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Introduo aos Fundamentos de Simulao da

moldagem por injeo utilizando MPI Plastics Insight


Injection Molding moldagem por injeo
Flow Behavior comportamento do escoamento
Design Principles princpios de Design
Disciplina Projeto Simulado em Computador
Prof. Antonio Flavio Aires Rodrigues

Injection Molding Machine


Tool Ferramenta ou Molde

Hopper Depsito Alimentador


Hydraulic Unit
Barrel Cilindro

Screw (Ram) - Rosca

Unidade
Hidrulica

Injection Molding Cycle


Mold Open Time
Tempo de Molde Aberto
Cooling Time
Tempo de Resfriamento

Fill Time
Tempo de Preenchimento

Hold Time
Tempo de Recalque

Injection Molding Cycle


Ciclo de Moldagem por Injeo
Cycle Time:
Tempo de Ciclo
Fill Time:
Tempo de Preenchimento
Hold Time:
Tempo de Recalque
Cooling Time:
Tempo de Resfriamento
Mold Open Time:
Tempo de Molde Aberto

22
Sec.

1
9
10
2

Injection Molding Process


Processo de Moldagem por Injeo

Filling

Mold closes, screw


rapidly moves forward,
frozen polymer skin
forms at mold walls

Hopper
Barrel

Screw
Mold

Preenchimento

Fechamento do molde,
movimento rpido da
rosca para frente,
formao de pelcula
fina solidificada na
parede do molde

Unidade de alimentao
Cilindro

Rosca
Molde

Injection Molding Process


Processo de Moldagem por Injeo

Packing Time (Holding)

Cavity filled, packing


begins, cooling
occurring

Screw is applying a specified


pressure to the polymer melt
in order to pack more plastic
into the cavity. Also called
compensation stage.

Tempo de compactao
(Recalque)

Cavidade preenchida,
incio do recalque,
ocorrncia de
resfriamento

Na Rosca aplicada uma


especificada presso para o
polmero plastificado a fim de
compactar mais o plstico dentro
da cavidade. Tambm chamado
estgio de compensao.

Injection Molding Process


Processo de Moldagem por Injeo

Injection Molding Process


Processo de Moldagem por Injeo

Cooling
Packing complete, gate
freezes off, cooling continues
Screw moves back and begins
plasticating resin for next shot

Resfriamento
Compactao completa, fim
do congelamento da entrada,
continuao do resfriamento
Movimento da rosca para trs
e incio da plastificao da
resina para prxima injeo

Injection Molding Process


Processo de Moldagem por Injeo

Mold Open

Cooling completes, mold


opens

Molde aberto

Resfriamento completo,
abertura do molde

The Injection Mold


Molde de Injeo
Nozzle - Bico

(a)

a.k.a.
Moving Half
Placa Mvel

Nozzle - Bico

(b)

a.k.a.
Stationary Half
Placa Estacionria

Flow Behavior Comportamento do Escoamento


What Does a Plastic Molecule Do in an
Injection Mold?
O que faz uma molcula de plstico em um molde de injeo?

Phases of Molding
Fases da Moldagem

Filling - preenchimento

Pressurization - Pressurizao

Volumetrically fill the cavity - Preenchimento


volumtrico da cavidade
Build up pressure in the cavity Criao da presso
na cavidade

Compensation - Compensao
Add extra material to reduce shrinkage
Adio extra de material para
reduzir a contrao

Filling Phase
Pressurization Phase
Compensation Phase
Fase de compensao

Fountain Flow
Fonte em fluxo

Describes the phenomena of how


plastic flows in a mold Descreve
Melt
os fenmenos de como plstico flui
em um molde
Material that first enters shows up at
the surface near the gate - Material que
primeiro entra em contato na superfcie
perto da entrada
Material that enters the cavity last,
shows up in the center downstream - Material que entra na
cavidade por ltimo, espetculos para cima no centro a jusante
Has direct influence on molecular and fiber orientation at the
part surface - Tem a influncia direta na orientao molecular e
da fibra na superfcie da pea.

Cross-Sectional Flow Molecular Orientation


Orientao Molecular do escoamento na seo
transversal
Molecular Orientation is caused by shear flow.
A orientao molecular causada pelo fluxo cisalhante
The high amount of shear is inside the frozen layer, therefore
the highest orientation
A quantidade mais elevada de cisalhamento dentro da
camada solidificada, portanto a orientao mais elevada.

tensile force

tensile force
Low orientation

High orientation

Shear rate - min

max

Cross-Sectional Heat Transfer


Transferncia de calor na seo transversal

There should be a balance between heat input from


shear and heat loss to the tool
- Deve haver um balano entre a entrada de calor do
cisalhamento e da perda de calor para o molde.
Hot Plastic Melt
Plstico fundido aquecido
Plastic
Flow Heat
Input

High
Shear
Rate

Cold Mold
Molde frio
Heat Loss
into the Tool

Frozen Layer

Slower Injection Rate


lenta taxa de injeo

VS.

