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Modal Verbs

Vh language School - Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

I.Introduo II. Resumo III. Exerccios

I. Introduo
Os verbos modais diferem dos verbos principais tanto na sua variedade de expresses como no seu funcionamento gramatical. H 10 verbos modais: CAN - COULD - SHOULD - OUGHT TO - MUST - WILL - SHALL WOULD - MAY - MIGHT Alm desses verbos modais autnticos h cinco outros verbos e expresses que podem funcionar da mesma form: BE ABLE TO - HAVE TO - NEED (TO) - HAD BETTER - USED TO

O QUE OS MODAIS EXPRESSAM? A principal caracterstica dos verbos modais terem frequentemente significados e funes distintas. Por ex: o verbo modal COULD pode exprimir: a) uma habilidade passada: When I was young I could run very fast. (Quando eu era jovem, eu conseguia correr bem rpido) b) uma possibilidade presente ou futura:

He's very tall. He could be a basketball player. (Ele muito alto. Poderia ser um jogador de basquete) c) Permisso: Could I use the telephone? (Eu poderia usar o telefone?) d) Pedidos:

VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596

Could I ask you a question? (Poderia lhe fazer uma pergunta?) e) Sugestes: How about going out tonight? We could go to the theatre. Que tal sair hoje noite? Poderamos ir ao teatro. f) Deduo: He couldn't have done it. He wasn't here. Ele no pode ter feito isto. Eel no estava aqui. REGRAS: 1. Os verbos modais so defectivos, ou seja, no se conjugam em todas as formas verbais. 2. No recebem o -S final na terceira pessoa do singular (he, she, it) I must go home. He must go home 3. No tm as formas do passado simples ou do -ING 4. No aceito DO nem DID na interrogativa ou na negativa: Ca you....? / I can't.... 5. No tm a forma nominal de infinitivo (no existem as formas TO CAN, TO MUST, etc.) 6. So seguidas do infinitivo sem o TO. I can dance. (I can to dance) As 3 excees a essa regra so o OUGHT TO, USED TO e o HAVE TO 7. No podem fazer combinaes com os verbos auxiliares: I will must..... I have must.... 8. Podem ser seguidos de HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE. He should have written. (Ele deveria ter escrito)

9. Voc ir notar que, para expressar tempos e formas verbais distintas usando os modais, normalmente recorremos a outras formas de expresso: Presente: I must go home Passado: I had to go home Futuro: I will have to go home (Tenho que ir para casa) (Tive que ir para casa) (Vou ter que ir para casa)

II. Resumo
SIGNIFICADO 1. Habilidade VERBO 1.1Can/Can't
expressar alguma coisa que sabemos fazer.

EXEMPLO I can speak French (Eu sei falar francs) I could speak French when I was younger (Eu sabia falar francs quando eu era mais nova) He couldn't repair the car yesterday. (Ele no pode consertar o carro ontem) I'll be able to speak French at the end of the

1.2 Could
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

a) falar sobre alguma coisa que no sabamos ou no fazer no passado.

b) falar sobre uma habilidade ou falta dela em uma situao especfica no passado.

1.3 Be able to
falar sobre habilidades no passado e no futuro. Nestes casos

no usamos o CAN.

course. (Eu serei capaz de falar francs ao final do curso) He was able to repair the car straightaway. (Ele conseguiu consertar o carro imediatamente) I won't be able to see you tomorrow. (Eu no vou poder v-lo amanh)

VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

2. 2.1 Can POSSIBILIDA- descrever uma possibilidade geral ou DES/PROBABI- terica, tem o sentido de s vezes. LIDADES

(presente) He can be a difficult child (s vezes ele uma criana difcil) (futuro) We can meet you tonight at 8 o'clock (presente) There could be life on other planets. (Pode existir vida em outros planetas) (futuro) We could move next month.

Para expressar planos pessoais para o futuro.

VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - Mg

2.2 Could
para descrever uma possibilidade remota, algo de que no temos certeza.

Possilibidade no futuro

(Ns poderamos mudar no ms que vem.) 2.3 Could have We could have possibilidade que been killed in existiu no passado that crash! mas que no aconteceu. Isto inclui (Ns uma habilidade que se tinha no passado mas poderamos ter que no foi usada. morrida naquela coliso).
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL - Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

2.4 Should
expressar algo que provvel no momento em que se fala ou no futuro.

She should be at work by now. (Ela deveria estar no trabalho agora).

