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Fonologia Suprassegmental da Lngua Inglesa Prof.

Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


4 Edio
Coordenador da Disciplina

Disciplina

Copyright 2010. Todos os direitos reservados desta edio ao Instituto UFC Virtual. Nenhuma parte deste material poder ser reproduzida, transmitida e gravada por qualquer meio eletrnico, por fotocpia e outros, sem a prvia autorizao, por escrito, dos autores. Crditos desta disciplina Coordenao Coordenador UAB Prof. Mauro Pequeno Coordenador Adjunto UAB Prof. Henrique Pequeno Coordenador do Curso Prof. Smia Alves Carvalho Coordenador de Tutoria Prof. Joo Tobias Lima Sales Coordenador da Disciplina Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Contedo Autor da Disciplina Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Colaborador Prof. Jder Martins Rodrigues Jnior Setor Tecnologias Digitais - STD Coordenador do Setor Prof. Henrique Sergio Lima Pequeno Centro de Produo I - (Material Didtico) Gerente: Ndia Maria Barone Subgerente: Paulo Andr Lima / Jos Andr Loureiro Transio Didtica Dayse Martins Pereira Elen Cristina S. Bezerra Eliclia Lima Gomes Enoe Cristina Ftima Silva e Souza Jos Adriano de Oliveira Karla Colares Kamille de Oliveira Formatao Ccero Giovany Camilo Cavalcante Damis Iuri Garcia Elilia Rocha Emerson Mendes Oliveira Francisco Ribeiro Givanildo Pereira Sued de Deus Stephan Capistrano Programao Andrei Bosco Damis Iuri Garcia Publicao Joo Ciro Saraiva Design, Impresso e 3D Andrei Bosco Andr Lima Vieira Eduardo Ferreira Fred Lima Gleilson dos Santos Iranilson Pereira Luiz Fernando Soares Marllon Lima Onofre Paiva

Gerentes Audiovisual: Andra Pinheiro Desenvolvimento: Wellington Wagner Sarmento Suporte: Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante

Sumrio
Class 01: Word Stress ............................................................................................................................... 01 Topic 01: Stress ...................................................................................................................................... 01 Topic 02: Stress Patterns ........................................................................................................................ 06 Topic 03: Stress in Words with Suffixes ................................................................................................ 12 Task: Listening Comprehension and Oral Production.......................................................................... 17 Class 02: Sentence Stress .......................................................................................................................... 19 Topic 01: The Rhythm of English .......................................................................................................... 19 Topic 02: Content and Function Words ................................................................................................. 24 Topic 03: Reduced Forms.. ...30 Task: Listening Comprehension and Oral Production...........................................................................34 Class 03: Connected Speech (Part 1) ....................................................................................................... 36 Topic 01: Linking ................................................................................................................................... 36 Topic 02: Elision .................................................................................................................................... 41 Topic 03: Epenthesis .............................................................................................................................. 45 Task: Listening Comprehension and Oral Production...........................................................................50 Class 04: Connected Speech (Part 2) ....................................................................................................... 52 Topic 01: Progressive Assimilation ....................................................................................................... 52 Topic 02: Regressive Assimilation ........................................................................................................ 59 Topic 03: Coalescent Assimilation ........................................................................................................ 62 Task: Listening Comprehension and Oral Production...........................................................................65 Class 05: Intonation .................................................................................................................................. 67 Topic 01: Focus ...................................................................................................................................... 67 Topic 02: Rising-Falling Intonation ....................................................................................................... 72 Topic 03: Rising Intonation.................................................................................................................... 80 Topic 04: Nonfinal Intonation ............................................................................................................... 86 Topic 05: More Functions of Intonation ................................................................................................ 95 Task: Listening Comprehension and Oral Production...........................................................................106

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 01: WORD STRESS
TOPIC 01: STRESS
VERSO TEXTUAL

As you must have already realized, English pronunciation may be considered a bit hard at times, which makes it essential for learners to work on this aspect of the language since the very beginning of the learning process. However, in order to communicate effectively in English, it is not enough to know how to produce the sounds of the language correctly. You also need to know how to place stress in words and in sentences appropriately.

In Portuguese, we sometimes use stress marks ( -- the acute accent ( ), the circumflex accent ( ^ )) to call attention to a syllable. For example, in the word lmpada, which syllable is stressed?
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER.

In English, however, there are no stress marks, but that does not mean there are no stressed syllables. For example, the word important has three syllables, but they are not pronounced the same way. The second syllable is more prominent than the other two: imPORTant! Although there is no stress mark in the word, there is a stressed syllable: PORT.

WORD STRESS

When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is normally more prominent than the others. This syllable is said to be stressed. Stressed syllables are often longer and louder than unstressed ones. In our lessons we will represent stressed syllables with capital letters.

As you could hear, the first syllable in the words above is longer and louder than the second, that is to say, the first syllable is stressed. When you speak English, it is imperative that you stress words correctly. Otherwise, there may be some kind of miscommunication. In our next topic we will take a look at some of the stress patterns in English which can be helpful for the prediction of the placement of stress.

STOP TO READ
When you do not know which syllable should receive the stress in a given word, look up the phonetic transcription of the word in your dictionary. In dictionaries the stress is normally marked with this symbol (') being placed just before the stressed syllable of the word. Look at and listen to the examples below:

Long words often have two stressed syllables. The strongest syllable in the word receives primary stress and the second strongest syllable receives secondary stress. Primary stress is marked with the symbol ('), whereas secondary stress is marked with the symbol (,). Look at and listen to the following examples:

PRACTICE 1
Listen carefully to the pronunciation of the following words and identify the stressed syllable.

PRACTICE 2
Listen to the pronunciation of the words below. Then, write the words in the correct column according to their stressed syllable.

WORDS STRESSED ON THE FIRST


SYLLABLE

WORDS STRESSED ON THE


SECOND SYLLABLE

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 3
Now click on the link below and practice identifying the stress in English words. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm [2]

FURTHER READING
Click on the links below to read more about WORD STRESS in English. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/word-stress [3] http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress.htm [4]

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [5]
4

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [6] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [7] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [8]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 2. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm 3. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/word-stress 4. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress.htm 5. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 6. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 7. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 8. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 01: WORD STRESS
TOPIC 02: STRESS PATTERNS

There are no fast and infallible rules for stressing words in English. Therefore, stress patterns must often be learned with each word. However,

TWO-SYLLABLE WORDS

The words below illustrate the stress pattern followed by most twosyllable nouns and verbs in English. Listen to how they are pronounced and identify the stressed syllable in each one of them.

Which syllable tends to be stressed in two-syllable nouns in English? Which syllable tends to be stressed in two-syllable verbs?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In two-syllable nouns the first syllable is more likely to receive the stress, whereas in two-syllable verbs the second syllable tends to be stressed.

STOP TO READ
About 90 percent of all English nouns of two syllables are stressed on the first syllable, and more than 60 percent of all English verbs are stressed on the second syllable (AVERY, P.; EHRLICH, S., 2008).
THREE-SYLLABLE WORDS

LISTEN CAREFULLY TO THE FOLLOWING THREE-SYLLABLE WORDS AND IDENTIFY THE STRESSED SYLLABLE.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

COMPOUNDS

The placement of stress in English compound words ( -- a noun, an adjective or a verb made of two or more words) is very regular. Compound words are sometimes written as one word, sometimes as two words, and sometimes they are joined by a hyphen. The way in which they are written does not interfere with their stress pattern, though (AVERY, P.; EHRLICH, S., 2008). Let us listen to examples of compound words in English and try to identify where the stress falls. Then let us decide which generalizations can be made regarding the stress in compounds.
NOUN COMPOUNDS

ADJECTIVE COMPOUNDS

(The definitions used in this section were extracted from Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (7th edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.)
VERBS WITH A PREFIX AND A BASE

(The definitions used in this section were extracted from OXFORD ADVANCED LEARNERS DICTIONARY (7th edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.)

Based on the pronunciation of the compound words presented, answer the following questions. In two-word noun compounds, does the stress usually fall on the stressed syllable of the first noun or the second noun? In two-word adjective compounds, where does the stress often fall? In verbs with a prefix and a base, where is the stress often placed?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In two-word noun compounds, it is the first noun which usually receives the major stress, such as in: DRUGstore, ARMchair, BUS driver, CLASSroom, AIRplane, TEAspoon, and NIGHTclub. In two-word adjective compounds, it is the second word which often receives the major stress, such as in: well BUILT, goodNAtured, fat-FREE, narrow-MINDed, TEMPered, and self-CONfident. strong-WILLED, bad-

In verbs with a prefix and a base, it is the base which usually receives the major stress, such as in: outRUN, overLOOK, underVAlue, upSET, downLOAD, foreSEE, and withDRAW.

