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VOZES VERBAIS
As vozes de um verbo estabelecem a relao entre o sujeito e a ao expressa por este verbo. O sujeitopratica ou sofre a ao, isto , o sujeito agente ou paciente. Quando o sujeito o agente, temos avoz ativa (active voice) e, quando o sujeito o paciente, temos a voz passiva (passive voice).

Voz Passiva - Passive Voice


Para formar a voz passiva em Ingls, usamos o verbo to be seguido do particpio passado do verbo principal. Quando necessrio, o agente da passiva precedido pela preposio by. semelhana do Portugus, o objeto da voz ativa passa a ser o sujeito da voz passiva, e o sujeito da voz ativa passa a ser o agente da voz passiva. Veja alguns exemplos: Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. (active voice) (sujeito) (objeto) Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. (passive voice) (sujeito) (ag. da passiva)

Genes transmit character. (active voice) (sujeito) (objeto) Character is transmitted by genes. (passive voice) (sujeito) (ag. da passiva)

All the members of the board accepted the proposal. (active voice) (sujeito) (objeto) The proposal was accepted by all the members of the board. (passive voice) (sujeito) (agente da passiva)

Alexander Bell invented the telephone in 1876. (sujeito) (objeto) The telephone was invented by Alexander Bell in 1876. (sujeito) (ag. da passiva)

Observe que o verbo to be na voz passiva conjugado sempre no mesmo tempo verbal do verbo principal da voz ativa. Atente para o seguinte quadro: Quando se passa uma frase da voz ativa para a voz passiva: a) o objeto da voz ativa torna-se sujeito da voz passiva; b) o sujeito da voz ativa torna-se agente da passiva precedido por by quando for necessrio; c) o verbo to be na voz passiva conjugado sempre no mesmo tempo verbal do verbo principal da voz ativa; d) o verbo principal da voz ativa passa para o particpio passado na voz passiva.

Voz Passiva - Dois Objetos


Em Ingls, quando o verbo na voz ativa tiver dois objetos (direto e indireto), qualquer um deles pode ser o sujeito da voz passiva: George teaches biology to Cecilia. (active voice) (sujeito) (obj. dir.) (obj. ind.) Biology is taught to Cecilia by George. (passive voice) (sujeito) (obj. ind.) (ag. da passiva)

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Cecilia is taught biology by George. (passive voice) (sujeito) (obj. dir.) (ag. da passiva) John told me a story. (active voice) (suj.) (o. i.) (o. d.) I was told a story by John. (passive voice) (suj.) (o. d.) (ag. da pas.) A story was told me by John. (passive voice) (suj.) (o. i.) (ag. da pas.)

Contudo, quando o objeto indireto da voz ativa passa a ser o sujeito da orao passiva, damos mais importncia pessoa. Observe os exemplos abaixo: They offered my elder brother a job. (active voice) (sujeito) (obj. indireto) (obj. dir.) My elder brother was offered a job. (passive voice) (sujeito) (obj. dir.) As duas frases so traduzidas por: Ofereceram um emprego a meu irmo mais velho.

Journalists asked the President many questions. (active voice) (sujeito) (obj. indireto) (obj. direto) The President was asked many questions by journalists. (passive voice) (sujeito) (obj. direto) (ag. da passiva) As duas frases so traduzidas por: Os jornalistas fizeram muitas perguntas ao presidente. My friends gave me many birthday presents. (active voice) (sujeito) (o. i.) (obj. direto) I was given many birthday presents. (passive voice) (s.) (obj. direto) Traduo da primeira e segunda frase, respectivamente: Meus amigos deram-me muitos presentes de aniversrio. / Deram-me muitos presentes de aniversrio.

The bank didn't lend us any money. (active voice) (sujeito) (o. i.) (obj. dir.) We were not lent any money. (passive voice) (suj.) (obj. direto) Traduo da primeira e segunda frase, respectivamente: O banco no nos emprestou dinheiro algum. / No nos emprestaram dinheiro algum.

