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Centro de Educao Profissional Hlio Augusto de Souza

Students name:
______________________

Teacher rika Fernanda Figueiredo 2012


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English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

INDEX
INCONTERMS, Logistics and Transportation.

0
3
Simple Future ... 0
8
Immediate Future. 0
9
Commercial letters an introduction .. 1
2
Present Perfect..... 1
5
Simple Past x Present Perfect...... 1
8
More commercial letters .... 2
0
Past Perfect...... 2
2
Important parts of a letter .... 2
7
Passive Voice..... 2
8
More information about letters .. 3
3
Degrees of Adjectives..... 3
4
Commercial Letters.... 3
7
Facsimile Language...... 3
9
Rsum.. 4
1
Bibliography 4
.
4

Our Father, who art in Heaven, hallowed be thy name;


thy kingdom come, thy will be done on Earth as it is in Heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive our trespasses
as we forgive those who trespass against us;
and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

UNIT 1 INCONTERMS, LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORTATION


Competncia Composta 1: Identificar os INCONTERMS e utilizar os mesmos na oralidade e na escrita
de documentos e em situaes nos processos de compra e venda internacional
Indicador A: Conhece as siglas usadas como INCONTERMS
Indicador B: L documentos que contenhamos INCONTERMS
Indicador C: Identifica na fala os INCONTERMS
Competncia Composta 2: Ler e produzir documentos especficos do processo de logstica atravs da
utilizao de termos prprios e de conhecimento dos meios de transportes aplicados esta rea para
realizar o processo compra e venda internacional.
Indicador A: Conhece termos da rea da Logstica, importao e exportao.
Indicador B: Conhece os nomes dos meios de transportes usados na rea.

THE DOCUMENTS ARE REQUIRED FOR FOREIGN TRADE AS FOLLOWS:


CUSTOM DECLARATION
TRANSPORT DOCUMENTS: BILL OF LADING( MARINE/AIRWAY/ROADWAY BILL)
PROFORMA INVOICE
COMMERCIAL INVOICE
PACKING LIST AND WEIGHT LIST
INDEMNITY LETTER
CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS
HEALTH CERTIFICATE
CONSULAR INVOICE
MOVEMENT CERTIFICATE
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN
INGREDIENT CERTIFICATE
INSURANCE CERTIFICATE
Export documentation is a tedious but necessary process that all exporters must pay close attention to, as
documentation requirements vary considerably by country, commodity and situation. Shipping
documents are the key to international trade, and have been used for thousands of years. Documents
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Teacher Erika Fernanda

outline the sale, shipment, and responsibilities of each party so that the full transaction is understood and
complete without delay or additional costs. Documents also ensure compliance with applicable
regulations.
Documents required for an international sale can vary significantly from transaction to transaction,
depending on the destination and the product being shipped. At a minimum, there will be two
documents: the invoice and the transport document
***Countries that require a 'consular invoice' also require a 'commercial invoice' as proof of your export
shipment...
1) Take a look at the following instructions of a CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN document and
fill the next sample:
INCLUDEPICTURE

"http://www.unzco.com/basicguide/images/origin.gif" \* MERGEFORMAT

1. THE UNDERSIGNED - Name of the individual completing and signing the certificate (see Block 13);
may be the Exporter or Agent of the Exporter.
2. FOR - The Company name and address of the Exporter (Distributor or Manufacturer) effecting the
shipment of merchandise.
3. SHIPPED ON - Name of the vessel, aircraft, rail, or trucking company. May also include vessel number
and flag, flight number and flag, rail car number, and truck Pro number.
4. DATE - The date the carrier left the port/terminal for the destination.
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5. CONSIGNED TO - The Consignee, as it appears on the Commercial Invoice; may be "To Order of
Shipper," or "To Order of (Customer's) Bank, or to any other entity, on the Conditions of Sale and/or the
letter of credit.
6. MARKS AND NUMBERS - The marks recorded on each package, including Shipper's Company
Name, Country of Origin (i.e. - Made in USA), Destination Port of Entry, and Customer's Company Name;
may also include a Shipper's Control Number (i.e. - C/I No.) and the Customer's Import license Number.
"Number" refers to the numbering of the packages in the shipment (i.e. - 1 of 30, 2 of 30, etc.).
7. NO. OF PACKAGES - The total number of packages, cartons, boxes, skids, etc. per description line,
including outer packaging, in kilograms.
8. GROSS WEIGHT - Total weight of packages per description line, including outer packaging, in
kilograms.
9. NET WEIGHT - Total weight of all packages per description line, excluding outer packaging, but
including inner packaging, in kilograms
10. DESCRIPTION - Full description of items being shipped, the type of containers, the gross weight per
container, and the quantity and unit of measure of the merchandise. May also include cross references to
Purchase Order or Commercial Invoice number.
11. SWORN BEFORE - Notary Republic seal/signature, and date notarized.
12. DATE - Date Certificate of Origin was prepared and signed.
13. SIGNATURE - The signature of the owner, employee, or agent appearing in Block 1 above.
14. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE - Name of local Chamber of Commerce (and State) certifying the origin
of the merchandise.
15. SECRETARY - Authorized signature of the local Chamber of Commerce Secretary and that
organization's seal.
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN
The
undersigned

...

For ..... declares that the following


mentioned goods shipped on SS .. on the date of
...
Consigned
to.
are products of United States of America.
Marks
and
Number
s

No. of
packages

Weights of goods
Gross
Net

Description

English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

Sworn to before me

Dated at .. day of .. 20...

this day of . 20.


Signature .

The ... a recognized Chamber of Commerce under


the law of the State of . has examined the merchandises
invoice or shippers affidavit concerning the origin of the merchandise and
according to the law of its belief and knowledge, finds the products named
originated in the United States of America.
Secretary
2) Read the following instructions and answer the statements below:

Sample Commercial Invoice


1. EXPORTER - The name and address of the principal party responsible for effecting export from the
United States. The exporter as named on the Export License.
2. CONSIGNEE - The name and address of the person/company to whom the goods are shipped for
the designated end use, or the party so designated on the Export License.
3. INTERMEDIATE CONSIGNEE - The name and address of the part which effects delivery of the
merchandise to the ultimate consignee, or the part so named on the Export License.
4. FORWARDING AGENT - The name and address of the duly authorized forwarder acting as agent for
the exporter.
5. COMMERCIAL INVOICE NO. - Commercial Invoice number assigned by the exporter.
6. CUSTOMER PURCHASE ORDER NO. - Overseas customer's reference of order number.

