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Atomic Structure


Periodic classification


P Block Elements


d Block Elements


f - Block Elements



Nuclear Chemistry


Solid State





Chemical equilibrium



Chemical Kinetics



Surface Chemistry



Electro Chemistry I




Electro Chemistry II





Isomerism in Organic
Hydroxy Derivatives






Carbonyl Compounds



Carboxylic Acids





Organic Nitrogen
Bio molecules



Chemistry in Action








We classify the learning capacity of categories. In the first category, this package is used for
scoring pass mark. In the second stage, it is used for scoring 80 marks, the third stage is used
for scoring 120 marks and the fourth stage ,they can able to get 150/150.


Stage - I


1 mark

3 Mark

5 Mark

10 Mark


F block Elements


Nuclear Chemistry


Solid State





Chemical Equilibrium



Chemistry in Action



In the first table, this package is used maximum scoring 53 marks.

Stage - II
Periodic Classification

1 mark

3 Mark

5 Mark

10 Mark




Surface Chemistry






In the stage I & II it is used for scoring 80 marks.



Stage III
Lesson Lesson
Atomic Structure

1 mark

3 Mark

5 Mark

10 Mark



d Block Elements


Electro Chemistry






The stage I , II & III is used for scoring 129 marks.

Stage - IV


1 mark

3 Mark

5 Mark

10 Mark


P Block Elements


Hydroxy Derivatives



To score 150/150
Practice the units mentioned in the four tables .
Practice Book back one mark questions (self evaluation) for 19 units.
Practice the questions that where asked in the PTA guide as well as previous
year public question papers.
Practice for the chapters Hydroxy derivatives and d-block elements problems.
Practice for the chapters Electro chemistry Chemical kinetics and
Isomerism in organic chemistry
1.Based on the blue print Without
one mark lessons
2. Based on the blue print Without
three mark lessons


Lesson 5 f Block Elements
5 marks questions ( Public Q.No : 54 )
1. What is Lanthanide contraction and causes?
(i) Lanthanide contraction :
The size of the M3+ions decreases from La to Lu is called Lanthanide
(ii) Causes :
a) Imperfect shielding of 4f electrons
b) increase in nuclear charge causing contraction in electron cloud.
2. Discuss the consequences of Lanthanide contraction.
Consequences :
1) According to Fajans rule, in Ln(OH)3 the covalent character increases
between Ln3+ and OH- ions The order of size of Ln3+ ions are
La3+ > Ce3+ > Lu3+

2) There is regular decrease in their ionic radii.

3) Regular decrease in their tendency to act as reducing agent
4) Second and third rows of d - block elements are quite close in their properties.
5) These elements occur together in natural minerals and are difficult to

3. Write the uses of lanthanides and actinides.

Uses of lanthanides
1. pyrophoric alloys used in cigarette lighters, toys, flame throwing tanks and
tracer bullets.
2. Ceria and Thoria are used as gas lamp materials.
3. Cerium salts are used in dyeing cotton, as catalyst and in lead storage
4. Lanthanido thermic process. It is used to extract pure metals like Zn, Fe, Co
5. Mish metal : Ce : 45 - 50% ; La : 25% ; Nd : 5% and other Lanthanide metals,
Fe, Ca mixture Used for the production of brands of steel like high resistant
stainless steels.30% mish metal and 1% Zr mixture is used in making parts of
get engines.


Uses of actinides :
(i) U-235 is used as fuel in nuclear power plant and as a component in nuclear
(ii) Pu-238 used as a power source in long mission space probes

4. Write various oxidation states of Lanthanides and Actinides

Common oxidation state

Other oxidation state







5. What is the difference between Lanthanides and Actinides.



1. Binding energies of 4f electrons

Binding energies of 5f electrons are



2. 4f electrons have greater shielding

5f electrons have poor shielding



3. Most of the ions are colourless.

Most of the ions are coloured.



4. Their compounds are less basic.

Their compounds are more basic.

5. Except promethium, they are non

All of them are radioactive.

Radioactive .
6. They do not form oxocations .

They form oxocations.

7.They do not form complexes easily.

They have much greater tendency

to form complexes.


6. How are lanthanides extracted from monazite sand?

Monazite Sand
Heat 2100C

With H 2SO4 for

several hours
Grey Mud
Cold Water

Filtrate Containing
(Ln3+, Th4+ , H3O+, SO4 2- , HSO4-, H2PO4- )

Un reacted Monazite Sand

( SiO 2, TiO 2, ZrSiO 4)
(recycle sand)

Neutralised to

(or) added HF

proper acidity

Precipitate of Th3(PO4)4
(or) Precipitate Th

Filtrate containing
lanthanide and phosphate


NaOH (or)
Oxalic acid
Lanthanide hydroxide (or) oxalate
Individual Lanthanides are separated by suitable physical methods.
Anhydrous fluorides and
Chlorides of lanthanides

Tri fluorides of lanthanides

individual metals


Lesson 7


3 Marks question and answers: ( Public Q.no : 37 )

1. What is half life period?
The time required to disintegrate one half of any radioactive substance is called
half life period.
t 1/2 = 0.693/
2. What is Q value of a nuclear reaction?
The amount of energy absorbed or released during the nuclear reaction is called
Q value of nuclear reaction
Q value = (mp- mr ) 931 Mev
mp= sum of masses of products
mr = sum of masses of reactants
When Q= (+) energy absorbed i.e mp>mr
Q= (-) energy released i.e mr >mp
3. Explain the Spallation reactions with example.
Spallation reaction: The reaction in which high speed projectiles may chip heavy
nucleus into several fragments


+2He4+400MeV 17Cl +141H +160n

4. What is Binding energy of nucleus?

1. Whenever a nucleus is formed , certain mass is converted into energy.
2. The atomic mass is lower than the sum of masses of protons, neutrons and
electrons present. This difference in mass is termed as mass defect.
3. Binding Energy E = mc2
5. Write the two uses of radio carbon dating.
i. It is a great tool for correlating facts of historical importance.
ii. It is very useful in understanding the evolution of life and rise and fall of
Note: Public question paper problem and example problem also practice.


5 Marks - ( Public Q.No : 65 (b) )

1. Explain about the nuclear reaction taking place in sun.

2. Differentiate between chemical reaction and Nuclear reaction.

Chemical reactions
1. These reaction involve some loss,

gain or overlap of outer orbital

electrons of the reactant atoms.
2. A chemical reaction is balanced in

terms of mass only

3. The energy changes in any chemical

reaction is very much less when

compared with nuclear reaction.
4. In chemical reactions, the energy is

expressed in terms of kilojoules per

5. No new element is produced since

nucleus is unaffected.

Nuclear reactions

Nuclear reactions involve emission of alpha,

and gamma particles from the nucleus.
Nuclear reaction is balanced in terms of
mass and energy.
The energy changes are far exceed than
3. the energy changes in chemical reactions.
In nuclear reactions, the energy involved is
expressed in MeV (Million electron volts)
4. per individual nucleus.
New element / isotope may be produced
5. during the nuclear reaction.


3. Explain Radio Carbon dating.

By knowing the amount of C14 present in plant or animal fossil the age of wood
or fossil can be determined is called radio carbon dating. C14 radio isotope of carbon
is formed in the upper atmosphere by reaction with neutrons. (cosmic rays)
7N +on 6C + 1H

The C14 atoms produced are oxidised to

of photo synthesis .


CO2. It is incorporated in plants as a result

Animals too consume C14 by eating plants, on death, organisms cease to take in
fresh carbonations. Carbon 14 begins to decay.
6C 7N + -1e

Half life period of C14 = 5700 years. Therefore by knowing either the amount of C14 or
the number of - particles emitted per minute per gram of carbon at the initial and
final stages, the age of carbon material can be determined by

Amount of C14 in fresh wood



Amount of C14 in dead wood

Uses :
1. It is a great tool for correlating facts of historical importance
2. It is very useful in understanding the evolution of life and rise and fall of
4. Write the medicinal uses of radioactive isotopes.(March -06)
Tritium 1H
Measure water content of the body

Carbon - 11 6C11

Brain scan

Carbon - 14 6C14

Radio immunology

Iodine -131 53I131

Mercury - 197 90Hg197

diagnosis of damaged heart muscles and hyper

Kidney scan

Phosphorous -32 15P32

Detection of eye tumours

Iron - 59 26Fe59

Diagnosis of anemia

Cobalt - 60 27Co60

Treatment of cancer

Sodium -24 11Na24


Gold - 198 79Au198

Location of blood clots, and circulatory

Curing of cancers


5. Explain the principle behind the hydrogen bomb.

The hydrogen bomb is bases on fusion reaction of hydrogen to form helium
producing large amount of energy.
Fusion takes place at the centre. Hydrogen bomb consists of an arrangement
for nuclear fission in the centre surrounded by a mixture of 1H2 and 3Li6 isotope which
provides the high temperature necessary to start the fusion.
Fission heat+ neutrons
3Li +0n 1H +2He +4.78MeV
1H +1H 2He +0n +17.6MeV

6. What is nuclear fusion reaction? Write the differences between nuclear

fission and nuclear fission
nuclear fusion
1. Two or more lighter nuclei combine to
form the heavy nucleus
2. It requires a high temperature.
3. It is not a chain reaction.

nuclear fission
A heavy nucleus splits in lighter nuclei
It does not require high temperature.
It is a chain reaction.

4. Hydrogen bomb based on the

principle of nuclear fusion.
5. Energy is released 17.6 MeV.

Atom bomb is based on the principle of

nuclear fission.
Energy is released 200 MeV.

7. What is nuclear fusion reaction?

When lighter nuclei moving at a high speed are fused together to form a
heavy nucleus, the process is called nuclear fusion.
In fusion reaction, the mass of heaver nucleus formed less than the total mass
of two lighter nuclei. Thus, just like a fission reaction, the source of energy in a fusion
reaction is also the disappearance of mass, which gets converted into energy.
Nuclear fusion reaction takes place at very high temperature of about 108K.
Therefore, this reaction is called thermonuclear reaction.

8. What is nuclear fission reaction?



2He +0n

+ Energy


Nuclear fission is the process in which a heavy nucleus breaks up into two
lighter nuclei of almost equal size with the release of an enormous amount of

The process is us usually accompanied by emission of neutrons. Example


+ 0 n1



+ 36Kr92 + 30n1 + 200 MeV

Further, the neutrons released (say three) from the fission of first uranium
atomos can hit three other uranium atoms. In this way a chain reaction is set up
resulting into the liberation of an enormous amount of energy. In the case of nuclear
fission, 92U formed breaks up in several ways.



+ 0 n1



+ 36Kr93 + 30n1
+ 38Sr90 + 20n1
+ 37Rb90 + 20n1


9. Explain the uses of radioactive isotope with example.

a) Study of reaction mechanism
i) Mechanism of photosynthesis in plants
A small quantity of Radioactive CO 2 containing radioactive oxygen O18 is
mixed with ordinary carbondioxide and the process is carried out. It has been found
that oxygen gas evolved along with sugan formation is non-radioactive. Therefore O2
produced comes from water and anot from carbondioxide. So the correct mechanism
is as follows.

6CO2 + 6H2O

C6H12O6 + 6O2

ii) Study of hydrolysis of ester

By labelling oxygen, the mechanism of ester hydrolysis can be studied by
using water labelled with O18. The hydrolysis of an ester by water enriched with
radioactive oxygen is indicated as :

Lesson 8 Solid states

3 Marks (Public Q.no : 38 )
1. State Braggs equation
A relationship between the wave length x-rays () the inter planar distance in
the crystal (d) and the angle of reflection () is Braggs equation.
n = 2d sin

n is order of reflection
is the wave length of X-rays
d is the interplanar distance in the crystal
is the angle of reflection


2. What are super conductors? (March, June 2006)

The ability of certain ultra cold substances to conduct electricity without
resistance is called super conductivity. Substances having this property are called
super conductors.
3. Write uses of super conductor.
1. super conducting generators It consumes low energy and save more energy.
2. Super conducting magnets
- Used in High efficiency Ore separating machines.
3. Super conducting solenoids
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging equipment
(NMR)which is a whole body scan equipment.
4. What is vitreous state?
A state lying between the solid and liquid state is known as vitreous state.
5. Sketch sc , bcc and fcc Structure.
Simple Cube (sc)
Body Centred Cube (bcc)

Face Centred Cube (fcc)

6. Define - Unit cell.

Unit cell is the smallest fundamental repeating portion of a crystal lattice from
which the crystal is built by repetition in three dimension.
7. What are point Defects?
1. If the deviation occurs due to missing atoms .
2. Displaced atoms (or ) Extra atoms
3. Imperfection of atoms
Ex: Schottky Defect and frenkel defect

9. Write note about Metal excess defects.

1. A crystal of NaCl is heated in sodium vapour, it acquires a Yellow colour.
2. This yellow colour is due to the formation of non stoichiometric compound of
NaCl in which there is a slight excess of sodium.
3. This defect is called metal excess defect.