ATENO: As frases apresentadas anteriormente no podem ser traduzidas literalmente; caso fizssemos isto, elas tornariam-se agramaticais e at sem sentido. Veja: I was told that you got a scholarship. (Disseram-me que voc ganhou uma bolsa de estudos.) Traduo literal: Eu fui dito que... (ERRADA) She was allowed to go home early. (Permitiram-lhe que fosse para casa cedo.) Traduo literal: Ela foi permitida... (ERRADA)

Veja mais exemplos e suas respectivas tradues. He is said to be a strong candidate for the job. (Dizem que ele um forte candidato ao cargo.) They are supposed to arrive tonight. (Supe-se que eles cheguem hoje noite.) Mr. Martins was expected to take over the company. (Esperava-se que o Sr. Martins assumisse a direo da empresa.) The President is reported to be in good health. (Relatam que o presidente est em bom estado de sade.)

OBSERVAO: Os verbos explain e suggest s constroem a voz passiva com o objeto direto da voz ativa transformando-se em sujeito da voz passiva: They explained the problem to the children. (active voice) (suj.) (obj. dir.) (obj. ind.) The problem was explained to the children. (passive voice) (sujeito) (NOT The children were explained the problem.)

They suggested a meeting place to us. (active voice) (suj.) (obj. dir.) (o. i.) A meeting place was suggested to us. (passive voice) (sujeito) (NOT We were suggested a meeting place.)

Voz Passiva - Sujeito Indeterminado e o Agente da passiva


H dois casos em que o agente da passiva pode ser omitido:
1) Quando o sujeito da voz ativa no for importante ou for desconhecido ou indeterminado: Somebody planted peas yesterday. (active voice) (suj. ind.) (obj. dir.) Peas were planted yesterday. (passive voice) (suj.) Someone found my wallet last night. (active voice) (suj. ind.) (obj. dir.) My wallet was found last night. (passive voice) (sujeito) Workers are building a new supermarket two blocks from my house. (active voice) (sujeito*) (objeto direto) A new supermarket is being built two blocks from my house. (passive voice) (sujeito) * Neste caso, o sujeito da voz ativa, workers, no indeterminado e passa a ser o agente da passiva na voz passiva; no entanto, ele no precisa ser mencionado, pois no relevante dizer quem est construindo o novo supermercado. Someone broke the window. (active voice) (suj. ind.) (obj. dir.) The window was broken. (passive voice) (sujeito)

2) Quando for bvio: The letter was delivered early this morning. (Who delivers letters? A mail carrier does.) Japanese is spoken in Japan. (Who speaks a language? Japanese people do.) The man was arrested. (Who arrest people? Police do.)

O agente da passiva deve ser mencionado quando for importante para a compreenso do que dito:
Romeo and Juliet was written by Shakespeare.

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Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.

USOS DA VOZ PASSIVA


1. A voz passiva empregada para enfatizar mais a ao ou o seu resultado do que a pessoa que pratica a ao. Assim enfatizado o que acontece a algum ou a algo: Alfred raises cows and pigs. (active voice) - D nfase a Alfred. Cows and pigs are raised by Alfred. (passive voice) - D nfase ao que Alfred cria - vacas e porcos. 2. Em situaos formais, na linguagem jornalstica, acadmica e em descries tcnicas e/ou cientficas*: Heart disease is considered the leading cause of death in the United States. The balloon is positioned in an area of blockage and is inflated. * Na maioria das vezes, o agente da passiva no mencionado nestes tipos de escrita, pois o mais importante, nestes casos, o resultado, a ao e no quem a praticou. 3. Usa-se a voz passiva, em Ingls, quando o sujeito indefinido, equivalente ao nosso sujeito indeterminado: They play baseball everywhere in the United States. (active voice) (Jogam beisebol por toda parte nos Estados Unidos.) Baseball is played everywhere in the United States. (passive voice) (O beisebol jogado em toda arte nos Estados Unidos.)

