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CURSO: Tcnico em Eletrotcnica 2013.1.

COMPONENTE CURRICULAR: Ingls Instrumental

PROFESSOR(A): Ana Paula

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Ingls Instrumental Tcnico em


Eletrotcnica
O que ingls instrumental? Como surgiu?

English for Specific Purposes (E.S.P), que em portugus quer dizer: Ingls com
Objetivos Especficos, tambm chamado de ingls instrumental ou tcnico, ou seja, a
habilidade de entender textos em lngua inglesa usando estratgias especficas de leitura.
Surgiu com a necessidade de comunicao rpida e eficaz em vrios contextos mundiais.
Como por exemplo: durante a guerra, os soldados precisavam aprender o idioma do
inimigo para sobreviverem, este vocabulrio bsico era visto no avio, navio, nos campos
de batalha.
Com o passar do tempo, outros contextos sociais foram surgindo, como: a necessidade
de leitura de livros, revistas, catlogos, instrues operacionais, manuais escritos em
ingls que precisavam ser compreendidos pelos usurios, etc. Sendo assim, torna-se
necessrio uma abordagem especfica da lngua Inglesa, que atenda as necessidades
profissionais dos estudantes, que so leitura e compreenso de livros.
E assim, o Ingls Instrumental possui o objetivo de desenvolver a habilidade de leitura,
isto , de compreenso de textos de diversas reas do conhecimento escritos em lngua
inglesa, utilizando para isso estratgias de leitura, a fim de tornar o aluno capaz de
compreender um texto da sua rea de estudo.
Nesse enfoque, a leitura conta com o conhecimento prvio dos leitores. O ingls
instrumental consiste no treinamento instrumental dessa lngua, em que as habilidades
tm por objetivo extrair conhecimentos para reas especficas de estudo.
Vale lembrar que o ingls instrumental ou tcnico pode ou no visar a comunicao oral
em ingls, entretanto, para os cursos de Informtica sua principal habilidade a ser
trabalhada ser a leitura e o estudo de gramtica, restringindo-a a um mnimo necessrio,
ou seja, associando-a ao texto.
Mtodo
Desenvolve a leitura ("Reading") de forma limitada a um objetivo especfico, atravs da
habilidade de manipular textos em lngua inglesa, tentando assimilar a compreenso geral
e inferir informaes especficas. A gramtica ensinada de forma contextualizada a um
objetivo especfico.
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Traduo dos textos


Para nosso curso sero utilizados mtodos de traduo como, por exemplo: deduo,
contexto semntico, reconhecimento de afixos, cognatos e vocabulrio da rea.
Como sero as aulas?
As aulas sero ministradas em portugus, pois no curso no sero trabalhadas as
habilidades da fala, de compreenso oral e de escrita. No haver traduo literal, outras
estratgias sero utilizadas como, por exemplo, deduo, cognatos, familiares, dicas
tipogrficas e outros. Muitos exerccios de leitura e compreenso de textos, os quais
vocs podero aplicar as estratgias de leitura e interpretao que sero ensinadas.
O ingls instrumental poder abrir seus horizontes de leitura e assim voc se manter
mais informado e prximo ao mundo globalizado.
Estrangeirismo: o emprego de palavras de outros idiomas a lngua nativa, de tal forma
que passamos a emprega-las como se fosse nossa.
Familiares: so palavras conhecidas pela maioria das pessoas que vive em um pas
altamente influenciado pela cultura dos pases de Lngua Inglesa. No tm a mesma
origem das palavras da Lngua Portuguesa.
Alguns exemplos de Familiares: Software Windows Hot dog Diet
Fast food Video game Credit card Mouse Delivery Dollar Marketing Light Shows
Moto/Office Boy Site Drive-thru Hamburguer Play DVD / CD Record
Mtodos de Leitura e Interpretao
Skimming: Nesta etapa a leitura rpida para identificar ideias principais. No se
preocupe em entender todas as palavras. Concentre-se na ideia geral do texto.
Scanning: Isto significa ler a procura de uma informao especfica lanando um olhar por
cima do texto procurando por palavras chaves. Em testes de mltipla escolha isto usado
o tempo todo como a procura da alternativa correta.
Prediction: Antes a leitura do texto necessrio tentar prever do que ele se trata. Isto
feito de forma fcil checando o titulo, olhando figuras, cartas ou grficos e tudo que puder
indicar o assunto do texto.
Activating the Background Knowledge: Primeiro voc previu qual o tema do texto,
tempo de pensar sobre o que j sabe sobre isso.
Knowledge of the shape of phrases: Reconhecer o formato de pequenas sentenas
sujeito + verbo + complemento. Em frases interrogativas h mudanas.

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Inference: Algumas vezes voc encontra palavras que no pode entender. Adivinhe o
significado pelo contexto usando o conceito dos cognatos e morfologia. No perca tempo
procurando saber palavras desconhecidas.
1. Os ttulos a serem estudados inicialmente:
I) The Importance of English in Technical Education
II) The Disappearing Deal American obstacles in Copenhagen
III) Homemade Natural Cleaning Products

2. uma ideia presente no texto:


I) Importncia do Ingls em sua formao.
II) O desaparecimento do acordo Americano e os obstculos de Copenhagen.
III) Produtos caseiros para limpeza
TEXTO I
THE IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION
English is one of the most important languages in the world. It can even be said o be the
single most important language. Yes, other languages are important too, but not for the
same reasons as English is important. English is important because it is, maybe, the only
language that truly links the whole world together. If not for English, the whole world may
not be as united as it is today. The other languages may be important for their local values
and culture.
English can be used as a language in any part of the world. This is because at least a few
people in each locality would know the language. Though these people might not have the
same accent as others, the language at least will be understandable. There are various
reasons for the importance of English language. They are listed below.
1.Travel: When a person travels to another part of the world either for the sake of business
or even as a tourist, the languages may differ. In these conditions, English is the language
that helps people to deal with the situation. It is like a universal language.
2. Same country: In countries like India, where the land is so vast with people of various
cultures live, the languages of each part of the country also differ. Under the
circumstances, English can be the only link as people in each place will not be able to
learn all the other languages to communicate with the people. English bridges this gap and
connects the people.
3. Education / Studies: The presence of English as a universal language assumes
importance in the fact that more and more people leave their countries not only for the

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sake of business and pleasure, but also for studying. Education has increased the role of
English. People who go to another country to study can only have English as their medium
of study. This is because the individual will not be able to learn a subject in the local
language of the country. This again reinforces the fact that English language is very
important.
4. Correspondence: All correspondences between offices in different countries and also
between political leaders of various countries is in English. This linking factor also tells of
the importance of English language.
5. Internet: In spite of the growth of Internet in various languages, English is the mainstay
of the Internet users. This is the language in which most of the information and websites
are available. It is very difficult to translate each and every relevant webpage into the
language of various countries. With Internet becoming very important in E commerce and
also in education, English language is bound to grow. Thus the importance of English as a
language is emphasized.
The future of English as a language is very secure. In this era of consolidation and trying
to unify various aspects of life, it will not be long before English can be made as a single
language of the world like the single currency and the union of various nations.

01) According to the text above, judge the following items with F for false or T for true.

( ) Others languages have most importance that English.


( ) When were travel for anywhere of the world, is a differential have English
knowledge.
( ) In India all the people talk English.
( ) Many people leave your Country for study English.
( ) All the correspondences between countries are in universal language.
( ) The Internet Language difficultly is translated in all the languages of the world.

TEXTO II Towing ships


Towing ships is a dynastic business, hard to establish and harder still to give up. It's built
on deep allegiance and cutthroat margins, and its inner workings are full of intrigue and
successionary drama: fistfights, lawsuits, power struggles, and disinheritances.
The early tugs were expensive to staff and almost comically difficult to steer. A
twelvehundred-horsepower boat might burn twenty tons of coal in a day and require ten

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men to shovel it. Every time the tug needed to reverse direction, the engine had to be
stopped and re-started, by which point the boat might well have run aground.
Modern tugs are very different beasts. They can have ten thousand horsepower and carry
a hundred thousand gallons of fuel. Their propulsion systems have evolved from coal to
diesel, from paddle wheel to propeller. Now they may go five thousand miles without
changing course. Then, when things finally get interesting - when land heaves into view
and headlands rise, when currents intersect and wind barrel down from surrounding
slopes, when a narrow channel must be negotiated under bridges, between breakwaters,
and into a crowded port - the tug captain assumes control.
The shipping industry has gone on a construction spree lately, building ships more than a
thousand feet long with as much cargo space as eleven thousand trucks. It means that
fewer but more powerful tugs are required to tow the same amount of cargo, and shipping
schedules have accelerated dramatically. Tugs that could once afford to lie at port for a
week or two now have turn-arounds of less than twenty-four hours. It is a new era for
tugboats!
(fromTHE NEW YORKER, April 19, 2010)
01) From lines 1 to 6 we infer that towing ships is a business which
(A) is passed over from father to son.
(B) is easily set up.
(C) is easily closed down.
(D) takes little effort to establish.
(E) guarantees high profit.