10. What is metal deficiency defect?
One of the positive ion is missing from its lattice site and the extra negative
charge is balanced by some nearby metal ion acquiring additional to charges instead
of one. This defect is known as metal deficiency defect.
Ex. FeO , FeS
11. Define : Super conducting transition temperature (Tc) (June 2007)
The super conduction Transition temperature (Tc) of a material is defined as a
critical temperature at which the resistivity of a material is suddenly changed to zero.
12. What are molecular crystals? Give an example.
1. The lattice points in molecular crystals consists of molecules which do not
carry any charge.
2. The forces binding the molecules together are of two types.
i) Dipole - dipole interaction Eg. Ice
ii) Vander Waals forces. Eg. All kind of molecular solids
13. Structure of CsCl-Explain.
Let us discuss the structure of CsCl for AB type. It is body centered cubic
system. The chloride ions are at the corners of a cube where as Cs+ ion is at the
centre of the cube or vice versa. Each Cs+ ion is connected with eight Cl- ion and Clis connected with eight Cs+ ions.
o Cs+

Number of chloride ions per unit =

Number of cesium ion per unit =

Thus number of CsCl units per unit cell is one.
5 Marks question and answer ( Public Q.No : 66 a )
1. Write the characteristics of Ionic Crystals.
1. They are hard and brittle.
2. They have high melting and boiling points.
3. The heat of vapourisation is high.
4. They are insulators in the solid state.
5. These crystals are soluble in water and insoluble in Non polar solvents.
6. Ionic solids are good conductors when dissolved in water.
7. Ionic crystals are hard and brittle.


2. Explain schottky and Frenkel defects.

1. Schottky defects. This defect is caused some of the lattice points are unoccupied. The
points which are unoccupied are called vacancies.
2. The number of missing positive and negative ions is the same in this case and thus the
crystal remains neutral.
3. Schottky defects appears generally in ionic crystals in which positive and negative ions do
not differ much in size.

Na+ Missing

Cl - Missing

Frenkel defects
1. This defect arise when an ion occupies an interstitial position between the lattice
2. This defect occurs generally in ionic crystals in which the size of anion is much larger
than the cation.
3. Frenkel Defect on a crystal.

4. The crystal remains neutral since the number of positive ions is the same as the
number of negative ions. Ex: AgBr.
3. Explain Braggs spectrometer method.
1. This method is one of the important method for studying crystals using x rays. The
apparatus consists of a x-ray tube from which a narrow beam of x-rays allowed to fall on
the crystal mounted on a rotating table.
2. The rotating table is provided with scale and vernier, from which the angle of
incidence can be measured.
3. An arm which is rotating about the same axis as the crystal table, carries an
ionisation chamber.

4. The rays reflected from the crystal enter into the ionisation chamber and ionise the
gas present inside.
5. Due to ionisation current is produced which is measured by electrometer. The current
of ionisation is a direct measure of intensity of reflected beam from the crystal.
6. For different angles of incidence, the corresponding ionisation current is measured
from the electrometer. These values are plotted in the form of graph.
For sodium chloride, the maximum reflection or peaks for 100 plane occurred.








4. Significance of Braggs equation

1. If we use x-rays of known wavelength () then the inter atomic distance (d) is an
unknown crystal can be calculated. On the other hand, if we use a crystal whose inter
atomic distance d is known then the wavelength of x-rays can be calculated.
2. The Braggs equation gives the essential condition for diffraction to occur.
3. When the experiment is done there will be a maximum reflection at a particular angle
. That angle is noted. It corresponds to first order reflection (n=1).If the angle is
increased, maximum reflection occurs at some other higher angle. It corresponds to
second order reflection (n=2). Similarly, Third, fourth and higher order of reflection occur
at certain specific angles. The values of angles obtained are in accordance with the
Braggs equation. Hence Braggs equation is experimentally verified.
5. Explain the various types of crystals based on lattice points.

Four types :
1. Molecular Crystals

2. Covalent Crystals

3. Metallic Crystals 4. Ionic

Molecular Crystals
1. The lattice points in molecular crystals consists of molecules which do not carry any

2. The forces binding the molecules together are of two types.
i) Dipole - dipole interaction Eg. Ice
ii) Vander Waals forces. Eg. All kind of molecular solids
Covalent Crystals
The lattice in covalent crystals consists of atoms linked together by a continuous
system of covalent bonds. Eg. diamond.
Metallic crystal
Metallic crystal consists of an assemblage of positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile
Thus each electron belongs to a number of positive ions and each positive ion belong to a
number of electrons. The force that binds a metal ion to a number of electrons within its
sphere of influence is known as metallic bond. The Vanderwaals forces are more general and
occur in all kinds of molecular solids.
Ionic crystal
In ionic crystals the units occupying lattice points are positive and negative ions. Each
of a given sign is held by columbic forces of attraction to all ions of opposite sign. The forces
are very strong.
6. How are glasses formed? Explain the nature of glass.
When certain liquids are cooled rapidly there is no formation of crystals at a definite
temperature, such as occurring on slow cooling. The viscosity of the liquid increases steadily
and finally a glassy substance is formed.
Characteristics of glass :
i) The chief characteristics of glass are hardness, rigidity and ability to withstand shearing
stresses which are all properties of the solid state.
ii) Glasses are optically isotropic and on heating without any sharp transition passes into a
mobile liquid.
iii) At a high temperature glasses undergo phase transition when crystals separate first as they
do form super cooled liquid. Therefore glasses are regarded as amorphous solids or super
cooled liquids as well.
iv) Glassy or vitreous state is a condition in which certain substance can exit, lying between
the solid and liquid states.
Lesson 9
3 Mark Question and Answer ( Public Q.No : 39 )
1. What is entropy? Give its unit.
Entropy is the ratio of the heat involved (q) to the temperature (T) of the process. S = q/T .
Unit of entropy is cal / degree / mole or eu/mole or J/K.

2. What is Gibbs free energy (G)
G = (H-TS) , H- Enthalpy, S -Entropy and T- temperature of the system respectively.
3. Give Kelvin Planck statement second law of thermodynamics. (March 2007)
It is impossible to construct an engine which operated in a complete cycle will absorb heat
from a single body and convert it completely to work without leaving some change in the
working system
4. State Troutons rule.
The heat of vaporisation (Hvap ) in calories per mole divided by the boiling point of
the liquid in Kelvin is a constant equal to 21 cal.deg-1 mol-1
Svap = Hvap /Tb = 21 cal deg-1 mol-1
5. What kind of substances deviate from Troutons rule?
i) Low boiling liquids such as hydrogen and Helium which boil only a little above OK
ii) Polar substances like water, alcohol which form hydrogen bonded liquids and exhibit very
high boiling points as well as high Hvap .
iii) Liquids such as acetic acid whose molecules are partially associated in the vapour phase
and possess very low entropy vaporisation which is much less than 21 cals /mol/deg.
6. When does entropy increase in a process?
a) In a chemical reaction, when number of molecules of products are more than the
number of molecules of reactant entropy increases
b) In physical process when a solid changes to liquid, when a liquid changes to vapour and when
a solid changes to vapour, entropy increases.

7. What are spontaneous reaction?

1. Spontaneous process is the process that is natural and does not need to be induced.
It takes place on its own accord.
2. In order to find out whether a process is spontaneous or not, the entropy changes of
the system and the surroundings for the stipulated process is considered.
S= (+) ve, the entropy of the universe increases.
8. Mention the essential conditions for spontaneity in a chemical reaction.
For a spontaneous chemical process,
G<0, H<0 and S>0
Ie, H = negative, G= negative S = positive
5 Marks Question and answer ( Public Q.No : 56 )
1. State the various statement of Second Law Of Thermodynamics.
i) It is impossible to construct an engine which operated in a complete cycle will absorb heat
from a single body and convert it completely to work without leaving some changes in the
working system. This is called as the Kelvin Planck statement.

ii) It is impossible to transfer heat from a cold body to a hot body by a machine without
doing some work. This is called as the clausius statement of II law of thermodynamics.
iii) A process accompanied by increase in entropy tends to be spontaneous.
iv). Entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of the molecules of a system.
v) Efficiency of a machine can never be cent percent.
vi) The heat Efficiency of any machine is given by the value of ratio of output to input
energies. Output can be in the form of any measurable energy or temperature change while
input can be in the form of heat energy or fuel amount which can be converted to heat energy.
% efficiency = input/output x 100

2. Write Characteristics of Entropy S.

1. Entropy S is a thermodynamic state function.
2. Entropy change S is defined as at constant temperature of the ratio of the heat changes of
a process to the temperature of the system.
The process should be reversible Srev= qrev /T(k)

3. Entropy is a measure of randomness of the molecule of a system. Entropy increases in all

spontaneous process.
4.The total entropy changes of the universe( Srev) is equal to the entropy of the system and
in its surroundings.
Suni= Ssys + Ssurr
5. For an isothermal process(T= constant), the entropy change of the universe during a
reversible process is zero. The entropy of the universe increases in an irreversible process.
7. There are three cases of S predicting the nature of process.





8. The energy of the universe remains constant although the entropy of the universe tends to a
9. Units of entropy: Unit of entropy is cal / degree / mole or eu/mole or J/K
10. S is related to H, for a reversible and isothermal process Srev = qrev/T .Since
H is the heat absorbed or evolved in the process at constant temperature and
pressure. S is also calculated from H as S=H/T

3. Write characteristics of Free energy G.
1. Free energy is defined as G= H-TS. Since H and S are state functions,G is a state
2. G is an extensive property. But G is the intensive property when mass remains
constant between initial and final states.
3. G has a single value for the thermodynamic state of the system.
4. G and G values corresponds to the system only.
5. There are three cases of G predicting the nature of process
(-) ve
6. G = H TS. But according to I law of thermodynamics,
H = E + PV and
E = q w.
TS = q .
G = q w + PV q
G = w + PV
G = w - PV= Net Work
Lesson 10
3 Marks Questions and Answers ( Public Q.No: 40 )
1. What is Equilibrium constant?
The ratio of product of molar concentration of products to the product of molar
concentration of reactants at equilibrium.
a A+b B

c C+d D

2. Why do equilibrium reactions referred to as dynamic equilibrium?

At equilibrium rate of forward reaction is equal to rate of backward reaction.
Reactants and products are present in the reaction mixture in definite amounts.
Therefore chemical equilibrium is called as dynamic equilibrium.
3. State the Le Chatliers principle.
According to Le Chatliers principle, if a system at equilibrium is subjected to a
disturbance or stress, then the equilibrium shifts in the direction that tends to nullify
the effect of disturbance or stress.
4. Define Reaction quotient (Q).
Q is defined as the ratio of product of initial concentrations of products to the product
of initial concentrations of the reactants under non equilibrium conditions.

5. Dissociation of PCl 5 decreases in presence of Cl 2. Why?
[ PCl 3] [ Cl

Kc =

[ PCl 5 ]

According to Le Chatliers principle increase in concentration of Cl2 favours backward

reaction ie dissociation of PCl5 decreases
6. What happens when n g = 0 ng = (-)ve ng = +(ve) in a gaseous reaction
Kp = Kc [RT]ng

If ng = 0
ng = (-)ve
ng = (+)ve

Kp = Kc
Kp < Kc
Kp > Kc

7. Calculate ng, for the following reactions.

1. H2 (g) + I2 (g)
2HI ( g)
n g = (n p - n r)g = 2 - 2 = 0

2. 2H2O


= (n

+ 2 Cl2 (g)



+ O2 (g)

- n r)g = 5 - 4 = 1

8. Write the equilibrium constant for the following reactions.

i) H2O2(g)
H2O(g) + O2(g)
ii) CO(g) + H2O(g)
iii) N2O4(g)

CO2(g) + H2(g)
2 NO2(g)

5 Marks Question and Answers : (Public Q.No : 57 )
1. Describe the synthesis of NH3 by Habers process.

H2 and N2 Ratio :- 3:1

300-500 atm
500 C 550 C


% of NH3 formed

The equilibrium conditions, steam is passed to remove away the ammonia as and when it is
formed so that the equilibrium remains shifted towards the product side.
2. Write synthesis of SO3 by Contact process.