People eat avocado with sugar in Brazil. (active voice) (No Brasil, as pessoas comem abacate com acar.) Avocado is eaten with sugar in Brazil. (passive voice) (No Brasil, abacate comido com acar.) Observe que o uso da voz ativa com they ou people (as pessoas, a gente) mais comum na linguagem informal, ao passo que a voz passiva mais usada na linguagem formal. 4. Em Portugus, temos a voz passiva analtica (Fernanda foi socorrida por Rafael) e a voz passiva sinttica (Vendem-se roupas usadas); no Ingls, porm, existe apenas uma forma para a voz passiva, que equivale s duas formas em Portugus. A construo com one(linguagem escrita ou formal) e com you (linguagem falada, informal) tambm empregada nestes casos: It is said that power and ambition corrupt people. (Diz-se que o poder e a ambio corrompem as pessoas.) It is reported that... (Relata-se que...) English is spoken in Australia. (Fala-se Ingls na Austrlia.) A lot of rice is eaten in China. (Come-se muito arroz na China.) A lot has been written about that. (Tem-se escrito muito sobre isso.) One doesn't know exactly what happened that night. (No se sabe ao certo o que aconteceu naquela noite. You never know what to do in a moment like this. (Nunca se sabe / A gente nunca sabe o que fazer em um momento como esse.) You can't work in such an environment. (No se pode trabalhar num ambiente desses.) You shouldn't believe everything you read. (No se deve acreditar em tudo o que se l.)

5. Somente verbos transitivos podem ser transformados em construo passiva. Verbos intransitivos no possuem objeto, dessa forma no h como formar o sujeito na voz passiva, j que o objeto da voz ativa torna-se o sujeito da voz passiva. Alguns verbos transitivos tambm no podem ser transformados em construo passiva; a maioria deles so verbos que se referem a estados e no a aes, como fit, have, lack, resemble, suit. Veja alguns exemplos de frases com verbos transitivos em que a voz passiva no ocorre:

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They have a nice house. (NOT A nice house is had by them.) My shoes don't fit me. (NOT I'm not fitted by my shoes.) She was having a bath. (NOT A bath was being had by her.) Angela resembles a Greek goddess. (NOT A Greek goddess is resembled by Angela.) Your mother lacks tact. (NOT Tact is lacked by your mother.) 6. Em estruturas ativas, os verbos hear, see, make e help podem ser seguidos por objeto + verbo no infinitivo sem to, j em estruturas passivas, estes verbos devem ser seguidos pelo verbo com o to. Observe: - I saw him (to) come out of the house. (active structure) He was seen to come out of the house. (passive structure) - They made him (to) tell them everything. (active structure) He was made to tell them everything. (passive structure) - They helped him (to) get out of the country. (active structure) He was helped to get out of the country. (passive structure) 7. Alguns verbos como say, believe, consider, expect, know, report, think, understand,allege admitem duas formas para a voz passiva. Observe alguns exemplos:

She is said to work 14 hours a day. ou It is said that she works 14 hours a day.

The boy is believed to be wearing a white pullover and blue jeans. ou It is believed that the boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans. The strike is expected to end soon. ou It is expected that it will end soon. He is alleged to have hit a policeman. ou It is alleged that he hit a policeman. John is said to be working very hard. ou It is said that John is working very hard. Two people are reported to have been injured in the explosion. ou It is reported that two people were injured in the explosion. He has been said to love Lauren. ou It has been said that he loves Lauren. Mark was believed to have translated the lyrics. ou It was believed that Mark had translated the lyrics.