English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

7. B/L, AWB NO. - Bill of Lading,


or Air Waybill number, if known.
8. COUNTRY OF ORIGIN Country of origin of shipment.
9. DATE OF EXPORT - Actual
date of export of merchandise,
numbers, special handling
requirements, routing
requirements, etc.
10. TERMS OF PAYMENT Describe the terms, conditions, and
currency of settlement as agreed
upon by the vendor and purchaser
per the Pro Forma Invoice,
customer Purchase Order, and/or
Letter of Credit.
11. EXPORT REFERENCES - May
be used to record other useful
information, e.g. - other reference
12. AIR/OCEAN PORT OF
EMBARKATION - Ocean
port/pier, or airport to be used for
embarkation of merchandise.
13. EXPORTING
CARRIER/ROUTE - Record airline
carrier/flight number or vessel
name/shipping line to be used for
the shipment of merchandise.
14. PACKAGES - Record number of packages, cartons, or containers per description line.
15. QUANTITY - Record total number of units per description line.
16. NET WEIGHT/GROSS WEIGHT - Record total net weight and total gross weight (includes weight
of container) in kilograms per description line.
17. DESCRIPTION OF MERCHANDISE - Provide a full description of items shipped, the type of
container (carton, box, pack, etc.), the gross weight per container, and the quantity and unit of measure of
the merchandise.
18. UNIT PRICE/TOTAL VALUE - Record the unit price of the merchandise per the unit of measure,
compute the extended total value of the line.
19. PACKAGE MARKS - Record in this Field, as well as on each package, the package number (e.g. - 1 of
7, 3 of 7, etc.), shippers company name, country of origin (e.g. - made in USA), destination port of entry,
package weight in kilograms, package size (length x width x height), and shipper's control number (e.g. C/I number; optional).
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Teacher Erika Fernanda

20. MISC. CHARGES - Record any miscellaneous charges which are to be paid for by the customer export transportation, insurance, export packaging, inland freight to pier, etc.
21. CERTIFICATIONS - any certifications or declarations required of the shipper regarding any
information recorded on the commercial invoice.

a)

Find all cognate words into the descriptions: (the cognates are words which can help you to
understand texts or documents without the dictionary help, they are similar to Portuguese language)

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
b) Now find words which are used in the International Trade area. i.e.: EXPORTER
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
c) What is the intermediate consignees purpose?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
d) And what does the forwarding agent do?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
e)

What are the abbreviation forms for BILL OF LANDING and AIR WAYBILL?
________________________________________________________________________________

f)

What are the terms of payment exposed into the instructions? Explain them:
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

g) Exemplify the items below:

AIR/OCEAN PORT OF EMBARKATION


.
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Teacher Erika Fernanda

EXPORTING CARRIER/ROUTE .
...
DESCRIPTION OF
MERCHANDISE

UNIT
PRICE

TOTAL
VALUE

PACKAGE MARKS

3) Join the columns:


01) EXW
02) FCA
03) FAS
04) FOB
05) CFR
06) CIF
07) CPT
08) CIP
09) DAF
10) DES
11) DEQ
12) DDU

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

) Delivered Ex Ship
) Free Carrier
) Delivered Duty Paid
) Cost, Insurance and Freight
) Carriage and Insurance Paid To
) Delivered Ex Quay
) Delivered Duty Unpaid
) Cost and Freight
) Carriage Paid To
) Delivered At Frontier
) Free On Board
) EX Works

13) DDP

) Free Alongside Ship

UNIT 2 SIMPLE FUTURE


Competncia Composta 3: Usar a norma culta na linguagem escrita fazendo afirmaes, negaes e
interrogaes na rea comercial de maneira correta e formal respeitando as regras da gramtica
normativa para escrever frases na rea administrativa.
Indicador A: Constri sentenas usando o futuro simples de maneira correta;
Indicador B: Diferencia o uso do futuro simples com WILL e BE GOING TO;

Without You
David Guetta

I can't win, I can't reign


I will never win this game
Without you
Without you
I am lost, I am vain
I will never be the same
Without you
Without you

I won't run, I won't fly


I will never make it by
Without you
Without you
I can't rest, I can't fight
All I need is you and I
Without you
Without you
Oh, oh, oh
You, you, you

Without
You, you, you
Without you
Can't erase, so I'll take blame
But I can't accept that we're
estranged
Without you
Without you
I can't quit now, this can't be
right
I can't take one more sleepless
night
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Teacher Erika Fernanda

Without you
Without you
I won't soar, I won't climb
If you're not here, I'm
paralyzed
Without you
Without you

I can't look, I'm so blind


I lost my heart, I lost my mind
Without you
Without you
Oh, oh, oh
You, you, you
Without

You, you, you


Without you
I am lost, I am vain
I will never be the same
Without you
Without you
Without you

Simple Future and Immediate Future


We generally use the simple future to refer to a time point in the future. You must use SIMPLE
FUTURE when you decide what you will do at the moment of speaking. When you have no certainty
about future time. Expressions like: Im not sure... Probably... I think ... I guess... One day...etc. are used with
WILL.
We form the simple future with will + the infinitive form of the verb. When the subject is I or we,
the auxiliary shall is sometimes used:
I shall go to Britain with you.
We shall not/ shant invite Mary for the party!
later soon tonight tomorrow the day after tomorrow

Next

week
month
winter
year
century

In

two hours
a few days
three weeks
ten years
2010

Structures of Simple Future


AFFIRMATIVE FORM
I
He
She
It
You
We
They

NEGATIVE FORM

study later.
arrive soon.
travel to Italy next week.
WILL work.
be part of the meeting.
talk to our partners.
export those products.

I
He
She
It
You
We
They

write the response letter.


be part of the conference.
call to her boss.
WILL NOT arrive on time.
(WON'T) pay for this.
merge to that company.
buy this kind of goods.

INTERROGATIVE FORM
I
he
she
WILL it
you
we
they

travel on business with you?


attend the costumers?
answer the international phone calls?
work?
fill in form?
arrive on time?
go to the presidents office?

HOMEWORK ACTIVITIES:
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English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

Exercise 1) Correct the sentences below:


a) I will walking to the store with my wife.

_______________________________________

b) Mr. Shin will talked with his son about the car.

_______________________________________

c) She will bought a ticket tomorrow.

_______________________________________

d) I will sent you the information.

_______________________________________

e) Will you made dinner for the children?

_______________________________________

f) Will you telling her I am here?

_______________________________________

g) She will gave the children a surprise.

_______________________________________

h) Will my mother liked the flowers?

_______________________________________

i) The manager will giving his employees a raise.

_______________________________________

j) Members of the club will voted for a president.

_______________________________________

k) He will traveled to Japan.

_______________________________________

l) The children will completing their homework.

_______________________________________

m) Citizens will liked the new laws.

_______________________________________

n) He will gave his children his wisdom.

_______________________________________

Exercise 2) Rewrite these affirmative statements into the NEGATIVE SIMPLE FUTURE:

a) I will study English tonight.

_______________________________________

b) The boss will shout at his secretary.