SO2 and O2 Ratio :- 2:1

700-1200 atm
400 C 450 C

V2 O5

% of SO3 formed

SO3 from contact process along with steam is used in oleum and H2SO4 manufacturing
3. Derive the relation Kp = Kc (RT)ng for a general chemical equilibrium reaction.

ng = ( total number of stoichiometric moles of gaseous products) - ( total number of

stoichiometric moles of gaseous reactants ).

4. Derive the values of Kc and Kp for the synthesis of HI.

Initial No. of moles

No. of moles
No. of moles at







x is also known as the extent of reaction

5. Derive the values of Kc and Kp for the Decomposition of PCl5

Initial No. of moles

No. of moles dissociated
No. of moles at equilibrium
Equilibrium concentration





Lesson - 22
3 Marks Question and Answers ( Public Q.No : 51 )
1. What are Anaesthetics? Give two examples.
The drugs which produce loss of sensation are called anaesthetics. They are two types.
(i) General anaesthetics are the agent, which bring about loss of all modalities of
sensation, particularly pain along with reversible loss of conciousness.
(ii) Local anaesthetics prevent the pain sensation in localised areas without affecting the
degree of consciousness
Example : Nitrous Oxide, Diethyl ether, chloroform
2. In what way Antipyretics are important?
1. Antipyretics are the compounds which are used for the purpose of reducing fever
2. lowering the body temperature to the normal
Ex. aspirin, antipyrine, phenacetin, and paracetamol.
3. What are antiseptic?
Antiseptic is a substance that rendors micro organisms innocuous by killing them or
preventing their growth.
Ex. Iodoform, 0.2 % solution of phenol .
4. Write a note on Antiprotozoals (or) Antimalarials.
1. Antiprotozoals are the chemical compounds used to cure malaria.
2. Extracts of certain plants, specially te roots and stems are extensively used as anti malarial.

Ex: Cinchona park which gives rise to quinine acts as anti malarial.

5. What are analgesics? Give examples.
Analgesics are the compounds which relieve all sorts of pains without the loss of
consciouness.These are also called as pain killer or pain relivers Eg. Aspirin, Novalgin
6. What are antibiotics? Give example.
Antibotics are the chemicals present in the microorganism which inhabit the growth or
metabolism of some other microorganism. (e.g) Penicillins.
7. In what way antacids are important?
1. Antacids are drugs that provide relief from burning sensation caused by eating oily and
spicy food.
2. Antacids are the drugs used to rectify the imbalance in the acidity in the stomach.
Eg. Magnesium and Aluminium hydroxide
8. Write note on Antipasmodics.
1. Antipasmodics are used to relieve cramps, spasms of the stomach intestines and
2. Some are used with antacid, in the treatment of peptic ulcer.
3. If prevent Nausea Vomiting and motion sickness.
Example : Anisotropine, Atropine
9. Why Iodo form and Phenolic Solutions are called antiseptics?
1. 0.2% solution of phenol and Iodo form are used as antiseptics.
2. Both are used to destroy the micro organism and so they are called antiseptics.
10. What is Food preservative? Give two examples.
A chemical substance which prevents the spoilage of food material by destroying the
food spoiling micro organism in it is called a food preservative.
e.g Sodium benzoate, Potassium meta bi sulphite
11. Write note on Anti oxidants.
1. The substances that act against oxidants are called antioxidants.
2. It protect us against cardio vascular disease, Cancer and cataract.
3. It act as radical inhibitors.
e.g. Vitamin C, Vitamin E, - carotene
12. How is Buna-S prepared?
Buna- s is a synthetic rubber obtained by the polymerization of butadiene and
styrene in the presence of sodium metal. Buna-S wear and tear. It is used to
manufacture of tyres and rubber tubes.

13. How is Buna N prepared?
Buna-N is obtained as a result of copolymerisation of two parts of butadiene with
one part of acrylonitrile in the presence of sodium metal. Buna-N is hard and it used to
manufacture of storage tanks for the solvents.

14. How to prepare terylene or Decron or PET?

Both glycol and dicarboxylic acid being molecules with two functional groups, react
forming condensation polymers. Thus with Terphthalic acid, ethylene glycol forms the
polymer Terylene.

15. How is Nylon-66 prepared?

Nylon - 66 is obtained by condensing adipic acid with hexa methylene diamine with
the elimination of water molecule. It has very high tensile strength. It used as bristles for

16. Write about Artificial Sweeteners.

Certain organic compounds which have been synthesized in laboratories are known to
be many times sweeter than cane sugar. Such compounds are called artificial sweetening
agents or artificial sweetners.
Eg. (i) Saccharin, (ii) Dulcin,
5 Marks Questions and Answers ( Public Q.No : 63 )
1. Explain briefly on colour and structure of dyes.
1. Chromophroes :

An organic compound appears coloured due to the presence of certain unsaturated

groups (the groups with multiple bonds) in it. Such groups with multiple bonds are called

2. Chromogen
The compounds containing the chromophore group is called chromogen. The colour
intensity increases with the number of chromophores or the degree of conjugation.

For example, ethene (CH2 = CH2) is colourless, but the compound

CH3 (CH = CH)6 CH3 is yellow in colour.
3. Auxochromes:
The presence of certain groups which are not chromophores themselves, but deepen
the colour of the chromogen. Such supporting groups are called auxochromes.
E.g OH, NH2, NHR, NR2.
4. The presence of an auxochrome in the chromogen molecule is essential to make it a dye.
However, if an auxochrome is present in the meta position to the chromophore, it does not
affect the colour.

2. Explain briefly on characteristics of rocket propellants.

1. The propulsion system in most space vehicles consists of rocket engines powered by
chemical propellants. These also called rocket propellants.
2. Propellants are combustible compounds which on ignition undergo rapid combustion
to release large quantities of hot gases.
3. A propellant is a combination of an oxidiser and a fuel.
4. Working of a propellant. When a propellant is ignited, it burns to produce a large
quantity of hot gases. These gases then come out through the nozzle of the rocket
motor. The passage of gases through the nozzle of the rocket motor, provides the
necessary thrust for the rocket to move forward according to the Newtons Third law of
5. E.g. Hydrazine, Liquid hydrogen, Polyurethane, etc.
3.What are the characteristics of dyes.



have a suitable colour

be able to fix itself or be capable of being fixed to the fabric.
be fast to light
be resistant to the action of water, dilute acids and alkalies.

1. Difference between a particle and wave.
1. A particles occupies a well defined 1. A wave is delocalized in space.
space.(i.e) a particle is localized in space
2. Particles do not interfere.

2. A wave interfere.

3. Total value is equal to their sum

3. The resultant wave can be larger or

smaller than the individual waves

2. State Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

it is impossible to measure simultaneously both the position and velocity (or
momentum) of a microscopic particle with absolute accuracy or certainty.
x.p h/4
where, x = uncertainity in the position of the particle
p = uncertainity in the momentum of the particle.
3. What is the significance of negative electronic energy?
i) The energy of an electron at infinity is arbitrarily assumed to be zero. This state is
called zero-energy state.
ii) When an electron moves and comes under the influence of nucleus, it does some work
and spends its energy in this process.
iii) Thus, the energy of the electron decreases and it becomes less than zero i.e., it
acquires a negative value.
4. Explain: orbital
An orbital is the region of space around the nucleus within which the probability of
finding an electron of given energy is maximum
5. What is Bond order?
Half the difference between the number of electrons in bonding molecular orbital
(Nb) and the number of electrons in anti bonding molecular orbital (Na) i.e,
Bond Order =
(Nb - Na )
6. Why He2 is not formed?
The electronic configuration of helium (Z = 2) in the ground state is 1s2.
He 2 : (1s2) (*1s2)

Bond Order

(Nb - Na ) =

(2-2 )

Bond order for He2 = 0. So, it does not exist.

= 0

7. Define; Hybridisation
Hybridization is the intermixing of the orbital of an atom having nearly the same
energy to give exactly equivalent orbital with same energy, identical shapes and symmetrical
orientations in space.
8. What is hydrogen bonding ?
Hydrogen bonding comes into existence as a result of dipole dipole interactions between
the molecule in which hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom.
9. Explain the conditions for the effective hydrogen bonding?
i) High electro negativity of the atom bonded to hydrogen atom so that bond is
sufficiently polar.
ii) Small size of the atom bonded to hydrogen so that it is able to attract the bonding
electron pair effectively.
Five mark questions
1. Discuss the Davisson and Germer experiment
Davisson and Germers Experiment
i) A beam of electrons obtained from a heated tungsten filament is accelerated by using a
high positive potential.
ii) When this fine beam of accelerated electron is allowed to fall on a large single crystal
of nickel, the electrons are scattered from the crystal in different directions.
iii) The diffraction pattern so obtained is similar to the diffraction pattern obtained by
Braggs experiment on diffraction of X-rays from a target in the same way
iv) Since X-rays have wave character, therefore, the electrons must also have wave
character associated with them,
v) The wave length of the electrons as determined by the diffraction experiments were
de-Broglie equation. From the above discussion, it is clear that an electron behaves as a

2.Derive de-Broglies equation.

A photon have wave character, its energy
E = h (the Plancks quantum theory) ...(i)
The photon have particle character, its energy
E = mc2 (Einstein equation) ...(ii)
From equations (i) and (ii), we get
h = mc2
h . c / = mc2
= h / mc
The mass is replaced by the mass of the material particle m and the velocity c is
replaced by the velocity v of the material particle.
= h / mv or = h / p
where mv = p is the momentum of the particle.

3.Briefly explain Molecular Orbital Theory.
(i) In a molecule, electrons are present in new orbitals called molecular orbitals.
(ii) Molecular orbitals are formed by combination of atomic orbitals of equal energies or of
comparable energies
(iii) The number of molecular orbitals formed is equal to the number of atomic orbitals
undergoing combination.
(iv) Two atomic orbitals can combine to form two molecular orbitals. One of these two
molecular orbitals, one has a lower energy is called bonding molecular orbital and the
other with higher energy is called anti bonding molecular orbital.
(v) The shapes of molecular orbitals depend upon the shapes of combining atomic orbitals.
(vi) The bonding molecular orbitals are represented by (sigma), (pi), (delta) and the
antibonding molecular orbitals are represented by *, *, *
(vii) The molecular orbitals are filled in the increasing order of their energies, starting with
orbital of least energy. (Aufbau principle).
4. Explain the formation of Nitrogen molecule by molecular orbital theory.
Nitrogen atomic number: 7 , Electronic configuration: 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1
Number of electron present in nitrogen molecule is 14

Molecular orbital Electronic configuration: KK (2s) (*2s) (2px) (2py) (2pz)

Bond order =

Nb Na 8 2

Bond order is 3 means that a triple bond is present in a molecule of nitrogen.

All the electrons in nitrogen are paired, it is diamagnetic in nature.
Molecular orbital energy level diagram of N2

4. Explain the formation of Oxygen molecule by molecular orbital theory.

Nitrogen atomic number: 8 , Electronic configuration: 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py1 2pz1
Number of electron present in oxygen molecule is 16
Molecular orbital Electronic configuration: KK (2s)2 (*2s)2 (2pz)2 (2px)2 (2py)2 (*2px)1


Bond order= Nb-Na/2 =8-4/2 = 2

Bond orderis 2 means that a double bond is present in a molecule of oxygen.
Two electrons in oxygen are unpaired, it is paramagnetic in nature.
Molecular orbital energy level diagram of O2

6. What are the salient features regarding Hybridization

1. Orbitals involved in hybridization should have nearly the same energy
2. The orbitals of one and the same atom participate in hybridization
3. The number of hybrid orbitals formed is equal to the number of hybridizing orbitals.
4. The hybrid orbitals are all equivalent in shape and energy.
5. A hybrid orbitals which is taking part in bond formation must contain one electron in it.
6. Due to the electronic repulsions between the
distance apart.

hybrid orbitals, they tend to remain at the maximum

Chemical Kinetics
Three mark questions (Q.No 41 ,42)
1) Define rate Expression or Rate Law.
It equates the rate of the reaction to the product of its rate constant and and
concentrations of the reactants raised to certain exponential powers.
aA + bB products.
Rate = K[A]p[B]q
2) Define order of a reaction.
It is defined as the sum of the powers of the exponential powers to which each
concentration term is raised in the experimentally determined rate Law of a
chemical reaction.