02) According to lines 1 to 6, all the following issues are likely to be inherent in the
tugboating business, EXCEPT
(A) inheritance struggles.
(B) family skirmishes.
(C) wrestling for company control.
(D) family acquiescence.
(E) bodily struggle.

03) From paragraph 2 we deduce that


(A) operating a tug was like playing with toys.
(B) shifting directions was a risky move.

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(C) it was an easy operation to reverse direction.


(D) the tug engine was mechanically fed with coal.
(E) tugs ran the risk of drifting when reversing direction.

04) According to paragraph 2, the first tugs


(A) used up little fuel.
(B) steered easily.
(C) had a comic design.
(D) were quite maneuverable.
(E) were costly to man.

05) According to lines 20 to 26, we apprehend that things finally get interesting when the
land and headlands
(A) disappear in the horizon.
(B) come into sight.
(C) fade away gradually.
(D) vanish from sight.
(E) become hidden by the surrounding slopes

06) In the passage intersect (line 22) means


(A) overlap.
(B) diverge.
(C) run parallel to one another.
(D) cross each other.
(E) flow slowly.

07) In the passage, breakwaters (line 25) means


(A) walls built to keep back water to form a reservoir.
(B) structures built out into the sea to shelter part of a harbor.
(C) floodgates used to let water in or out.
(D) motor-boats able to skim very fast over the surface of water.
(E) dredging machines used for bringing up mud.

08) According to paragraph 3, when things finally get interesting,

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the tug captain


(A) runs away.
(B) gives up.
(C) takes over.
(D) breaks down.
(E) makes off.

09) According to paragraph 4,


(A) the same amount of cargo is towed by as many tugboats as it was in the past.
(B) the larger ships mean that more tugboats will be necessary to tow the same amount of
cargo.
(C) tugboats spend more and more time on sea.
(D) tugboats take long hours to leave port.
(E) a ship can take as much cargo as a truck.

10) From the passage as a whole we infer that


(A) tug vessels remain the same.
(B) the tugboat history has not evolved much.
(C) the shipping industry is facing hard times.
(D) the shipping industry is shrinking.
(E) a tug captain must be an exceptional seaman.

TEXTO III

Homemade Natural Cleaning Products

One of my earliest memories is of my mother cleaning with what looked to me like cooking
ingredients. She would be listening to the radio as she poured baking soda, lemon, and
vinegar
combinations on the surfaces of our home. Magically these natural cleaning products kept
our home clean and smelling fresh, without stretching an already thin household budget.
Here are a few basic household ingredients and items you can use to clean your home.

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Vinegar naturally cleans like an all-purpose cleaner. Mix a solution of 1 part water to 1 part
vinegar in a new store bought spray bottle and you have a solution that will clean most
areas of
your home. Vinegar is a great natural cleaning product as well as a disinfectant and
deodorizer. Always test on an inconspicuous area. It is safe to use on most surfaces and
has the added bonus of being incredibly cheap. Improperly diluted vinegar is acidic and
can eat away at tile grout. Never use vinegar on marble surfaces. Dont worry about your
home smelling like vinegar. The smell disappears when it dries.

Lemon juice is another natural substance that can be used to clean your home. Lemon
juice can be used to dissolve soap scum and hard water deposits. Lemon is a great
substance to clean and shine brass and copper. Lemon juice can be mixed with vinegar
and or baking soda to make cleaning pastes. Cut a lemon in half and sprinkle baking soda
on the cut section. Use the lemon to scrub dishes, surfaces, and stains.

Baking soda can be used to scrub surfaces in much the same way as commercial abrasive
cleansers. Baking soda is great as a deodorizer. Place a box in the refrigerator and freezer
to absorb odors. Put it anywhere you need deodorizing action. Try these three kitchen
ingredients as natural cleaning products in your home.

(http://housekeeping.about.com/cs/environment/a/alternateclean.30.10.2009.Adaptado)

01. According to the text, the natural cleaning products are

(A) controversial.
(B) inconvenient.
(C) inneficient.
(D) harmful.
(E) cheaper.

02. According to the text, vinegar must be avoided

(A) as a disinfectant.
(B) because it is acidic residue.

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(C) on marble surfaces.


(D) for its bad smell.
(E) when mixed with other products.

03. The term as in She would be listening to the radio as she poured baking soda,
lemon, and vinegar combinations on the surfaces of our home. can be correctly replaced
by

(A) therefore.
(B) but.
(C) instead of.
(D) while.
(E) by.

Cognates: so palavras de origem grega ou latina bem parecidas com as do portugus.


Ex. different diferente, infection infeco. Obs.:
Ateno com os falsos cognatos. Ex. pretend no significa pretender, mas sim, fingir;
importante observar se a palavra se encaixa no contexto.
Falsos Cognatos
Tambm chamados de falsos amigos, os falsos cognatos so palavras normalmente
derivadas do latim, que tm, portanto a mesma origem e que aparecem em diferentes
idiomas com ortografia semelhante, mas que ao longo dos tempos acabaram adquirindo
significados diferentes.
Repeated words: se uma palavra aparece vrias vezes no texto, isto significa que ela
importante para a compreenso do mesmo.
Typographical Evidences: so smbolos, letras maisculas, negrito, itlico, etc., que do
dicas teis sobre o texto.
Selectivity: leitura seletiva, isto , selecionar os trechos onde se quer encontrar uma
determinada informao (pargrafos, por exemplo).
Dictionary: o dicionrio deve ser utilizado como ltimo recurso para se descobrir o
significado de uma palavra ou expresso desconhecida. Isso para que a leitura no seja
lenta demais, e para que o leitor no desanime tendo que parar toda vez que encontrar
algo desconhecido.

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Muito comuns na Lngua Inglesa, os cognatos so palavras de procedncia grega ou


latina, bastantes parecidas com as da Lngua Portuguesa, tanto na forma, como no
significado. Os cognatos podem ser:
Idnticos: radio, piano, hospital, hotel, sofa, nuclear, social, total, particular, chance,
camera, inventor, etc.
Bastante parecidos: gasoline, banks, inflation, intelligent, population, revolution,
commercial, attention, different, products, secretary, billion, dramatic, deposits,
distribution, automatic, television, public, events, models, etc.
Vagamente parecidos: electricity, responsible, explain, activity, impossible, lamp,
company, etc.
Tabela 01 False Cognates

INGLS - PORTUGUS PORTUGUS - INGLS

Actually (adv) - na verdade ..., o fato que ... Atualmente - nowadays, today
Adept (n) - especialista, profundo Adepto - supporter
conhecedor Agenda - appointment book;
Agenda (n) - pauta do dia, pauta para agenda
discusses Amassar - crush
Amass (v) - acumular, juntar Antecipar- to bring forward, to
Anticipate (v) - prever; aguardar, ficar na move forward
expectativa Aplicao (financeira) -
Application (n) - inscrio, registro, uso investment
Appointment (n) - hora marcada, Apontamento - note
compromisso profissional Apreciao - judgement
Appreciation (n) - gratido, reconhecimento Argumento - reasoning, point
Argument (n) - discusso, bate boca Assistir - to attend, to watch
Assist (v) - ajudar, dar suporte Assumir - to take over
Assume (v) - presumir, aceitar como Atender - to help; to answer; to
verdadeiro see, to examine
Attend (v) - assistir, participar de Audincia - court appearance;
Audience (n) - platia, pblico interview
Balcony (n) - sacada Balco - counter
Baton (n) - batuta (msica), cacetete Batom - lipstick

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Beef (n) - carne de gado Bife - steak


Cafeteria (n) - refeitrio tipo universitrio ou Cafeteria - coffee shop, snack bar
industrial Cmara - tube (de pneu) chamber
Camera (n) - mquina fotogrfica (grupo de pessoas)
Carton (n) - caixa de papelo, pacote de Carto - card
cigarros (200) Casualidade - chance, fortuity
Casualty (n) - baixa (morte fruto de acidente Cigarro - cigarette
ou guerra), fatalidade Colar - necklace
Cigar (n) - charuto Colgio (2 grau) - high school
Collar (n) - gola, colarinho, coleira Comodidade - comfort
College (n) - faculdade, ensino de 3 grau Competio - contest
Commodity (n) - artigo, mercadoria Compreensivo - understanding
Competition (n) - concorrncia Compromisso - appointment; date
Comprehensive (adj) - abrangente, amplo, Contexto - context
extenso Conveniente - appropriate
Compromise - (v) entrar em acordo, fazer Costume - custom, habit
concesso; (n) acordo, conciliao Data - date
Contest (n) - competio, concurso Decepo - disappointment
Convenient (adj) - prtico Advogado de defesa- defense
Costume (n) - fantasia (roupa) attorney
Data (n) - dados (nmeros, informaes) Designar - to appoint
Deception (n) - logro, fraude, o ato de Editor - publisher
enganar Educado - with a good upbringing,
Defendant (n) - ru, acusado well-mannered, polite
Design (v, n) - projetar, criar; projeto, estilo Emisso - issuing (of a document,
Editor (n) - redator etc.)
Educated (adj) - instrudo, com alto grau de Enrolar - to roll; to wind; to curl
escolaridade Eventualmente - occasionally
Emission (n) - descarga (de gases, etc.) Excitante - thrilling
Enroll (v) - inscrever-se, alistar-se, registrar- xito - success
se Esperto - smart, clever
Eventually (adv) - finalmente, Esquisito - strange, odd
conseqentemente Fbrica - plant, factory