_______________________________________

c) For this job, it will be necessary to know a foreign language. ______________________________


d) You will be responsible for filing the documents. _______________________________________
e) Mr. Simpson will merge his company to Mrs. Baldwin. ___________________________________
Exercise 3) Make interrogative statements for these sentences below:
a) The sun will shine tomorrow. ____________________________________________________
b) The train will leave soon. ________________________________________________________
c) Jeremy will travel to Italy next vacation. _____________________________________________

d) They will buy some flowers for their visit. ____________________________________________


e) She will answer you as soon as possible. ____________________________________________

UNIT 3 IMMEDIATE FUTURE


Another way to express using the future time is with the IMMEDIATE FUTURE. We use the
immediate future to express future plans or intentions made in the past. And when the future is coming.
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Teacher Erika Fernanda

You must use the Immediate Future also when you have some present situation which allows you to
guess the future. For instance: Look at the sky! Its so gray. It is going to rain!
Structures of Immediate Future
AFFIRMATIVE FORM
I
He
She
It
You
We
They

am going to
is going to
is going to
is going to
are going to
are going to
are going to

NEGATIVE FORM

study later.
arrive soon.
travel to Italy next week.
work.
be part of the meeting.
talk to our partners.
export those products.

I
He
She
It
You
We
They

am not going to
is not going to
Is not going to
is not going to
are not going to
are not going to
are not going to

write the response letter.


be part of the conference.
call to her boss.
arrive on time.
pay for this.
merge to that company.
buy this kind of goods.

INTERROGATIVE FORM
Am
Is
Is
Is
Are
Are
Are

I
he
she
it
you
we
they

going to travel on business with you?


going to attend the costumers?
going to answer the international phone calls?
going to work?
going to fill in form?
going to arrive on time?
going (to go) to the presidents office?

Exercise 1) Build sentences using IMMEDIATE FUTURE:

a) I (see) ______________________________________________ my sister in July.


b) Jack (star) __________________________________________ working for a big company.
c) We (learn) __________________________________________ a new language next class.
d) I (get) __________________________________________________ vacation next week.
e) They (call)______________________________________________________ us later.
f) Susan (enjoy)_____________________________________________________ the party.
Exercise 2) Build negative sentences using IMMEDIATE FUTURE:

a) He is not going to cook dinner tonight.

He is going to play soccer.

b) We ___________________ wine. We _____________________ beer. (to drink)


c) They ____________________ later (to dance). They _____________

meeting. (to have)


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Teacher Erika Fernanda

d) It _____________________ today (to rain). It __________________ sunny. (to be)

e) I ______________________ tonight. (to run)

I ___________________ .

(to

dance)
Exercise 3) Make some questions using IMMEDIATE FUTURE:

a) to buy a new car -

Are your going to buy a new car next year?

b) to sell your house -

________________________________________________

c) to offer some help -

________________________________________________

d) to study Math -

________________________________________________

e) to avoid confront -

________________________________________________

f)

________________________________________________

to drink alcoholic drinking -

Exercise 4) Choose the best answer: WILL or GOING TO:


a) I feel really tired. I think I ______ go to bed.

( )'ll

( ) 'm going to

b) Where are you going?


I ______ visit a customer.

( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

c) Do you want me to help you?


No thanks. John ______ help me.

( ) 'll

( ) 's going to

d) Would you prefer tea or coffee?


I ______ have some coffee, please.

( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

e) Would you like to come to my house for dinner and talk about this?
Good idea. I ______ bring some wine.
( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

f) I've already decided. I ______ buy a new car

( ) 'm going to

( ) 'll

g) What are your plans for next week?


I ______ to fly to New York on business. Probably on Tuesday but I haven't bought my ticket yet.
( ) 'll
( ) 'm going to
h) What are your plans for the holidays?
I ______ visit my parents for a few days and then go walking in Scotland. ( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

i) Why are you wearing your best suit?


I ______ have lunch with my biggest customer.

( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

j) Do you want to have the chicken or the beef?


I think ______ have the beef.

( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

k) My head hurts.
Sit down and I ______ get you an aspirin.

( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to
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Teacher Erika Fernanda

l) We need some more ink for the printer.


I ______ go to the shop and get some.

( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

m) Look! There's smoke coming out of the photocopier.


You turn it off and I ______ phone the safety officer

( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

n) I cannot see how to use this machine.


Don't worry. I ______ help you.

( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

o) I need to speak to you today.


I'm going out now but I ______ be back later.

( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

p) Did you phone Michael?


I'm sorry. I completely forgot. I ______ do it now.

( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

q) Can you help me with this? I don't understand.


I ______ give you a hand as soon as I've finished this.

( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

r) That's much too heavy for one person. I ______ give you a hand. ( ) 'll
s) Could somebody answer the phone?
I ______ get it.

( ) 'll

t) It's really hot in here.I ______ put on the air-conditioning.

( ) 'm going to

( ) 'm going to
( ) 'll

( ) 'm going to

Exercise

5) Make an interview with a partner. Ask him/her what he/she is going


to do in his/her future. Make 10 sentences before asking him/her: The first one is
done to help you.

Students name:
Questions

Answers:

1) Are you going to travel on your next vacation?


2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

UNIT 4 COMMERCIAL LETTERS AN INTRODUCTION

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Teacher Erika Fernanda

Competncia Composta 4: Escrever documentos comerciais utilizando a gramtica normativa e a


linguagem empresarial em textos de cartas de agradecimento, convite, reclamao, cancelamento e
confirmao, fax,e-mails e currculos para eficcia na comunicao escrita empresarial.
Indicador A: Escreve cartas na rea administrativa de maneira correta respeitando as regras da
gramtica normativa;
Watch the following video about How to write a formal letter.

Now, in groups read the next explanations and present them to your classmates and
teacher:

Common Phrases for Business Letters


Request for information

Response to request

Sample Sentences: Requests

I am writing to inquire about . . .


I am writing in reference to . . .
I read/heard . . . and would like
to know . . .

Thank
you
for
your
interest/inquiry
Enclosed is the information you
requested.
You can learn more about this
at . .

Could you please send me your


most recent brochure?
Could you fax me the results of
the market survey?
I would like to order ten copies of
the book, Touchy Situations.
I would be very grateful if you
could send me this information.

Could you please send me . . .


at the address below/above

If you have further questions,


Thank you for your assistance.
If you require assistance, please
I look forward to hearing from contact:
Please return the enclosed
you.
envelope with your payment.
If I can be of more help, please
feel free to contact me at . . .
Sample Sentences: Goodwill
Thank you for your hospitality.
I enjoyed having lunch with you
last week while I was in New
York.
Congratulations
on
your
promotion to General Manager.
I want(ed) to congratulate you

Sample
Sentences:
Introduction
of
Product/Service.
I am writing to tell you about . . .
(Our new product) is coming out
next month.
This product/service is designed
to (help you) . . .

Sample
Reference

Sentences:

I am writing in regard to . . .
I am writing in reference to . . .
Please refer to the enclosed
invoice/brochure.
I hope you have had a chance to
look over the materials we sent.
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Teacher Erika Fernanda

on your new position.


I was happy to hear that contract
negotiations went well.
Sample
Sentences:
Confirmation
I am writing to confirm . . .
I would like to confirm what we
discussed last Friday.
I would just like to confirm the
main points we discussed . . .

Sample
Sentences:
Notification
I am writing to let you know
that . . .
Please be aware/informed that . .
.
I would like to inform you of a
recent policy change. I am happy
to inform
you that . . .
Your request for funding has
been approved.