2.5 Should have


para falar sobre algo que espervamos acontecer no passado, mas que no aconteceu.

He should have passed the exam. (Ele deveria ter passado no teste). He would be perfect for the job. (Ele seria perfeito para a vaga).

VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL - Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

2.6. Would
previses e possibilidades futuras que dependem de que algo acontea ou de algo seja diferente no futuro.

2.7. May
expressar uma possibildiade baseada no nosso conhecimento da situao

Presente The doctor may be able to see you tomorrow. (Pode ser que o mdico possa atend-lo amanh.

Possibilidade no futuro de 50% a 60 %

Futuro The weather may be better tomorrow. (Pode ser que o tempo melhore amanh)

VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL - Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

2.8 May have


descrever uma possibildade no passado, para sugerir incerteza em relao ao fato ocorrido. = MIGHT HAVE

I may have met her before. ( possvel que eu a tenha conhecido antes) (present) He might still be in Venice. (pode ser que ele ainda esteja em Veneza)

2.9 Might
=May, porm might uma possibilidade um pouco mais remota.

Possibilidade no futuro de 30% a 40%

VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da CAchoeira - MG

(futuro) The director might retire early. (pode ser que o diretor se aposente cedo). They might have left already I don't know. Pode ser que eles j tenham sido, no sei. We might not have caught this train... (podamos no ter pego este trem).. mas pegamos

2.10 might have


descrever uma possibildade no passado, para sugerir incerteza em relao ao fato ocorrido = MAY HAVE

ateno:

podemos usar no MIGHT NOT HAVE, quando sabemos que uma coisa NO aconteceu.

significado 3. PERMISSO

Verbo

exemplo

3.1 Can/can't
CAN = para dar permisso Can't = negar permisso ou proibir alguma coisa

Can we smoke in here? (podemos fumar aqui dentro?) Could I use the bathroom? (Eu poderia usar o banheiro?) May I use the office phone, please? (Eu poderia usar o telefone do escritrio, por favor?)

3.2 Could
para pedir permisso ou fazer solicitao. uma forma mais educada do que o CAN.

3.3 May
= Can, porm mais formal
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

3.4. Might
=Can porm bem mais formal, e aqui tambm no temos certeza da resposta que ser dada.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

Might I borrow a company car tonight? (Ser que eu poderia pegar o carro da empresa emprestado hoje noite?)

Significado 4. PEDIDOS

Verbo

exemplo

4.1 Can
para pedir ou para dar permisso. menos formal que o MAYMIGHT e COULD.

Can you help me with my homework, dad? (Vc pode me ajudar na lio de casa, papai?) Could you show me the way to the station? (vc poderia me mostrar o caminho at a estao). Will you close the window, please? (feche a janela por favor?)

4.2 Could
mais formal do que o CAN
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

4.3 Will
= CAN, porm bem mais coloquial.

4.4 Would
para fazer pedidos em

um tom mais polido. Tem o mesmo grau de polidez que o COULD

4.5. Might

VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

Would you take this to the bank, please? (Vc poderia levar isto ao banco , por favor?) You might get me some milk while you're out. (Vc poderia me comprar leite quando sair)

usado para fazer um pedido mais vacilante pois temos certeza de que a resposta ser afirmativa.

Significado 5. OFERTAS

Verbo

exemplo

Will
expressar ofertas, recusas e ameaas
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

I'll carry that heavy bag for you. (deixe-me carregar essa mala pesada para voc). Shall I get you something to eat? (posso te oferecer algo para comer?) Would you like to lie down for a while? (Quer se deitar um pouco?)

Shall
para oferecer algo ou para oferecer fazer alguma coisa

Would
para oferecer algo

Significado Verbo 6. PROMESSAS 6.1. Will


expressar uma deciso tomarda no momento em que se fala, alguma coisa que no tinha sido planejada anteriormente.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

Exemplo

Your father will give you some money. (O seu pai lhe dar algum dinheiro). I promise I won't tell anyone. You shall have that bike for Christmas! (Vc vai ganhar aquela bicicleta de Natal!)

