Can I
_________ this house? I ______ a tuxedo for the wedding. She only wants to
______ a cheap place. He ________ a boat for the day. Will you ______ or buy this
year? We _____ the theater for the show. 7. Did you RECEIVE my letters? 8. I
RECEIVED my diploma. Can he _______ me now? She _______ the package.
When did you _________ the money? Sadly we _________ the news. I never
________ any presents. They _________ my message. 9. Do you want to GO
OUT? 10. He WENT OUT that door. Can you ________ tonight? We _________ to
the country. She didn’t __________ with me. Katia ______ with Mário. He
can’t __________ yet. The cat _________ the windows. 11. I want to ORDER a
dress. 12.They ORDERED the wine for the party. He can’t ________ us to
leave. She ________ the books. We are ready to _________. Have you already
___________? What will you ____________? I ________ fish for dinner.

 13. I need to SHAVE. 14. He never SHAVED before. Can he _________ in your
bathroom? I ________ just this morning. She wants to __________ her legs. The
car _______ through the gate. Will he ________ his head? She _________ under
her arms. 15. I can’t PROMISE anything. 16. We PROMISED to visit them. Will
you ___________? You ________ you would help me. He didn’t _________ to
buy it. I never ________ that. I _________ to do it. He did what he had
___________. 17. I CUT my finger last night. They _______ the cake. She
_________ my hair. That ________ my time in half. PHRASES 1. What time did
you call me on Tuesday? I called you at noon. 2. Please, give me a piece of cake.
Do you want a napkin, too? 3. I took my daughter to the doctor. She had a fever two
days ago. 4. He didn’t know what to do with his car after the accident. 5. She
saw my brother in law walking on the street with his girlfriend. 6. I forgot what I
wanted to say. Who did you invite to the party? 7. I took my car to be washed. It
was very dirty and took hours to clean. 8. I read the ad that you put in the
newspaper. What did you think? 9. Would you like to have dinner with us? I would
like to, thank you. 10. Do you think he will arrive in time for the meeting? I think so.
11. Would you do me a favor, please? I need someone to help with this box. 12. Will
you be at my party? When does it start? It will start at 9:00. 13. I can’t forget to
go out with my wife on Tuesday. It’s her birthday.

 14. Will you take the kids to the amusement park? I don’t know yet. 15. I went to
the airport, but unfortunately Mike had already left. 16. Will you take anybody with
you on the boat? I’m not sure yet. 17. We got up when the mailman arrived this
morning. We slept until late. 18. Jane answers all the letters that she receives from
her boyfriend. 19. Excuse me, what did you ask me? I asked what you would like to
order. 20. Will you have enough time to do this? I really can’t promise anything.
Lesson 01 Lesson 02 Lesson 03 Lesson 04 Lesson 05 Lesson 06 Lesson 07
Lesson 08 Lesson 09 Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14
Lesson 15 Lesson 16 Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 21
Lesson 22 Lesson 23 Lesson 24 Lesson 25-28 Lesson 29-31 Lesson 32-34