8. Para formar a interrogativa, antepomos ao sujeito o verbo auxiliar que compe o tempo verbal da voz passiva. Para a negativa, basta acrescentar not ao auxiliar. Observe: The office is cleaned every day. (affirmative form) Is the office cleaned every day? (interrogative form) The office is not cleaned every day. (negative form) OBSERVAO: Os tempos verbais Present Perfect Progressive, Past Perfect Progressive,Future Progressive e Future Perfect Progressive no so comuns na voz passiva.

(BE) SUPPOSED TO
- Algumas vezes, (it is) supposed to ... significa o mesmo que (it is) said to ... Observe: I want to see that film. It is supposed to be good. (= it is said to be good.)

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Contudo, em alguns casos, supposed to tem um significado diferente. Isso ocorre quando usamos esta expresso para dizer que algo planejado (intended), programado, combinado (arranged) ou esperado(expected). Veja: The plan is supposed to be a secret, but everybody seems to know about it. (= the plan is intended to be a secret.) What are you doing at work? You're supposed to be on holiday. (= you are arranged to be on holiday) Our guests were supposed to come at 8:30, but they were late. Cecily was supposed to call me last night, but she didn't. I'd better hurry. I'm supposed to be meeting Erica in ten minutes.

- You are not supposed to do something significa o mesmo que it is not allowed or advisible: You are not supposed to park your car here. It is private parking only. Bernard is much better after his illness, but he is still not supposed to do any heavy work.

USO DO GET EM CONSTRUO PASSIVA:


- s vezes, pode-se usar get ao invs de be na voz passiva:

I got bitten by a dog. (= I was bitten...)

Richard got promoted last weekend. (= Richard was promoted...) The cat always gets scared when the dog barks. (= The cat always is scared...) There was an accident, but nobody got hurt. (= ..., but nobody was hurt.) I never get invited to parties. (= I am never invited to parties.) Get pode ser empregado nos seguintes casos: 1) Para expressar mudanas ou acontecimentos, geralmente inesperados e acidentais: Mark got hurt in the car crash. 2) Para descrever o feito negativo de uma ao sobre algum: The computer got broken. 3) Para descrever rotinas: The gym gets cleaned every Sundays. 4) Para descrever o resultado de uma ao deempenhada por algum em benefcio prprio: He worked hard and got elected the Director of the company. - O uso de get em construes passivas considerado bastante informal e no comum quando nos referimos a aes que ocorreram h muito tempo e aes planejadas: This house was built in 1815. (NOT This house got built in 1815.) Parliament was opened on Thursday. (NOT Parliament got opened on Thursday.) - Existem, porm, muitas outras situaes em que o get no pode ser usado. Observe os exemplos abaixo: That actor is admired by many people. NUNCA: That actor gets admired by many people. Jamey is liked by everybody. NUNCA: Jamey gets liked by everybody.

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OBSERVAO: H expresses com get seguido de particpio em que no h significado passivo: get married, get divorced, get engaged, get dressed (put on your clothes), get lost (= not know where you are), get started, get changed (change your clothes). Estas exprsses chamam-se de Phrasal Verbs. Observe o exemplo abaixo: After getting engaged, they soon got married. (Depois de noivarem, eles logo casaram.)

CONSTRUO DA VOZ PASSIVA COM VERBOS QUE EXIGEM PREPOSIES:


- Os objetos de verbos que exigem preposies (look at, listen to, pay for, etc) podem tornar-se o sujeito em construes passivas. Observe: We have looked at the plan carefully. (active voice) (objeto) The plan has been carefully looked at. (passive voice) (suj.) Nobody listens to her. (active voice) (obj.) She is never listen to. (passive voice) (suj.) Somebody has paid for your meal. (active voice) (objeto) Your meal has been paid for. (passive voice) (sujeito)

Atente para a ordem das palavras (word order); a preposio no pode ser suprimida. I don't like to be shouted at. (NOT I don't like to be shouted.)