6.2 Shall
para fazer uma promessa a algum.

Significado 7. Ordens

Verbo

Exemplo

7.1 Must
ordens que o FALANTE julga ser uma obrigao e no porque uma lei, ou regra de algum lugar.

You must be on time in future! (No futuro, vc deve estar aqui no horrio) You will report to the officer in charge. (Vc se reportar ao oficial responsvel) The exam shall be conducted in silence. (O exame dever ser feito em silncio)

7.2 Will
expressar ordens rgidas normalmente dadas por uma pessoa com autoridade sobre a outra, exemplo: em uma ambiente militar

7.3. Shall
muito antiquado, expressa regras formais e ordens normalmente por escrito.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

Significado CRTICA

Verbo

Exemplo

8.1 Could have You could have para criticar as invited me to pessoas terem ou no feito algo no passado. your party! (bem que vc VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL poderia ter me Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 convidado para Carmo da Cachoeira - MG a sua festa). You should have invited me to your party! (Vc deveria ter escrito o seu nome por extenso).

8.2. Should have


para criticar as pessoas terem ou no feito algo no passado.

8.3 Might have She might at para criticar as least have pessoas terem ou no thanked me. feito algo no passado. (Ela poderia ao menos ter me agradecido).

Significado CONSELHOS/ SUGESTES

Verbo

Exemplo

9.1 Could
usado como forma educada para pedir permisso, fazer solicitaes ou dar sugestes

We could go to the new bar this evening. (Poderamos ir ao novo barzinho hoje noite)

9.2 Should
dar conselhos, e sugestes
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

You really should go to the doctor. (Vc deveria ir mesmo ao mdico) You must try these chocolates they're delicious!

9.3. Must
dar conselhos ou sugestes

Vc tem que experimentar esses bombons so deliciosas! 9.3 Shall


dar e pedir conselhos ou sugestes

Shall I tell him the truth? (Devo dizer-lhe a verdade?) You might phone the restaurant and check that it's open. (Vc poderia ligar para o restaurant e verificar se est aberto)

9.4. Might
dar sugestes especulativas
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

Significado OBRIGAO

Verbo

Exemplo

10.1 Should
expressar conselhos de carter geral e para fazer recomendaes

You should tell the police what you saw. (Vc deveria contar polcia o que viu). You ought to phone home. (Vc deveria ligar para a sua casa). You must circulate that report before the meeting. (vc deve circular ese relatrio antes da reunio)

10.2 Ought to
= should acima
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

10.3 Must
expressar uma obrigao positiva. Aqui ele expressa o que ELE julga ser uma obrigao. No uma obrigao externa.

10.4 Have to
expressar um fato , uma obrigao externa, por exemplo uma lei, uma regra de uma escola etc. No uma opinio de quem fala.

You have to wait in the queue (vc tem que aguardar na fila) You don't have to pay on Sundays. (vc no precisa pagar no domingo)

10.5 Need
afirmativa ou negativa: algo que o falante julga ser uma necessidade. Interrogativa: obrigao externa Do I need...? ou Need I...?

I need to lose another three kilos. (eu tenho que perder mais 3 kilos) You don't need to / needn't show me your passport. (vc no precisa me mostrar o seu passaporte)

VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

Do I need a Visa? (Eu preciso de um visto?)


VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

10.6 Needn't have

<> entre a) We didn't need to get a visa (No precisvamos tirar o visto) Aqui no sabemos se eles tiraram o visto ou no. b) We needn't have got a visa. (No precisvamos tirar o visto). Esta frase indica que eles tiraram o visto, emborar tenha sido desnecessrio.

You needn't have bought any milk. I've got plenty. (Vc no precisava ter trazido leite. Eu tenho bastante.

NECESSIDADE 11.1 Need


need + verbING = tem o significado passivo do need to be + past participle.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

This report needs typing / needs to be typed. (este relatrio precisa ser digitado). The door doesn't need painting / doesn't need to be painted. (a porta no precisa ser pintada)

DEDUO

12.1 Can't
expressar uma deduo negativa sobre o presente, expressar certeza de que algo no verdade.

Those calculations can't be easy. (esses clculos no devem ser fceis).

12.1 Can't have They can't have expressar deduo bought a new lgica sobre o passado car. (Eles no o oposto do MUST podem ter HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE comprado um VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL carro novo) Professora Vera Helena
(35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

12.2 Couldn't have


descrever uma possibilidade que existiu ou no no passado. Tb para mencionar que algo foi possvel no passado mas no aconteceu.

He couldn't have done it. He wasn't there. (Ele no pode ter feito isso. Ele no estava l).