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Exciting (adj) - empolgante Genial - brilliant


Exit (n, v) - sada, sair Curso de graduao -
Expert (n) - especialista, perito undergraduate program
Exquisite (adj.) - belo, refinado Gratuidade - the quality of being
Fabric (n) - tecido free of charge
Genial (adj) - afvel, aprazvel Gripe - cold, flu, influenza
Graduateprogram (n) - Curso de ps- Azar - bad luck
graduao Idioma - language
Gratuity (n) - gratificao, gorjeta Devoluo de imposto de renda -
Grip (v) - agarrar firme incometaxrefund
Hazard (n,v) - risco, arriscar Ingenuidade - naivet / naivety
Idiom (n) - expresso idiomtica, linguajar Injria - insult
Incometaxreturn (n) - declarao de imposto Inscrio -registration, application
de renda Entender - understand
Ingenuity (n) - engenhosidade Intoxicao - poisoning
Injury (n) - ferimento Jarra - pitcher
Inscription (n) - gravao em relevo (sobre Jornal - newspaper
pedra, metal, etc.) Lmpada - light bulb
Intend (v) - pretender, ter inteno Largo - wide
Intoxication (n) - embriaguez, efeito de Leitura - reading
drogas Legenda - subtitle
Jar (n) - pote Livraria - book shop
Journal (n) - peridico, revista especializada Locao - rental
Lamp (n) - luminria Lanche - snack
Large (adj) - grande, espaoso Magazine - department store
Lecture (n) - palestra, aula Maior - bigger
Legend (n) - lenda Medicina- medicine
Library (n) - biblioteca Mistura - mix, mixture, blend
Location (n) - localizao Motel - love motel, hot-pillow joint,
Lunch (n) - almoo no-tell motel
Magazine (n) - revista Notcia - news
Mayor (n) - prefeito Novela - soap opera
Medicine (n) - remdio, medicina Oficial - official

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Moisture (n) - umidade Parentes - relatives


Motel (n) - hotel de beira de estrada Particular - personal, private
Notice (v) - notar, aperceber-se; aviso, Pasta - paste; folder; briefcase
comunicao Polcia - police
Novel (n) - romance Porta - door
Office (n) - escritrio Prejuzo - damage, loss
Parents (n) - pais Prescrever - expire
Particular (adj) - especfico, exato Preservativo - condom
Pasta (n) - massa (alimento) Pretender - to intend, to plan
Policy (n) - poltica (diretrizes) Privado - private
Port (n) - porto Procurar - to look for
Prejudice (n) - preconceito Propaganda - advertisement,
Prescribe (v) - receitar commercial
Preservative (n) - conservante Pular - to jump
Pretend (v) - fingir Puxar - to pull
Private (adj) - particular Ranger - to creak, to grind
Procure (v) - conseguir, adquirir Realizar - to carry out, make come
Propaganda (n) - divulgao de idias/fatos true, to accomplish
com intuito de manipular Recipiente - container
Pull (v) - puxar Recordar - to remember, to recall
Push (v) - empurrar Refrigerante - soft drink, soda,
Range (v) - variar, cobrir pop, coke
Realize (v) - notar, perceber, dar-se conta, Requerimento - request, petition
conceber uma idia Resumir - summarize
Recipient (n) - recebedor, agraciado Resumo - summary
Record (v, n) - gravar, disco, gravao, Retirado - removed, secluded
registro Senhor - gentleman, sir
Refrigerant (n) - substncia refrigerante Servio - job
usada em aparelhos Estrangeiro - foreigner
Requirement (n) - requisito Estpido - impolite, rude (Rio
Resume (v) - retomar, reiniciar Grande do Sul)
Rsum (n) - curriculum vitae, currculo Suportar (tolerar) - tolerate, can
Retired (adj) - aposentado stand

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Senior (n) - idoso Taxa - rate; fee


Service (n) - atendimento Treinador - coach
Stranger (n) - desconhecido Turno - shift; round
Stupid (adj) - burro Vegetais -plants
Support (v) - apoiar
Tax (n) - imposto
Trainer (n) - preparador fsico
Turn (n, v) - vez, volta, curva; virar, girar
Vegetables (n) - verduras, legumes

TEXTO IV
A DAY AT WORK
In the morning I attended a meeting between management and union representatives.
The discussion was very comprehensive, covering topics like working hours, days off,
retirement age, etc. Both sides were interested in an agreement and ready to
compromise. The secretary recorded everything in the notes. Eventually, they decided
to set a new meeting to sign the final draft of the agreement.
Back at the office, a colleague of mine asked me if I had realized that the proposed
agreement would be partially against the company policy not to accept workers that have
already retired. I pretended to be really busy and late for an appointment, and left for the
cafeteria. Actually, I didn't want to discuss the matter at that particular moment because
there were some strangers in the office.
After lunch I attended a lecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax legislation
and has a graduate degree in political science. He said his government intends to assist
welfare programs and senior citizens, raise funds to improve college education and build
a public library, and establish tougher limits on vehicle emissions because he assumes
this is what the people expect from the government.
Copyright 1996 - 2011 S&K
IN: http://www.sk.com.br/sk-fals.html
Atividade: Escreva em seu caderno o verdadeiro significado das palavras em destaque
no texto acima e defina se so verdadeiros ou falsos cognatos.
Frequentemente este mltiplo sentido em um idioma no tem correspondente em outro.
Quer dizer: os termos nem sempre cobrem as mesmas reas de significado entre

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diferentes idiomas. Este fenmeno, tambm chamado de polissemia, ocorre com qualquer
idioma; assim como o portugus, o ingls tambm tem inmeras palavras de mltiplo
significado. , entretanto a ocorrncia do fenmeno na lngua me do aluno que causa
maior dificuldade. Partir do geral para o particular sempre mais difcil do que o inverso.
Portanto, sempre que diferentes ideias representadas pela mesma palavra na lngua me
do aluno corresponderem a diferentes palavras na segunda lngua, o mesmo ter
dificuldades em expressar-se corretamente. As diferentes palavras do ingls que
correspondem aos diferentes significados da palavra do portugus podem eventualmente
funcionar como sinnimos, portanto neutralizando o contraste entre os dois idiomas. O
objetivo, entretanto, mostrar os contrastes nas ocorrncias mais usuais do vocabulrio
ingls moderno.
Formao de Palavras
Algumas palavras que aparecem nos textos demandam um pouco mais de ateno para
inferi-las e reconhec-las durante a leitura. So as chamadas palavras derivadas, ou seja,
palavras que apresentam componentes denominados genericamente de afixos que
podem ser prefixos ou sufixos. O conhecimento da formao das palavras muito til,
sem dvida, para sua compreenso. Isto significa que necessrio reconhecer os afixos
mais comumente usados na lngua que se que aprender e, naturalmente, seu significado.
Sufixos e prefixos podem ser acrescentados s palavras dando-lhes novos significados e,
quase sempre, alternando sua classe gramatical.
Vejam as regras de formao de palavras abaixo e seus respectivos sufixos, com alguns
exemplos:
SUBSTANTIVO + ...ful = ADJETIVO (significando full of , having )
SUBSTANTIVO + ...less = ADJETIVO (significando without )

SUBSTANTIVO ...ful ADJETIVO ...less ADJETIVO

care (cuidado) careful (cuidadoso) careless (descuidado)


harm (dano, harmful (prejudicial) harmless (incuo, inofensivo)
prejuzo) hopeful (esperanoso) hopeless (que no tem
hope (esperana) meaningful esperana)
meaning (significativo) meaningless (sem sentido)
(significado) painful (doloroso) painless (indolor)
pain (dor) powerful (potente) powerless (impotente)
power (potncia) useful (til) useless (intil)

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use (uso)

beauty (beleza) beautiful (belo, bonito) -


skill (habilidade) skillful (habilidoso) -
wonder (maravilha) wonderful -
(maravilhoso)

end (fim) - endless (interminvel)


home (casa) - homeless (sem-teto)
speech (fala) - speechless (sem fala)
stain (mancha) - stainless (sem mancha,
top (topo) - inoxidvel)
wire (arame, fio) - topless (sem a parte de cima)
worth (valor) - wireless (sem fio)
worthless (que no vale nada)

SUBSTANTIVO + hood = SUBSTANTIVO ABSTRATO (sufixo de baixa produtividade


significando o estado de ser). H cerca de mil anos atrs, no perodo conhecido como Old
English, hood era uma palavra independente, com um significado amplo, relacionado
pessoa, sua personalidade, sexo, nvel social, condio. A palavra ocorria em conjunto
com outros substantivos para posteriormente, com o passar dos sculos, se transformar
num sufixo.