- Se j h objeto direto na orao, o segundo objeto (objeto preposicionado), que vem depois da preposio, no pode transformar-se em sujeito na voz passiva: They threw stones at him. (active voice) (o. d.) (o. p.) Stones were thrown at him. (passive voice) (BUT NOT He was thrown stones at.) (suj.) They stole a bicycle from him. (active voice) (o. d.) (o. p.) A bicycle was stolen from him. (passive voice) (BUT NOT He was stolen a bicycle from.) (sujeito) They poured water on us. (active voice) (o. d.) (o. p.) Water was poured on us. (passive voice) (BUT NOT We were poured water on.) (suj.)

Observe que pronomes e substantivos possessivos tambm no podem tornar-se sujeito na voz passiva: They called Mr. Peteron's name. (active voice) Mr. Peterson's name was called. (passive voice) (BUT NOT Mr. Peterson was name called.) I broke her mirror. (active voice) Her mirror was broken. (passive voice) (BUT NOT She was mirror broken.)

CONSTRUO DA VOZ PASSIVA COM VERBOS QUE EXIGEM PREPOSIES:


- Os objetos de verbos que exigem preposies (look at, listen to, pay for, etc) podem tornar-se o sujeito em construes passivas. Observe:

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We have looked at the plan carefully. (active voice) (objeto) The plan has been carefully looked at. (passive voice) (suj.) Nobody listens to her. (active voice) (obj.) She is never listen to. (passive voice) (suj.) Somebody has paid for your meal. (active voice) (objeto) Your meal has been paid for. (passive voice) (sujeito)

Atente para a ordem das palavras (word order); a preposio no pode ser suprimida. I don't like to be shouted at. (NOT I don't like to be shouted.)

- Se j h objeto direto na orao, o segundo objeto (objeto preposicionado), que vem depois da preposio, no pode transformar-se em sujeito na voz passiva: They threw stones at him. (active voice) (o. d.) (o. p.) Stones were thrown at him. (passive voice) (BUT NOT He was thrown stones at.) (suj.) They stole a bicycle from him. (active voice) (o. d.) (o. p.) A bicycle was stolen from him. (passive voice) (BUT NOT He was stolen a bicycle from.) (sujeito) They poured water on us. (active voice) (o. d.) (o. p.) Water was poured on us. (passive voice) (BUT NOT We were poured water on.) (suj.)

Observe que pronomes e substantivos possessivos tambm no podem tornar-se sujeito na voz passiva: They called Mr. Peteron's name. (active voice) Mr. Peterson's name was called. (passive voice) (BUT NOT Mr. Peterson was name called.) I broke her mirror. (active voice) Her mirror was broken. (passive voice) (BUT NOT She was mirror broken.)

CAUSATIVE FORM: HAVE SOMETHING DONE A estrutura have + objeto + particpio passado do verbo principal tem sentido passivo e expressa uma ao que algum faz a nosso pedido ou em nosso favor, ou seja, no somos ns que realizamos a ao. Analise a situao abaixo:
The roof of Lisa's house was damaged in a storm. Yesterday a workman came and repaired it. Lisa had the roof repaired yesterday. This means: Lisa arranged for somebody else to repair the roof. She didn't repair it herself.

O tempo verbal de have pode mudar:

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I have my hair cut once a month. (Eu corto meu cabelo uma vez por ms.) I had my hair cut last month. (Eu cortei meu cabelo no ms passado.) I will have my hair cut nex week. (Vou cortar meu cabelo na semana que vem.) I'm going to have my hair cut this afternoon. (Vou cortar meu cabelo hoje tarde.)