Sample Sentences: Offering


Assistance
We would be happy to . . .
If we can be of assistance, please
don't hesitate to ask.

Sample
Sentences:
Collection
According to our records . . .
Our records show that . . .
Your monthly installment is past
due.
Please send payment as soon as
possible.

The Start
Dear Personnel Director,
Dear Sir or Madam: (use if you don't know who you are writing to)
Dear Dr, Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms Smith: (use if you know who you are writing to, and have a formal
relationship with - VERY IMPORTANT use Ms for women unless asked to use Mrs. or Miss)
Dear Frank: (use if the person is a close business contact or friend)
Look this sample of letter:
INVITING LETTER
February 24th, 2012
Dear Mr. Oliver Schmitz,
I am pleased to be able to invite you to the Annual Conference of Packagers, which will take place in Los
Angeles 4-7 July.

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Teacher Erika Fernanda

I have enclosed a program with details of the speakers and the various topics that have been proposed,
together with a registration form. On receipt of your form we will send you details of accommodation in
Los Angeles, together with a booking form. Any further inquiries should be sent to me at the above
address.
I look forward seeing you in Los Angeles in July.
Sincerely,

Sheila Legl
Marketing Manager

Now its your turn. You are a business person and have to invite a team work from
another important company to participate of your enterprises Inauguration. Do not
forget to offer them the details of the event like the date, schedule and address:
Date: ______________________________
Salutation: ______________________________
Body of the letter
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Closing:
_________________________________________________________________________
Signature: ____________________________________
In charge of: ____________________________________

UNIT 5 PRESENT PERFECT


Indicador C: Usa o presente perfeito e suas estruturas de maneira correta;
Have You Ever Seen The Rain? by Creedence
Someone told me long ago
There's calm before the storm
I know
It's been comin' for some time
When it's over, so they say
It'll rain a sunny day
I know
Shinin' down like water

I wannna know
Have you ever seen the rain?
I wanna know
Have you ever seen the rain?
Comin' down on a sunny day?
Yesterday, and days before
Sun is cold and rain is hard
I know
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English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

Been that way for all my time


Til forever, on it goes
Through the circle, fast and slow

It can't stop, I wonder


I wanna know
Have you ever seen the rain?

I know

Present Perfect Tense can be used in three situations:


1. To indicate something that has happened at an indefinite time in the past.
I have seen that movie already.
She has left for California.
They have not eaten their dinner yet.
2. To indicate something which started in the past and continues until now.
I have lived in New York for nine years.
We have been here since Friday.
He has played football since he was a child.
3. To indicate something which occurred recently.
I have been sick lately.
She hasn't slept much recently.
4. The present perfect has several uses, but it always shows a connection between the past and
the present:
Mary was sad yesterday. Mary is sad now.
Mary has been sad lately.
Words and expression generally used with the present perfect:
Has Mary ever been sad?

Mary has been sad

many times
lately
recently
up to now
until now

Mary has never been sad.

Notes: When speaking about a specific time, use past tense.


A: I have seen that movie already.
B: Oh really? When did you see it?
A: I saw it last week with Bob.

(Non-specific time)
(Specific time)

We form the present perfect tense with the auxiliary verb to have/has + the past participle of
the main verb.
I have known Mary since 2002.
He has worked for this company since he was 18.
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To form negative and interrogative sentences:


I have not seen Jack for a long time.
havent
Susan has not appeared since yesterday morning.
hasnt
Have you seen him?
Yes, Ive.
Has Susan appeared around here?
Yes, shes.
NOTE: Sometimes the use of s can be misunderstood. Pay attention on the statements below:
Shes very smart.
is (adverb or adjective)

Shes been smart lately.


has
(past participle verb)

HOMEWORK ACTIVITY
1- Complete the sentences using the present perfect structures:
a) The manager _____________________________________ another meeting for next month. (to
arrange)

b) Our company _______________________________________ many advertisements for the


international marketing. (to produce)
c) The suppliers ____________________________________________ us every month. (to contact)

d) The employees ___________________________________ about the new products. (to complain)


e) We _____________________________________________ for this company. (to make an effort)
f)

_______________ they ______________________ to arrange a meeting? (to call)

g) _______________ my secretary _______________________ you well? (to attend)


h) ________________ the president _______________________ ? (to arrive)
i)

________________ you _____________________ the visit into our company? (to enjoy)

j)

I _________________________________________ the documents yet. (not/to analyze)

k) She ____________________________________________ for the reunion. (not/to appear)

l) The sales team ____________________________________ products enough. (not/to buy)

2- Rewrite these sentences in the interrogative form:


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a) I have studied English since last July.


_______________________________________________________________________________
b) The exportation team has tried to be in contact with them.
_______________________________________________________________________________
c) My workmates have produced many products for that International enterprise.
_______________________________________________________________________________

d) They have called to book the next appointment for the day after tomorrow.
_______________________________________________________________________________
e) Sarah has been my secretary for almost five years.
_______________________________________________________________________________

3- Rewrite these sentences in the negative form:


a) I have already seen the clauses of this new contract.
_______________________________________________________________________________
b) The company has been interested in contracting new employees.
_______________________________________________________________________________
c) The managers have talked about this for all day long.
_______________________________________________________________________________
d) We have made contact with the employees of the new subsidiary.
_______________________________________________________________________________
e) The boss has become late many time this month.
_______________________________________________________________________________
THE PRESENT PERFECT USED WITH SINCE AND FOR
Observe these sentences:
I have been in this group since Monday.
(I entered in this group on Monday. Im still in the group)
We use since to indicate a starting point.
I have been in this group for three days.
(I entered in this group on Monday, today is Wednesday)
We use for to indicate a period of time.

4- Complete with since or for:


a) His voice has changed _______________________________________ his birthday.
b) Beth hasnt seen her cousin ___________________________________ a long time.
c) My mom hasnt drunk coffee ________________________________________ three days.
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d) I havent written to my friends in Lima ________________________________ August.


e) The new secretary has typed _______________________________ the beginning of this morning.
f)

We have bought products from that company ____________________________ almost one year.

g) I have learnt English ___________________________ last July.


5 Rewrite the statements using the adverbs into parentheses:

a) I have visited London once a year. (always)


________________________________________________________________________________

b) The secretary has typed the document. (never)


________________________________________________________________________________

c) We have met our partners. (ever)


________________________________________________________________________________

d) Mr. Timpson has left the office. (just)


________________________________________________________________________________

e) We have not finished the contract. (yet)


________________________________________________________________________________

f) We have bought some products from them. (already)


________________________________________________________________________________

UNIT 6 THE SIMPLE PAST X THE PRESENT PERFECT


Indicador D: Diferencia o uso do presente perfeito e do passado simples;
This section will help you to understand the differences between the Present Perfect Tense and the Simple
Past Tense.
THE PRESENT PERFECT

when the time period has NOT finished:

THE SIMPLE PAST

when the time period HAS finished:

I have seen three movies this week.