3) Write Note on Activation energy.
The additional energy required by the molecules to attain threshold energy, in
addition to the energy of colloidal molecule is called Activation energy.
Activation energy = Threshold energy Energy of colliding molecules.
4) Write the Arrhenius Equation and Explain the terms.
K= rate constant Ea= activation energy A= frequency factor
R= gas constant. T= temperature in Kelvin.

5)Define Halt life period.

It is defined as the time required to reduce the concentration of a reactant to one half
of its initial value.

6) Define Threshold energy

All colliding molecules must possess certain minimum energy called as the threshold energy
which is needed to make the collisions effective and successful.
7) Give example for first order Reaction.
i) All radio active transformation follows first order kinetics.
90 Th 234 +2

He 4

ii) Decomposition of sulphuryl chloride

iii) Decomposition of H2o2

8) What are opposing reaction. Give Example.

The reactions in which the products formed react back simultaneously to form the
Reactants are called opposing or reversible reactions
Ex :


9) What are consecutive reactions. Give Example.

The reactions in which the reactant forms an intermediate and the intermediate forms the
product in one or more subsequent reactions are called consecutive or sequential reactions
Ex. Saponification of a diester in the presence of an alkali.

10) What are parallel reactions? Give Example.

In these group of reactions, one or more reactants react simultaneously in two or more
pathways to give two or more products.

11) Distinguish simple and complex reactions.

Simple Reactions

Complex Reactions

Occurs in single step

Occurs in multi (or) many steps

Over all values are small

Over all order values are large and greater than


No side reaction

Many side reactions are present

12) What is Pseudo first order reactions? Give Example.
In a second order reaction, when one of the reactants concentration is taken in large
Excess, than the reaction follows first order kinetics and this reaction is known as Pseudo
first order reaction.
Ex: Acid hydrolysis of ester.

13) State the characteristics of order of a reaction
i) The magnitude of order of a reaction may be Zero, (or) fractional (or) integral values
ii) It should be determined only by Experiments
iii) Some reactions show fractional order depending on rate

d- Block Elements

3 Marks (Q.No :35 , 36)

1) Why do transition elements form complexes.


Small size and high positive charge density


Presence of vacant (n-1)d orbitals which accept lone pair of electrons from
the ligands for bonding with them.

2) The transition elements show variable oxidation states. Give reasons.


The elements have several (n-1)d and ns electrons.


The energies of (n-1)d and ns orbitals are fairly close to each other.

3) Why transition metal compounds are colored .Give reason.


The presence of unpaired electrons in it.


The energy gap between d- subshells is very small. Hence very small amount
of energy is required for electrons to excit from one energy level to other.


The visible light can provide the small amount of energy and the colour
observed corresponds to the complementary colour of the light observed.

4) Write a note on chromeplating.

: The article to be plated.
: Plate of lead.
Electrolyte : chromic acid +dilute H2SO4
The article is plated with nickel before chromeplating.

During the electrolysis chromium is deposited on the article (cathode).

5) What is spitting of silver and how is it prevented?
Molten silver absorbs about twenty times its volume of oxygen which it again
expels on cooling globules of silver are thrown off. This is called spitting of silver.
This can be prevented by layer of charcoal.
6) Explain chromyl chloride test with equations.
When a chloride salt is treated with K2Cr2O7 and conc. H2SO4 orange red vapours of
chromyl chloride are evolved.


7) How did copper react with moisture.

Copper gets covered with a green layer of basic copper carbonate in the presence
of CO2 and moisture.
2Cu +H2O+O2+CO2

Cu(OH)2 .CuCO3

8) What is the action of heat on copper?

When copper is heated with Oxygen at below 1370K,
it gives black cupric oxide and above 1370K, it gives red cuprous oxide.

9) How does chromium react with conc. H2SO4?

Chromium reacts with conc. H2SO4 to give chromic sulphate and SO2
2Cr + 6H2SO4
Cr2(SO4)3 +3SO2 +6H2O
10) What is philospers wool ? How is it formed?
When zine is heated in air at 773K , it burns to form a white cloud of zine oxide
which settle to form wooly flock called philososhers wool.

11) How does Zinc react will dil HNO3 and very dilute HNO3
4Zn+10 HNO3

4 Zn(NO3)2 +N2O +5H2O

Zinc nitrate nitrous oxide

4Zn+10 HNO3
(very dilute)

+NH4NO3 +3H2O
Zinc nitrate ammonium nitrate.

12) What is the action of Zinc with hot NaOH solution?

Zinc dissolves in hot NaOH to form soluble sodium zincate.
Na2ZnO2 + H2
Sodium zincate

13) Write the reaction of gold with aqua regia.
Aqua regia : 3 times of cone HCl + 1 time of con.HNO3
2Au +9HCl +3HNO3
2AuCl3 + 3NOCl + 6H2O
Auric chloride nitrosyl.
14) Explain the oxidizing property of K2Cr2O7
K2Cr2O7 oxidising ferrous to ferric salt.
15) What is meant by Blue vitriol and how is it prepared?
Blue vitriol is CuSO4.5H2O
CuO + H2SO4

CuSO4 + H2O

Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4

CuSO4 + 2H2O

Cu CO3 + H2SO4

CuSO4 + H2O + CO2

16) What is the action of heat on copper sulphate crystals?

17) How is lunar caustic prepared?

Silver nitrate is called as lunar caustic.
It is prepared by dissolving silver in dil nitric acid.
3Ag +4HNO3

3AgNO3 +NO +2H2O

Silver nitrate

18) What is the action of heat on silver nitrate?

19) How is purple of cassius prepared?
It is prepared by mixing gold chloride with stannous chloride.
2AuCl3 + 3SnCl2

2Au + 3SnCl4

The precipitated gold is absorbed by stannic hydroxide formed by the hydrolysis of SnCl4


20) What is the action of heat on K2Cr2O7

Potassium dichromate

potassium chromate

Potassium dichromate

potassium chromate

21) Write the reason for the catalytic properties of d-block elements.
* The d-block elements show variable oxidation states and hence they can form
intermediate products with various reactants.
* They are capable of forming interstitial compounds which can adsorb and activate the
reacting species.
Eg. Fe/Mo for Haber process
V2O5 for contact process
22) Write the alloys of copper and their uses.
* Brass Cu=60 -80% Zn= 20-40% for making utensils condenser tubes, wires
* Bronze Cu=75-90% Sn=10-25% for making cooking utensils, statues, coins,
* Gun metal Cu =87% Sn=10% Zn=3% for making gun barrels, gears, castings etc.
23) What is calamine ? How is it prepared?
Zinc carbonate is called as calamine. It is prepared from NaHCO3 and ZnSO4
ZnSO4 + 2NaHCO3

ZnCO3 +Na2SO4+H2O+CO2

5 Marks (Q.No : 53)
1) Briefly explain the extraction of Zinc from Zinc blende

Imporant ore : Zine blende , Zns

Concentration : By froth floatation process.

Roasting : the concentrated ore is then roasted in the presence of air at


Reduction : Zinc oxide is mixed with coke and heated to 1673 k, zinc oxide is
reduced to zinc.

Electrolytic refining :
Anode : Impure Zinc
Cathode : Pure Zinc
Electrolyte : ZnSO4+dit . H2SO4
On passing electric current , pure zinc gets deposited in the cathode.

2) How is silver extracted from Argentite?

Imporant ore : Argentite ,Ag2S
Concentration : By froth floatation process.
Treatment with NaCN : The concentrated ore is treated with 0.4 -0.6% NaCN for
several hours. The mixture is continuously agitated by current of air, ore is
converted into soluble sodium argento cyanide complex.
Ag2S + 4 NaCN

2Na[Ag(CN)2] + Ag2S

The solution containing sodium argento cyanide is filtered and filtrate is treated
with Zn dust, silver gets precipitated.
2Na[Ag(CN)2] + Zn

2Ag + Na2[Zn(CN)4]

Electrolysis :
Anode : Impure Silver
Cathode : pure silver
Eletrolyte : AgNO3+1% HNO3
On passing electric current , pure silver gets deposited at the cathode.

3) Explain how gold is extracted from its alluvial gravels.
Imporant ore : Alluvial sand or gravel
mac Arthur Forrest cyanide process.
Crushing and concentration : Ore is crushed and concentrated by froth
floatation process.
Roasting : The concentrated ore is roasted in excess of air when impurities
are oxidized and escape as their oxides.
It is then treated with 0.5% KCN in presence air for 24 hrs, Soluble potassium
aurocyanide is formed.

The above solution is filtered and treated with zinc dust, gold gets

Electrolysis :
Anode : Impure Au
Cathode : pure Au
Eletrolysis : AuCl3+10-12% HCl

On passing electric current , pure silver gets deposited on the cathode.

4) Explain how potassium dichromite is extracted from its chromite ore?
Conversion of chromite ore to sodium chromate
The powered chromite ore is mixed with Na2CO3 and quick lime then
roasted and expose to air.

Conversion of sodium chromate to sodium dichromate

Sodium chromate is filtered and treated with conc. H2SO4, sodium
dichromate id formed.

Sodium dichromate is treated with potassium chloride , potassium

dichromate is formed.


5) Briefly explain the Alumino thermic process.

Chromic oxide is mixed with aluminium in 3:1 ratio and it is placed in a Fire
clay crucible.
A mixture of barium peroxide and Mg power is placed over this.
The crucible is surrounded by sand which prevents loss of heat by radiation.

The mixture is ignited by a piece of Mg ribbon.

During this process , a large amount of heat is liberated in which Cr2o3 is reduced to

Explain the extraction of silver from silver coins.

Silver coins are Ag Cu alloy.
When this alloy is dissolved in conc. HNO3, a mixture containing AgNO3 + Cu(NO3)2 is
The solution is boiled to expel the excess of conc. HNO3)
Then the solution is treated with conc. HCl , Silver is precipitated as AgCl.
AgCl is separated and converted to silver by fusing with excess Na2CO3

The silver is purified by fusion with Borax and followed by electrolytic purification.

Co-ordination compounds and Bio Co-ordination compounds.

1) Explain the postulates of werners theory.
Every metal atom has two types of valencies.

Primary valency ii) Secondary valency

Primary valency
1) It denotes oxidation state of the
metal ion
2) Ionisable valency
3) It is satisfied by Negative ions
4) Non-directional in nature

Secondary valency
It denotes co-ordination No of the metal ion
Non ionisable valency
It is satisfied by either Negative ions or
neutral molecules. They are called ligands .
Directional in nature

Ligands have unshared pair of electrons. These unshared pair of electrons are donated to
central metal ion or atom in a compound such compounds are called co-ordination
2) Explain the postulates of valency bond Theory

The central metal atom or ion makes available a number of vacant orbitals equal to its
co-ordination number.


A covalent bond is formed by the overlap of a vacant metal orbital and filled ligand


This complete overlap leads to the formation of a metal ligand bond.


A strong covalent bond is formed only when the orbitals overlap to the maximum


This maximum overlapping is possible only when the metal vacant orders under so a
process called hybridization.


A hybridised orbital has a better directional characteristics than unhybridised one.

Co-ordination No



The paramagnetic moment is calculated by the formula.

Number of unpaired electrons

Spin only moment(BM)

3) For the complexes mention a) Central metal ion b) ligand C) IUPAC Name
d) Co-Ordination No E) Coordination sphere f) Charge on the Coordination sphere
Central metal ion
Oxidatation state of
central metal ion
Co ordination No

Co Ordination sphere
Charge on the
Co Ordination sphere










Potassium hexa cyano

Ferrate (II)

Potassium hexa
cyano Ferrate (III)

Tetra ammine
Copper (II)







4) Explain the isomerism Exhibited by co ordination compounds with Example.
Co-ordination isomerism : In a bimetallic complex, the distribution of ligands between two
co-ordination spheres can vary, giving rise to isomers called the co-ordination isomers.
Eg. [CoIII(NH3)6] [CrIII(CN)6] and [CrIII(NH3)6] [CoIII(CN)6]
Ionisation isomerism : co ordination compounds having the same molecular formula but
forming different ions in solution are called ionization isomers.
Eg. [Co(NH3)5Br]SO4 and [Co(NH3)5SO4]Br
Red violet isomer
Red isomer
5) Hydrate isomerism :
This type of isomerism occurs for chromium chloride. CrCl3.6H20 which may contain 4,5,
or 6 co ordinate molecules.
Eg. [Cr(H2O)4Cl2]Cl.2H2O - Bright green
[Cr(H2O)5Cl]Cl2.H2O Gray green and
[Cr(H2O)6]Cl3 - violet

Likage isomerism : It occurs with ambidentate lignds which are capable of co ordinating in
more than one way.
[Co(NH3)5ONO]Cl2 - red colour nitrito isomer
[Co(NH3)5NO2]Cl2 - yellow colour nitro isomer
Ligand isomerism : It arises from the presence of ligand which can adopt different isomeric
Ex. Diaminopropane.