STOP TO READ
Adjective compounds actually take two stress patterns. When the adjective compound is used attributively ( -- preceding a noun) , it receives major stress on the first word. On the other hand, when the adjective compound occurs in predicative position ( -- after a link verb) , major stress is placed on the second word (CELCE-MURCIA et al, 1996). Listen to the examples below:

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PRACTICE 1
Click on the links below and practice identifying the stress in English words. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm [1] http://www.soundsofenglish.org/hollys_corner/wordstress/ex3.htm [2]

PRACTICE 2
Watch the following video about the importance of word stress in English. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FVEPOAJAVK4 [3]

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [4] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [5] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [6] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [7]

REFERENCES

AVERY, P.; EHRLICH, S. Teaching American English Pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm 2. http://www.soundsofenglish.org/hollys_corner/wordstress/ex3.htm 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FVEPOAJAVK4 4. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 5. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 6. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 7. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

11

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 01: WORD STRESS
TOPIC 03: STRESS IN WORDS WITH SUFFIXES

STRESS PATTERN 1

The same stress pattern applies to all the suffixes ( -- morphemes which
are added to the end of a word and which change the meaning or function of the word) below.

Listen to the pronunciation of the following words and try to

identify where the stress is placed.

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Based on the pronunciation of the words above, answer the question below:

Which syllable receives the major stress when the word ends in -ic, -ical, -ity, -ify, -ogy, -tion, -sion, -ian, -ial, -ous, -ious, -eous, -graph?

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

The syllable immediately before the suffixes above always receives the major stress.

STRESS PATTERN 2

The following examples illustrate the stress pattern of words ending in the suffixes -ee, -eer, -ese, -esque, -ique, or -ette.

LISTEN TO HOW THEY ARE PRONOUNCED.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

We should stress the syllable which contains the suffix.

STOP TO READ
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Some suffixes are considered neutral, that is to say, they do not affect the stress pattern of the root word ( -- the word without a prefix or a suffix) . The suffixes below are considered neutral:

PRACTICE 1: ODD WORD OUT


A. Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and choose the one which does not receive the stress on the syllable immediately before the suffix:

B. Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and choose the one which does not receive the stress on the suffix:

C. Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and choose the one which does not receive the stress on the same syllable as its root word:

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

A. TRAINEE B. EDUCATION C. FATALITY

PRACTICE 2
Now click on the links below and practice identifying the stress pattern in English words. http://www.roadtogrammar.com/wordstress/ [1]

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http://elt.oup.com/student/americanenglishfile/3/c_pronunciation/ef_stressgame? cc=br&selLanguage=pt [2]

FORUM
Based on what you have read about word stress, discuss the following questions with your partners and your tutor: Concerning word stress, what should English learners do when they learn new words? If you dont know where the stress falls in a given word, what can you do to find that out? How can the information in class 1 help you to speak English better? Which of the topics presented in this class were you unfamiliar with? Give examples of words whose pronunciation you have learned by reading this class and doing the exercises. How did you think they were pronounced?

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Click on the links below to read more about the importance of good pronunciation and word stress. Then comment on your impressions in the forum. http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronuncwhy.htm [3] http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/word-stress [4] http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/stress-in-compound-words [5]

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [6] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [7] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [8] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [9]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.roadtogrammar.com/wordstress/ 2. http://elt.oup.com/student/americanenglishfile/3/c_pronunciation/ef_ stressgame?cc=br&selLanguage=pt 3. http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronuncwhy.htm 4. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/word-stress 5. http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/stress-in-compound-words 6. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 7. http://www.merriam-webster.com/
15

8. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 9. http://www.wordwebonline.com/


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

16

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 01: WORD STRESS
TOPIC TASK: LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION:

PART 1: LISTENING COMPREHENSION


ACTIVITY PORTFOLIO
Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and identify the stressed syllable in each one. Then, write the words with the stressed syllable in capital letters on a Word document and send it to your portfolio for your teachers assessment.

PART 2: ORAL PRODUCTION


PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
The words below all appear in our lesson. Go back to each topic to listen to their pronunciation again (as many times as necessary) and record them paying careful attention to the pronunciation of the stressed syllable. Then, send the recording to your portfolio for your teachers assessment. 1. machine 2. calendar 3. dependent

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4. present (noun) 5. present (verb) 6. suspect (noun) 7. suspect (verb) 8. nightclub 9. fat-free 10. outrun 11. scientific 12. chemical 13. possibility 14. verify 15. biology 16. permission 17. musician 18. official 19. suspicious 20. photography 21. refugee 22. Chinese 23. technique 24. cassette 25. recently

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FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS
TOPIC 01: THE RHYTHM OF ENGLISH
VERSO TEXTUAL

In the previous class, you read and learned about stressed and unstressed syllables in words. In this class, we will see how the combination of stressed and unstressed syllables contributes to the creation of the rhythm in English.

THE RHYTHM OF ENGLISH

Many Brazilian learners of English often find it difficult to understand native speakers of the language because they usually speak very fast. Do you think so too? Well, one of the reasons that can explain this rapid flow of speech is the very nature of the rhythm of English English is a stress-timed language.

In other words, the length of an utterance in English depends not on the number of syllables but rather on the number of stresses (CELCE-MURCIA ET AL, 1996).

THE WORD/PHRASE PAIRS BELOW ILLUSTRATE WHAT IS SAID ABOVE. LISTEN AND PAY CAREFUL ATTENTION TO THE RHYTHM PATTERNS IN EACH PAIR.

(The examples above were extracted from GRANT, L. Well said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001, pp. 78.)
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EXERCISE
1. Listen to the pairs above again. Do the word and the phrase in each pair have the same rhythm pattern or different ones? Do they take a similar amount of time to be said or do the phrases take longer to be said than the words?

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER.

In each pair, the rhythm pattern of the word is the same as that of the phrase. And both the word and the phrase take almost the same amount of time to be pronounced.

2. Now listen one more time and mark the stressed syllable of the word and the stressed syllable of the phrase in each pair.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER.

1. engiNEER 2. overTHROW 3. conVERT 4. preSENTed 5. PERmit 6. volunTEER

He HERE.

was

In a ROW.

Hes HURT. She SENT it. LEARN it. She HEAR. can

FIRST

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We can learn that, just like words, phrases and sentences in English have stressed and unstressed syllables.
SECOND

We can learn that, in spoken English, some words are stressed and other words are not.

STOP TO READ
If you stress every word and syllable equally, you may sound angry, impatient, or rude without meaning to.

PRACTICE 1 LISTEN TO THE WORDS AND THE PHRASES BELOW. THEN MATCH THE WORD AND THE PHRASE WITH THE SAME RHYTHM PATTERN.

1.approximate

A. can better it

2. justifiable

B. all of her

3. confederate

C. a box of it

D. just as viable 4. alphabetize E. or to feed it 5. orthopedic


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F. half her size 6. Oliver

(The words and phrases in this exercise were extracted from AVERY, P.; EHRLICH, S. Teaching American pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 82.)
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. C 2. D 3. A 4. F 5. E 6. B

PRACTICE 2
Listen to the words and phrases in Practice 1 again and identify the stressed syllable in both the words and the phrases.
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 3
Listen to the words and phrases in exercise 1 again and repeat. Listening and repeating is important practice for language learning.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Click on the links below to read more about stress and the rhythm of English. http://www.englishclub.com/esl-articles/199810.htm [2] http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=52 [3]

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [4] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [5]
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http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [6] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [7]

REFERENCES

CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 2. http://www.englishclub.com/esl-articles/199810.htm 3. http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=52 4. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 5. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 6. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 7. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

23

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS
TOPIC 02: CONTENT AND FUNCTION WORDS

In English stressed syllables are normally more prominent than stressed syllables in Portuguese. Similarly, unstressed syllables in English are much weaker than unstressed syllables in Portuguese. Also, in spoken English some words are more important than other words. The more important words are called content words ((or lexical words)) , and the less important words are called function words ((or grammar words)) . When we speak English we have to stress content words and unstress function words. We do not normally do this in Portuguese, so we have to remember that native speakers of English do it and that is one of the main reasons why many Brazilian learners of English often think they speak too fast.

EXERCISE
1. Listen carefully to the sentences below and mark the words which are stressed (content words). If the content word has more than one syllable, mark the syllable which receives the stress.

Her house is quite big, but it doesnt have a garden. They usually listen to the radio in the morning. London is famous for its red buses. What newspaper do you read? They can dance very well but they cant sing. Where does your husband work? How was the weekend? Shes not Polish. Shes German.

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NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

Notice that the words HOUSE, QUITE, BIG, HAVE, RED,


WHAT, READ, DANCE, WELL, CANT, SING, WHERE, WORK,

and NOT have only one syllable. Remember that, in English, we count syllables according to the number of vowel sounds in a word. For example, HOUSE ( ) has only one vowel sound ( ), so it has only one syllable. The final E is not pronounced in the words HOUSE, QUITE, HAVE, DANCE, and WHERE: , , , and .