SUBSTANTIVO CONTVEL hood SUBSTANTIVO ABSTRATO

adult (adulto) adulthood (maturidade)


brother (irmo) brotherhood (fraternidade)
child (criana) childhood (infncia)
father (pai) fatherhood (paternidade)
mother (me) motherhood (maternidade)
neighbor (vizinho) neighborhood (vizinhana)

SUBSTANTIVO + ship = SUBSTANTIVO ABSTRATO (sufixo de baixa produtividade


significando o estado de ser). A origem do sufixo _ship uma histria semelhante do
sufixo _hood. Tratava-se de uma palavra independente na poca do Old English,

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relacionada a shape e que tinha o significado de criar, nomear. Ao longo dos sculos
aglutinou-se com o substantivo a que se referia adquirindo o sentido de estado ou
condio de ser tal coisa.

SUBSTANTIVO CONTVEL ship SUBSTANTIVO ABSTRATO

citizen (cidado) citizenship (cidadania)


dealer (negociante, revendedor) dealership (revenda)
dictator (ditador) dictatorship (ditadura)
friend (amigo) friendship (amizade)
leader (lder) leadership (liderana)
member (scio, membro de um membership (qualidade de quem
clube) scio)
owner (proprietrio) ownership (posse, propriedade)
partner (scio, companheiro) partnership (sociedade comercial)
relation (relao) relationship (relacionamento)

ADJETIVO + ness = SUBSTANTIVO ABSTRATO (significando o estado, a qualidade


de).

ADJETIVO ness SUBSTANTIVO ABSTRATO

dark (escuro) darkness (escurido)


happy (feliz) happiness (felicidade)
kind (gentil) kindness (gentileza)
polite (bem-educado) politeness (boa educao)
selfish (egosta) selfishness (egosmo)
soft (macio, suave) softness (maciez, suavidade)
thick (grosso, espesso) thickness (espessura)
useful (til) usefulness (utilidade)
weak (fraco) weakness (fraqueza)
youthful (com aspecto de youthfulness (caracterstica de quem
jovem) jovem)

ADJETIVO + ity = SUBSTANTIVO ABSTRATO (significando o mesmo que o anterior:


o estado, a qualidade de; equivalente ao sufixo ...idade do portugus). Uma vez que a

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origem deste sufixo o latim, as palavras a que se aplica so na grande maioria de


origem latina, mostrando uma grande semelhana com o portugus.

ADJETIVO ity SUBSTANTIVO ABSTRATO

able (apto, que tem condies de) ability (habilidade, capacidade)


active (ativo) activity (atividade)
available (disponvel) availability (disponibilidade)
complex (complexo) complexity (complexidade)
flexible (flexvel) flexibility (flexibilidade)
generous (generoso) generosity (generosidade)
humid (mido) humidity (umidade)
personal (pessoal) personality (personalidade)
possible (possvel) possibility (possibilidade)
probable (provvel) probability (probabilidade)
productive (produtivo) productivity (produtividade)
responsible (responsvel) responsibility (responsabilidade)
sincere (sincero) sincerity (sinceridade)

VERBO + tion (sion) = SUBSTANTIVO (sufixo de alta produtividade significando o


estado, a ao ou a instituio; equivalente ao sufixo ...o do portugus). A origem deste
sufixo o latim. Portanto, as palavras a que se aplica so na grande maioria de origem
latina, mostrando uma grande semelhana e equivalncia com o portugus.

VERBO ...tion SUBSTANTIVO

accommodate (acomodar) accommodation (acomodao)


acquire (adquirir) acquisition (aquisio, assimilao)
act (atuar, agir) action (ao)
administer (administrar) administration (administrao)
attend (participar de) attention (ateno)

cancel (cancelar) cancellation (cancelamento)


collect (coletar, colecionar) collection (coleta, coleo)
communicate (comunicar) communication (comunicao)
compose (compor) composition (composio)
comprehend (compreender) comprehension (compreenso)

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confirm (confirmar) confirmation (confirmao)


connect (conectar) connection (conexo)
consider (considerar) consideration (considerao)
construct (construir) construction (construo)
contribute (contribuir) contribution (contribuio)
converse (conversar) conversation (conversao)
cooperate (cooperar) cooperation (cooperao)
correct (corrigir) correction (correo)
corrupt (corromper) corruption (corrupo)
create (criar) creation (criao)

VERBO + er = SUBSTANTIVO (significando o agente da ao; sufixo de alta


produtividade).

VERBO ...er SUBSTANTIVO

bank (banco) banker (banqueiro)


blend (misturar) blender (liquidificador)
boil (ferver) boiler (tanque de aquecimento, caldeira)
call (chamar, ligar) caller (aquele que faz uma ligao
compute (computar) telefnica)
drum (tamborear, tocar computer (computador)
bateria) drummer (baterista)
dry (secar) drier (secador)
drive (dirigir) driver (motorista)
erase (apagar) eraser (apagador, borracha)
fight (lutar) fighter (lutador, caa)
freeze (congelar) freezer (congelador)
interpret (interpretar) interpreter (intrprete)
kill (matar) killer (matador, assassino)
lead (liderar) leader (lder)
light (iluminar, acender) lighter (isqueiro)
lock (chavear) locker (armrio de chavear)
love (amar) lover (amante)
manage (gerenciar) manager (gerente)

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paint (pintar) painter (pintor)


photograph (fotografar) photographer (fotgrafo)
print (imprimir) printer (impressora)
prosecute (acusar) prosecuter (promotor)
publish (publicar) publisher (editor)
read (ler) reader (leitor)
record (gravar, registrar) recorder (gravador)
report (reportar) reporter (reprter)
rob (assaltar) robber (assaltante)
sing (cantar) singer (cantor)
smoke (fumar) smoker (fumante)
speak (falar) speaker (porta-voz, aquele que fala)
supply (fornecer) supplier (fornecedor)
teach (ensinar) teacher (professor)
train (treinar) trainer (treinador)
travel (viajar) traveler (viajante)
use (usar) user (usurio)
wait (esperar) waiter (garom)
wash (lavar) washer (lavador, mquina de lavar)
work (trabalhar) worker (trabalhador, funcionrio)
write (escrever) writer (escritor)

VERBO + able (...ible) = ADJETIVO (o mesmo que o sufixo vel ou vel do


portugus; sufixo de alta produtividade). Sua origem o sufixo _abilis do latim, que
significa capaz de, merecedor de.

VERBO able (...ible) ADJETIVO

accept (aceitar) acceptable (aceitvel)


access (acessar) accesible (acessvel)
achieve (realizar, alcanar um achievable (realizvel)
resultado) advisable (aconselhvel)
advise (aconselhar) affordable (que d para comprar)
afford (proporcionar, ter meios para applicable (aplicvel)
custear) available (disponvel)

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apply (aplicar, candidatar-se a) believable (acreditvel)


avail (proporcionar, ser til) comparable (comparvel)
believe (acreditar, crer) comprehensible (abrangente,
compare (comparar) compreensvel)
comprehend (abranger, compreender) predictable (previsvel)
predict (predizer, prever) questionable (questionvel)
question (questionar) reliable (confivel)
rely (confiar) responsible (responsvel)
respond (responder) sensible (sensvel)
sense (sentir) trustable (confivel)
trust (confiar) understandable (inteligvel)
understand (entender) valuable (valioso)
value (valorizar)

VERBO + ive (ative) = ADJETIVO (o mesmo que o sufixo tivo ou vel do


portugus; sufixo de alta produtividade). Sua origem o sufixo _ivus do latim, que
significa ter a capacidade de.

VERBO ive (ative) ADJETIVO

act (atuar) active (ativo)


administrate (administrar) administrative (administrativo)
affirm (afirmar) affirmative (affirmativo)
attract (atrair) attractive (atrativo)
communicate (comunicar) communicative (comunicativo)
conserve (conservar) conservative (conservador)
construct (construir) constructive (construtivo)
expend (gastar) expensive (caro)
explode (explodir) explosive (explosivo)
inform (informar) informative (informativo)
instruct (instruir) instructive (instrutivo)
interrogate (interrogar) interrogative (interrogativo)
offend (ofender) offensive (ofensivo)
prevent (prevenir) preventive (preventivo)
produce (produzir) productive (produtivo)

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ADJETIVO + ly = ADVRBIO (o mesmo que o sufixo mente do portugus; sufixo de


alta produtividade).