I saw three movies last week.
(This week has not finished yet.)
(Last week has finished.)
when giving recent news:
when giving older information:
Martin has crashed his car again.
Martin crashed his car last year.
(This is new information.)
(This is old information.)
when the time is not specific:
when the time is clear:
I have seen that movie already.
I saw that movie on Thursday.
(We don't know when.)
(We know exactly when.)
with for and since, when the actions have not with for and since, when the actions have
finished yet:
already finished:
I have lived in Victoria for five years.
I lived in Victoria for five years.
(I still live in Victoria.)
(I don't live in Victoria now.)

HOMEWORK ACTIVITY
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1 Choose the right alternative:


a) Joji ________ in Tokyo for five years, but he left in 1993.

( ) lived

( ) has lived

b) The Titanic ________ in 1912.

( ) sank

( ) has sunk

c) Somebody ________ my bicycle! Now I'll have to walk home.

( ) stole

( ) has stolen

d) Gerry ________ off his bike three times this month.

( ) fell

( ) has fallen

e) Chika ________ from university last July.

( ) graduated

( ) has graduated

f) I ________ the movie Titanic three times. I'm going to see it again tonight.
g) I ________ to work every day for the last six weeks!

( ) saw

( ) walked

h) When Young Hee was a child, she ________ in Seoul.


i) Ouch! ________ my finger!

( ) have walked

( ) lived
( ) I cut

( ) have seen

( ) has lived

( ) I've cut

j) I ________ my key yesterday, so I couldn't get into the house. Eventually, I found it in my jacket pocket.
( ) lost
( ) have lost
l) His brother __________ London last year.

) has visited

) visited

m) __________ my car in 1991.

) I've bought

) I bought

n) __________ my car for five years.

) I've had

) I had

o) When __________?

p) __________ to Singapore?

q) No, Bob isn't at home. __________.

) have you born

) Have you ever went


(

) He has just left.

) were you born

) Have you ever gone

) He is just left.

2 - Complete with the SIMPLE PAST or THE PRESENT PERFECT:


1. A: Did you like the movie "Star Wars"?
B: I don't know. I _____________________________________________________
movie.

(see, never)

that

2. Sam _________________________________________________ (arrive) in San Diego a week ago.


3. My best friend and I ______________________________________________ (know) each other for
over fifteen years. We still get together once a week.
4. Stinson is a fantastic writer. He _____________________________________ (write) ten very creative
short stories in the last year. One day, he'll be as famous as Hemingway.
5. I ___________________________ (have, not) this much fun since I _______________________ (be) a
kid.
6. Things ____________________________________ (change) a great deal at Coltech, Inc. When we first
________________________________ (start) working here three years ago, the company
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_______________________________________ (have, only) six employees. Since then,


____________________________________(expand) to include more than 2000 full-time workers.

we

7. Listen Donna, I don't care if you ____________________________________ (miss) the bus this
morning. You _____________________________ (be) late to work too many times. You are fired!
8. Sam is from Colorado, which is hundreds of miles from the coast,
______________________________ (see, never) the ocean. He should come with us to Miami.

so

he

9. How sad! George _____________________________________ (dream) of going to California before


died, but he didn't make it. He _____________________________________ (see, never) the ocean.
10. In the last hundred years, traveling ______________________________________ (become) much
easier and very comfortable. In the 19th century, it ______________________________________ (take)
two or three months to cross North America by covered wagon. The trip
____________________________________ (be) very rough and often dangerous. Things
____________________________________ (change) a great deal in the last hundred and fifty years. Now
you can fly from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours.
11. Johnny, I can't believe how much you _______________________________________ (change) since
the
last
time
I
___________________________________
(see)
you.
You
____________________________________ (grow) at least 10 centimeters!
12. This tree ________________________________________ (be) planted by the settlers who
___________________________________ (find) our city over four hundred years ago.
13.
I
__________________________________________
(visit,
never)
Africa,
but
I
_________________________________________ (travel) to South America several times. The last time I
_______________________________________
(go)
to
South
America,
I
__________________________________
(visit)
Brazil
and
Peru.
I
_________________________________________
(spend)
two
weeks
in
the
Amazon,
____________________
(hike)
for
a
week
near
Machu
Picchu,
and
____________________________________ (fly) over the Nazca Lines.

UNIT 7 MORE COMMERCIAL LETTERS


HOW TO END A BUSINESS LETTER
Yours faithfully, (If you don't know the name of the person you're writing to)
Yours sincerely, (If you know the name of the person you're writing to)
Best wishes,
Best regards, (If the person is a close business contact or friend)
THANKING LETTER
May 3rd, 2012
Dear Oliver,
Thank you very much for your hospitality while I was in Portland.
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It was very useful to see the new warehouse and I hope to be able to implement some of your
suggestions here in Germany.
I look forward seeing you when you come to Frankfurt in the fall.
Best regards,

Frank Dieter
Sales Manager

Write a letter to a person who is not a close business contact and thank him or her for
some suggestions that have been sent you by e-mail.
______________________________
___________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_____
_________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________

UNIT 8 THE PAST PERFECT


Indicador E: Constri sentenas usando o passado perfeito;

Past perfect tense is used to indicate that one action occurred before another action in the past. In
other words, past perfect tense indicates the first of the two actions.
For example:
When I woke up this morning, my roommate had left already.
After I had eaten my dinner, I went to see a movie.
Before I arrived at the theater, the movie had already begun.
Sometimes, when the meaning is clear from context, the simple past tense can be used.
After I had gone shopping, I stopped at the health spa.
After I went shopping, I stopped at the health spa.
The most common error with the past perfect is using it where it does not belong.
When I was young, I had been a cowboy. (Incorrect: no reference to other events)
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When I was young, I was a cowboy.


(Correct)
Yesterday the Johnsons had opened their new business. (Incorrect)
Yesterday the Johnsons opened their new business.
(Correct)
In some very unusual cases, the past perfect tense can refer to the second past action.
Before I had finished my homework, the telephone rang.
(The telephone interrupted me before I finished my homework.)
We use the past perfect when we wish to stress that one action or situation in the past occurred
before another action or situation in the past.
Ex:
It was obvious that something had happened to them. (It had happened before it became
obvious)
The past perfect can serve the same purpose as conjunctions of time such as when, after and
before:
Ex:

When she had finished her work she left the office.
After Jimmy had arrived, the party became really good.
Before he retired my father had worked in the post office.

Notice that it is not normally necessary to use the past perfect in these situations, but it is quite
common to do so, especially with the conjunction when, which has several different meanings and may
need to be clarified. By using a combination of these conjunctions and different tenses we can not only
explain ourselves more precisely, but also be less repetitive. As with most verb tenses, the past perfect has
both a simple and a continuous form:
Ex:

I had talked to all of the candidates by lunchtime.


I had been talking so much that I was starting to go hoarse.

While the simple form is used to stress the fact that the action was finished (i.e. there were no
more candidates to talk to), the continuous form stresses the continuation of the activity (i.e. I would
(probably) talk some more). Another difference is that we tend to use the past perfect simple to speak
about situations that lasted a long time, or were permanent, while the past perfect continuous is for more
temporary or short-term situations or actions:
Ex:

By that time the Moors had lived in southern Spain for over 700 years.
I had only been living in London for a week when I found a job.