1,3 diaminopropane
1,2 diaminopropane
6) Mention the type of hybridization and magnetic property of the following complexes
using VB Theory.

[Ni(NH3)4]2+ (ii) [Ni(CN)4]2[Ni(NH3)4]2+


Electronic configuration of
Ni atom



Electronic configuration of
Ni 2+ ion



Weak ligand

Strong ligand

It does not force the

unpaired electron to pair

It forces the
electrons to pair

Nature of ligand

No. of unpaired electrons

Magnetic moment


Magnetic property






Square planar


7) Mention the type of hybridization and magnetic property of the following complex using

i)[FeF6]4- ii) [Fe(CN)6]4[FeF6]4-


Electronic configuration of
Fe atom



Electronic configuration of
Fe 2+ ion



Weak ligand
It does not force the
unpaired electron to
pair up.

Strong ligand
It forces the unpaired
electrons to pair up

sp3 d2




Nature of ligand

No. of unpaired electrons

Magnetic moment
Magnetic property



8)Mention the function of Heamoglobin in natural process.

i) Haemoglobin in the red blood cells carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.
ii) It delivers the O2 molecule to myoglobin in the tissues, when the oxygen has been released
for cell respiration.
ii) Haemoglobin loses its bright red colour and becomes purple.
iii) It combines with the waste CO2 produced by the cells and deposits in the lungs so that
the gas can be exhaled.
iv) Haemoglobin is a iron porphyrin complex and Heme group is a part of it.
v) Myoglobin is a monomer and haemoglobin is a tetramer.
vi) The working part of Haemoglobin is a Heme group containing an Fe +2 cation coordinate to four nitrogen atoms of porphyrin group and one nitrogen atom of histidine
group. The sixth octahedral site is available to bind oxygen molecule.
9) How is chlorophyll important in environment chemistry? Mention itsfunctions.

Chlorophyll is a magnesium porphyrin complex.


Mg2+ is at the centre of the modified porphyrin ring septeon..


In plants, chlorophyll a is the pigment directly responsible for transformation of

light energy to chemical energy.


In plants the green pigment chlorophyll helps photosynthesis.


The conversion of atmospheric CO2 and atmospheric moisture into carbohydrate and
molecular oxygen in the presence of sunlight, by the plant is called photo synthesis.


Chlorophyll acts as a light sensitizer in this process


Chlorophyll helps in the conversion of atmosphere CO2 into moleculer oxygen which
acts as a fuel for human cell.

10) For the complex K3[Cr(C2O4)3]3H20 mention 1) Name b) central metal ion
c) ligands d) Co-ordination No. e) Geometry
a) Name
: potassium tris (oxalat) chromate III trihydrate
b) Central metal ion

: Cr


(Chromium ion)

c) ligand
d) Co ordination Number : 6
e) Geometry
: octahedral

17 Ethers
1) What are Ethers? How are they classified?
Ethers are compound where oxygen atom is linked to both sides by either saturated,
unsaturated (or) Aromatic Carbon. R-O-R
Simple Ether : It two alkyl groups attached to the oxygen atom are same then it is called
simple Ether.
Ex: diethyl ether
Mixed Ether : It the two alkyl groups attached to the oxygen atom are different , then it is
called mixed Ether Ex: Ethyl methyl Ether

2) Explain the isomerism exhibited by Ethers (or) write all the possible isomers for C4H10O
i) Functional isomerism
Compounds having same molecular formula but different functional group are called
functional isomerism


ii) Metamerism :
Compounds having same molecular formula and same functional group but different alkyl
groups attached to

3) Give three methods of preparation of diethyl Ether

ii) Williamsons Synthesis

iii) C2 H 5 I

Ethyl idodide

Ag 2O + C2H 5I
Dry silver oxide

C2 H5 O- C2 H5 + 2AgI


What is the action of ethyl methyl Ether with (i) HI (ii) Excess HI
Halogen prefers to attack the carbon atom of the smaller alkyl group.

Uses : Zeisels method of detection and estimation of alkoxy (especially methoxy) group in
5) What is the action of diethyl ether with the following ?
a) O2 /long contact b) HI c) Excess HI
a) C2H5-O-C2H5


(Diethyl peroxide)
(Decomposes violently with explosion on heating)
b) C2H5-O-C2H5 + HI C2H5OH + C2H5 I
Diethyl Ether
Ethylalcohol Ethyl iodide
c) C2H5-O-C2H5 + 2HI
2C2H5I + H2O
6) What is the action of diethyl ether with the following?
a) dil H2SO4 B) conc H2SO4 C) Cl2

7) What is the action of diethyl ether with the following?
b)conc HCl




8) Write the uses of diethyl ether

i)Diethyl ether is used as a refrigerant
ii)As an anesthetic
iii)As a medium for the preparation of Grignard Reagent
iv)As a solvent for the extraction of organic compound
v)Mixed with ethanol as substitute for petrol

9)Write three methods of preparation of Anisole

i) Williamsons synthesis.
C6H5ONa + CH3 I
Sodium phenoxide
ii) C6H5OH

methyl iodide

+ CH2N2

+ NaI


C6H5OCH3 + N2

diazo methane

iii) C6H5OH + (CH3 )2 SO4



Dimethyl sulphate

Methyl hydrogen sulphate

10)What is the action of anisole with the following

11) Explain a)Nitration of Anisole b)Bromination of Anisole

12) Distinguish Aromatic Ether & Aliphatic Ether (or) Distinguish Anisole and diethyl ether
Aromatic Ether (Anisole)
High boiling liquid
Used in perfumery
Not used as solvent
Cannot be used as a substitute for petrol
With nitrating mixture forms nitro anisole
Does not form peroxide easily

Aliphatic Ether(Diethyl ether)

Volatile liquid
Used as anesthetic
Used as solvent
Mixed with alcohol used as a
substitute for petrol
Nitration does not takes place
Forms peroxide in air easily

Isomerism in organic chemistry
3 Mark Questions (Question No : 45)
1) Differentiate diastereomer from enantiomer
Optical isomers having the same magnitude
but different sign of optical rotation
They have non-super imposable object
mirror-image relationship
Enantiomers are identical in all properties
except the sign of optical rotation
Separation of enantiomer is tedious

Differ in the magnitude of optical
They are not having mirror image
Diastereomers differ in all physical
Separation of diastereomer is easy

2) What is a racemic mixture? Explain with suitable Example.

When equal amount of d and l isomers are mixed , the resultant mixture will be optically
inative. It is because of optical activity of d-isomer is externally compensated by the optical
activity of l-isomer. This mixture is called racemix mixture Ex: Mixture of 50% d latic acid and
50%l-latic acid.

3) Mesotartaric acid is an optically inactive compound with chiral carbon justify

i)In meso tartaric acid one asymmetric carbon is dextro rotator and other is laevo rotator.
ii)Configuration of one carbon is the mirror image of other, making the molecule to be
iii)The molecule has plane of symmetry.
iv)It is optically inactive due to Internal compensation.

4) Give the conditions for a compound to undergo optical isomerism.

i)The compound must have asymmetric carbon atoms.
ii)It must be chiral.
iii)It must rotate the plane polarized light either right or left.
5) Give the structure of E and Z form of cinnamic acid.






6) Explain geometrical isomerism with Example
(Cis-Trans isomerism)
Isomerism that arises out of difference in the spatial arrangements of atoms or groups about the
doubly bonded carbon atoms is called geometrical isomerism.
In a carbon carbon double bond same groups are attached in same side then it is called cis
In a carbon carbon double bond same groups are attached in different side then it is called trans

Cis 2-butene

trans 2-butene

Similar groups
Chemical properties
Physical properties
stearic hinderance

Cis isomer
Lie on the same side

Trans isomer
Lie in the opposite direction
Does not exist

7) Explain optical isomerism in tartaric acid

Tartaric acid is dihydroxydioic acid contains Two identical chiral carbon atoms
i)d tartaric acid : It rotates the planepolarised light towards clockwise direction(right)
So it is dextro rotatory
ii)l-tartaric acid : It rotates the plane polarized light towards anti-clockwise( left)
So it is leavo rotatary

iii)Meso tartaric acid :
a)The molecule has a plane of symmetry which divides the molecule into two equal halves.
b)One asymmetric carbon is dextro-rotatory and other is leavorotatory as a result the
isomer is optically in active.
c)It is due to internal compensation.
iv) Racemic mixture :
When equal amounts of d and l isomers are mixed the mixture is called Racemic mixyure.
In this mixture the rotation of d-isomer is compensated by rotation of l-isomer . So
it becomes optically inactive
It is due to external compensation

d- tartaric acid


l-tartaric acid

Mesotartaric acid

8) Explain optical isomerism in Lactic acid

Lactic acid contains one chiral carbon atom
It has two isomeric forms

d-lactic acid


l-lactic acid

i)d Lactic acid : It rotates the planepolarised light towards clockwise direction(right)
So it is dextro rotatory

ii)l-Lactic acid : It rotates the plane polarized light towards anti-clockwise( left)
So it is leavo rotatary
d and l Lactic acis are called enantiomers because they differ only in the sign of rotation
iii)Racemic mixture : When equal amounts of d and l isomers are mixed the mixture is called
Racemic mixture
The rotation of d isomer is compensated by rotation of l-isomer so it is optically inactive. It is
due to external compensation.

Lesson wise One Mark Questions

1.Atomic structure - II ( 2 x 1 = 2 )
1. En = -313.6/n2 If the value of E1 = -34.84 to which value n corresponds
Ans: 3
2. Dual character of an electron was explained by
Ans: de-Broglie
3. de- Broglie equation is
Ans: h/mv
4. The value of Bohr radius for hydrogen atom is
Ans: 0.529 x 10-8 cm
5. Which of the following particle having same kinetic energy would have
maximum de broglie wave length
Ans: particle
6. If the energy electron in the second Bohr orbit of H - atom is -E. What is the
energy of the electron in the Bohrs first orbit?
Ans: -4E
7. The energy of electron in an atom if given by En
Ans: En = -2 2me4/n 2h 2
8. The bond order of oxygen molecule is
Ans: 2
9. The hybridisation in SF6 molecule is
Ans: sp 3d 2
10. The intramolecular hydrogen bonding is present in
Ans: o- nitro phenol

2. Periodic classification -II ( 1 x 1 = 1 )

1) The value of C-C distance found experimentally in a saturated hydrocarbon is
Ans: 1.54A o
2) On moving down the group the radius of an ion
Ans: increases
3) Effective nuclear charge (z*)can be calculated by using the formula
Ans: z*=z-s

4) Pick the correct statement
Ans: carbon having more nuclear charge than boron
5. Comparing the ionisation energy of fluorine with carbon, fluorine has
Ans: higher ionisation energy
6. Among the following which has the maximum ionisation energy
Ans: Nobel gases
7. The electron affinity of an atom
Ans: inversely proportional to its size
8. Among the following which has higher electron affinity value
Ans: Chlorine
9. The scale which is based on an empirical relation between the energy of a bond
and the electro negativities of bonded atoms is
Ans: Pauling scale
10. Electron affinity is expressed in
Ans: KJmol -1
11. The bond length of Cl2 molecule is
Ans: 1.98A 0
12. The order of ionisation energy
Ans: s>p>d>f
13. Across the period electron affinity
Ans: increases
14. Noble gases, have ______ electron affinity.
Ans: zero
15. When XA>> XB, A - B bond is
Ans: Ionic

3 P- Block elements ( 1 x 1 = 1 )
1. Which of the following does not belong to group -13
Ans: Ge
2. Which of the following is most abundant in earths crust?
Ans: Si
3. An element which was burnt in limited supply of air to give oxide A which on
treatment with water gives an acid B acid B on heating gives acid C which gives
yellow precipitate with AgNO3 solution A is
Ans: P2O3
4. The compound with garlic odour is
Ans: P2O3
5. The shape of PCl5 is
Ans: trigonal bipyramidal
6. The compound used as smoke screen
Ans: PH3
7. Which shows only - 1 oxidation state?
Ans: Fluorine
8. One can draw the map of building on a glass plate by
Ans: HF
9. Among the halogen acid, the weakest acid is
Ans: HF
10. Halogens belongs to the group number
Ans: 17
11. The noble gas are un reactive because they
Ans: have stable electronic configuration