HOW,

2. Now that you have checked your work, write (S) for the kinds of words which are stressed in the previous exercise and (U) for the kinds of words which are unstressed.

adjectives

nouns

adverbs pronouns articles

personal

prepositions

auxiliary verbs

verbs

conjunctions words negative contractions/not

Wh-question

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

(S) adjectives (S) adverbs


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(S) nouns (U) personal pronouns

(U) articles (U) auxiliary verbs (U) conjunctions (S) contractions/not negative

(U) prepositions (S) verbs (S) Wh- question words

As you can see from the tasks above, English words can be divided into two groups:
CONTENT WORDS

Content words express independent meaning. Content words are usually stressed. Content words include: adjectives, adverbs, main verbs, negatives, nouns, and question words. They also include demonstrative pronouns ( this, that, these, those) and possessive pronouns ( mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs).
FUNCTION WORDS

Function words have little or no meaning in themselves and mainly serve the purpose of expressing grammatical relationships. Function words are usually unstressed. Function words include: articles ( a, an, the), auxiliary verbs (e.g. can, do, did), conjunctions (e.g. but, and, so), personal pronouns (e.g. I, me, my, you, your, he, him), and prepositions (e.g. at, in, from, with). They also include relative pronouns (e.g. that, who, which), demonstrative adjectives, and possessive adjectives (e.g. my, your, his).

STOP TO READ
Listeners of English expect certain words to be strong (stressed) and others to be weak (unstressed). The strong words are the ones listeners pay attention to the most. The contrast between stronger words with weaker words is an important part of clear communication in English (GRANT, 2001:81). For learners of English to produce sentences that have the appropriate stress patterns and the appropriate English rhythm, it is necessary that they know which words are stressed and which are not stressed.

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and mark the words which receive sentence stress. If the word receives sentence stress and has more than one syllable, remember to mark the stressed syllable of the word. 1. Nice to meet you. 2. Where did you go for your last vacation?
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3. Weve never traveled abroad. 4. I can play the guitar and the flute. 5. He likes pizza but he doesnt like bread. 6. France is bigger than Italy. 7.They saw a movie and had dinner at a fancy restaurant. 8. I will call her right now.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. NICE to MEET you. 2. WHERE did you GO for your LAST vaCAtion? 3. Weve NEver TRAveled aBROAD. 4. I can PLAY the GUItar and the FLUTE. 5. He LIKES PIzza but he DOESn't LIKE BREAD. 6. FRANCE is BIGGer than Italy. 7. They SAW a MOvie and HAD DInner at a FANcy REStaurant. 8. I will CALL her RIGHT NOW.

The words nice, meet, where, go, last, play, flute, likes,like, bread, France, saw, had, call, right, and now have only one syllable.

PRACTICE 2
Go back to the sentences in Practice 1 and classify the words which receive sentence stress into adjectives, adverbs, main verbs, negatives, nouns, or question words. Remember that these are the kinds of words which are normally stressed in spoken English.
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

ADJECTIVES: ADVERBS:
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nice, last, bigger, fancy never, abroad, right, now

MAIN VERBS:

meet, go, traveled, play, likes, like, saw, had, call doesnt vacation, guitar, flute, pizza, bread, France, Italy, dinner, restaurant movie,

NEGATIVES: NOUNS:

QUESTION WORDS:

where

PRACTICE 3
Now listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and practice saying them out loud.

PRACTICE 4
Click on the link below to watch a video about content and function words, and their importance to appropriate sentence stress in spoken English. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpPCBWsVUp0 [1]

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Click on the links below to read more about stress in English. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stress.htm [2] http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stressrules.htm [3]

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [4] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [5] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [6] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [7]

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REFERENCES

GRANT, L. Well said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpPCBWsVUp0 2. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stress.htm 3. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stress-rules.htm 4. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 5. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 6. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 7. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS
TOPIC 03: REDUCED FORMS

As you were presented in the previous topic, function words in spoken English are usually weak. Many function words have only one syllable, and because they are usually very weak, they have a strong pronunciation and a weak pronunciation. For example, the conjunction and is pronounced in isolation, but it is commonly pronounced or when people are talking naturally. It is very important to know the weak pronunciation of one-syllable function words as it helps you understand English better when it is spoken fast and it allows you to work on the production of more appropriate and natural English utterances. Listed below you will find the strong and the weak forms of some onesyllable function words. Listen and repeat.

STOP TO READ
In connected speech, where function words are normally unstressed, they are pronounced in their weak form. In the weak form of most onesyllable function words, the vowel is reduced to , as you can see in the chart above.

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and mark the pronunciation of the underlined function words that you hear. 1. Its A book. 2.Shes AT home.
30

[e]

[]

[t] 3. Did you pass OR fail? 4. Lets call THEM again. 5. Think OF all we have. 6. Hes THE boss. 7. Sally must HAVE left. 8. Buy some milk AND eggs. [r] [em] [v] [i] [hv] [nd]

[t] [r] [m] [v] [] [v] [n]

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. [] 2. [t] 3. [r] 4. [m] 5. [v] 6. [] 7. [v] 8. [n]

PRACTICE 2
Write the phonetic transcriptions below into phrases. Then check your answers, listen to and practice saying them. 1. / glss mlk/ 2. /lemn n as/ 3. /z swit z gr/ 4. /gv m brek/ 5. /e v fnt/ 6. /ts fr bl/

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

31

PRACTICE 3
Click on the link below to read and listen to a short paragraph about restaurants in the US. To listen to the text you must click on the PlayWindows Media button. Listen attentively, as many times as necessary, and pay careful attention to the use of sentence stress and reduced forms. For extra practice, you could record yourself reading the paragraph and afterwards compare your recording to the original audio. http://www.trainyouraccent.com/a-restaurants.htm [1]

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Click on the link below to read more about reduced forms in English. http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/ReducedForms.html [2]

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [3] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [4] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [5] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [6]

FORUM
Based on what you have read about the rhythm of English in this class, discuss the following questions with your partners and your tutor: What did you already know about the rhythm of English before reading this class? In your opinion, what are the most important topics presented in this class? Do you think the rhythm of English is very different from that of Brazilian Portuguese? In what way(s)? How do you intend to use what you have learned in order to understand and speak English better? How can we teach our students about the rhythm of English from the very beginning?

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


32

1. http://www.trainyouraccent.com/a-restaurants.htm 2. http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/ReducedForms.html 3. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 4. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 5. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 6. http://www.wordwebonline.com/


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

33

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS
TASK: LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION

PART I - LISTENING COMPREHENSION


PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Click on the link below to listen again to the paragraph about restaurants in the U.S. Remember that you must click on the PlayWindows Media button to listen to the audio. While you listen, mark the words which receive sentence stress (content words). If the content word has more than one syllable, mark the syllable which receives the stress. Remember: in our lessons we mark the stressed syllable using CAPITAL LETTERS. Then, write the paragraph with the stressed syllables of the content words in capital letters on a Word document and send it to your portfolio for your teachers assessment. http://www.trainyouraccent.com/a-restaurants.htm [1]
Para escutar o udio acesse o ambiente Solar.

RESTAURANTS I sometimes go out to eat at a restaurant if I don't have time to cook or I just want to relax. My favorite place is a Mexican restaurant downtown, and the decor and atmosphere are very authentic. You usually don't have to make a reservation unless you are planning to go during a busy time. The prices are very reasonable, and the service is great. Best of all, the portions are large, and the food is superb. I always make sure to leave a generous tip.

PART II - ORAL PRODUCTION


PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
The phrases and sentences below all appear in lesson 2. Go back to each topic to listen to their pronunciation again (as many times as necessary) and record them. Then, send the recording to your portfolio for your teachers assessment. Make sure to stress content words and unstress function words. Also, try to produce the weak form of one-syllable function words as studied in topic 3. 1. He was here. 2. She sent it. 3. Her house is quite big. 4. London is famous for its red buses. 5. What newspaper do you read?
34

6. How was the weekend? 7. Shes not Polish. Shes German. 8. Nice to meet you. 9. I can play the guitar and the flute. 10. He likes pizza but he doesnt like bread. 11. Its a book. 12. Shes at home. 13. Did you pass or fail? 14. Lets call them again. 15. Think of all we have. 16. a glass of milk 17. lemon and ice 18. as sweet as sugar 19. Give him a break. 20. They have finished.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.trainyouraccent.com/a-restaurants.htm
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

35

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 03: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 1)
TOPIC 01: LINKING

Speech is a continuous stream of sounds. This means that when we speak naturally, we do not pronounce a word, make a pause, then say the next word in the sentence, pause again, and so on. In rapid speech, when one word is linked with the next, sounds come together. And when sounds come together in speech, they are influenced by one another. As a result, some sounds are lost, some sounds are added, some sounds take on different characteristics, and some are spoken almost simultaneously. In classes 3 and 4, you will be presented with some of the major adjustments which take place in connected speech: LINKING, ELISION, EPENTHESIS, and ASSIMILATION. Learning about these adjustments is not only important to help learners of English to improve their oral production, but it is also crucial in helping them to improve their listening comprehension (CELCE-MURCIA ET AL, 1996).