There are also some verbs (called stative verbs) that are not usually used in the continuous form,
even though that tense would seem to be more appropriate. We also use the past perfect tense with
verbs like want, plan, intend, hope, etc. to speak about things that we planned to do but could not for
some reason:
Ex: We had wanted to see Susie run, but got caught up in the traffic.
I had planned to read the report but just didn't have time.

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HOMEWORK ACTIVITIES
1) Make affirmative sentences in Past Perfect Simple:

a) The pupils talked about the film they (watch) _________________________________.


b) I was late for work because I (miss) _________________________________the bus.
c) We lived in the house that my father (build) _________________________________.
d) We admired the picture that Lucy (paint) _________________________________.
e) They watered the trees that they (plant) _________________________________.
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Teacher Erika Fernanda

f)

The teacher corrected the tests that the pupils (write) _________________________________.

g) I received a good mark in my test because I (practice) _______________________________on ego4u.


h) The mail order house did not send me the shirt that I (order) _________________________________.
i)

I had to clean the floor because my cats (knock) ___________________________over the flower pots.

j)

My friend was in hospital because she (slip) _________________________________on a banana skin.

2) Make negative sentences in Past Perfect Simple:


a) In the shopping centre, I met a friend who I (see / not) _______________________________for
ages.
b) The thief could walk right into the house because you (lock / not) ______________________the
door.
c)

We lost the match because we (practice / not) _________________________________the days


before.

d) At school, Jim quickly copied the homework that he (do / not) ___________________________.
e) We ate at a restaurant last night because I (buy / not) ________________________anything for
dinner.
f)

When we came back, it was cold in the house because Alice (close / not)
_________________________________the windows.

g) All day long, Phil was angry with me just because I (greet / not) _______________________him
first.
h) When I met Jane at eleven oclock, she (have / not) ______________________________breakfast
yet.
i)

I couldnt go to the cinema with my friends last night because I (finish / not)
________________________________my homework yet.

j)

Fred answered my question although I (ask / not) _________________________________him.

3) Make questions in Past Perfect Simple:


a)

(what / Bob / do) _________________________________________that he was kept in after


school?

b)

(you / eat) _________________________________________anything before you went to the


theatre?

c)

(he / live) _________________________________________in London before he moved to


Glasgow?
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Teacher Erika Fernanda

d)

(she / find) ______________________________________________________a new job by that


time?

e)

(they / book) __________________________________________a room before they went to


Dublin?

f)

(how often / you / ring) _________________________________the bell before he answered the


door?

g)

(why / they / have) ____________________________________dinner before they came to the


party?

h)

(Carly / wash) _______________________________________the dishes when her mum came


home?

i)

(you / read) _____________________________________________the contract before you signed


it?
j)

(who / live) _____________________________________________in the house before we moved

in?
4) Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect simple):
a) The storm destroyed the sandcastle that we (build) _________________________________.
b) He (not / be) _________________________________ to Cape Town before 1997.
c) When she went out to play, she (do / already) _________________________________her
homework.
d) My brother ate all of the cake that our mum (make) _________________________________.
e) The doctor took off the plaster that he (put on) _____________________________six weeks
before.
f)

The waiter brought a drink that I (not / order) _________________________________.

g) I could not remember the poem we (learn) _________________________________the week


before.
h) The children collected the chestnuts that (fall) _________________________________from the
tree.
i)

(he / phone) _________________________________Angie before he went to see her in London?

j)

She (not / ride) _________________________________a horse before that day.

5) Choose the right alternative:


a) What is the correct past perfect form of "I do the laundry"?
( ) I have done the laundry.
( ) I did the laundry.
( ) I had did the laundry.
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) I had done the laundry.

b) What is the correct past perfect form of "She makes some delicious cookies"?
( ) She had made some delicious cookies.
( ) She has made some delicious cookies.
( ) She made some delicious cookies.
( ) She had make some delicious cookies.
c) What is the correct past perfect form of "We visit Paris"?
( ) We'd visit Paris.
( ) We'd visiting Paris.
( ) We'd visited Paris.
( ) We've visited Paris.
d) What is the correct past perfect form of "We can rent a car"?
( ) We had rented a car.
( ) We had been able to rent a car.
( ) We could rent a car.
( ) Wed rent a car.
e) What is the correct past perfect form of "It is hot."?
( ) It was hot.
( ) It had hot.
( ) It had be hot.
( ) It had been hot.

UNIT 9 IMPORTANT PARTS OF A LETTER


The Reference
With reference to your advertisement in the Times, your letter of 23 rd March,
your phone call today,
Thank you for your letter of March 5 th .
The Reason for Writing
I am writing to inquire about
apologize for
confirm
Requesting
Could you possibly?
I would be grateful if you could
Write a formal letter to a company requesting to rent a showroom to provide a lecture
about Motivation into a company. Do not forget to tell them the necessary details:
ARRANGING LETTER
July 28th, 2012
To whom it may concern,
Could you please to reserve a single room with bath for nights of August 22, 23, 24.
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I would be grateful if you could confirm my reservation a.s.a.p.


Sincerely yours,
Oliver Schmutz
Secretary
______________________________
___________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______

_________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________

UNIT 10 THE PASSIVE VOICE


Indicador F: Usa a voz passiva para estabelecer comunicao de ordem formal;
How to construct the passive.
1. Check to see if the active sentence contains an object.
John ate an apple.
John ate yesterday.

(S V O)
(S V)

Passive is possible.
Passive is not possible.

2. Move the object to the front of the sentence. Put the original subject in a "by" phrase.
An apple VERB by John.
3. Put the verb in the form be + past participle of the main verb
An apple "be" eaten by John.
4. Put the "be" in the same tense as the original active sentence.
An apple was/were eaten by John. (past tense)
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5. Make the first verb agree with the new subject.


An apple was eaten by John.
Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known; however,
who or what is performing the action.
Ex: My bike was stolen.
In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however,
who did it. Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example
shows:
Ex: A mistake was made.
In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have
made a mistake.).
Form of Passive: Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)
Ex: A letter was written.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

NOTE: It is important to know that the verb to be change some how according to the tense of the
active voice. Look at these examples:
The man buys goods in a foreign market. (simple present)
Goods are bought in a foreign market (by him).
The man bought goods in a foreign market. (simple past)
Goods were bought in a foreign market (by him).
The man will buy goods in a foreign market. (simple future)
Goods will be bought in a foreign market (by him).
The man is going to buy goods in a foreign market. (immediate future)
Goods are going to be bought in a foreign market (by him).

HOMEWORK ACTIVITY:
1 Put these present sentences into the passive voice:
a) Mr. Jones watches the film.
________________________________________________________________________________
b) People speak English.
________________________________________________________________________________

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c) He reads comics.
________________________________________________________________________________
d) We play volleyball.
________________________________________________________________________________
e) They sing the song.
________________________________________________________________________________
f)

I take photos.
________________________________________________________________________________

g) She does the housework.