Faster Injection Rate


Taxa de injeo rpida

Injection Time / Frozen layer thickness


Tempo de injeo / espessura da cmada solidificada

Faster injection times will produce a thinner frozen


layer, and a thicker flow channel
- Tempos de injeo rpidos produziro uma camada
solidificada mais fina, e um canal de escoamento
mais grosso.
MOLDFLOW Scan Injection Time - Flow 1
Pressure [MPa]

Time [sec]

Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT)
Presso-Volume-Temperatura (PVT)

Describes the temperature/pressure relationship for


polymers over the entire processing range Descreve a relao da temperatura / presso para
polmeros sobre uma faixa processando inteira.

Shrinkage Contrao - Encolhimento

Shrinkage in the direction of flow is usually much


greater than across the flow for un-filled materials
- O encolhimento no sentido do fluxo geralmente
muito maior do que transversal ao escoamento para
materiais em preenchimento.

Gate along edge Entrada ao longo


lado

Final Part

Mold

Design Principles
Princpios de Design

Use Design Principles and Moldflow technology so


you dont have to do this:
O uso de princpios de Design e tecnologias
MoldFlow assim voc no precisa fazer isto:

Moldflow Design Philosophy


MoldFlow Fisolofia de Design

Number of gates Nmeros de entradas


The number of gates used is based on the pressure to fill the
cavity. In general, one selects the minimum number of gates to
fill the cavity. Nmero de entradas usadas baseadas na presso para
preencher a cavidade. Em geral, uma seleo de um nmero
mnimo de entradas para preencher a cavidade.
Position of gates Posio das entradas
The position of the gate is determined by the flow balancing
principle.
A posio da entrada determinada pelo princpios de
balanceamento de fluxo.
Flow pattern
Escoamento padro
The mold should fill with a straight fill pattern with no changes in
direction during filling.
O molde dever ser preenchido com um padro de
preenchimento retilineo sem mudanas na direo durante o
preenchimento.

Moldflow Design Philosophy


MoldFlow Filosofia de Design

Runner Design Projeto dos canais

The runner system is designed to achieve the required


filling pattern in the cavity.
O sistema de canais desenhado para obter o padro
de preenchimento requerido na cavidade.

Sequence of Analysis Seqncia de Anlise

The procedure of the mold design always starts with


the cavity. O procedimento para o projeto do molde sempre inicia
com a cavidade.

Project Design Procedure Using Moldflow


Procedimento Design de projeto usando o MoldFlow

Determine the design criteria for the project


Determinar o critrio de design para o projeto
Use previous experience of analyst
Usar experincia prvias para analisar
Discuss the project with all disciplines involved in the project
Discutir o projeto com todas grupos envolvidos no projeto
Use Moldflow Design Principles
Usar princpios de projeto com MoldFlow
Use Moldflow Design Rules with the software
Critrios de Design usando o MoldFlow
Interpret results and make changes where necessary
Interpretar os resultados e fazer as alteraes quando necessrias
Discuss changes with all disciplines involved in the project
Discutir as alteraes com todas as reas envolvidas no projeto
Repeat Moldflow analysis to ensure acceptable results Repetir as anlises no MoldFlow para assegurar a aceitao dos
resultados

Flow Concepts
Conceito de Fluxo

Unidirectional and controlled flow pattern


Padro de fluxo controlado e unidirecional
Flow balancing
Fluxo balanceado
Constant pressure gradient
Gradiente de presso constante
Maximum shear stress
Mxima tenso de cisalhamento
Uniform cooling
Resfriamento uniforme
Positioning weld and meld lines
Posicionamento das linhas de solda e agrupamento (mistura)
Avoid hesitation effects Impedir efeito de hesitao
Avoid underflow Impedir
Balancing with flow leaders and flow deflectors
Balanceamento com guia de fluxo e defletores de fluxo
Acceptable runner/cavity ratio
Aceitar razo canais/cavidades

Uni-Directions and Controlled Flow Pattern


Padro de fluxo controlado e unidirecional

The uni-directional flow principle says that the plastic should


flow in one direction with a straight flow front throughout filling.
This gives a uni-directional orientation pattern
O princpio do fluxo unidirecional diz que o plstico deveria
escoar em uma direo com uma frente de fluxo retilnea
preenchendo completamente. Isto dar uma padro de
orientao unidirecional.
Orientation is different
Directions, flow marks,
high stresses, & warping.
Orientao esta em
diferentes direes,
marcas de fluxo, grande
tenso, e empenamento.
Orientation in one
direction, Uniform,
shrinkage, & stresses.
Orientao em uma
direo, uniforme,
contrao e tenso.