Observe outros exemplos:


She doesn't have her nails done every week. (Ela no faz as unhas toda semana.) I didn't have my bike fixed last Friday. (No consertei minha bicicleta no sbado passado.) I won't have my car serviced next month. (No vou fazer reviso em meu carro no ms que vem.) If you don't get out of my house I'll have you arrested. (Se voc no sair da minha casa, vou mandar lhe prender.) Do you have your house cleaned every week? (Voc limpa sua casa toda semana?) Did you have your picture taken last Wednesday? (Voc tirou sua foto na quinta-feira passada?) Will you have your car washed on Saturday? (Voc vai lavar o seu carro no sbado?) LEMBRE-SE: Usamos have something done para dizer que algum fez algo por ns. Compare: Lisa repaired the roof. (= she repaired it herself.) Lisa had the roof repaired. (= she arranged for somebody else to repair it.)

Did you make those curtains yourself? Yes, I enjoy making things. Did you have those curtains made? No, I made them myself.

Atente para a ordem das palavras (word order) neste tipo de construo - o particpio passado do verbo principal vem sempre depois do objeto: have Lisa had Where did you have Your hair looks nice. Have you had Our neighbor has just had We are having How often do you have I think you should have I don't like having We are going to have We must have Mark is going to have I must have He would have She will have OBSERVAO: object the roof your hair it a garage the house your car that coat my picture our house our clothes his car my watch his hair her computer past participle repaired. cut? cut? built. painted at the moment. serviced? cleaned. taken. built. washed. serviced. repaired. cut if it was/were necessary. fixed.

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Algumas vezes, have something done possui um significado diferente, dependendo do sentido do verbo. Por exemplo: Paul and Karen had all their money stolen while they were on holiday. Nesta orao, no usamos usamos a estrutura have something done para dizer que algum fez algo a nosso pedido ou em nosso favor. 'They had all their money stolen' significa apenas 'All their money was stolen from them'. Com este significado, usamos have something done para dizer que algo acontece a algum ou aos seus pertences. Geralmente o que acontece no bom: Gary had his nose broken in a fight. Have you ever had your passport stolen?

GET SOMETHING DONE Podemos usar get something done no lugar de have something done (principalmente em linguagem falada e informal.):
When are you going to get the roof repaired? I think you should get your hair cut really short. I got my bike fixed yesterday.

A formao da voz passiva em cada um dos tempos verbais


Veja na tabela abaixo um esquema geral mostrando como formar a voz passiva (afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa) em cada um dos tempos verbais: VERB TENSE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE am/is/are + particpio Simple Present The house is painted by Paul every year. Paul paints the house every year. The house isn't painted by Paul every year. Is the house painted by Paul every year? am/is/are being + particpio Present Progressive Paul is painting the house. The house is being painted by Paul. The house isn't being painted by Paul. Is the house being painted by Paul? was/were + particpio Simple Past Paul painted the house. The house was painted by Paul. The house wasn't painted by Paul. Was the house painted by Paul? was/were being + particpio Past Progressive Paul was painting the house. The house was being painted by Paul. The house wasn't being painted by Paul. Was the house being painted by Paul? will be + particpio Simple Future Paul will paint the house. The house will be painted by Paul. The house won't be painted by Paul. Will the house be painted by Paul? am/is/are going to be + particpio Future with "Be going to" The house is going to be painted by Paul. Paul is going to paint the house. The house isn't going to be painted by Paul. Is the house going to be painted by Paul? Present Perfect Paul has painted the house. has/have been + particpio The house has been painted by Paul.

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The house hasn't been painted by Paul. Has the house been painted by Paul? had been + particpio Past Perfect Paul had painted the house. The house had been painted by Paul. The house hadn't been painted by Paul. Had the house been painted by Paul? will have been + particpio By next week, the house will have been painted by Paul. By next week, the house won't have been painted by Paul. Will the house have been painted by next week by Paul?

Future Perfect

By next week, Paul will have painted the house.

- Can, could, could have, would e would have podem ser usados na voz passiva: This bird can be seen in the tropics. No language can be learned so quickly. This painting could be sold for a high price. This abstract could have been written by hand. The house would be painted this year. The e-mails would be sent if the secretary were here now. The cake would have been made if we had all the ingredients.