________________________________________________________________________________
h) The policemen help the children.
________________________________________________________________________________
i)

He writes text messages.


________________________________________________________________________________

j)

Mother waters the flowers.


________________________________________________________________________________

2 Put these past sentences into the passive voice:

a) She bought four apples.


________________________________________________________________________________

b) We won the match.


________________________________________________________________________________

c) The man stole the blue car.


________________________________________________________________________________

d) The police arrested the thieves.


________________________________________________________________________________

e) Jack swam the 200 meters.


________________________________________________________________________________

f) The dog bit the old lady.


________________________________________________________________________________

g) Tom and Max ate five hamburgers.


________________________________________________________________________________

h) Oliver taught the children.


________________________________________________________________________________

i) Victoria rode the brown horse.


________________________________________________________________________________
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j) Grandmother told good stories.


________________________________________________________________________________
3 Put these future statements into the passive voice:
a) The doctor will give the prognostic.
________________________________________________________________________________
b) The company will send the documents.
________________________________________________________________________________
c) Sarah will visit our partners.
________________________________________________________________________________

d) Jim will wash the clothes.


________________________________________________________________________________
e) I will write the letter.
________________________________________________________________________________

f) He will mark the visit.


________________________________________________________________________________

g) Mr. Thompson will see the clients.


________________________________________________________________________________

h) Jane will buy a new type machine.


________________________________________________________________________________

i) The teacher will give the test tomorrow.


________________________________________________________________________________

j) Students will watch his lecture.


________________________________________________________________________________
4 - Change these miscellaneous sentences from active voice to passive voice:
a) I send the documents at 8 a.m. every day.
_______________________________________________________________________________
b) The supervisor will visit our company next month.
_______________________________________________________________________________
a) People speak English in the meeting.
_______________________________________________________________________________
b) We learnt Business English on our trip.
_______________________________________________________________________________
c) The secretary showed my way.
_______________________________________________________________________________
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d) He took the message.


_______________________________________________________________________________
e) They exported goods to other cities.
_____________________________________________________________________________

f) Sarah will visit the new branch next weekend.


_______________________________________________________________________________
5 Change these sentences using a more polite way:

a) Send me documents. Could you send me the documents, please?


b) Reserve me a double room.
_____________________________________________________________________________
c) Call me back later.
_____________________________________________________________________________
d) Show me my way.
_____________________________________________________________________________
e) Wait me in your office.
_____________________________________________________________________________
f)

Tell Ive called her.


_____________________________________________________________________________

g) Sit down.
_____________________________________________________________________________
h) Book an appointment.
_____________________________________________________________________________
i)

Ask for another payment way.


_____________________________________________________________________________

UNIT 1 1 MORE INFORMATION ABOUT LETTERS


Giving Bad News
Unfortunately
I am afraid that
Make a letter cancelling some important appointment that you have booked before.
Show the person your disappointment about the case.
CANCELLING LETTER
April 15th, 2012
Dear Mr. Baldwin,
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Teacher Erika Fernanda

Unfortunately Ms. Gilbertson is not able to keep the appointment with you on Wednesday, July 22nd at
2.30 p.m. as she had agreed. An urgent matter will prevent her from traveling to Portland.
Please accept her apologies. She will contact you as soon as she returns.
Jesse James
Executive Secretary

_____________________________
___________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
____
_________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________

UNIT 12 COMPARATIVES
Indicador G: Faz comparao dos adjetivos corretamente
Comparatives
Use -er to compare one syllable adjectives and adverbs as well as two-syllable adjectives ending in -y.
A horse is bigger than a dog.
He is shorter than his brother.
I'm busier today than I was yesterday.
I can run faster than you can.
My house is smaller.
It's the lesser of two evils.
Use more or less to compare most other adjectives and adverbs.
She is more helpful than her sister.
Mr. Gallant is more courageous than his cousin.
Craig is less practical than Kay.
Celine sings more beautifully than Barbara.
For better or worse: Use better and worse for comparisons with good or well.
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That's a good movie, but this one is better .


Actually, I think that one is worse.
Use as . . . as to show similarity
He's as quick as his brother.
This chair is not as comfortable as that one.

Comparative of superiority
short adjective + er than
richer than
easier than
bigger than

more + long adjective than


more beautiful than
more famous than

Comparative of inferiority
short or long adjective: less + adjective + than
less rich than
less beautiful than
Comparative of equality: short or long adjective:
as adjective as
as rich as
as beautiful as

HOMEWORK ACTIVITY:
1 - Make comparison showing equality:
a) Our products /good/theirs.
__________________________________________________________________________
b) My company/ efficient/ the American one.
__________________________________________________________________________
c) Nowadays English/ important/ mother language in our country.
__________________________________________________________________________
d) The managers/ important for the company/the president.
__________________________________________________________________________
e) Money/ important/ a good health.
__________________________________________________________________________

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Teacher Erika Fernanda

b.

d.

h.

2 - Make comparison showing inferiority:


a) Some people are ______________________________________________ others. (responsible)
b) Is her secretary _________________________________________________ mine? (efficient)
c) Exporting bikes is usually ___________________________ exporting motorbike. (expensive)

d) Some products of theirs are __________________________________________ others. (interesting)


e) Jack is ____________________________________ Mary. (competent)
3 Complete the following sentences using the superiority comparative degree of the
adjective in parentheses:
He is _______________________________ than Peter. (old)
Lisa and Suzan are ___________________________ than Sheila and Jessica. (tall)
John is _______________________________ than his brother. (smart)
Paul arrived at home after his father. Paul is always _______________________________ than him. (late)
Suzan is ___________________________________than Joan. (beautiful)
Peter's car is ________________________________________ than Bob's. (fast)
Laura's house is ___________________________________________ than his brother's.(expensive)
Myrna's friend was __________________________________________ than Julia. (sensitive)
That building is ______________________________________ than the other one. (dangerous)
Silvia is ________________________________________ than her sister. (lovely)

UNIT 1 3 SUPERLATIVES
Superlatives
Use the -est to indicate the superlative of one-syllable adjectives and adverbs as well as two-syllable
adjectives ending in -y.
He's the fastest man alive.
That's the funniest clown I've ever seen.
Ben works the hardest of them all.
Use the best or the worst as the superlative of good or well.
This is the best deal I can offer you.
That was the best time I've ever had.
It was the worst dinner I've ever cooked.
I like this one the best.
Use the most + adjective/adverb to indicate the superlative of longer adjectives and adverbs.
He's the most wonderful man I've met.
That was the most difficult exam I've ever taken.
Chris sings the most beautifully of them all.
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English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

Use the least + adjective/adverb to indicate the superlative of inferiority


the least interesting
the least important
Superlative
Superlative the short adjective + est
the richest
the easiest
the biggest

the most long adjective


the most beautiful
the most famous

Irregular forms
Positive form
good
bad / ill
little (amount)
little (size)
much / many
far (place + time)
far (place)
late (time)
late (order)
near (place)
near (order)
old (people and things)
old (people)

Comparative form
Superlative form
better
best
worse
worst
less
least
smaller
smallest
more
most
further
furthest
farther
farthest
later
latest
latter
last
nearer
nearest
next
older
oldest
elder
eldest

1 Complete the following sentences using the superiority superlative degree of the
adjective in parentheses:

Milton is the ________________________________________ of his class. (intelligent)

b.