Flow Balancing
Balanceamento de Fluxo

The flow balancing principle says all flow paths within a mold should be
balanced, i.e. fill in equal time with equal pressure
O princpio de balanceamento de fluxo diz que todos os caminhos de
fluxo em um molde devem ser balanceados, isto , preenchimento em
igual tempo com igual presso.
Naturally balanced runner system
Sistema de canais naturalmente balanceado
Same distance and conditions between the nozzle and all cavities
Igual distncia e condies entre o bico e todas cavidades
All cavities filling at the same time pressure and temperature
Preenchimento de todas cavidades em igual tempo, presso e
temperatura.

Flow Balancing
Balanceamento de Fluxo

Artificially balanced runner system


Sistema de canais artificialmente balanceados
Sizes of the runners are different in order to deliver plastic melt to all
cavities at the same pressure, so that all the cavities fill at the same
time
Tamanho para os canais diferente para distribuir o plstico
plastificado para todas as cavidades igual presso, de modo que
todas cavidades so preenchidas no mesmo tempo.

Flow Balancing

Artificially balanced runners

Limitations:
Very small parts
Parts which contain
very thin sections
Parts where sink
marks are important
Where the ratio of
runner lengths to be
balanced is too great

Before

After

Constant Pressure Gradient

The constant pressure gradient principle says that


the most efficient filling pattern is when the pressure
gradient, i.e. pressure per unit length, is constant
along the flow path

Pressure spiking
at end of fill before
switchover lowers
pressure

Maximum Shear Stress

The shear stress during filling should be less than the


critical level. The value of this critical level depends on
the material and application
Material:
Stress Limit:

ABS
0.3 Mpa

Stress plotted is above the


material limit

Uniform Cooling

When plastic is in contact with the mold, and one side


is cold and the other is hot, differential cooling takes
place. This causes a bowing to the hot side, as the
hot side takes longer to cool and shrink

Hot Side

Cold Side

Tensile Stress

Uniform Cooling

Part cross-section should cool evenly, cavity to core.


If it does not in a corner, the corner will pull in to less
than 90 degrees, producing the typical bowed box
warpage
Cavity
Cold

Core
Hot

Heat is concentrated in
the corner of the core

Hot Corner
(shrinks relative to frozen
sections, causing
warpage)

Positioning Weld and Meld Lines

Position weld and meld lines in the least sensitive


areas, if they cant be eliminated

Weld Lines are formed when two flow fronts meet


head on
Meld Lines are formed when two flow fronts meet and
flow in the same direction

Avoid Hesitation Effects

Position gates as far away


as possible from where the
flow divides into thick and
thin flow paths to avoid
hesitation effects

Gate

Rib did not fill

Gate

Avoid Hesitation Effects


GATES make poor flow control devices
HESITATION
EFFECT
Material freezes off
in the gate closest
to the sprue

TRADITIONAL
APPROACH
First gate opened
0.010 in thickness
and width, from
0.030 to 0.040

Low pressure drop in


runners
Middle cavity
hesitating more
than right
cavity

Now first cavity filling


much faster than
other cavities

Avoid Underflow

A change in flow direction


between the time an area
fills and the end of fill
The blue velocity angle
arrows should be
perpendicular to the multicolor fill contour lines

Good

Not
Good!

Avoid Underflow

Arrows
show
direction
plastic
moving at
the instant
of fill

Weld Line
moves inside
frozen layer

FLOI4

Flow front

Balancing with Flow Leaders and


Flow Deflectors

Subtly increase (leader)


or decrease (deflector)
the wall thickness to
influence the filling
pattern to create a
balanced fill within the
part

Uniform Thickness

Unbalanced Filling

Balanced Thickness

Balanced Filling

Acceptable Runner/Cavity Ratio

Design runner systems


for high pressure drops,
thus minimizing material
in the runner, in order to
give a low ratio of runner
to cavity volume

Volume of parts:
192.0 cc
Volume of feed system:
13.4 cc
Feed system:
7.0% of part volume

QUESTIONS?