12. The shape of XeF4 is
Ans: square planner
13. Which is not known?
Ans: ArF6
14. The lightest gas which is non - inflammable is
Ans: He
1 5.Which of the following has highest first ionisation energy?
Ans: He

4. d. Block elements ( 2 x 1 = 2 )
1. The general electronic configuration of d- block elements is
Ans: (n-1) d 1-10 ns 1-2
2. Formation of coloured ions is possible when compounds contain
Ans: unpaired electrons
3. Paramagnetism is common in
Ans: d-block elements
4. The colour of [Ti(H2O)6]3+ion to
Ans: d-d transition
5. The electronic configuration of chromium is
Ans: 3d 54s 1
6. Paramagnetism is a property of
Ans: unpaired electrons
7. d - block elements formed coloured ions because
Ans; They absorb some energy for d-d transition
8. The correct electronic configuration of copper atom is
Ans; 3d 10 4s 1
9. Copper is extracted from
Ans: copper pyrites
10. Silver salt used in photography is
Ans: AgBr
11. Sodium thiosulphate is used in photography because of its
Ans: complexing behaviour
12. Excess of sodium hydroxide reacts with zinc to form
Ans: Na2ZnO2
13.Which of the following compounds will not give positive chromyl chloride test?
Ans: C6H5Cl
14. Which of the ions will give colourless aqueous solution ?
Ans: Cu +
15. Which of the following compounds is not coloured?
Ans: NaCd I4
16. In the extraction of cu, the reaction which does not takes place in the Bessemer
converter is
Ans: 2CuFeS2 O2Cu 2S + 2FeS+ SO2
17. Select the wrong statement
Ans: All cuprous salts are blue in colour
18. Choose the wrong statement regarding K2Cr2O7
Ans: It reduces ferric sulphate to ferrous sulphate
19. For a transition metal ion the effective magnetic moment in BM is given by the


20. Which compound is formed when excess of KCN is added to an aqueous
solution of copper sulphate
Ans: Cu 2(CN)2 +(CN)2
21. Which of the following has maximum no of unpaired electrons?
Ans: Mn 2 +
22. Among the following statement , the incorrect one is
Ans : Argentite and cuprite are oxides.
23. The chemical composition of slag formed during the smelting process in the
extraction of copper
Ans: FeSiO3
24. The transition element with the lowest atomic number is
Ans: Scandium
25. Which transition element shows highest oxidation state
Ans: Os
26. The Correct statement in respect of d- block element is
a) They are all metals.
b) They show variable valency
c) They form coloured icons and complex salts
d) All the above statement are correct

5 F- Block elements ( 2 x 1 = 2 )
1. The electronic configuration of Lanthanides is
Ans: [Xe] 4f 1-145d 16S2
2. The electronic configuration of actinides is
Ans: [Rn]5f 0-14 6d 0-2 7S2
3. The lanthanide is responsible for the fact that
Ans: Zr and Hf have about the same radius
4. The most common oxidation state of lanthanides
Ans: +3
5. Lanthanides are extracted from
Ans: monazite
6. The elements in which the extra electron enters (n-2)f orbitals are called
Ans: f- block elements
7. The Lanthanides contraction is due to
Ans: imperfect shielding of 4f electron
8. Ceria used in
Ans: gas lamp materials
9. --------- is used in gas lamp material.
Ans: CeO2
10. Alloys of Lanthanides are called as
Ans: mish - metals
11. Metallo thermic process involving lanthanides are called as
Ans: Lanthanido thermic process
12. --------- form oxocations.
Ans: actinides
13. Maximum oxidation state exhibited by lanthanides is
Ans: +4
14. Lanthanides are separated by
Ans: fractional crystallisation


6. Co - ordination compounds ( 1 x 1 = 1 )
1. Which is a double salt?
Ans: K 2SO4 Al 2(SO4)3 .24H20.
2. An example of a complex compound having co-ordination number 4
Ans: [Cu(NH3)4]Cl 2
3. The geometry of (Cu NH3)4]2+ complex ion
Ans: square planar
4. An example of a chelating ligand is
Ans: en
5. The geometry of complex ion [Fe(CN)6]4- is
Ans: octahedral
6. The oxidation number of nickel in the complex ion, [NiCl4]2- is
Ans: +2
7. Which is not an anionic complex?
Ans: [Cu(NH3)4] Cl 2
8. The geometry of [Ni (CN)4]2- is
Ans: square planar
9. An example of ambidentate ligand is
Ans: NO210. [FeF6]4- is paramagnetic because
Ans: F- is a weaker ligand
11. In [FeII (CN)6]4- the central metal ion is
Ans: Fe2+
12. The coordination number of Ni(II) in [Ni(CN)4]2- is
Ans: 4
13. The name of [ptIV (NH3)2Cl2]2+
Ans: Diammine dichloroplatinum (IV) ion
14. For a compound K4[Fe(CN)6] 4K-+ [Fe(CN)6]4- the complex ion is
Ans: [Fe(CN)6] 415. A metal ion form the first transition series forms an octahedral complex with
magnetic moment of 4.9 BM and another octahedral complex which is diamagnetic
The metal ion is
Ans: Fe2+
16. Paramagnetic moment is expressed in
Ans: BM
17. The type of isomerism found in the complexes [Co(NO2)(NH3)5] SO4 and
[Co(SO4)(NH3)5] NO2
Ans: ionisation isomerism
18. Valence bond theory doesnt explain the property of complex compounds
Ans: magnetic

7. Nuclear chemistry ( 1 x 1 = 1 )
1. The phenomenon of radio activity was discovered by
Ans: Henry Becquarrel
2. The most penetrating radiations are
ns: rays
3. In the nuclear reaction 92U238 82Pb206, the number of & particles emitted are
Ans: 8, 6

4. Which one of the following particles is used to bombard 13 Al 27 to give to give
15 P and a neutron
Ans: particle
5. The reaction 5B8 4Be8 takes place due to
Ans: positron decay
6. Radio activity is due to
Ans: un stable nucleus
7. In the following radio active decay 92 X232 89Y220 how many and particles are
Ans: 3 , 3
8. 92 U nucles absorbs a neutron and disintegrates into 54 Xe139, 38 Sr94and X . What
will be the product?
Ans: 3 neutrons
9. Loss of particle is equivalent to
a) increase of proton only b) decrease of one neutron only c) both a & b
10. Which of the following is used as neutron absorber in the nuclear reactor?
Ans: cadmium.

8. Solid State ( 1 x 1 = 1)
1. The number of chloride ions that surrounds the central Na+ ion in NaCl crystal is
Ans: 6
2. The Braggs equation is ________.
Ans: n = 2d sin
3. A regular three dimensional arrangement of identical points in space is called
Ans: space lattice
4. The smallest repeating unit in space lattice which when repeated over and again
results in the crystal of the given substance is called ________.
Ans: unit cell
5. The crystal structure of CsCl is ________.
Ans: Body - centred cubic
6. An example for frenkel defect is _________.
Ans: Agcl
7. Semi conductors which exhibit conductivity due to the flow of excess negative
electron are called ________.
Ans: n-type semi conductors
8. In the Braggs equation for diffraction of x-ray n represents _______.
Ans: Order of reflection
9. The number of close neighbors in a body centred cubic lattice of identical spheres
is __________.
Ans: 8
10. The crystals which are good conductors of electricity and heat are _________.
Ans: Metallic crystals
11. In a simple cubic cell, each point on a corner is shared by __________.
Ans: 8 unit cell
12. The ability of certain ultra cold substances to conduct electricity without
resistance is called _____.
Ans: super conductor
13. The total number of atoms per unit cell in bcc is
Ans: 2

14. Rutile is
Ans: TiO2
15. Semi conductors are used as
a) rectifiers b) transistors c) solar cells d) all the above
16. An example of metal deficiency defect.
Ans: FeS

9. Thermodynamics ( 2 x 1 = 2 )
1. The amount of heat exchanged with the surrounding at constant temperature and
pressure is called
Ans: H
2. All the naturally occurring processes proceed spontaneously in a direction which
leads to
Ans: decrease of free energy.
3. In an adiabatic process which of the following is true?
Ans: q = 0
4. When a liquid boils, there is
Ans: an increase in entropy
5. If G for a reaction is negative, the change is
Ans: Spontaneous
6. Which of the following does not result in an increase in the entropy?
Ans: crystallisation of Sucrose from solution
7. In which of the following process, the process is always non-feasible?
Ans: H>O, S<O
8. Change in Gibbs free energy is given by
Ans: G=H-TS
9. For the reaction 2Cl(g) Cl2(g)the Signs of H and S respectively are ________.
Ans: - , -

10. Chemical equilibrium ( 2 x 1 = 2 )

1. State of chemical equilibrium is:
Ans: dynamic
2. If the equilibrium constants of the following reactions are 2A B is K1
and B 2A is K2, then
Ans: K1 = 1/K2
3. In the reversible reaction 2HI H2 + I2, Kp is
Ans : Equal to Kc
4. In the equilibrium N2 + 3H2 2NH3, the maximum yield of ammonia will
be obtained with the process having
Ans: high pressure and low temperature
5. For the homogeneous gas reaction at 600 K
4NH3(g) + 5O2(g)
4NO(g) + 6H2O(g) the equilibrium constant Kc has the unit
Ans: (mol dm-3)
6. Two moles of ammonia gas are introduced into a previously evacuated 1.0
dm3 vessel in which it partially dissociates at high temperature. At equilibrium
1.0 mole of ammonia remains. The equilibrium constant Kc for the dissociation
Ans: 27/16 (mole dm-3)2

7. An equilibrium reaction is endothermic if K1 and K2 are the equilibrium
constants at T1 and T2 temperatures respectively and if T2 is greater than T1
Ans: K1 is less than K2

11.Chemical kinetics ( 1 x 1 = 1 )
1. Hydrolysis of an ester by dilute HCl is an example for
Ans: pseudo first order reaction
2. The unit of zero order rate constant is
Ans: (b) mol litre-1 sec-1
3. The excess energy which a molecule must posses to become active is
known as
Ans: activation energy
4. Arrhenius equation is
Ans: k = AeEa/RT
5. The term A in Arrhenius equation is called as
Ans: Frequency factor
6. The sum of the powers of the concentration terms that occur in the rate
equation is called
Ans: order
7. Reactions in which the reacting molecules react in more than one way
yielding different set of products are called
Ans: parallel reactions
8. The half life period of a first order reaction is 10 minutes. Then its rate
constant is
Ans 6.932 102 .min1
9. For a reaction : aA bB, the rate of reaction is doubled when the
concentration of A is increased by four times. The rate of reaction is
equal to
Ans: k [A]
10. 2N2O5

4NO2 + O2 d[N205] = k1[N2O5],

d [NO2 ] = k2 [N2O5] and d[O2] = k3 [N2O5], the relation between k1, k2 and k3 is

Ans:2k1 = k2 = 4k3
11. For a reaction, Ea = 0 and k = 4.2 105sec-1 at 300K, the value of k at
310K will be
Ans:4.2 105 sec1

12. Surface Chemistry ( 3 x 1 = 3 )

1. The migration of colloidal particles under the influence of an electric
field is known as
Ans: electrophoresis
2. Which one is the correct factor that explains the increase of rate of reaction
by a catalyst
Ans: lowering of activation energy
3. Fog is a colloidal solution of
Ans: gas in solid

4. The phenomenon of Tyndalls effect is not observed in
Ans true solution
5. The Tyndalls effect associated with colloidal particles is due to
Ans: scattering of light
6. In case of physical adsorption, there is desorption when
Ans: temperature increases
7. Colloidal medicines are more effective because
Ans: they are easily assimilated and adsorbed
8. Oil soluble dye is mixed with emulsion and emulsion remains colourless
then, the emulsion is Ans: O/W
9. For selective hydrogenation of alkynes into alkene the catalyst used is
Ans: Pd, partially inactivated by quinoline
10. For chemisorptions, which is wrong
Ans: it forms multi molecular layers on adsorbate
11. An emulsion is a colloidal solution of
Ans: two liquids
12. Colloids are purified by
Ans: dialysis

13.Electro chemistry I ( 1 x 1 = 1)
1. The process in which chemical change occurs on passing electricity is termed as ...............
Ans: electrolysis
2. The laws of electrolysis were enunciated first by ...............
Ans: Faraday
3. When one coulomb of electricity is passed through an electrolytic solution, the mass
deposited on the electrode is equal to ...............
Ans: electrochemical equivalent
4. Faradays laws of electrolysis are related to ...............
Ans: equivalent weight of the electrolyte
5. The specific conductance of a 0.01 M solution of KCl is 0.0014 ohm-1 cm-1at 25oC.
Its equivalent conductance is ...............
Ans: 140 ohm1 cm2 eq1
6. The equivalent conductivity of CH3COOH at 25oC is 80 ohm-1 cm2 eq-1 and at infinite
dilution 400 ohm-1 cm2 eq-1. The degree of dissociation of CH3COOH is ...............
Ans: 0.2
7. When sodium acetate is added to acetic acid, the degree of ionisation of acetic acid
Ans: decreases
8. NH4OH is a weak base because ...............
Ans: it is only partially ionised
9. Which one of the following formulae represents Ostwalds dilution law for a binary
electrolyte whose degree of dissociation is and concentration C .
Ans: K = 2 C
10. Ostwalds dilution law is applicable in the case of the solution of ...............
11. Which one of the following relationship is correct ?