LINKING
Linking can be defined as the connecting of the final sound of one word or syllable to the initial sound of the next. When words are properly linked, there is a smooth transition from one word to the next. Linking occurs in different phonological contexts. Let us see the most common of these contexts. Click in the boxes to open.
VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Linking consonants to vowels When a word ends in a consonant sound and is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound, the consonant is often produced as if belonged to both syllables or as if belonged to the next word. (Remember that the letter E in word-final position is not pronounced in the words LIKE, MOVE, and LEAVE: Linking consonants to consonants When a word ends in a stop consonant and is followed by a word that begins with a consonant, the stop consonant is not released. stop consonant:

36

Linking identical consonants When a word ends in a consonant sound and is followed by a word beginning with the same consonant sound, the two consonants are normally pronounced as one long consonant. Linking vowels to vowels When a word ends in a tense vowel and is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, the words are usually linked by the glide (or semi-vowel) ending the tense vowel. tense vowel :

glide (or semi-vowel):

Para escutar aos audios acesse o ambiente SOLAR

STOP TO READ
People do not speak in separate words, they speak in logical connected groups of words. These groups are often called thought groups. A thought group can be defined as a portion of a sentence separated from the rest by a pause or pauses. In the examples below, the thought groups are separated by a diagonal line:

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Please call / if you have to cancel. Whatever you do, / do well. Experts say / that what you name your child / can make a huge difference.

It is not possible to make a clear set of rules to divide sentences into thought groups. A speaker is normally free to group words according to personal preference. (The examples above were extracted from GRANT, 2001: 124-134.)

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and identify the places where the process of linking occurs.
VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. She has a lot of friends. 2. What time is it?


37

3. This is my uncle, John. 4. We live in a big house with a big garden. 5. He left home at eight and got to work at nine. 6. We havent talked to each other in ages. 7. English is spoken all over the world. 8. I had a really bad day yesterday.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 2
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and repeat. Listening and repeating is important practice for language learning.

PRACTICE 3
Go back to the sentences in Practice 1 and identify the types of linking which occur: Type 1 = linking consonants to vowels; Type 2 = linking a stop consonant to a consonant; Type 3 = linking identical consonants; Type 4 = linking vowels to vowels. For example, in has a in sentence 1 we link the final consonant of has to the following vowel sound (type 1).

PRACTICE 4
Click on the link below for the lyrics and the audio of the song WHEN I NEED YOU by Canadian singer Celine Dion. Read the lyrics while listening to the song and identify occurrences of linking. Listen to it as many times as necessary. http://letras.mus.br/celine-dion/70030/traducao.html [1]

38

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 5
Listen again to the song When I need you by Celine Dion and sing it out loud to practice the occurrences of linking in it

FORUM
Discuss your answers to Practice 3 with your classmates and your teacher in the forum.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Click on the links below to read more about linking in English. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/linking.htm [2] http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=7 [3] http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=50 [4] http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=54 [5]
39

http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=55 [6]

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [7] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [8] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [9] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [10]

REFERENCES

CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. GRANT, L. Well Said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://letras.mus.br/celine-dion/70030/traducao.html 2. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/linking.htm 3. http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=7 4. http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=50 5. http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=54 6. http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=55 7. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 8. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 9. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 10. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

40

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 03: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 1)
TOPIC 02: ELISION

In the previous topic, you learned about the process of LINKING in connected speech. In this topic, you will learn about another type of adjustment which happens in spoken English the process of elision (also known as deletion).

The most typical phonological contexts in which elision occurs are:

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Context 1: Elision of /t/ when the sequence /nt/ occurs between two vowels. Context 2: Elision of /t/ or /d/ when they occur in a sequence of three consonants. Context 3: Elision of /t/ or /d/ in word-final position, when it is preceded by a single consonant and is followed by a word beginning with a consonant. Context 4: Elision of an unstressed preceded by the stressed syllable in multisyllabic words Context 5: Elision of /v/ in the preposition of before words beginning with a consonant. Context 6: Elision of initial /h/ and // in pronominal forms in connected speech. Para escutar aos audios acesse o ambiente SOLAR when it is

STOP TO READ
Knowing the phonological contexts in which deletion often occurs might help you better understand spoken English.

41

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the phrases and sentences below and identify occurrences of
ELISION.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1.We love winter. 2.He suffers from partial blindness. 3.Theyre leaving next Monday. 4.Can I have an aspirin? 5. Children love to make sand castles on the beach. 6. We only need a handful of rice. 7. Hes a really fast driver. 8. What a waste of time! 9. Can you help her with the homework? 10. I dont like history much.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 2
Go back to the sentences in Practice 1 again and identify the phonological contexts where elision occurs.

42

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 3
Now listen to the sentences in Practice 1 and repeat them out loud to practice the occurrences of elision in them. Remember that repeating is important for effective language learning.

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [1] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [2] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [3] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [4]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 2. http://www.merriam-webster.com/
43

3. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 4. http://www.wordwebonline.com/


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

44

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 03: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 1)
TOPIC 03: EPENTHESIS

In topics 1 and 2, you learned about linking and deletion in connected speech. In this topic, you will learn about the process of epenthesis.

MOST COMMON TYPES OF EPENTHESIS

The most important type of epenthesis in English occurs in certain morphophonological sequences such as the regular plural and the regular past tense. In these cases, an epenthetic schwa is added to break up sequences of sibilants ( -- characterized by a hissing sound, similar to a long s) or alveolar stops, respectively.

The sounds /t/ and /d/


The Regular Plural

The nouns below all end in a sibilant sound. Listen to their pronunciation and identify the six sibilant sounds in English.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

As you can see from above, the six English sibilants are and
45

In nouns that end in hissing, sibilant sounds, we add the syllable /z/ (or ) when forming their plural. Let us hear the pronunciation of the plural of the nouns above.

STOP TO READ
The Plural Rule is also applicable to: the third person singular present tense ending, the contracted form of is and has, and the possessive s.
The Regular Past Tense

To regular verbs that end in /t/ or /d/, we add the syllable /d/ ( or

when forming their past. Let us hear the pronunciation of the past of the verbs below.

STOP TO READ
When a verb does not end in /t/ or /d/, the ed ending is pronounced as a result of the process of assimilation, which will be studied in our next class.

PRACTICE 1
Try to pronounce the verbs and nouns below based on what you have learned in this class. Then listen to their pronunciation, check and repeat.
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1. washes (v.) 2. watches (v.) 3. misses (v.) 4. uses (v.) 5. laces (n.) 6. fixes (v.) 7. mirages (n.) 8. catches (v.) 9. bridges (n.) 10. crashes (v.)

CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE WORDS.

PRACTICE 2
Try to pronounce the following past tense verbs based on what you have learned about epenthesis. Then listen to their pronunciation, check and repeat. 1. wanted 2. pretended 3. started 4. handed 5. waited
47

6. tested 7. landed 8. surrounded 9. deleted 10. permitted

CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE WORDS.

PRACTICE 3
Click on the link below to watch a video about the pronunciation of S/ED ENDINGS and LINKING. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0n1WN8kwz5o&list=PLF6310CB3022A93E7 [1]

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [2] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [3] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [4] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [5]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0n1WN8kwz5o&list=PLF6310CB3022A93E7 2. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 3. http://www.merriam-webster.com/
48

4. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 5. http://www.wordwebonline.com/


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

49

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 03: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 1)
TOPIC TASK: LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Click on the link below to do the exercises. Listening Comprehension and Oral Production

PART I - LISTENING COMPREHENSION


PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Listen carefully and identify the occurrences of linking, elision and epenthesis that occur in the sentences below. Then write your answers on a Word document and send it to your portfolio for your teachers correction.

She washes her hair twice a week.

After the plane landed, we rented a car and went to the hotel. I dont weekends. Every morning he wakes up and works out. We have a lot of friends but theyre always too busy to go out with us. They work in a bank next to the bus station. He decided to go for a walk in the park. My left leg is hurting. I think Ive broken it. Lets see whats on at the cinema. enjoy having classes on

50

Give him a call if you want to.

PART II - ORAL PRODUCTION


PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Listen to the sentences in Part I again and record them. Then, send the recording to your portfolio for your teachers assessment. Remember to produce the adjustments concerning linking, elision and epenthesis that (can) occur in the phonological contexts in the sentences.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

51

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 04: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 2)
TOPIC 01: PROGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION

In the previous class, you learned about the processes of LINKING, ELISION, and EPENTHESIS in connected speech. In this class, you will learn about another type of adjustment which happens in spoken English the process of ASSIMILATION.

Assimilation is a universal feature of spoken language. It occurs when a particular sound takes on ( -- to begin to have a particular quality) the characteristics of an adjacent sound. In English, the process of assimilation frequently occurs, both within words and between words. There are three types of assimilation in English: PROGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION, REGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION, and COALESCENT
ASSIMILATION. In this topic, you will learn about progressive assimilation. Regressive assimilation and coalescent assimilation will be dealt with in topics 2 and 3, respectively.

PROGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION

Progressive assimilation occurs when a certain sound is affected by the sound which precedes it. Examples of this type of assimilation include:

-S ENDING

For the regular plural of nouns, the third person singular form of present simple verbs, the contraction of is, the contraction of has as an auxiliary verb, and possessive s: the final sound of the stem word ( -- the word without the s ending ) conditions the voiced or voiceless pronunciation of the suffix: /s/ (the voiceless form) or /z/ (the voiced form). For example:
52

-ED ENDING

For the simple past and past participle forms of regular verbs: the final sound of the stem word conditions the voiced or voiceless pronunciation of the suffix: /t/ (the voiceless form) or /d/ (the voiced form). For example:

STOP TO READ
As you studied in class 3, in words that end in sibilant sounds, the s ) as a result of the process of ending is pronounced /z/ (or epenthesis.

STOP TO READ
As you studied in class 3, in words that end in /t/ or /d/, the ed ) as a result of the process of ending is pronounced /d/ (or epenthesis.

STOP TO READ
Similarly to linking, the amount of assimilation that occurs in speech depends on numerous variables, such as the formality of the situation, the rate of speech, and the style of the speaker (CELCEMURCIA ET AL, 1996).

PRACTICE 1

53

Practice identifying the pronunciation of s endings as a result of the process of progressive assimilation.Is the s ending in the words below pronounced /s/ or /z/?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. /S/ The voiceless /k/ conditions the voiceless form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/. 2. /Z/ The voiced /v/ conditions the voiced form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/. 3. /S/ The voiceless /t/ conditions the voiceless form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/. 4. /Z/ The voiced /e/ conditions the voiced form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/. 5. /Z/ The voiced /b/ conditions the voiced form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/. 6. /Z/ The voiced /n/ conditions the voiced form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

54

7. /Z/ The voiced /l/ conditions the voiced form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/. 8. /S/ The voiceless /p/ conditions the voiceless form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/. 9. /S/ The voiceless /t/ conditions the voiceless form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/. 10. /Z/ The voiced /d/ conditions the voiced form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/. 11. /S/ The voiceless /p/ conditions the voiceless form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/. 12. /Z/ The voiced // conditions the voiced form of the s ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

PRACTICE 2
Now listen carefully to the words from Practice 1 in the sentences below. Then listen again and repeat them to work on your pronunciation of s endings.

55

PRACTICE 3
Practice identifying the pronunciation of ed endings as a result of the process of progressive assimilation. Is the ed ending in the words below pronounced /t/ or /d/?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. /t/ The voiceless /k/ conditions the voiceless form of the ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /t/. 2. /d/ The voiced /v/ conditions the voiced form of the ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/. 3. /t/ The voiceless /s/ conditions the voiceless form of the ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /t/. 4. /d/ The voiced /l/ conditions the voiced form of the ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/. 5./d/ The voiced /a/ conditions the voiced form of the ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/. 6. /d/ The voiced /n/ conditions the voiced form of the ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.
56

7. /d/ The voiced /e/ conditions the voiced form of the ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/. 8. /t/ The voiceless // conditions the voiceless form of the ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /t/. 9. /d/ The voiced /z/ conditions the voiced form of the ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/. 10. /d/ The voiced /r/ conditions the voiced form of the ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

PRACTICE 4
Now listen carefully to the verbs from Practice 3 in the sentences below. Then listen again and repeat them to work on your pronunciation of ed endings.

PRACTICE 5
Click on the link below to watch the video about -S/-ED ENDINGS and
LINKING one more time.

http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0n1WN8kwz5o&list=PLF6310CB3022A93E7 [5]


57

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [6] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [7] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [8] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [9]

REFERENCES

CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 2. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 3. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 4. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 5. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0n1WN8kwz5o&list=PLF6310CB3022A93E7 6. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 7. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 8. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 9. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

58

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 04: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 2)
TOPIC 02: REGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION

Regressive assimilation occurs when a certain sound is affected by the sound which follows it. Examples of this type of assimilation include:
THE MODALS HAVE TO AND HAS TO

In have to and has to, the voiceless /t/ causes the preceding voiced /v/ and /z/ to become voiceless /f/ and /s/ respectively.

USED TO (EXPRESSING PAST HABITUAL ACTION)

In used to, the voiceless /t/ causes the preceding voiced combination /zd/ to become the voiceless combination /st/.

In rapid native-speaker speech, the sibilant sound // causes the preceding sibilants /s/ or /z/ to become identical to it. For example:

The stop consonant or /k/, while the stop

/t/ may assimilate to a following initial /d/ may assimilate to a following /b/ or

/p/ /g/.

59

In both cases, there is a change in the place of articulation, but there is no change in the voiced or voiceless quality of the segment. For example:

The final nasal consonant /n/ may adjust its place of articulation and become /m/ when it is followed by a bilabial (/p/, /b/, /m/), or it may become // when it is followed by a velar (/k/, /g/).

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and identify the places where the process of regressive assimilation occurs.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. She has to leave in May. 2. They used to eat popcorn a lot. 3. He has short curly hair. 4. When is she coming? 5. Philips shirt is new. 6. We have to study more. 7. Can I have some fruit cake? 8. Boys like thin girls.

60

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 2
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and repeat them. Pay careful attention and give special emphasis to the occurrences of regressive assimilation in the sentences.

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [1] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [2] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [3] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [4]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 2. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 3. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 4. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

61

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 04: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 2)
TOPIC 03: COALESCENT ASSIMILATION
VERSO TEXTUAL

Coalescent assimilation is a type of reciprocal assimilation: the first sound and second sound in a sequence come together and mutually condition the creation of a third sound with characteristics from both original sounds.

The most common type of coalescent assimilation is referred to as palatalization. Palatalization occurs when the final alveolar consonants /s/, /z/, /t/ and /d/ or the final alveolar consonant sequences /ts/ and /dz/ are followed by initial palatal /j/ and then become palatalized fricatives (// and //) and affricates (// and //). Let us look at and listen to some examples in the following chart.

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and identify the places where the process of coalescent assimilation occurs.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. Why dont you call later? 2. Can I kiss you goodbye? 3. Would you like a cup of coffee? 4. When did your wife get back? 5. Did you tell them what you saw?
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6. Last year Gina bought a new car. 7. Is that your son? Hes so big! 8. He never takes your advice. 9. Where is your mom? 10. I truly loved you but I dont anymore.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 2
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and repeat them. Pay careful attention and give special emphasis to the occurrences of coalescent assimilation in the sentences.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Click on the link below to read more about connected speech in English. http://www.personal.reading.ac.uk/~llsroach/phon2/asscoareli-into.htm [2]

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FORUM
Based on what you have read about linking, elision, epenthesis and assimilation, as well as on your experiences with the English language, discuss the following questions with your partners:
Which of the adjustments presented in classes 3 and 4 were you already familiar with? How can learners of English benefit from studying the adjustments of connected speech in an explicit way, both in terms of listening and speaking? What strategies can you use in order to put these adjustments into practice?

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [3] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [4] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [5] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [6]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 2. http://www.personal.reading.ac.uk/~llsroach/phon2/asscoareliinto.htm 3. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 4. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 5. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 6. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

64

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 04: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 2)
TOPIC TASK: LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Click on the link below to do the exercises. Listening Comprehension and Oral Production

PART I - LISTENING COMPREHENSION


PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Listen carefully and complete the sentences below. Then write the sentences on a Word document, save it and send it to your portfolio for your teachers assessment.

1. Please, dont go. I 2. She in the morning. 3. Why 4. Bill 5. We a great party. 6. She Saturday. 7. Gina and her sister a lot when they were younger. 8. After his English class a bus home. 9. for our holiday. 10. You left me just when I most. and five miles after she

help.

come to the party? to know hes fine. all night. It was

work every other

fight

, he

were going to Canada

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PART II - ORAL PRODUCTION


PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
The sentences and phrases below all appear in lesson 4. Go back to the topics and listen to them again as many times as necessary. Then, record them paying careful attention to the pronunciation of the segments in bold and send the recording to your portfolio for your teachers assessment. Make sure to produce the adjustments concerning assimilation and linking as indicated by the phonetic transcriptions.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

66

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 05: INTONATION
TOPIC 01: FOCUS

In class 2, you learned that in spoken English content words ( -adjectives, adverbs, main verbs, negatives, nouns, question words, demonstrative pronouns, and possessive pronouns.) are stressed and function words ( -- articles, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, personal pronouns, prepositions, relative pronouns, demonstrative adjectives, and possessive adjectives) are unstressed. However, there is one word or one syllable (when the word has more than one syllable) which receives more stress or emphasis than the others. This word is called the focus word and it is the most prominent word in the phrase.
VERSO TEXTUAL

When a conversation begins or a topic is introduced, the focus is usually the last content word or stressed syllable of the last content word (GRANT, 2001:95). When this happens, the focus is considered neutral.

Now listen to the examples below. The sentences and phrases illustrate the placement of focus on the last content word (or its stressed syllable). The syllables in bold capital letters are stressed, and the large dot () is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus.
EXAMPLE 01

EXAMPLE 02

EXAMPLE 03

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OBSERVATION
Listen to the different ways in which the sentence He finished his report is said in the dialogues below and compare the different meanings that are created because of the change in focus.