ADJETIVO ly ADVRBIO

actual (real) actually (de fato, na realidade)


approximate (aproximado) approximately (aproximadamente)
basic (bsico) basically (basicamente)
careful (cuidadoso) carefully (cuidadosamente)
careless (descuidado) carelessly (de forma descuidada)
certain (certo) certainly (certamente)
dangerous (perigoso) dangerously (perigosamente)
efficient (eficiente) efficiently (eficientemente)
eventual (final) eventually (finalmente)
exact (exato) exactly (exatamente)
final (final) finally (finalmente)
fortunate (afortunado, feliz) fortunately (felizmente)
frequent (freqente) frequently (freqentemente)
hard (duro, difcil) hardly (dificilmente)
hopeful (esperanoso) hopefully (esperemos que)
important (importante) importantly (de forma importante)
late (tarde, ltimo) lately (ultimamente)
natural (natural) naturally (naturalmente)
necessary (necessrio) necessarily (necessariamente)
normal (normal) normally (normalmente)
obvious (bvio) obviously (obviamente)
occasional (ocasional, occasionally (ocasionalmente,
eventual) eventualmente)

Lado, Robert. Language teaching: A scientific approach. New York: McGraw Hill, 1964.

IS THIS LOVE

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____We'll be together with a roof right over ____I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I'm willing and able
our heads ____Oh yes I know, yes I know, yes I know
____I wanna love you and treat you right now
____We'll share the same room, yeah, oh ____Oh yes I know, yes I know, yes I know
Jah provide the bread now
____We'll share the shelter of my single ____so I throw my cards on your table
bed ____We'll be together with a roof right over
____I wanna love you every day and every our heads
night ____See I wanna love ya, I wanna love and
Is this love, is this love, is this love treat ya, love and treat you right
Is this love that I'm feeling? ____I wanna love you every day and every
Is this love, is this love, is this love night
Is this love that I'm feeling? ____We'll share the same room yeah, oh
____I got to know, got to know, got to know jah provide the bread
now ____We'll share the shelter of my single
____I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I'm willing and able bed
____so I throw my cards on your table
____I wanna know, wanna know, wanna We'll share the shelter of my single bed
know now
____I wanna love you every day and every
night IS THIS LOVE
____I wanna love you, I wanna love and ____We'll be together with a roof right over
treat, love and treat you right our heads
____We'll share the same room yeah, oh ____I wanna love you and treat you right
jah provide the bread ____We'll share the same room, yeah, oh
____We'll share the shelter yeah, oh yeah, Jah provide the bread
of my single bed ____We'll share the shelter of my single
____We'll be together yeah, with a roof bed
right over our heads ____I wanna love you every day and every
Is this love, is this love, is this love night
Is this love that I'm feeling? Is this love, is this love, is this love
Is this love, is this love, is this love Is this love that I'm feeling?
Is this love that I'm feeling? Is this love, is this love, is this love
Is this love that I'm feeling?

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____I got to know, got to know, got to know ____I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I'm willing and able
now ____Oh yes I know, yes I know, yes I know
____I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I'm willing and able now
____so I throw my cards on your table ____Oh yes I know, yes I know, yes I know
____I wanna know, wanna know, wanna now
know now ____so I throw my cards on your table
____I wanna love you every day and every ____We'll be together with a roof right over
night our heads
____I wanna love you, I wanna love and ____See I wanna love ya, I wanna love and
treat, love and treat you right treat ya, love and treat you right
____We'll share the same room yeah, oh ____I wanna love you every day and every
jah provide the bread night
____We'll share the shelter yeah, oh yeah, ____We'll share the same room yeah, oh
of my single bed jah provide the bread
____We'll be together yeah, with a roof ____We'll share the shelter of my single
right over our heads bed
Is this love, is this love, is this love
Is this love that I'm feeling? We'll share the shelter of my single bed
Is this love, is this love, is this love
Is this love that I'm feeling?

TEXTO V
APRENDA 400 PALAVRAS EM INGLS EM APENAS UM MINUTO

O texto abaixo foi extrado de um e-mail que circula na Internet e tem algumas
informaes interessantes. Confira como aprender a escrever 400 palavras em Ingls em
apenas um minuto. Se voc pensa que estou brincando, experimente ler toda esta
matria e depois me conte. Comece logo a estudar Ingls que, diferentemente do que
voc pensa, extremamente fcil de aprender. Bastando apenas a seguir regrinhas
elementares.
Mas, antes de tudo, quero explicar que as regras abaixo apresentam uma ou mais
excees, o que demonstra duas coisas: primeiro que tais excees s servem
precisamente para confirmar as regras e, segundo que bem prefervel, errar numa ou

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noutra ocasio e aprender 400 palavras em ingls num minuto, do que ficar preocupado
com a rara exceo e no aprender nada.

Regra 1
Esta regra no funciona para palavras como: verdade, idade, felicidade. Antes de enviar
um comentrio, lembre-se que, conforme foi citado no incio do post, existem milhares de
excees para as regras aqui publicadas.
Para todas as palavras em portugus que terminem em DADE (como a palavra cidade)
retire o DADE e coloque em seu lugar TY e assim CIDADE passou a ser CITY. Vejamos
agora um pouco das cento e tantas palavras que voc j aprendeu nestes primeiros vinte
segundos de leitura deste artigo:
CIDADE = CITY
VELOCIDADE = VELOCITY
SIMPLICIDADE = SIMPLICITY
NATURALIDADE = NATURALITY
CAPACIDADE = CAPACITY
Regra 2
Mais algumas excees. Esta nova regra no funciona para palavras como: corao,
refeio, ao e por a vai.
Para todas as palavras em portugus que terminem em O (como a palavra NA-O)
tire fora o O e coloque em seu lugar TION e assim a palavra NAO passou a ser
NATION (as respectivas pronncias no importam no momento). Vejamos agora algumas
das centenas de palavras em que a imensa maioria delas se aplica a essa Regra:
SIMPLIFICAO = SIMPLIFICATION
NAO = NATION
OBSERVAO = OBSERVATION
NATURALIZAO = NATURALIZATION
SENSAO = SENSATION

Regra 3
Excees: demente, futuramente, entre outras.
Para os advrbios terminados em MENTE (como a palavra NATURALMENTE), tire o
MENTE e em seu lugar coloque LLY (e assim a palavra passou a ser NATURALLY.

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Quando o radical em portugus termina em L, como na palavra TOTALMENTE,


acrescente apenas LY). Veja agora abaixo algumas delas:
NATURALMENTE = NATURALLY
GENETICAMENTE = GENETICALLY
ORALMENTE = ORALLY
Regra 4
Para as palavras terminadas em NCIA (como no caso de ESSNCIA), tire o NCIA e
em seu lugar coloque ENCE. Eis algumas delas abaixo:
ESSNCIA = ESSENCE
REVERNCIA = REVERENCE
FREQNCIA = FREQUENCE
ELOQNCIA = ELOQUENCE
Regra 5
E para terminar esse artigo, ficando ainda com mais gua na boca, aprenda a ltima e a
mais fcil delas (h um monte de outras regrinhas interessantes, mas no disponho aqui
de espao para tudo). Para as palavras terminadas em AL (como na palavra GENERAL)
no mude nada, escreva exatamente como est em portugus e ela sai a mesma coisa
em ingls. Veja alguns exemplos:
NATURAL = NATURAL
TOTAL = TOTAL
GENERAL = GENERAL
FATAL = FATAL
SENSUAL = SENSUAL
Conforme voc acaba de ver, a menos que seja um leitor preguioso e lento, no foi
preciso gastar mais de um minuto para aprender 400 palavras em ingls. Faam o favor
de dar crdito a quem lhes revelou a dica, t? Mas no espalhem, seno o mundo vai
aprender o idioma em 30 dias.
Por Mario Giudicelli - Fonte: http://englishexperts.blogspot.com
GRUPOS NOMINAIS

CONTRASTE/CONCESSO/ADVERSATIVA but: mas however, neverthless: entretanto


yet: entretanto, ainda although, even though, though: embora nonetheless,
notwithstanding: no obstante despite that, in spite of: apesar de rather than, instead of:
em vez de whereas: enquanto.