That horse is the ____________________________________ one of Peter's farm. (fast)

Planes are the _______________________________ of the means of transportation. (secure)

d.

Dorothy is the ___________________________________ secretary of my company. (smart)

Magee traveled around Brazil last year. She is the _______________________ person of my family. (rich)
John was fired, but he is the ________________________________ engineer I have ever known. (good)

g.

Mary bought a new car. It is the ______________________________ she has ever bought. (comfortable)

h.

Uncle George is the _______________________________________ relative that I have. (happy)


Emily is one of the ________________________________________ women I know. (strong)
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English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

b.

Jonathan is the _________________________________________ of my students. (educated)


2 Complete the following sentences using the inferiority superlative degree of the
adjective in parentheses:
Carl is the ______________________________________ of his class. (smart)
That dog is the _______________________________________ one of Peter's. (dangerous)

Motorcycles are the _____________________________ of the means of transportation. (risky)

d.

Daisy is the ____________________________________ manager of my company. (intelligent)

Magee traveled around Brazil last year. She is the _______________________ person of my family. (rich)
3 Complete the table with the comparative and superlative forms of the adjective:
Adjective
hot
fat
thin
hard
small
clean
happy
dirty
good
bad
many
much
comic
interesting
pleasant
difficult

Comparative (superiority)
hotter than

Superlative
the hottest

UNIT 1 4 MORE LETTERS


CONFIRMING LETTERS
August 3rd, 2012
Dear Mr. Schmutz,
We are pleased to confirm your reservation for one single room with bath from 22 to 24 of this month.
Please let us know your time of arrival and departure.
Sincerely yours,
David MackGold
Paradise Hotel Manager

39

English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

______________________________
__________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
____
_________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________

UNIT 15 FACSMILE SHEET AND LANGUAGE


Indicador B: Escreve fax de maneira correta;
There are four basic points to keep in mind when writing a facsimile: They are:

Write who the fax is addressed to - Attention of:


Who the addressee is From:
The date and time;
The number of pages you are sending.

We also can use abbreviations in our message like:


pls please
dct document
a.s.a.p. as soon as possible
prc - price
Lets take look at a sample of this:
__________________________________________________________________________
______
FAX TRANSMISION SHEET
__________________________________________________________________________
______
ATTENTION OF:
FROM:
__________________________________________________________________________
______
40

English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

N. OF PAGES INCLUDING TOP SHEET


TIME/ DATE:
__________________________________________________________________________
______
PLEASE TELEPHONE US IMMEDIATELY IF YOU DO NOT RECEIVE THE NUMBER OF PAGES
INDICATED ABOVE
555-5555
__________________________________________________________________________
______

Dear Mr. Guzman,


Thank you for your invitation to attend The night over the Stars that will be held in the Rockfeller
Center on February 11th, 2006. Perhaps, we will not be able to make it due to the amount of work we
have these days.
This way, we look forward to our meeting in So Paulo, Brazil, during the International Annual Toy
Fair ABRIN that will take place on April 22nd, 2005.
Let us know your time of arrival and departure.
We look forward hearing from you.
Sincerely,
MaryAnne Oliver
Business Coordinator Brazil
Lets make a fax. You are from Brazil and you will ask information about an event that it
will take place in United States.
__________________________________________________________________________
______
FAX TRANSMISION SHEET
________________________________________________________________________________
ATTENTION OF:
FROM:
________________________________________________________________________________
N. OF PAGES INCLUDING TOP SHEET
TIME/ DATE:
________________________________________________________________________________
PLEASE TELEPHONE US IMMEDIATELY IF YOU DO NOT RECEIVE THE NUMBER OF PAGES INDICATED
ABOVE
555-5555
__________________________________________________________________________
______
______________________________
___________________________________
41

English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

UNIT 1 6 RESUM
Indicador C: Constri currculos de maneira adequada.
Lets write your curriculum vitae. First of all, take a look at this example:
Sharon Blachly
666 W. 13 th Street, Apt. 66-Y
New York, NY 10011
(212) 575-0440 - blach@aol.com
SUMMARY OF SKILLS:
I am an organized, dynamic and very professional person.
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE:
2000 - Present: Membership Services & Sales

The Boys and Girls Club

Contributed to the increase membership sales for nursery education and program classes by 23%
from 1996 to 1998
Actively canvassed prospective and current members
Educated new members about payment plan options
Processed membership registration for prospective and current members

1996-2000: Administrative Assistant

Scaffolding, Inc.

Maintained executive meeting schedule and travel arrangements


Coordinated client and interoffice files and paperwork
Managed distribution in a Lotus 1-2-3 database
Met and greeted clients

EDUCATION:

1985- 1999 Big School Leeds


5 GCSEs including Math and English

Leeds
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English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

INFORMATICS:

Microsoft Office
Microsoft Word
Word Perfect 6.1
Lotus 1-2-3 for Windows
Excel
Telemarketing sales
Typing (55 wpm)
Windows 95, 98 operating systems
Update: 05/2nd /2011

Now it is time to make yours:


Name: __________________________________________________________
Address: ________________________________________________________
City, State ________________________________________________________
phone/ e-mail ______________________________________________________
SUMMARY OF SKILLS:
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE:
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
EDUCATION:
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
INFORMATICS
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English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
____
LANGUAGES
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
____

Bibliography
FERRARI, Mariza & RUBIN, Sarah ENGLISH CLIPS So Paulo: Scipione, 2001
MACZIOLA, Sarah Jones & WHITE, Greg FURTHER AHEAD A communication skills course for Business
English Learners book
AZEVEDO, Dirce Guedes de & GOMES, Airton de Azevedo, - BLOW UP FTD So Paulo, 2001
BERTIN, Jean Claude Aduaneiras O Ingls no transporte e na logstica - 1998
www.onestopenglish.com
www.eleaston.com
www.englishweb.com
http://www.past-simple.com/Past-Perfect.htm
http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/active_passive/sentences_simple_present.htm
http://d.scribd.com/docs/1vhyzvetbe3xitqda5lr.pdf
http://armazemideias.blogspot.com/2007/06/grammar-degrees-of-adjectives.html
44

English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda

http://www.unzco.com/basicguide/c10.html#sample
http://www.eslgold.com
http://www.unzco.com/basicguide/c10.html#sample
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_documents_required_for_foreign_trade

http://pt.bab.la/frases/inscricao/carta-de-referencia/portugues-ingles/
http://www.past-simple.com/Past-Perfect.htm
http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/active_passive/sentences_simple_present.htm
http://d.scribd.com/docs/1vhyzvetbe3xitqda5lr.pdf
http://armazemideias.blogspot.com/2007/06/grammar-degrees-of-adjectives.html

45

English for Specific Purpose Foreign Trade


Teacher Erika Fernanda