The dialogues above illustrate how intonation depends on context. By putting special emphasis on a given word, we may convey different meanings and intentions. Listen to the dialogues again and identify which word (or syllable, if the word has more than one syllable) in John finished his report is the most prominent.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

STOP TO READ
Focus maintains the natural flow of communication between speakers and listeners. When focus is not appropriately used, there is usually some kind of misunderstanding.

PRACTICE 1
The sentences and phrases in the dialogues below all take neutral placement of focus. Identify the words (or syllables) which are stressed and then predict which one is the most prominent. Then listen and practice. DIALOGUE 1 A: Why havent you cleaned up your bedroom? B: Because I was doing my homework. But Ill start right now. DIALOGUE 2 A: What time did you get home? B: Around eight. A: That early? B: Alex gave me a ride.
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DIALOGUE 3 A: When are you going to have a vacation? B: Next July. A: Are you going anywhere? B: No. Im saving to buy a car.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 2
It is extremely important to distinguish between content words and function words to produce the rhythm of English appropriately. Let us revise this aspect we have studied before by doing the exercises on the links below.
http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words1.htm

[2]

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http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words2.htm

[3]

PRACTICE 3
In the dialogues below, there is shift of focus to words other than the last content word in some phrases/sentences. Listen to each one of the dialogues and identify where this shift happens.
DIALOGUE 1

DIALOGUE 2

DIALOGUE 3

DIALOGUE 4

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

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VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [4] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [5] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [6] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [7]

REFERENCES

GRANT, L. Well said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 2. http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words1.htm 3. http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words2.ht m 4. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 5. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 6. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 7. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 05: INTONATION
TOPIC 02: RISING-FALLING INTONATION

In the previous topic, you were presented with the concept of focus and its importance to English pronunciation. Now you will learn more about intonation.

More specifically, intonation is the combination of musical tones on which we pronounce the syllables that make up our speech, and it is often referred to as the melody of language.

If you listen to someone speak, you will notice that their voice goes up and down. This movement of the voice up or down is called pitch. These pitch changes contribute significantly to intelligible communication as different pitch patterns can signal a wide variety of meanings. In our course, we will use a simplified system which divides intonation into four types: normal, high, low and extra-high. In order to show the movements of the voice up or down, lines will be drawn at four different levels and arrows will be used to represent the four types of intonation (tones) we will work with. Look at and listen to the examples below.

Then listen again and repeat, trying to make your voice follow the tones.

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VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. GOOD MORNing. Extra high High mornNormal Good Low ing 2. JOHN CALLED me. Extra high High called Normal John Low me 3. I'd LIKE a SOda. Extra high High soNormal I'd like a Low -da.

STOP TO READ
The most prominent word or syllable is the word or syllable with the greatest pitch change. When we have neutral focus, it is usually the last content word (or its stressed syllable) that has the greatest change in pitch.

INTONATION PATTERNS
Each speaker has his or her own variety of tones. However, native speakers and proficient speakers of English usually make their voices rise and fall at nearly the same places under similar circumstances. It is at the end of sentences that English intonation is used most uniformly. In this position, there are two basic types of intonation: rising-falling intonation (also known as falling intonation) and rising intonation. The first type will be introduced in this topic, whereas the latter will be dealt with in topic 3.

RISING-FALLING INTONATION

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In other words, what comes immediately before the high note is spoken on a normal tone, and what comes after the high note is spoken on a low tone (PRATOR & ROBINNETT, 1985). The last content word (or the stressed syllable of the last content word) normally receives the high note. Listen to the examples below.
VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

4. We DON'T beLIEVE it. Extra high High -lieve Normal We don't beLow it. 5. WHY is she ANgry? Extra high High anNormal Why is she Low -gry 6. You NEED to STUdy Extra high High stuNormal You need to Low -dy.

The movement from one tone to another usually happens between syllables, as the examples above show. However, the voice sometimes rises ( -- goes up) and falls ( -- goes down) below normal within the same syllable. This movement is known as a slide. A slide happens when the last sentence stress and the high note fall on the last syllable.
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Look at and listen to the examples below.


VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

7. The FILM is GOOD Extra high High gooNormal The film is Low -ood. 8. THIS is mySON! Extra high High soNormal This is my Low -on.

Notice that this movement up and down within the same syllable causes the vowel of the syllable to be lengthened ( -- to become longer) . Listen to examples 7 and 8 again and pay careful attention to the lengthening of the vowel.

In English, rising-falling intonation is usually used at the end of:

THIS IS MY SON.

DECLARATIVE
SENTENCES

YOU NEED TO STUDY.

COMMANDS

BRING YOUR DICTIONARY NEXT CLASS.

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DONT FORGET TO TAKE YOUR UMBRELLA.

WH - QUESTIONS ( -QUESTIONS THAT BEGIN WITH INTERROGATIVE SUCH AN WORD, AS

WHATS THE PROBLEM?

<EM>WHAT</EM>, <EM>WHO</EM>, <EM>WHEN</EM>, ETC)

WHERE DO YOU LIVE?

STOP TO READ
The fall of your voice to a low tone indicates that the thought is completed. For this reason, it is considered a type of vocal full stop. Clear rising-falling intonation signals certainty and completeness (PRATOR & ROBINNETT, 1985).

PRACTICE 1
Identify where your voice is more likely to rise and fall in the sentences below. Where is there a slide and why?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS. VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. Who wrote it? Extra high High wrote Normal Who Low it? 2. She wants a sandwich. Extra high High sand
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Normal She wants a Low -wicn. 3.Try to keep the street clean Extra high High cleaNormal Try to keep the street Low -ean. 4. Jack is in his bedroom. Extra high High bedNormal Jack is in his Low -room. 5. Where's the police station? Extra high High -lice Normal Where's the poLow station? 6. What's he talking about? Extra high High talk Normal What's he Low -ing about? 7. We never have meat. Extra high High meaNormal We never have Low -eat 8. Peter's married to my sister Extra high High sisNormal Peter's married to my Low -ter.

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9. I can't see well without my glasses. Extra high High glassNormal I can't see well without my/p> Low -es. 10. Don't forget to call us. Extra high High call Normal Don't forget to Low us.

Answer: There is a slide in sentences 3 and 7 because the syllable that receives the high tone is the last syllable in the sentence.

PRACTICE 2
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 and repeat. Be sure to use risingfalling intonation.

PRACTICE 3
Go back to the sentences in practice 1 again and identify the content words in each one of them. Remember that content words are normally stressed in spoken English. When the content word has more than one syllable, also identify the syllable that receives sentence stress. Then, remember why they are content words.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

WHO WROTE it? She WANTS a SANDwich. TRY to KEEP the STREET CLEAN. JACK is in his BEDroom. WHERES the poLICE STAtion? WHATS he TALKing about? We NEver HAVE MEAT. PEters MArried to my SISter. I CANT SEE WELL without my GLASSes. DONT forGET to CALL us.

WHY ARE THEY CONTENT WORDS?


Who, where and what are wh- words. Wrote, wants, try, keep, talking, have, see, and forget are main verbs.

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Sandwich, street, bedroom, police station, meat, sister, and glasses are nouns.

Clean is an adjective. Never and well are adverbs. Cant and dont are negative contractions.

TO REVISE SENTENCE STRESS, GO BACK TO CLASS 2.

FURTHER READING
Click on the link below to read more about intonation in English. http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~krussll/138/sec3/inton.htm [1]

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [2] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [3] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [4] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [5]

REFERENCES

PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual of American English Pronunciation (4th edition). Orlando: Holt, Rineliart and Winston, Inc., 1985.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~krussll/138/sec3/inton.htm 2. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 3. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 4. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 5. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

79

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 05: INTONATION
TOPIC 03: RISING INTONATION

In English, two types of intonation are most common at the end of a sentence: rising-falling intonation and rising intonation. In the previous topic, you learned that rising-falling intonation is used for declarative sentences, commands, and wh- questions. In this lesson, you will study rising intonation.

In English, rising intonation is used at the end of questions that do not begin with a wh- word, i.e., questions that can be answered by yes or no. These yes/no questions begin with auxiliary verbs, such as can, would, may, should, is, am, are, have, has, do, does, did, among others. When rising intonation is used, the voice normally goes up to a high note on the last sentence stress, just like in rising-falling intonation. The difference is that,in the rising intonation pattern, the syllables that follow the rise of the voice are pronounced on the high note as well, i.e., they do not fall to a low note (PRATOR & ROBINNETT, 1985). Listen to the examples below.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. Are you BraZIlian? Extra high High zilian? Normal Are you BraLow 2. Can IHELPyou? Extra high High help you? Normal Can I
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Low 3. Did youSEEhim at the PARty Extra high High party? Normal Did you see him at the Low

STOP TO READ
When the speaker leaves the voice high at the end of the sentence, he or she creates in the listener a feeling of incompleteness, suggesting that something else must be said. This sensation of incompleteness contrasts with the sense of completeness created by the rising-falling intonation pattern. Listen to the sentences below and answer the following questions: a)What type of end-of-sentence intonation is used? b)Do the sentences mean the same thing?
VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. What time does the class finish? 2. What time does the class finish?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

a) In sentence 1, the speaker uses rising-falling intonation. In sentence 2, the speaker uses rising intonation. b) They have different meanings. In sentence 1, the speaker is asking a true question, i.e., he or she really wants to learn what time the class finishes. But in sentence 2, the question is an echo question, i.e., it is a question about what was said previously, and it means Is that what you just said? or Please, repeat what you said.