12.3 Must
expressar uma deduo lgica sobre o presente. Neste caso o oposto do MUST o CAN'T

She must be at home. The ligths are on. Ela deve estar em casa. As luzes esto acessas. It must have rained a lot in New York. (Deve ter chovido muito em Nova York) What's that noise? It'll be the express train. (Que barulho esse? Deve ser o trem expresso).

12.4 Must have


expressar uma deduo lgica sobre o passado.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

12.5 Will
expressar deduo que so quase certas. She'll be staying at the Hilton (Ela sempre fica l) <> She must be at the Hilton (J ligamos para todos os outros hotis e no a encontramos)

INTENO/ VONTADE

13.1 Will/Won't He'll help you expressar uma paint the walls. vontade Ele o ajudar a pintar as paredes. I won't pay more than R$20 for a ticket. (No vou pagar mais do que 20 reais por um ingresso) I Shall come as soon as I can. (Voltarei assim que puder.) I shan't stay very long. (No pretendo ficar muito tempo.)

VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

13.2 Shall/Shan't
para expressar um inteno

PREVISES

14.1 Will/Won't One day previses simples para scientists will o futuro usando find a cure for expresses como: I think, expect, cancer. (Um dia suppose, definitely os cientistas (indiscutivelmente), probably, possibly, encontraro a etc. cura para o cncer). He probably won't recognize me. (Ele provavelmente no ir me reconhecer).
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

14.2 Shall/Shan't
= will/ won't

We shan't learn much in this class. (Provavelmente no vamos aprender muito nesta aula).

DESEJOS

15.1 Would
= want

I'd liketo go home now. (Eu gostaria de ir para casa agora) I'd rather stay here with you than go out. (Eu prefereria ficar com voc aqui a sair) I wish he would speak louder. (Queria que ele falasse mais alto) I wish you wouldn't argue so much. (Queria que voc no discutisse tanto

15.2 Would rather


descrever uma preferncia. A negativa would rather not

15.3 Wish + would


Para expressar o desejo de que algo mude, ou de que algum faa alguma coisa. S para falar sobre coisas que ns no podemos mudar e que depende do outro.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

HBITOS E ESTADOS NO PASSDO 16.1 Would


aes que aconteciam com frequencia no passado. No pode ser usado para estados, somente para aes. igual ao USED TO.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

When I was young we would go to the beach every morning. (Quando eu era jovem, amos praia todas as manhs) I used to go to the cinema twice a week. (Eu costumava ir ao cinema 2 vezes por semana) She used to have lovely hair. (Ela tinha cabelos lindos)

16.2 Used to
aes que aconteciam com frequencia no passado.

16.3 Used to
situaes no passado que no existem mais. No usamos used to para falar quanto tempo alguma coisa durou.

III. Exerccios
Exercise 1 Put these words into the correct order to make questions.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena 1. I bed go have do to to (35) 8846-0596 2. tomorrow to able will go skiing be we Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

3. football he play use to did 4. coffee like would tea or you 5. the the Post Office you me could tell to way 6. that carry you for I shall 7. nine come o'clock can at they 8. need we visa a get to do 9. your may use I telephone 10. this me with you will help Exercise 2 Do these sentences refer to the past, present or future? 1. She must be Spanish. VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL 2. He can't have done it. Professora Vera Helena 3. She'll have to get a visaCarmo da Cachoeira - MG 4. We would walk for miles in those days. 5. They used to live next door to us. 6. I wasn't able to help him 7. They could find a cure for cancer soon 8. You could have invited us! 9. You needn't have bought any milk. 10. 11. That exercise can't be difficult. You musn't take any photos in here.
(35) 8846-0596

12. 13. 14. 15.

Answers shall be written in ink. I may have left it on the bus. She'll be able to see you at six. Could I use your phone?

Exercise 3 Complete the gaps with TO if necessary 1. Donny can't .. drive.


VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL 2. He has.... get a driving licence. Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 3. He ought.... take some driving lessons. Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

4. He used..... drive his father's car. 5. He should.... practise driving every day. 6. He might....pass the test the first time. 7. He will be able.... work as a taxi driver. 8. He must..... find a good instructor. 9. He needs.... talk to other learners. 10. He could .. phone a driving school.