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PROPSITO in order to: a fim de so as to: de modo que therefore: portanto consequently,
as a result: consequentemente accordingly: de acordo, adequadamente hence: pois,
ento, da thus: assim thereby: assim, desse modo then: ento so: ento, pois finally:
finalmente.
ALTERNATIVA otherwise: por outro lado or: ou or else: ou ento, ou ainda while,
whereas: enquanto.
REITERAO that is: isto in other words: em outras palavras in short, in brief: em
resumo i.e. : (do latim) isto that is to say: quer dizer
COMPARAO like, as: como than: do que e.g. : (do latim) por exemplo for instance, for
example: por exemplo such as: tal como namely: a saber viz: (do latim) quer dizer if: se
unless: se no, a menos que provided that: uma vez que on condition that: desde que as
long as: uma vez que subject to: sujeito a wether: se because: porque due to: devido a as:
porque since: uma vez que
DVIDA OU HIPTESE perhaps, maybe: talvez possibly: possivelmente
TEMPORAL while: enquanto
So grupos de palavras, compostos por duas ou mais palavras que esto relacionadas
entre si, sendo que uma a palavra principal; o substantivo (ncleo), e as outras so os
modificadores; palavras que caracterizam o substantivo.
Electric Energy (Energia Eltrica) Private Investors (Investidores Privados) State
Government (Governo Estadual)
Observe que nos grupos nominais em Ingls a palavra principal, ou seja, o substantivo
(ncleo) sempre a ltima palavra do grupo, ao passo que em portugus ns comeamos
o grupo com ela. Assim, temos:
United Kingdom (Reino Unido) Parliamentary Vote (Voto Parlamentar) Modern Computer
(Computador Moderno) Laser Printer (Impressora Laser) Central Processor
(Processador Central) Personal Computer (Computador Pessoal)
Os grupos nominais podem ter mais de um modificador: Red Cross Emblem (Emblema da
Cruz Vermelha)
Vrias siglas so iniciais de Grupo Nominais:
VIP = Very Important Person
WTC = World Trade Center
WHO = World Health Organization
NASA = National Air and Space Administration
USAF = United States Air Force

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USA = United States of America FBI = Federal Bureau of Investigation


Confirma-se ento que a ordem dos grupos nominais em Ingls INVERSA ordem em
Portugus:
Pense nas seguintes estruturas: Como elas seriam traduzidas para o Portugus?
Pesquise qual o significado das siglas abaixo e as suas respectivas tradues
COBOL CRT D DOS IBM I/O Devices
Incredible speed = velocidade incrvel Hard disk = disco rgido Input devices = dispositivos
de entrada
Data Processing = Processamento de dados Central Processing Unit = Unidade Central
de Processamento Arithmetic and Logic Operations = Operaes lgicas e aritmticas /
Operaes aritmticas e lgicas
Electronic machine = Mquina eletrnica
Car race = _ Race car = _
Portanto, ateno: habitue-se a descobrir ou reconhecer o significado de palavras e
expresses atravs de prefixos e sufixos, da nova posio que ocupam na frase, como
tambm na alterao da classe gramatical. A fim de facilitar sua identificao, colocamos
a seguir uma lista com os afixos mais usados na lngua inglesa.

FORMAO COM ING

Palavras cuja formao composta por ING podem apresentar diferentes classes
gramaticais: Learning pode significar aprendendo; aprender; aprendizagem, dependendo
de como apresentada na sentena.

Gerndio (aps o verbo to be)


They are learning how to get more information. (Eles esto aprendendo como conseguir
mais informaes.)

Verbo (aps preposies)


This is a way of learning about management. (Esta uma maneira de aprender sobre
gerenciamento.)

Adjetivo (parte de um grupo nominal) This is part of the learning process. (Isto parte
do processo de aprendizagem.)

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Substantivo Learning is essencial to life. (Aprendizagem essencial vida.)

Classifique em cada frase as palavras formadas por ING como: substantivo, gerndio,
adjetivo ou verbo infinitive:

a. They are learning Computer Science.


b. Teleprocessing is the use of a telecommunication system by a computer.
c. The calculating machine was invented many years ago.
d. The recording surface of a disk has concentric circles called tracks.
e. He works 10 hours without stopping.
f. The printer is printing documents.
g. I prefer typing to writing.

WHO / WHICH

Who is for people (not things) A Programmer is a person who writes programs. The man
who phoned will call you later again. I know everybody who work in my company.
Which is for things (not people) This is the printer which you asked me. I dont have the
CD-Rom which you need. Is this the new computer which you bought?
That is for things or people: I know everybody that work in my company. (You can use that
for people, but who is more usual) This is the printer that you asked me.

Complete com who ou which:

a. I met a woman who can speak six languages.


b. Whats the name of the man _ lives next door?
c. Whats the name of the river _ flows through the town?
d. Where is the picture _ was hanging on the wall?
e. Do you know anybody _ wants to buy a car?
f. You always ask questions _ are difficult to answer.
g. I have a friend _ is very good at repairing cars.
h. I think everybody _ went to the party enjoyed it a lot.

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Who/That (Para pessoas) e.g. He is the system analyst who/that prepares instructions.

Which/ That (Para coisas) e.g.This is the manual which/that you need.

Substantivo a palavra que designa pessoa, lugar, objeto, evento, substncia. possvel
localiza-la no texto prestando ateno em certas palavras que acompanham os
substantivos. Empregam-se geralmente antes de substantivos:

Artigos Definido: THE = o, a, os, as Indefinido: A, AN = um, uma

TEXTO V: A Good Sandwich


Gordon was hungry. He opened the refrigerator. There must be something in here to eat,
he thought. There wasa single hot dog.
He took it out of its package and put a small frying pan onto the stove's gas burner. He
turned on the heat. Then he poured a little bit of vegetable oil into the pan. He sliced the
hot dog in half lengthwise. When the oil got hot, he put the two halves in the pan. About a
minute later, he flipped each half over. After another minute, he took the hot dog out of the
pan.
Gordon put two slices of bread into the toaster. This was tasty and healthy bread. The first
ingredient listed was organic sprouted wheat. The first ingredient in ordinary bread is
usually unbleached flour.
When the toast popped up, he put mustard, mayonnaise, and ketchup on one slice. Then
he added two slices of onion. On top of the onions, he placed the hot dog. On top of the
hot dog, he put a couple of slices of apple. Then he added some bits of hot green chile,
and then put the top piece of toast onto the chile bits.
Ahh, what a sandwich, he thought, as he sat down to eat.

TEXTO VII : Laundry Day


Saturday morning meant one thing for Susandoing the laundry. She hated doing the
laundry. Unenthusiastically, she took the pillow cases off all the pillows. Then she removed
the fitted sheet from the mattress. She took the towel off the towel bar in the bathroom.
She grabbed a couple of dirty dish towels out of the kitchen, and looked all around her
apartment for anything else that needed washing.

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In the corner of her living room, a can of coins sat on top of the file cabinet. She fished out
seven quarters. She opened the cabinet under her kitchen sink and grabbed a plastic
bottle of liquid detergent.
Finally, she set her electronic timer for 35 minutes. The timer would remind her that the
washing was done, and that it was time to go back downstairs and put the clothes into the
dryer for 40 minutes. Without the timer, Susan would completely forget to check her
clothes.
Susan carried the laundry basket downstairs. How happy she would be when her laundry
was done for this week. As she approached the laundry room, she heard a familiar sound.
The sound was the washer washing and the dryer drying. One of her neighbors had got
there before her. Muttering, Susan took her basket back upstairs.

Pronomes Possessivos adjetivos


My Meu, minha, meus, minhas Your seu, sua, seus, suas His dele (para pessoa) Her dela
(para pessoa) Its dele, dela (para coisas ou animais Our nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas
Their deles, delas
Numerais Cardinais: One, two, three, etc.

Pronomes Demonstrativos:
This este, esta, isto.
These estes, estas
That esse, essa, isso, aquele, aquela, aquilo Those esses, essas, aqueles, aquelas.

Quantidades
Many muitos, muitas (a) few poucos, poucas much muito, muita (a) little pouco, pouca
some algum, alguns, alguma, algumas any qualquer, quaisquer every todo, toda, todos,
todas, cada a lot of muito (a), muitos (as).
A referncia contextual tambm representa um recurso auxiliar na compreenso das
idias de um texto. As chamadas palavras de referncia substituem palavras que esto no
texto (ou fora dele) e podem classificar-se da seguinte maneira:

pronomes (pessoais, possessivos, demonstrativos, relativos e indefinidos);


numerais ordinais;
palavras que indicam ordem e exemplificao.

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Quando queremos nos referir a alguma coisa (ou idia) que j foi mencionada, ou ainda
vai ser mencionada numa determinada sentena, geralmente utilizamos recursos
lingsticos para no tornar a sentena repetitiva.
The magazine which is on the desk is old. (A revista que est sobre a mesa velha.) Paul
and Sue are good friends. They always help us. (Paul and Sue so bons amigos. Eles
sempre nos ajudam.) John works in my office.We like him very much. (John trabalha em
meu escritrio. Ns gostamos muito dele.) Pode-se observar que podemos nos referir a
uma idia anterior ou posterior utilizando diferentes PRONOMES;

Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Adjectives Possessive


I You He She It We You They
Me You Him Her It Us You Them
My Your His Her Its Our Your Their
Mine Yours His Hers Its Ours Yours Theirs

Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Adjectives Possessive


I know Ann You know Ann He knows Ann She knows Ann We know Ann They know Ann
Ann knows me Ann knows you Ann knows him Ann knows her Ann knows us Ann knows
them
Its my money Its your money Its his money Its her money Its our money Its their money
Its mine Its yours Its his Its hers Its ours Its theirs

1. Its your money. Its 5. Its their house. Its


2. Its my bag. Its 6. Theyre your books. Theyre
3. Its our car. Its 7. Theyre my glasses. Theyre
4. Theyre her shoes. Theyre8. Its his coat. Its
A. Finish the sentences with mine / yours / ours / theirs / hers / his:

B. Classifique os pronomes grifados e indique as respectivas palavras a que eles se


referem:
1. Most people are happy in their jobs.
2. Mr. Baker lives in London. His son lives in Australia.
3. Where are the tickets? I cant find them.