STOP TO READ
As you learned in topic 2, wh- questions are usually given risingfalling intonation. However, they take on a new meaning if they are said with rising intonation they are echo questions, which normally mean Is that what you said? or Please, repeat what you said.

PRACTICE 1
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Identify where your voice is more likely to rise in the questions below. Remember that the voice normally goes up to a high note on the last sentence stress.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS. VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. Does your WIFE WORK? Extra high High work? Normal Does your wife Low 2. Did you HAVE a vaCAtion? Extra high High vacation? Normal Did you have a vaLow 3. Will youHELP me with the BAGS? Extra high High bags? Normal Will you help me with the Low 4. Is it RAINing Extra high High raining? Normal Is it
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Low 5. Was the WEAther COLD in LONdon? Extra high High London? Normal Was the weather cold in Low 6. Have you EVER BEEN aBROAD? Extra high High -broad? Normal Have you ever been aLow 7. Has she LOST her CREdit CARD? Extra high High credit card? Normal Has she lost her Low 8. Would you LIKE a CUP of COffe? Extra high High coffe? Normal Would you like a cup of Low 9. Should I GO to the DOCtot? Extra high High doctor? Normal Should I go to the Low 10. Is it GOing to be exCITing? Extra high High -citing? Normal Is it going to be exLow

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PRACTICE 2
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 and repeat. Be sure to use rising intonation.

PRACTICE 3
Go back to the sentences in practice 1 again and identify the content words in each one of them. Remember that content words are normally stressed in spoken English. When the content word has more than one syllable, also identify the syllable that receives sentence stress. Then, remember why they are content words.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

WHY ARE THEY CONTENT WORDS?


Wife, vacation, bags, weather, London, credit card, cup, coffee, doctor are nouns. Work, have (sentence 2), help, raining, been, lost, like, go, going are main verbs. Remember that the present and past forms of to be are normally unstressed. Cold is an adjective. Ever and abroad are adverbs.

PRACTICE 4
Click on the link below, listen to the fable The Fox and the Grapes by Aesop, and practice marking sentence stress and intonation in English. After you check your answers, listen to the fable again and repeat. http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-the-foxand-the-grapes [1]

PRACTICE 5
Click on the link below to practice intonation in questions and answers in English. Listen to and repeat all the questions and answers, paying careful attention to their intonation.

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http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-inquestions-and-answers [2]

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Click on the links below to read more about rising intonation in English. http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/rising-intonation [3] http://www.dce.kar.nic.in/new%20files/English%206.pdf [4] (Visite a aula online para realizar download deste arquivo.)

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [5] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [6] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [7] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [8]

REFERENCES

PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual of American English Pronunciation (4th edition). Orlando: Holt, Rineliart and Winston, Inc., 1985.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-the-fox-andthe-grapes 2. http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-in-questionsand-answers 3. http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/rising-intonation 4. http://www.dce.kar.nic.in/new%20files/English%206.pdf 5. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 6. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 7. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 8. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

85

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 05: INTONATION
TOPIC 04: NONFINAL INTONATION

In topics 2 and 3, you studied the raising and lowering of the voice at the end of a sentence, where appropriate intonation is most conventional and, thus, easiest to predict. In this topic, you will be presented with nonfinal intonation.
COMPLEX SENTENCES

Complex sentences ( -- sentences that have one independent clause and at least one dependent (subordinate) clause ) often have two separate intonation patterns: a nonfinal intonation contour on the first phrase and a final intonation contour on the second. Listen to the examples below. On which words does the voice go up? 1. 2. When you get there, dont forget to call me. If you need any help, let me know.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

Answer: The voice rises on the words there, call, help and know.

In the examples above, the first group is ended by a high note on its final stress, then the voice goes down to normal. The second group starts at normal level and ends with the voice rising on the last content word (or its last syllable) and lowering to below normal. A fall at the end of the sentence to the lowest pitch indicates that the thought is complete, whereas a fall that
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does not reach the lowest pitch indicates that the speaker still has more to say.

SERIES WITH AND

Listen to the sentences below. What types of intonation patterns do you hear? On which words does the voice go up and down? 1. 2. 3. She bought bananas, apples, pears, and strawberries. We went to Paris, London, Rome, and Madrid. They saw Kate, Susan, Bill, and Jack.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

ANSWER: We can hear the rising and the rising-falling intonation patterns. Rising intonation is used on all members of the series except the last one, whereas rising-falling intonation is used on the last member.

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IMPORTANT: Notice that in sentences 2 and 3 the last sentence stress is also the last syllable, so the voice rises and falls within the same syllable.

Listen to the sentences again and repeat to practice intonation in series with and.
ALTERNATIVES WITH OR

In sentences containing alternatives with or, we have the same intonation pattern as in series with and: rising intonation followed by rising-falling intonation.
Listen to the sentences below and try to identify the rising and falling of the voice.

1. 2.

We can have soup, spaghetti or steak. Jane might wear her black dress or her new jeans.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

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IMPORTANT: Notice that in both sentences the last sentence stress is also the last syllable, so the voice rises and falls within the same syllable.

Listen to the sentences again and repeat to practice intonation in alternatives with or.

CONTRASTS AND COMPARISONS

In contrasts and comparisons, both ideas being contrasted or compared receive special attention. One of the ideas will usually have a nonfinal intonation pattern whereas the other one will have a final intonation pattern. Also, one of the stressed elements is pronounced on a high note and the other one on an extra-high note. Normally, it does not make any difference which element is given the extra-high note. This difference in level between the two high notes emphasizes the idea of contrast. Listen and check.

EXAMPLE 1

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EXAMPLE 2

In questions with or where the speaker wants the hearer to make a choice, this contrastive extra-high note is obligatory. For example:
EXAMPLE 1

EXAMPLE 2

However, in questions with or that are meant to be interpreted as a double question and are to be answered yes or no, the intonation pattern should be the same as of one or two yes/no questions (PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985). Look at and listen to the examples below:

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EXAMPLE 1

EXAMPLE 2

Notice that in questions with or intended to be answered yes or no, no extra-high note is given on either of the elements.
DIRECT ADDRESS

The most conventional pattern used in pronouncing names and titles addressed directly to the person you are speaking to is rising intonation. The direct address should begin on a low note and then rise to normal. Direct address may come at the beginning, at the end or in any other position in the sentence, and it does not have any influence on the intonation of the rest of the sentence (PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985). Listen to the examples below.

EXAMPLE 1

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EXAMPLE 2

Click here to check. 1. Mother to Billy:

Stop talking and listen carefully, Billy.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

Listen to Billys mother talk to him. How does she feel?

Billys mother sounds angry. If your voice does not rise at all when you address someone directly, your hearer may think you are irritated (PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985).

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PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences and repeat. Practice using appropriate intonation in English.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

When we met her, she was crying. (complex sentence) On my last birthday I got a CD, a pair of jeans, and a blouse. (series with and) Are you coming today or tomorrow? (question with or) English is easier than German. (comparison) Did you talk to Gina or Ann? (double question) We can have pizza or spaghetti. (alternatives with or)

PRACTICE 2
Click on the link below and practice different kinds of intonation patterns in English http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-falling-and-risingintonation [13]

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [14] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [15] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [16] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [17]

REFERENCES

PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual of American English Pronunciation (4th edition). Orlando: Holt, Rineliart and Winston, Inc., 1985.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 2. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
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3. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 4. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 5. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 6. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 7. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 8. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 9. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 10. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 11. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 12. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 13. http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-falling-and-risingintonation 14. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 15. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 16. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 17. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 05: INTONATION
TOPIC 05: MORE FUNCTIONS OF INTONATION

The meanings of the intonation patterns you have learned so far are considered grammatical meanings, i.e., these patterns help convey concepts such as affirmation, negation, general interrogation, among others. In this topic you will be presented with some patterns of intonation which express emotions and attitudes. These patterns are normally felt to be more difficult to learn once they are variable, i.e., they depend on the ideas the speaker wishes to convey. Listen to the dialogues below and identify the attitude or emotion of the second speaker. Click here Dialogue 1 A: Kevins lost the car keys. B: Kevins lost the car keys?

Dialogue 2 A: Shes won a million dollars. B: Shes won a million dollars?

Dialogue 3 A: They moved out of

Manhattan. B: Where?

Dialogue 4 A: They moved out of

Manhattan. B: Where?

In which dialogue(s) is the second speaker showing surprise? In which dialogue(s) is the second speaker asking for clarification?
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In which dialogue(s) is the second speaker seeking more information?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In dialogue 2, the second speaker is showing surprise. In dialogues 1 and 3, the second speaker is asking for clarification. In dialogue 4, the second speaker is seeking more information.

Now let us look at each one of the situations above.