Exercise 4 Complete the sentences with CAN, CAN'T or CAN'T HAVE. 1. I'm afraid you.....smoke in here. 2. She...... been there she was with me all day! 3. Working on a computer..... make you feel tired. 4. They .be on holiday, their dog is in the garden. 5. On a clear day you.....see the French coast. 6. But mum, I .... broken it. I was in my bedroom all day!
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

Exercise 5 Complete the sentences with a form of CAN or BE ABLE TO 1. We really enjoy.....sunbathe in our own garden. 2. I know your name, but I ..remember it (negative) 3. In my garden you......hear the sea.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena 5. I would love to.....retire. (35) 8846-0596 da Cachoeira - MG 6. When he is 18 he....vote in the Carmo election.

4. Jackie.....ski really well.

7. I want to . play the violin when I grow up. 8. The goalkeeper fell over but he ..catch the ball. Exercise 6 Complete the gaps with CAN'T HAVE or MUST HAVE and a verb from the box. Turned on smoked rained gone eaten broken taken stolen

1. Gerry's car is still in the garage. He .. out. 2. There's no ice-cream in the fridge. Sylvia..... VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL 3. the video isn't working. Clive.....it. 4. The streets are wet. It....last night.
Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

5. It's very cold in the office today. The caretaker .the heating this morning. 6. The cigar bos is empty. My dinner guests.... all my cigars. 7. He doesn't have a key to the safe so he ..the money. 8. The dogs aren't in the house. Sarah .them for a walk.

Exercise 7 Only one sentence in each pair is correct. Tick the correct sentence A or B. 1. A. I missed the party. You could have told me about it. B. I missed the party. You could told me about it. 2. What shall we do tomorrow evening? B. Well, we could go to the skating rink. 3. A. In the future they could find a cure for cancer. B. In the future they are able to find a cure for cancer. 4. A. He's feeling better now, I'm glad the doctor was able to help him. B. He's feeling better now, I'm glad the doctor could have helped him. 5. A. Excuse me. Are you able to tell me the way to the cinema? B. Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the cinema? 6. A. John could have taken the car. It's still in the garage. B. John couldn't have taken the car. It's still in the garage.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

A. Well, we will be able to go to the skating rink.

Exercise 8 Read the paragraph about Southerton, a small town in England and use the information to complete the gaps in the sentences. Use suitable forms of CAN, COULD and BE ABLE TO. Southerton has seen a lot of changes recently. People used to drive into town and shop at all small shops in the centre. They often parked on the main road and so there was a lot of traffic. The Town Concil decided to introduce restrictions last month, and now it isn't possible to park in the town centre. Shoppers have to park in an expensive car park near the Town Hall. But now a large supermarket is being built just outside the town. When it opens next January, it will have a large free car park. It will be good news for shoppers, but many of the small shopkeepers in the old town centre believe they will lose money. Some even think that they will be forced to close down completely. Some are predicting that in five years' time there will be no shops left in the town. People without cars may find it very difficult to get their food and basic essentials. 1. In the old days people .... shop in the town centre. 2. They...... park their cars on the main road. 3. Now you . park in the town centre 4. Shoppers.... park their cars in a car park near the town hall, but it's quite expensive. 5. Next year people..... shop at eh new supermarket. 6. They .. park their cars free of charge. 7. In five years' time people probably . shop in the town centre, as all the shops will be gone. 8. And people who don't have cars....get the things they need very easily.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

Exercise 9 Complete the sentences using SHOULD HAVE or SHOULDN'T VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL HAVE and the verbs in brackets. 1. John's good at chemistry but he failed the exam (pass) He.......the exam. 2. Susan`s got a car but she took the bus and was late. (take) She.....her car. 3. Derek stayed in the sun all day and got sunburnt. (stay) He........ in the sun so long. 4. The manager resigned but she couldn't find a new job. (resign) She........... 5. My brother ate too much chocolate andn felt sick. (eat) He..... so much chocolate. 6. Clare didn't drive carefully and she had an accident. (drive) She..... more carefully. 7. Beth didn't bring an umbrella and she got very wet. (bring) She...... an umbrella. 8. Henry wore jeans to the interview and didn't get the job. (wear) Henry..... such unsuitable clothes. 9. Jenny shouted at a customer and got the sack. (shout) She......at a customer. 10. Our teacher expected Juan to get an A in the the test but he only got a C.(get) Juan......a better result.
VH LANGUAGE SCHOOL Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

Professora Vera Helena (35) 8846-0596 Carmo da Cachoeira - MG

Exercise 10