12. When 10-6mole of a monobasic strong acid is dissolved in one litre of solvent, the pH of
the solution is ..............
Ans: 6
13. When pH of a solution is 2, the hydrogen ion concentration in moles litre-1 is .............
Ans: 1 10-2
14. The pH of a solution containing 0.1 N NaOH solution is ..........
Ans: 13
15. A solution which is resistant to changes of pH on addition of small amounts of an acid or
a base is known as .............
Ans: buffer solution
16. The hydrogen ion concentration of a buffer solution consisting of a weak acid and its salt
is given by .............
Ans [H+] = Ka [ Acid]

17. Indicators used in acid-base titrations are ...........

Ans: weak organic acids or weak organic bases
18. For the titration between oxalic acid and sodium hydroxide, the indicator
used in ...........
Ans: phenolphthalein

16. Hydroxy derivatives 1( 1 x 1 = 1 )

1. Which has the highest boiling point ?
Ans: C2H5OH
2. Which is soluble in H2O ?
Ans: Alcohols
3. Order of reactivity of alcohol towards sodium metal is
Ans: primary > secondary > tertiary
4. The boiling point of ethyl alcohol should be less than that of
Ans: formic acid
5. Ethyl alcohol cannot be used as a solvent for CH3MgI because
Ans: CH3MgI reacts with alcohol giving methane
6. When alcohols are converted to alkyl chlorides by thionyl chloride in presence of pyridine
the intermediate formed is
Ans: alkyl chlorosulphite
7. On oxidation of an alcohol gives an aldehyde having the same number of carbon atoms as
that of alcohol. The alcohol is
Ans: 1o alcohol
8. A compound that gives a positive iodo form test is
Ans: 2-pentanone
9. The compound that reacts fastest with Lucas reagent is
Ans : 2-methyl propan-2-ol
10. The ionization constant of phenol is higher than that of ethanol because
Ans: phenoxide ion is stabilized through delocalisation
11. Among the following compounds strongest acid is
Ans: CH3OH

12. The most unlikely representation of resonance structures of p-nitrophenoxide ion is

13. p-nitrophenol is having lower pKa value than phenol because

Ans anion of p-nitrophenol is more stabilised by resonance than that of phenol
14. The reaction of Lucas reagent is fast with
Ans: (CH3)3COH
15. When phenol is distilled with Zn dust it gives
Ans: benzene
16. A compound that undergoes bromination easily is
Ans phenol
17. Isomerism exhibited by ethylene glycol is
Ans functional isomerism
18. Ethylene diamine is converted to ethylene glycol using
Ans: nitrous acid
19. Ethylene glycol forms terylene with
Ans terephthalic acid
20. 1-propanol and 2-propanol can be best distinguished by
Ans oxidation by heating with copper followed by reaction with Fehling solution
21. Glycerol is used
Ans: (a) as a sweetening agent
(b) in the manufacture of good quality soap
(c) in the manufacture of nitro glycerin
(d) in all the above
22. The alcohol obtained by the hydrolysis of oils and fats is
Ans: glycerol
23. The number of secondary alcoholic group in glycerol is
Ans: 1
24. The active component of dynamite is
Ans: Nitro glycerine
25. The reaction of ethylene glycol with PI3 gives
Ans : CH2 = CH2

17 Ethers ( 2 x 1 = 2 )
1. The isomerism exhibited by C2H5OC2H5 and CH3 O CH CH3 is
Ans: metamerism

2. Which one of the following is simple ether ?
Ans : C2H5 O C2H5
3. Diethyl ether can be decomposed with
Ans : HI
4. Oxygen atom of ether is
Ans : Comparatively inert
5. According to Lewis concept of acids and bases, ethers are
Ans : Basic
6. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds are not present in
Ans : C2H5OC2H5
7. When ethyl Iodide is treated with dry silver oxide it forms
Ans : diethylether
8. Williamson's synthesis is an example of
Ans : Nucleophilic substitution reaction
9. When ether is exposed to air for sometime an explosive substance
produced is
Ans : peroxide
10. Ether is formed when alkyl halide is treated with sodium alkoxide. This
method is known as
Ans : Williamson's synthesis

18. Carbonyl compounds ( 1 x 1 = 1 )

1. The chain isomer of 2-methyl propanal is
Ans : butanal
2. Schiffs reagent gives pink colour with
Ans : acetaldehyde
3. Isopropyl alcohol vapours with air over silver catalyst at 520 K give
Ans : acetone
4. Methyl ketones are usually characterised by
Ans : the iodoform test
5. Which of the following compounds is oxidised to give ethyl methyl
ketone ?
Ans : 2-butanol
6. Formaldehyde polymerises to give
Ans : paraformaldehyde
7. Tollens reagent is
Ans : ammoniacal silver nitrate
8. When acetaldehyde is heated with Fehling solution, it gives a precipitate of
Ans : Cu2O
9. The compound that does not undergo Cannizzaro reaction is
Ans : acetaldehyde
10. The formation of cyanohydrin from a ketone is an example of
Ans : nucleophilic addition
11. Hydrogenation of benzoyl chloride in the presence of Pd on BaSO4 gives
Ans : benzaldehyde
12. From which of the following, tertiary butyl alcohol is obtained by the action of methyl
magnesium iodide ?
Ans : CH3COCH3

13. During reduction of aldehydes with hydrazine and C2H5ONa the product
formed is
Ans : RCH3
14. Aldol is
Ans : 3-hydroxy butanal
15. In the reduction of acetaldehyde using LiAlH4 the hydride ion acts as
Ans : nucleophile
16. Which of the following statement is wrong ?
Ans : aldehydes and ketones undergo nucleophilic substitution
17. A cyanohydrin of a compound X on hydrolysis gives lactic acid. The X is
Ans : CH3CHO
18. The IUPAC name of CH3 C = CH C CH3 is

Ans : 4-methylpent-3-en-2-one
19. Which of the following does not give iodoform test ?
Ans : benzophenone
20. The compound which does not reduce Fehling solution is
Ans : benzaldehyde
21.CH3COCH3 Conc. H2SO4 The product is
Ans : mesitylene
22. Which compound on strong oxidation gives propionic acid ?
Ans : CH3 CH2 CH2 OH
23. The compound used in the preparation of the tranquilizer, sulphonal is
Ans : acetone
24. Calcium acetate + calcium benzoate distillation gives
Ans : acetophenone
25. Bakelite is a product of reaction between
Ans : phenol and methanal

19.Carboxlic acids ( 1 x 1 = 1)
1. Which of the following is least acidic
Ans : C2H5OH
2. Weakest acid among the following is
Ans : Acetylene
3. Ester formation involves the reaction of
Ans : An acylhalide with an alcohol
4. Heating a mixture of sodium acetate and soda lime gives
Ans : methane
5. The acid which reduces Tollen's reagent is
Ans : formicacid
6. The IUPAC name of CH3 CH2 CH COOH is
Ans : 2-methyl butanoic acid
7. The Isomerism exhibited by CH3CH2COOH and CH3COOCH3 is
Ans : functional
8. The acid that cannot be prepared by Grignard reagent
Ans : formic acid

9. Which order of arrangement is correct interms of the strength of the acid
10. The compound which undergoes intra molecular dehydration with P2O5 is
Ans : formic acid
11. HO
C = O 1600c

The product is

Ans : H2 + CO2
12. When chlorine is passed through acetic acid in presence of red P, it forms.
Ans : Trichloro acetic acid
13. Which of the following compounds will react with NaHCO3 solution to give sodium salt
and CO2 ?
Ans : acetic acid
14. When propanoic acid is treated with aqueous sodium - bicarbonatate, CO2 is liberated.
The "C" of CO2 comes from
Ans : bicarbonate
15. Carboxylic acids are more acidic than phenol and alcohol because of
Ans : greater resonance stabilisation of their conjugate base
16. Among the following the strongest acid is
Ans : Cl3CCOOH
17. Which of the following compound is optically active ?
Ans : (c) CH3CH(OH)COOH (d) Cl2CHCOOH
? The product is

Ans : (a) CH3COCOOH

19. The compound found in some stony deposit in kidneys is
Ans : calcium oxalate
20. Ethylene cyanide on hydrolysis using acid gives
Ans : succinic acid

20.Organic nitrogen compounds ( 3 x 1 = 3 )

1. Bromo ethane reacts with silver nitrite to give
Ans : C2H5NO2
2. The isomerism exhibited byCH3 CH2-NO2 and CH3 CH2 O N = O is
Ans : functional
3. In nitro alkanes NO2 group is converted to NH2 group by the reaction
Ans : Sn/HCl
4. When nitromethane is reduced with Zn dust + NH4Cl in neutral medium,
we get
5. The compound that is most reactive towards electrophilic nitration is
Ans : Toluene
6. Nitromethane condenses with acetaldehyde to give
Ans : 1-nitro-2-propanol
7. Which of the following compounds has the smell of bitter almonds ?
Ans : nitrobenzene
8. Nitration of nitrobenzene results in
Ans : m-dinitro benzene

9. Nitrobenzene on electrolytic reduction in con. sulphuric acid, the intermediate formed is
Ans : C6H5 NHOH
10. Electrophile used in the nitration of benzene is
Ans : nitronium ion
11. The reduction of CH3 CH2 C N with sodium and alcohol results in the formation of
Ans : CH3 CH2 CH2 NH2
12. The basic character of amines is due to the
Ans : lone pair of electrons on nitrogen atom
13. The organic compound that undergoes carbylamine reaction is
Ans : C2H5NH2
14. Primary amine acts as
Ans : Lewis base
15. Oxidation of aniline with acidified potassium dichromate gives
Ans : p-benzo quinone
16. Which one of the following is a secondary amine ?
Ans : diphenyl amine

Ans: C6H5N2Cl

X. Identify X.

18. Which of the following will not undergo diazotisation ?

Ans : benzyl amine
19. Aniline differs from ethylamine by the reaction with
Ans : nitrous acid
20. When aqueous solution of benzene diazonium chloride is boiled the product formed is
Ans : (c) phenol

21.Bio molecules (2x1=2)

1. Which is a mono saccharide among the following :
Ans : Glucose
2. Identify the reducing sugar.
Ans : Glucose
3. Sucrose is not
Ans : hydrolysed to only glucose
4. Sucrose contains glucose and fructose linked by
Ans : C1 C2
5. Glucose is not oxidised to gluconic acid by
Ans : Conc. HNO3
6. Inversion of sucrose refers to
Ans : hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose
7. Glucose forms___________ with acetic anhydride and sodium acetate.
Ans : penta acetate
8. The amino acid without chiral carbon is
Ans : Glycine
9. The building block of proteins are
Ans : -amino acids
10. Which is not true of amino acid ?
Ans : amino acid is insoluble in NaOH solution
11. Two amino acids say A, B- react to give
Ans : two dipeptides


12. A di peptide does not have

Ans : two peptide units
13. Proteins are not sensitive to
Ans : water
14. Denaturation does not involve
Ans : breaking up of H bonding in proteins
15. Specificity of enzyme is due to
Ans : (a) the sequence of amino acids
(b) secondary structure
(c) tertiary structure
(d) all of the above
16. Ultimate products of hydrolysis of proteins is
Ans : amino acid
17. Proteins are
Ans : polypeptides
18. Which of the following contains a lipid ?
Ans : edible oil
19. Which among the following contains triglyceride ?
Ans : Cooking oil
20. Which contains a long chain ester ?
Ans : wax
21. An example of a fatty acid obtained from a cooking oil is
Ans : stearic acid
22. Which is not a saturated fatty acid ?
Ans : Oleic acid
23. Alkaline hydrolysis of cooking oil gives
Ans : (a) soap (b) glycerol
(c) fatty acid (d) both (a) and (b)
24. Hair and nail contains
Ans : keratin
25. Important constituent of cell wall is
Ans : cellulose

Practice Book back one mark questions (self evaluation) for 19 units.
Practice the questions that where asked in the PTA guide as well as previous
year public question papers.