SHOWING SURPRISE

You can show surprise by using rising intonation to echo ( -- to repeat what someone else just said, especially because you find it surprising) a statement. Your voice normally goes up on the stressed syllable of the last content word. Listen to the dialogues below: Click here

1. A: Shes won a million dollars. B: Shes won a million dollars? I dont believe it!

2. A: Peter is my son. B: Peter is your son? But youre so young!

3. A: Amanda and Tom got married. B: Amanda and Tom got married? Are you sure? Listen to the dialogues again and identify the syllable where the pitch rises in the echo statement showing surprise.

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CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

OBSERVATION Notice that dollars, son, and married are the last content words in the sentence. Also notice that the voice goes up on the first syllable in dollars and married as these are the stressed syllables in the words.

ASKING FOR CLARIFICATION CLARIFICATION OF THE ENTIRE STATEMENT

If you want to request clarification of a whole sentence, your voice goes up on the last content word (or on its stressed syllable). For example: Click here
CLICK HERE

A: Mary called.

B: Mary called? (NOTICE THAT CALLED HAS ONLY ONE SYLLABLE)

A: I met Johns parents.

B: You parents?

met

Johns

(NOTICE THAT PARENTS HAS TWO SYLLABLES, SO THE


PITCH GOES UP ON THE STRESSED SYLLABLE

PA)

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CLARIFICATION OF A SPECIFIC ITEM

If you want clarification or repetition of a specific item in a statement, your voice goes up on this specific item. Click here
CLICK HERE

A: Can I call you at nine?

B: At five?

A: No, at nine.

A: Im going to invite John to the theater.

B: Tom?

A: No, John.

A: Lets meet at the coffee shop on Second Street.

B: At the coffee shop?

A: Thats right. (NOTICE THAT COFFEE SHOP IS COMPOUND NOUN AND


THAT IN COMPOUND NOUNS THE PRIMARY STRESS FALLS ON THE STRESSED SYLLABLE OF THE FIRST NOUN)

Asking for clarification or seeking more information?

In wh- questions, if the speaker is seeking more information, the pitch falls on the stressed syllable of the last content word. If the pitch rises, the speaker is probably asking for clarification or repetition. When requesting repetition, the pitch rise occurs on the wh- word (GRANT, 2001).

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Listen to the dialogues below and identify the second speakers intention.
VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. A: I saw Kate at the mall B: Where? 'Speaker B' wants to: ( ) request clarification ( ) request more information 2. A: I'll call you this Friday B: When? 'Speaker B' wants to: ( ) request clarification ( ) request more information 3. A: I saw Kate at the mall B: Where? 'Speaker B' wants to: ( ) request clarification ( ) request more information 4. A: Mariah Carey is coming to Brazil in November for a concert B: When? 'Speaker B' wants to: ( ) request clarification ( ) request more information

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In dialogues 1 and 2, the pitch rises in the wh- word, so speaker B is asking for clarification/repetition. In dialogues 3 and 4, the pitch falls in the wh- question, so speaker B wants more information.

Listen to the dialogues again and choose the correct answer to speaker Bs question.
VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. A: I saw Kate at the mall. B: Where? A:( ) At the mall. OR ( )In front of the cinema. 2. A: I'll can you this Friday.

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B: When? A:( ) This Friday. OR ( ) Around nine. 3. A: There was a devastating earthquake in Chile. B: Where? A:( ) In Chile. OR ( ) In Santiago 4. A: Mariah Carey is coming to Brazil in November for a concert B: When? A:( ) In November. OR ( ) On the 22nd.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1.A: I saw Kate at the mall.

B: Where?

A: At the mall.

2. A: Ill call you this Friday.

B: When?

A: This Friday.

3. A: There was a devastating earthquake in Chile.

B: Where?

A: In Santiago.

4. A: Mariah Carey is coming to Brazil in November for a concert.


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B: When?

A: On the 22nd.

TAG QUESTIONS

Tag questions are small questions that come at the end of sentences. They can be used for two purposes: to ask for agreement or to ask a real question. The intonation pattern in tag questions varies according to their purpose. Listen to the sentences below and identify the intonation patterns used in the tag questions. Click here 1. 2. 3. did she? 4. did she? Sarah didnt come to the party, You know Brian, dont you? You know Brian, dont you? Sarah didnt come to the party,

Which tag questions are given rising intonation? And which tag questions receive rising-falling intonation?
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

The tag questions in sentences 1 and 4 are given rising intonation, whereas the ones in sentences 2 and 3 receive rising-falling intonation.

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Listen to the examples above again and answer. Click here 1. 2. 3. did she? 4. did she? Sarah didnt come to the party, You know Brian, dont you? You know Brian, dont you? Sarah didnt come to the party,

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In sentences 1 and 4, the tag questions are real questions. If the tag question is a real question, we use rising intonation. The voice begins on a normal note and then rises to a high note. In sentences 2 and 3, the tag questions are meant to ask for agreement (confirmation). If the tag question is not a real question, we use rising-falling intonation. The voice begins on a high note and then falls to a low note.

STOP TO READ
Notice that the intonation at the end of the affirmative or negative sentence which precedes the tag question is always rising-falling intonation.

TRUE QUESTION

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CONFIRMATION

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the tag questions below and based on the intonation pattern used decide which ones are true questions and which ones are a confirmation.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Its a beautiful day, isnt it? Youve never been abroad, have you? John wasnt in class yesterday, was he? Fiona loves Shrek, doesnt she? Thats Bobs car, isnt it? Fred doesnt like me, does he? We dont have classes tomorrow, do we? You cant die of influenza, can you?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. TRUE QUESTION 2. TRUE QUESTION 3. CONFIRMATION 4. TRUE QUESTION 5. CONFIRMATION 6. TRUE QUESTION 7. CONFIRMATION 8. TRUE QUESTION

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PRACTICE 2
Click on the links below and revise what you have studied so far about intonation patterns in English. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2bHdXcszJ4 [6] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qh6kUsJcu3k [7] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k80wiT0t2rc [8]

PRACTICE 3
Click on the link below and practice listening for intonation. http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-fire-andice [9]

FORUM
Based on what you have learned in this course, discuss the following questions with your partners:

Has this course contributed to your language learning process? If so, how? If not, why not? How can this course help you to improve your listening and speaking abilities on a daily basis? Of all the things that you have studied in this course, which ones do you think are the most important? Why? How do you intend to use what you have learned?

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on one of the links below. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php [10] http://www.merriam-webster.com/ [11] http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global [12] http://www.wordwebonline.com/ [13]

REFERENCES

GRANT, L. Well said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.

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FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 2. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 3. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 4. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 5. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2bHdXcszJ4 7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qh6kUsJcu3k 8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k80wiT0t2rc 9. http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-fire-and-ice 10. http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php 11. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 12. http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup? cc=global 13. http://www.wordwebonline.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

105

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA


CLASS 05:INTONATION
TOPIC TASK: LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION

PART 1: LISTENING COMPREHENSION


PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY 1A
Listen carefully and identify the intonation used in the sentences below: rising-falling or rising. For rising-falling intonation use the symbol and for rising intonation use the symbol . Then write your answers on a Word document, save it and send it to your portfolio for your teachers assessment.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Where were you yesterday? Were you at home yesterday? When is Alex going to leave? Is Alex going to leave tomorrow? Theres been an accident. Has anyone got hurt in the accident? You wont get there before 8:00 What time are you getting there? Whats he doing here?

Whats he doing here?

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY 1B
Listen to the dialogues below and choose the correct answer. Then write your answers on a Word document, save it and send it to your portfolio for your teachers assessment.. 1. KATE: I left my cellphone on the bus. JOHN: Where? KATE:
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a) On the bus. b) On the back seat. 2. KATE: I left my cellphone on the bus. JOHN: Where? KATE: a) On the bus. b) On the back seat 3. BILL: Nancy is visiting us this weekend. JANE: When? KATE: a) This weekend. b) On Saturday evening. 4. BILL: Nancy is visiting us this weekend. JANE: When? KATE: a) This weekend. b) On Saturday evening.

PART 2: ORAL PRODUCTION


PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Record the sentences below paying careful attention to the type of intonation that is appropriate in each situation. Then, save the recording and send it to your portfolio for your teachers assessment. It is also important to identify on which syllable your voice should go up and go down. Practice reading the sentences out loud before you actually record them. 1. How was your weekend? 2. Did you have a good weekend?

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3. Id like to speak to the manager. 4. Can I speak to the manager? 5. Is there a problem? 6. Whats the problem? 7. When we met her, she was crying. (COMPLEX
SENTENCE)

8. We need to buy some milk, eggs, and bread. (SERIES WITH AND) 9. Are you coming today or tomorrow? (QUESTION
WITH OR)

10. We can have pizza or spaghetti. (ALTERNATIVE


WITH OR)

11. He won the lottery? I dont believe it! (SURPRISE) 12. English is easier than German. (COMPARISON) 13. Youve never been abroad, have you? (TRUE
QUESTION)

14.

Youve

never

been

abroad,

have

you?

(CONFIRMATION) 15. Mary called? (CLARIFICATION OF THE ENTIRE


STATEMENT)

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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