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4. We are going out. You can come with us.


5. Margaret likes music. She plays the piano.
6. Ann is going out with her friends tonight.
7. I like tennis. It is my favorite sport.
8. I am talking to you. Please, listen to me.

Caso possessivo ou genitivo caracterizado quando o substantivo/possuidor designa um


ser vivo (pessoa ou animal) as expresses possessivas so formadas do seguinte modo:
a) Acrescentando-se s ao substantivo/possuidor, quando ele estiver no singular.
The body of the man. The mans body. (O corpo do homem) b) Acrescentando-se s
tambm no caso em que o substantivo/possuidor estiver no plural mas no terminar em s.
The family of the children. The childrens family. (A famlia das crianas) c)
Acrescentando-se apenas um apstrofo ao substantivo/ possuidor, quando ele estiver no
plural terminado em s.
The school of the girls. The girls school. (A escola das garotas)
Quando o substantivo/ possuidor designa um ser inanimado, usa a expresso feita com
da preposio of :
The door of the car, the trees of the garden, etc.
No entanto, a expresso com s pode ser usada (assim como of) quando o substantivo/
possuidor tiver um sentido nobre, caso principalmente dos nomes geogrficos, como a
Terra, o Sol, o mar, nomes de pases, cidades, etc.
The population of the world = The worlds population

Geralmente usamos -s para pessoas: Marys computer O computador da Mary. /


Marys personal computer O PC da Mary. Johns laser printer A impressora do John. /
The managers equipment O equipamento do gerente.

Friends or Friends : A casa do meu amigo = My friends house. / A casa dos meus
amigos = My friends house.

Usamos of para coisas, lugares, etc. The high technology of Brazil. Tecnologia de
ponta do Brasil. Whats the name of this village? Qual o nome desta vila? Madrid is the
Capital of Spain. Madrid a Capital da Espanha. The memory of the computer. (not
the computers memory)

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Faa a correo da sentena quando necessrio:


I stayed at the house of my sister. I stayed at my sisters house
What is the name of this village? - Ok Do you like the color of this coat? Do you
know the phone number of Bill? The job of my brother is very interesting. Write your
name at the top of the page. When is the birthday of your mother? The house of my
parents isnt very big. The walls of this house are very thin. The manager of the hotel
is on holiday.

Passe as sentenas para o Caso Genitivo:


The laptop of my sister. The computer of my secretary. The printer of my boss.
A forma imperativa, utilizada para ordenar ou pedir algo, possui a mesma forma do
infinitivo do verbo, sem to. To repair (consertar) Repair the terminal. / Please repair the
equipment. / Repair the engine, please.
Para formar o imperativo negativo, coloca-se do not (dont) antes do verbo. To press
(pressionar) Dont press this button. / Please dont press the button. / Dont press this
button, please
Para sugerir ou convidar algum para uma ao conjunta usa-se antes do infinitivo do
verbo, Let us (Lets). Lets load the peripherals. / Lets stop. / Lets go.

H uma srie de verbos em ingls que expressam idias gerais. J que o objetivo do
ingls instrumental diferente (estratgias de leitura), atenha-se s regras e tradues
abaixo, pois elas sero suficientes para nosso propsito.

VERBOS MODAIS
CAN: Usado para dizer que alguma coisa possvel ou que algum tem a
habilidade/capacidade para fazer algo.
Forma negativa: Can not / Cannot / Cant e.g. Can you swim very fast? No I cant, but I
can play chess.
COULD: Usado para dizer que algum tinha habilidade geral para fazer alguma coisa.
Forma negativa: Could not / Couldnt Usado especialmente com os verbos: ToSee;
ToHear; To Smell; To Taste; To Feel; To Remember; To Understand e..g My grandfather
could speak five languages.
MUST : Usado para expressar necessidade, obrigao, deduo forte, proibio.

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Forma negativa: Must not / Mustnt e.g. Fish must live in water. (necessidade) Everybody
must uphold laws. (obrigao) e.g. He must be your father. (Deduo forte) You mustnt
tell anyone what I said. (proibio)
MAY/MIGHT: Usados para dizer que alguma coisa possvel ou seja, com 50% de
certeza.
Tambm usamos para pedir permisso (de algo incerto, com baixa probabilidade ou mais
formal). No existe diferena importante entre MAY e MIGHT. Podemos dizer, por
exemplo: e.g. Paul may be in his office. / Paul might be in his office. (probabilidade) e.g.
May I dance with your girlfriend? No, you may not. (permisso com baixa probabilidade)
SHOULD: Geralmente usado quando pedimos ou damos uma opinio sobre alguma
coisa.
Forma negative: Should not / Shouldnt e.g. I dont think you should work so hard. / e.g.
Mike shouldnt drive really. He is too tired.
Traduza as seguintes sentenas para o portugus e Identifique a ideia expressada pelos
verbos modais em destaque.
1. We might have several problems in case inflation rises sharply.
2. They can manufacturer high-tech equipment, but they may have problems to ship it.
3. How much should we purchase from that supplier?
4. A foreign company can encourage its employments to study languages.
5. We mustnt do this because its against the laws.
6. Some terms may be included in such exemptions.
7. She must be in trouble in the traffic because she never comes to work late.
8. People should be in contact with a foreign language more often, otherwise they wont
memorize new vocabulary and structures.
9. Companies should develop equipment, processes and goods that are ecologically
clean.
1) DRAG ( )INCLUA
2) PRESS ( )MUDE
3) CLICK ( )PRESSIONE
4) CLOSE( )APAGUE
5) MOVE ( )ARRASTE
6) GRAB ( )PUXE
7) SELECT ( )ABRA
8) OPEN ( )CLIQUE

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9) PUSH ( )EXECUTE
10) PULL ( )CANCELE
1) DELETE ( )FECHE
12) RUN ( )MOVA
13) INSTALL ( )INSIRA
14) INSERT ( )EMPURRE
15) INCLUDE ( )SELECIONE
16) CHANGE ( )PEGUE
17) CANCEL ( )INSTALE

Relacione as colunas de acordo com a traduo:

An algorithm is a sequence of instructions that tells how to solve a particular problem.


Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to select the best method for
solving it. If the problem is a familiar one, standardized algorithms may be available from
program libraries. But if standard algorithms are not available or suitable, a new algorithm
must be written and then added to the program library. An algorithm must be specified
exactly, so there can be no doubt about what to do next, and it must have a finite number
of steps. A computer program is an algorithm that is written in a language that a computer
can understand, but the same algorithm could be written in several different languages.
Observe a sentena: Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to select the
best method for solving it.

1) A classificao da palavra solving :

a) substantivo (soluo)
b) gerndio (resolvendo)
c) particpio (resolvido)
d) verbo/infinitivo (resolver)

2) O pronome it (ltima palavra) refere-se a:

a) problem
b) identified

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c) select
d) method

3) Observando o uso do verbo modal must a traduo apropriada da sentena it must


have a finite number of steps, :

a) ele (algoritmo) poderia ter um nmero finito de passos.


b) ele (algoritmo) no precisa ter um nmero finito de passos.
c) ele (algoritmo) deve ter um nmero finito de passos.
d) ele (algoritmo) no pode ter um nmero finito de passos.
e) ele (algoritmo) talvez tenha um nmero finito de passos.

PHRASAL VERBS
Phrasal verbs (em portugus verbos frasais) so verbos especiais presentes na lngua
inglesa, que, na maioria das vezes, no podem ser traduzidos literalmente (ao p da letra)
para outro idioma e que so formados por um verbo juntamente com uma preposio, um
advrbio ou palavras de uma outra classe gramatical.
Os phrasal verbs so muito comuns na lngua inglesa. Eles tornam a linguagem mais
informal e esto presentes em muitas situaes, tanto no cotidiano quanto nas situaes
que requerem um certo nvel de formalidade. Eles caracterizam a forma natural de um
falante nativo se expressar.
O verbo get out, por exemplo, um phrasal verb, mas a sua traduo literal no revela o
seu verdadeiro significado ou, pelo menos, no algo aceitvel na lngua
portuguesa. get significa receber ou "pegar" e out significa fora. Dizer que get
out significa receber fora um erro crasso e que no encontra respaldo
na gramtica da lngua portuguesa. Isso revela a complexidade desses verbos e a
confuso que eles podem causar.
Os phrasal verbs so essenciais para a conversao e compreenso da lngua inglesa e
por isso merecem dedicao da parte de quem estuda esse idioma.
O fenmeno dos "phrasal verbs" tambm ocorre na lngua portuguesa. Contudo, no
muito comum. mais encontrado no portugus coloquial falado no Brasil e no deve ser
utilizado em contextos formais. Exemplos: "No quero mais saber de voc! Cai fora!" (cair
fora = sair, retirar-se); "Depois de ter sido xingada, ela partiu para cima dele com uma
faca." (partir para cima = atacar algo ou algum).

