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03.

Transcription

Comparao RNA - DNA

Types of RNA
messenger RNA (mRNA). This will later be translated into a polypeptide. ribosomal RNA (rRNA). This will be used in the building of ribosomes: machinery for synthesizing proteins by translating mRNA. transfer RNA (tRNA). RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the growing polypeptide. small nuclear RNA (snRNA). DNA transcription of the genes for mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA produces large precursor molecules ("primary transcripts") that must be processed within the nucleus to produce the functional molecules for export to the cytosol. Some of these processing steps are mediated by snRNAs. small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA). These RNAs modify tRNA and rRNA (met, etc) microRNA (miRNA). These are tiny (~22 nts) RNA molecules that appear to regulate the Half life or translation efficiency of mRNA molecules. ncRNA. Bacteria. Small RNAs that regulate translation based on ribosome binding ability XIST RNA. This inactivates one of the two X chromosomes in female vertebrates.

RNA has complex secondary structure

Organizao da informao genica


-20 -10 +1 +10 +20 +30

DNA RNA

5
5 3

DNA is transcribed to RNA in different gene with different efficiencies

Terminao

E.coli

Iniciao

Elongao

Iniciao da transcripo
Promotor Transcripto codificante

..5
-20 -10 +1 +10 +20 +30 +40 +50

..3

Iniciao da transcripo

Transcrio (localizao da informao)


BOX -35 -10 +1

5-----TTTACA-------------------TATA----------------AAT--------------3 3-----AAATGT-------------------ATAT 5AAU--------------3 -------------TTA--------------5


RNA Pol

Promotor

Transcripto

regio codificante

..5 ..3
-20 -10 +1 +10 +20 +30 +40 +50

..3 ..5

DNA RNA DNA

Sequencias consenso no promotor

Eficincia dos promotores e diferente e depende da sequncia Eficincia representa o nmero de vezes que a RNA Pol inicia a transcrio A eficincia de ligao depende: . Em parte do estado de super-enrolamento do DNA (+) -> menos transcrio (-) -> mais transcrio . Factores de ativao o inibio (factores de transativao) . Nos procariotas depende de qual factor sigma () se liga . Nos eucariotas depende de diferentes factores de transativao

Terminao da transcrio

Promotores tipo Pol II (mRNA)

+5000

-200

-30 TATA

+1

......5

Enhancer

//

Promotor

........3

Complexo de pre-iniciao e ativao

Iniciao requer alteraes estruturais do promotor envolvendo protenas ativadoras

Topoisomerases e Gyrases tambm funcionam durante a transcrio

5 CAP

7metil-Guanosine- 3P Ajuda os ribossomas a Ligarem o mRNA

Processamento do 3 do mRNA
Poly-A-Polymerase

Organizao do mRNA

Organizao do mRNA

Promotor

Transcrito

codificante

..5
-20 -10 +1 +10 +20 +30 +40 +50

7-Met-G CAP

AAAAA (200bp)

5 UTR

codificante

3UTR

Poly A

mRNA export to the cytoplasm

Nucleolus - ribossomas

Construo dos ribossomas