3-Mark questions

1) What is bond order?

2) Calculate the effective nuclear charge of the last electron in an atom
whose configuration is 1s22s22p63s23p5
3) What is inert pair effect?
4) How silver nitrate reacts with orthophosphoric acid?
5) Give the percentage composition and use of Nichrome.
6) What is the action of heat on K2Cr2O7?
7) What is Q value of nuclear reaction?
8) Sketch : a)Simple cube. B) Face centered cube c) Body centered cube
9) For a chemical reaction the values of H and S at 400K are -10k cal
mol-1 and 20 cal.deg-1mol-1 respectively. Calculate the value of G of
the reaction
Define reaction quotient.
1) Write any three characteristics of order reaction.
2) What is threshold energy?
3) Why colloidal system in gas in gas does not exist.
4) State kohlraushs law.
5) Draw the structure of S-cis and S-trans form of 1,3-butadiene.
6) Convert Glycerol into Acrolein.
7) Why is glycol more viscous than ethanol?
8) How is benzophenone prepared by Friedel Crafts reaction?
9) Mention the use of formic acid?
An yellow coloured liquid (A) called as Oil of Mirbane is reduced
with Sn/HCL to give compound (B). identify A and B and write the

1) What are antioxidants? Give example.
2) Define hybridisation.
3) The experimental value of d(Si-C) is 1.934A. If the radius of carbon is
0.77A. calculate the radius of silicon.
4) What are inter halogen compound? Give one preparation.
5) H3PO4 is triprotic. Justify with equations.
6) Why do d-block elements form complexes?

7) What is spitting of silver? How it can be prevented?
8) What is the principle behind Hydrogen bomb.
9) How are glasses formed?
10)what is entropy? Write its unit.
1) State Le- chatliers principle.
2) What are simple and complex reactions?
3) The rate constant of the first order reaction is 1.5410-3sec-1.
Calculate its half life period.
4) What is catalysis? Give example.
5) State Ostwalds dilution law.
6) Give the structure of Z and E form of cinnamic acid.
7) Give two chemical test to distinguish propan 2-ol and
8) How is benzyl alcohol obtained from phenyl magenisum bromide?
9) Write perkins reaction?
10)Give the structures of lactyl chloride and lactide



Identify X,Y,Z.


2) What are food preservative? Give an example.

3) What is the significance of negative electron energy?
4) Explain why ionization energy of Boron is less than that of Be.
5) Prove that P2O5 is a powerful dehydrating agent.
6) Write any three uses of Helium.
7) How does gold react with aquaregia?
8) Calculate the decay constant foe Ag108 if its half life is 2.31 minute.
9) What is vitreous state.
Calculate the entropy increases in the evaporation of 1mole of a
liquid when it boils at 100C having heat of vaporization at 100C as


What are consecutive reactions? Give example
What is activation energy?
What is tyndall effect?
What is common ion effect? Give example.
Define racemisation.


Give the victor meyers test for tertiary alcohol.

What is picric acid? How it is prepared from phenol.
What is Urotropine? Give its uses.
An aromatic primary amine A with molecular formula C6H7N
undergoes diazotization to give B. when the aqeous solution of B is
boiled it gives C identify A,B,C.
10)In what way antacids are important? Give an example.
1) State Heisenbergs uncertainty principle.
2) Why electron affinity of fluorine is less than that of chlorine?
3) Write a note on Plumbosolvency.
4) Why do d-block element exhibit variable oxidation state.\
5) Determine the average life of U238 having t1/2 = 140 days.
6) What are super conductors?
7) Calculatye the entropy change for the following process
H(transition)=2090J mol-1
1mole Sn(,13C)
1 mole Sn(,13C)
8) Give three examples for opposing reaction.
9) What is electrophoresis?
10)state Faradays second law of electrolysis.
1) Mesotartaric acid is optically inactive compound with asymmetric
carbon atoms. Justify your answer.
2) How will you convert phenol to phenolphthalein?
3) Give the IUPAC name of the following: a) Crotonaldehyde b)Methyl npropyl ketone c)Benzaldehyde
4) Give any two tests to identify carboxylic acid.
5) An organic compound (A) of molecular formula C2H5NO reacts with
Br2/NaOH to give the compound (B) of molecular formula CH5N. (A) is
reduced by LiAlH4 to give compound (C) of formula C2H7N. identify
6) What are antipyretics? Give an example.
7) Compare the first Ionization energy of aluminium (Z=13) with that of
magnesium (Z=12) . justify your answer
8) Write any three uses of neon.
9) Explain chromyl chloride test with example.
10)Neutron bombardment gragmentation of U-235 occurs according ti
the equation:
235 + n1
98 +
136 + x e0 + y n1
Calculate the values of x and y

1) The normal boiling of CHCl3 is 61.5C. calculate the molar heat of
vaporization of CHCl3 assuming ideal behaviors.
2) Show that the half period of a first order reaction is independent of the
initial concentration of the reactant.
3) Write a note on Brownian movement.
4) What is buffer solution? Give example.
5) Distinguish enantiomers from diasteromers.
6) Give two tests for aldehyde.
Alcholic KOH
Identify A,B,C.
8) Why HF cannot be stored in glass bottle?
9) Write the uses of radio carbon dating?
10)Calculate the maximum % efficiency possible from thermal engine
oprating between 110C and 25C
1) What is pseudo first order reaction. Give example.
2) Write the Arrhenius equation and explain the terms.
3) Distinguish racemic mixture from mesoform.
4) How can acetophenone be prepared by Friedel-Crafs reaction?
5) Write any three characteristics of dyes
6) The electron affinities of beryllium and nitrogen are almost zero. Why?
7) How is chrome plating done?
8) What are parallel reaction? Give one example.
9) Calculate the change of entropy for the process,water(liq) to water
(vapour,373K) involving H vap =40850 J mol-1 at 373k
10) What are promoters? Give example.



How is phenol prepared by Dows process?
What is Urotropine give its uses.
Give tests for salicylic acid.
Compound A is yellow colored liquid and it is called as oil of mirbane
A on reduction with tin HCl gives B. B answers carbylamines test.
Identify A ,B.
What is peptisation? Give example.
Write tests for phenol
How is nylon-66 prepared give its uses.
Formic acid reduces tollens reagent where as acetic acid does not.

9) Benaldehyde undergoes cannizzaro reaction where as acetaldehyde
does not Explain.
10) why He2 not formed?

Derive de-Brogiles equation. What is its significance?

Explain the extraction of zinc from its chief ore.
Differentiate Lanthanides and Actinides.
Write a note on Hemoglobin.
State the various statements of second law of thermodynamics.
2NO(g) .Apply Le chateliers principle for the above
N2(g) + O2(g)
reaction and discuss the effect of pressure and concentration on it.
7) How are the following reactions effected?
i) Diethyl ether with Grignard reagent B) dil H2SO4 C) mineral acid
ii) ethyl methyl ether with excess hot Conc. HI acid.
8) Mention the significant of rocket propellant.

Explain the postulates of molecular orbital theory.

How is gold extracted from its ore?.
Write the use of Lanthanides
Explain coordination isomerism and ionization isomerism with
Give the characteristics of free energy.
Derive the expressions for Kc and Kp for decomposition of PCl5.
How does diethyl ether react with the following reagents?
i)O2/Long contact. ii)HI in excess. iii) PCl5 .iv) Cl2 v)BF3
write briefly on antibiotics. In what way antispasmodics are helpful?


Explain the formation of Nitrogen molecule by molecular orbital theory

What are the characteristics of entropy.
How are lanthanides extracted from monazite sand.
Write [Cr(en)3]Cl3. A) IUPAC name b)Central metal ion c) Ligand d)
coordination number e)geometry of the complex
Derive the relation Kp=Kc(RT)ng for a general chemical equilibrium
Derive the expression for the Rate constant for a first order reaction.
Discuss the isomerism in ethers with one example for each.
Write a note on Anesthetics.


Explain the formation of oxygen molecule by molecular orbital theory

How is silver extracted from its ore.
Give the consequences of Lanthanide contraction.
Explain the type of Hybridisation, magnetic property and geometry for
[Ni(CN)4]2- and [Ni(NH3)4]2+ using VB theory.
State Trutons rule. Explain the substances that deviate from this rule
Discuss the characteristics of order of reaction.
Give any three methods of preparation of diethyl ether.
How are Buna-S, Buna-N and nylon-66 prepared. Explain their uses.


Discuss the shapes of s,p and d orbitals.

Write note on alumino thermic process.
What is Actinide contraction? Discuss its causes and consequences.
Explain linkage isomerism, ligand isomerism and hydrate isomerism
with suitable example.
What are spontaneous reaction? What are the conditions for the
spontaneity of a process.
Describe the synthesis of NH3 by haber process.
Give three methods of preparation of anisole.
Explain briefly on colour and structure of dyes.

1) What is meant by hydrogen bonding? explain its type.

2) How is potassium dichromate extracted from its chromite ore.
3) Apply le chateliers principle for the manufacture of SO3 by contact
process and find the condition for getting maximum yield of SO3.
4) Differentiate simple reaction and complex reaction.
5) Write note on i)consecutive reaction ii) parallel reactions iii) opposing
6) Distinguish aromatic ether and aliphatic ether.
7) Explain a) Nitration of anisole. B) bromination of anisole.
8) Write note on a) Analgesis b) antipyretics c)antioxidants d) antiseptic.

1) a) Explain the variation of ionisation energy along the group and
b) Write any five uses of Fluorine.
2) a) Explain the postulates of weners theory of co-ordination
b) Differentiate between nuclear reaction and chemical reaction.
3) a) Write about the most common point defect.
b) How colloids are prepared by mechanical dispersion method and
electro-dispersion method?
4) a) Describe the action of an acid buffer solution with an example.
b) Write any five common terms in cell terminology.

1) a) Explain Pauling method to determine ionic radii
b) Give the uses of silicones.
2) a) Give the postulates of Valence bond theory of Co-ordination
b) Write note on Radio carbon dating.
3) a) Explain Braggs spectrometer method.
b) Write about the preparation of colloids by chemical methods.
4) a) Write the evidences of Arrhenius theory of Electrolytic dissociation.
b) Write note on IUPAC convention of representation of a cell.
1) a) Explain Pauling scale for the determination of electro negativity.
Give the disadvantage of Pauling scale
b) How does fluorine differ from other halogens?

2) a) How is chlorophyll important in environmental chemistry? Mention

its function.
b) Mention the medicinal uses of radio active isotope.
3) a) Explain nature of glass.
b) Write briefly about adsorption theory of catalysis

4) a) Explain Quionoid theory of indicators.
b) Derive Nernst Equation.
1) a) Explain various factors that affect electron affinity.
b) How are noble gases isolated from air by Ramsay-Rayleighs
2) a)Explain the following terms i) Neutral ligand ii)chelates iii) co
ordination sphere iv) coordination number v) negative ligands
b)Write a note on nuclear reaction taking place in the sun
3) a) Write the characteristics of ionic crystal.
b)Write note on i)electrophoresis ii) ultra filtration iii)Helmholtz double
4) a)Derive henderson equation
b)Describe the construction and function of standard hydrogen

1) a)Describe the factors influencing ionization energy.
b)How are noble gases separated by Dewar method
2) a)Mention the type of hybridization and magnetic property of the
following complexes using VB theory. i) [FeF6]4- ii) [Fe(CN)6]4- iii)
[Ni(CN)4]2- iv) [Ni(NH3)4]2+
b) Distinguish nuclear fission and nuclear fusion reaction.
3) a)Distinguish physical adsorption and chemical adsorption
b)Write a general characteristics of catalytic reaction.
4) a)State and explain Kohlrauschs law.
b) Explain the relation between EMF and free energy.