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Get + adjective --- Get + comparative


get divorced = divorciar-se
get older = ficar mais velho
get angry = ficar chateado
get worse = piorar (ficar pior)
get fit = ficar em forma
get better = melhorar (ficar melhor)
get married = casar-se
get lost = cai fora

Get = buy/ obtain --- Get + preposition (phrasal verb)


get a job = conseguir um emprego
get on well with = dar-se bem com (algum)
get a ticket = obter um bilhete/multa
get on = oppositive off = entrar no
get a flat = conseguir um apartamento
get into (oppositive out of) = entrar
get a newspaper = pegar o jornal
get up = levantar

Get = arrive --- Get = receive


get to work = chegar ao trabalho
get a salary = receber o salrio
get home = chegar em casa
get a letter = receber uma carta
get to school! = chegar a escola!
get a present = receber um presente
get an e-mail = receber um e-mail

Text VIII
Could you live without electricity?
1.6 billion are in the dark, using dirty fuels to get by

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Earth Day has come and gone, but its a fact of daily and especially nightly life that
1.6 billion people around the globe have no electricity in their homes. Instead, most use
wood, coal or even dung to heat and cook their homes resulting in indoor air pollution
that kills 1.6 million people a year.
Its not expected to improve much, and in Africa its predicted to worsen.
By 2030, when Earths population will likely top 8 billion, 1.3 billion people will still lack
electricity, the International Energy Agency estimates. Of those, 700 million will be in
Africa, and 490 million in South Asia.
Case in point: Ghana, in West Africa, where most of the northern half of the country lives
without lights. A decade ago, Ghanas government launched a campaign to electrify the
rural north but, except for periodic jumpstarts during election season, it has languished. As
a result, three out of four Ghanans in the north are without electricity to refrigerate with, to
cook with, to study with, to start businesses with.
Like most others around the world in the same situation, these Ghanans use traditional
fuels (wood, coal, dung) to meet their cooking needs. The World Health Organization
estimates that using those fuels, which also releases greenhouse gases, is responsible for
1.5 million deaths per year most of them children and women.
What would electricity for everyone around the globe cost? The International Energy
Agency, which is made up of 28 member countries, figures it would run $35 billion a year
from 2008 to 2030 to reach that.
The United Nations (UN) has taken up the issue, organizing a summit on April 28 hosted
by SecretaryGeneral Ban Ki-moon. Energy services are essential for meeting basic
human needs, reducing poverty, creating and accumulating wealth and sustaining
advances in social development, he said in announcing the summit. Access to
adequate, affordable and basic modern energy services is thus crucial to achieving
sustainable human development.
In a video report, Peter DiCampo shows what life without lights is like in Ghana as he
follows residents into their darkness and reveals their attempts to improvise. Whenever
they post teachers in our schools, the teachers dont want to stay because we dont have
lights, said one resident DiCampo interviewed. However, in the same region, mobile
phones are widespread, and a growing local film industry allows northerners to see movies
in a setting and language familiar to them for the first time. All of this exists despite the
absence of a convenient outlet in which to plug basic electronic appliances.
2010 msnbc.com

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http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/36712257/ns/world_news-world_environment/Retrieved
June 4, 2010. (slightly adapted)
01) The authors main intention in Text VIII is to
(A) criticize the high costs of electricity in most African countries.
(B) defend the electrification of regions which lack modern energy services.
(C) convince the government of Ghana to invest in the mobile phone industry.
(D) suggest that some traditional fuels can be harmless substitutes to electricity in Africa.
(E) warn about the spread of lung diseases in African population due to the use of coal as
fuel.

02)In By 2030, when Earths population will likely top 8 billion, (lines 9-10), will likely
means the same as
(A) will certainly.
(B) will similarly.
(C) will probably.
(D) will eventually.
(E) will considerably.

03) Ghana is mentioned in Text VIII because


(A) Ban Ki-moon, United Nations Secretary-General, was born there.
(B) its population of 1.3 billion people will still lack electricity in 2030.
(C) it is the only country in Africa to have mobile phones and a growing film industry.
(D) it is a typical example of a country that suffers with the absence of investments in
electricity.
(E) it has celebrated Earth Day stimulating the population to use coal for cooking and
heating homes.

04) The expression in boldface introduces the idea of consequence in


(A) Instead, most use wood, coal or even dung to heat and cook their homes (lines 4-
5)
(B) but, except for periodic jumpstarts during election season, (lines 16-17)
(C) Access to adequate, affordable and basic modern energy services is thus crucial to
achieving sustainable human development. (lines 38-40)
(D) However, in the same region, mobile phones are widespread, (lines 47-48)

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(E) All of this exists despite the absence of a convenient outlet in which to plug basic
electronic appliances. (lines 50-52)

05)Based on the meanings in the text, the two items are synonymous in
(A) ... worsen. (line 8) improve.
(B) ... made up of... (line 30) composed of.
(C) figures... (line 30) numbers.
(D) has taken up... (line 32) has discarded.
(E) affordable... (line 38) expensive.

06) In paragraph 7 (lines 32-40), Ban Ki-moon states that energy services
(A) cannot aid nations to overcome difficulties in human development.
(B) can play a fundamental role in the fulfillment of basic human needs.
(C) are unavailable in poor countries with sustained social development.
(D) will have no impact on promoting social advances or on reducing poverty.
(E) will help poor nations accumulate wealth and produce electrical appliances.

Text IX
Nigeria: 1.5 Billion People Live Without Electricity
24 November 2009
A new UN report says more than a quarter of the global population, or 1.5 billion people
live without electricity.
The report also said that 80 per cent of the people live in the least developed countries
(LDCs) of South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The report was produced in partnership
with the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Health Organisation (WHO),
with support from the International Energy Agency (IEA).
According to the report, to halve the proportion of people living in poverty by 2015, 1.2
billion more people will need access to electricity. It also stated that two billion more
people will need access to modern fuels like natural gas or Liquefied Petroleum Gas
(LPG), also called propane. It noted that two million people die every year from causes
associated with exposure to smoke from cooking with biomass and coal, while 99 per cent
of those deaths occur in developing countries.
The report further said that, in LDCs and subSaharan Africa, half of all deaths from
pneumonia in children under five years, chronic lung disease and lung cancer in adults are

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attributed to the use of solid fuel, compared with 38 per cent in developing countries
overall.
The time has come to make hard choices to combat climate change and enhance global
energy security, and at the same time, we should not forget 1.5 billion people who have no
access to electricity in the developing world, Fatih Birol, chief economist of IEA, said in
the report.
http://allafrica.com/stories/200911260385.html, retrieved June 7, 2010

01) Both Text VIII and Text IX


(A) report on the high death rates in Africa and Asia resulting from the use of electricity.
(B) condemn African countries that are trying to offer their populations healthy living
conditions.
(C) blame the UN for the difficulties Africans have faced due to the inefficient electricity
provisions in the continent.
(D) announce that the use of fuels such as natural gas and propane reduced the death
rates in developing countries.
(E) argue for the implementation of widespread access to electricity in developing nations
so as to reduce poverty.

02) Considering some of the numerical figures in Text IX,


(A) ... 1.5 billion ... (line 2) refers to more than 25% of the world population who survive
without access to electricity.
(B) ... 80 per cent ... (line 4) refers to the share of the total world population living in the
least developed countries.
(C) 1.2 billion ... (line 12) refers to the amount of global population that will certainly live
without electricity in 2015.
(D) ... 99 per cent ... (lines 18-19) refers to the percentage of deaths resulting from
smoking cigarettes in developing countries.
(E) ... 38 per cent ... (line 24) refers to the amount of adults who die of lung disease in the
sub-Saharan Africa.
03) In It also stated that two billion more people will need access to modern fuels (lines
13-14 Text II) , it refers to
(A) ... report, (line 11)
(B) ... proportion ... (line 11)

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(C) ... poverty ... (line 12)


(D) ... access ... (line 13)
(E) ... electricity. (line 13)

04)According to Fatih Birol in Paragraph 5 (lines 26-31 Text IX),it


(A) will be impossible to meet the large demand for energy in the developing world.
(B) will be imperative in the next century to find solutions for energy and climate problems
around the globe.
(C) is useless to combat changes in weather and promote wide access to energy
nowadays.
(D) is time to find ways to fight climate change, improve energy security and expand the
access to electricity.
(E) may be necessary to take violent actions against the unfair distribution of energy in
developing nations.

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CASTLEMAN, R. K. Digital Image Processing. USA: Prentice Hall, 2000.
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