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LEITURA E REDAO EM LNGUA INGLESA Welcome to subject Reading and Writing in English!

Through the contents of this subject, we aim to discuss the importance of the development of reading skills so that the learners may become competent readers with a plain management of the reading and writing strategies found in the ESP methodology. Besides becoming competent readers, it is also part of our planning to enable our learners to become efficient writers as well. We know that the written communicative competence, concerning reading and writing skills, inserts the social individuals in a society in which they can interact mutually. When these individuals understand the codes which govern their thoughts and the necessary attitudes to promote this interaction, they can be considered able to take part in this society actively, in an inclusive and critical way. The approach employed to present the different aspects of the appointed contents is deeply committed to semantic, morphological, syntactic and pragmatic processes, both in the English and in the Portuguese language; by doing so, it is possible to highlight the perception of the similarities and contrasts between the languages. More than learning concepts on reading and writing skills, the lessons planned for this subject, Leitura e Redao em Lngua Inglesa, propose that the learners adopt an autonomous and dynamic attitude towards reading and writing texts in English throughout their course. Ol, seja bem-vindo disciplina Leitura e Escrita em Lngua Inglesa! O contedo dessa disciplina pretende discutir a importncia do desenvolvimento das habilidades de leitura, para o alcance de um domnio de leitura de textos de variadas fontes por meio do ensino do Ingls Instrumental (ESP). Alm dos aprendizes se tornarem proficientes na escrita, tambm esperamos que eles se tornem eficientes na escrita. Sabemos que a competncia comunicativa da escrita e leitura insere os sujeitos sociais em uma sociedade que os torna capazes de interagir uns com outros. Compreendendo os cdigos que governam o pensamento e as atitudes que so necessrias para que esta interao se promova de maneira competente, os educandos podero participar desta sociedade de maneira crtica e inclusiva. A abordagem que faremos dos diversos aspectos dos contedos propostos apresentam um forte comprometimento com os processos semnticos, morfolgicos, sintticos e pragmticos tanto da lngua inglesa quanto da lngua portuguesa, efetivando, assim, a percepo dos processos que as aproximam e as diferenciam.

Mais do que aprender conceitos, as aulas elaboradas para a disciplina Leitura e Redao em Lngua Inglesa propem que os alunos assumam uma atitude autnoma e mais dinmica na leitura e textos em lngua inglesa, ao longo do curso.
Esta disciplina visa fazer com que o aluno reconhea que a utilizao de mecanismos de planejamento e controle imprescindvel para que as organizaes tenham xito em seus negcios, desse modo o oramento abrange funes e operaes que envolvem todas as reas da empresa, com necessidade de alocao de algum tipo de recurso para fazer face aos gastos de suas aes. O oramento representa o plano de aes futuras da empresa para um determinado perodo de tempo e pode abranger aspectos financeiros e no-financeiros. Posto isso, espera-se que os alunos compreendam o planejamento dentro dos conceitos sobre gesto, planejamento estratgico e oramento com reconhecimento da importncia desses fatores no controle no ambiente empresarial. Espera-se ainda que compreendam os aspectos conceituais relacionados ao oramento empresarial e elaborem quadros oramentrios auxiliares confeco dos relatrios financeiros projetados.

AULA 01 - INTRODUCTION
In the end of lesson, the student should be able to: 1. Define what Reading` is; 2. recognize your role as a reader; 3. discuss the purposes of reading.

I would like to ask you a very simple, straightforward (FRANCO) question: What is reading? There is not a simple answer for this question although (EMBORA) reading is considered, at a first glance (RELANCE), a concrete observable task (TAREFA) which employs (UTILIZA) certain functions and faculties proper to human beings in general. In fact, reading is a complex activity, which can be developed (DESENVOLVER) in multiple ways, depending on its purposes. Kern (2000) presents a definition of literacy, which brings (QUE TRAZ) the notions we believe to be essential for the understanding of reading as a social act. For Richard Kern, "literacy" in a second language means much more than the separate abilities to read and write; rather (EM VEZ), it is a complex concept of familiarity with language and its use in context-primarily written language, but by extension also spoken communication. It requires (EXIGE)"a broader (MAIS AMPLO) discourse competence that involves the ability to interpret and critically evaluate (AVALIAR) a wide variety of written and spoken texts" (p. 2). It covers (ABRANGE) cultural pragmatic knowledge and linguistic awareness (CONSCIENCIA) as well as basic (ASSIM COMO DE BASE) knowledge of lexis and grammatical structure. It is promoted through (ATRAVES) an interaction of reading and writing activities, and through the discussion of language in use in communicative contexts. And according to (CONFORME) Kern, literacy provides a unifying (FORNECE UM UNIFICADOR), overarching

(ABRANGENTE) concept describing what it is that he is trying to achieve (ALCAAR) in language teaching, and what it is that will enable second language learners to function adequately in a literate foreign (ESTRANGEIRA) society. Kern states that literacy in a second language involves a competence to interpret and critically evaluate (AVALIAR) a large variety of written and spoken texts in cultural, pragmatic and interactional contexts. I expect that the process of reading may reveal (PODE REVELAR) readers who perform an active role(PAPEL ATIVO) and that recognize (RECONHECER) that they are responsible to build meanings in communicative contexts. They should (DEVERIA) also have the ability to understand cultural differences and be able to function adequately in a literate foreign society. But do not forget that, as an efficient reader, you should be able to do that in an autonomous way. What about your role as a reader? Lets consider that each reader owns knowledge and previous experiences which are employed (UTILIZADO) to build new meanings (SIGNIFICADOS) when reading new texts. As a consequence, we can infer (INFERIR/DEDUZIR) that when a group of people read a text, this reading may convey (TRANSMITIR) different interpretations. They have different interpretations from the same text due (DEVIDO) to their individual knowledge and experiences, but it is crucial that these interpretations have a determined logical inner line (LINHA INTERNA) found either in the text or in the context. You should understand, then, that your role as a reader is determined either by your purposes (FINS) to read a text or by the previous knowledge of the information you are going to find in it. When the author starts writing a text, he/she assumes that the reader may either know very little about what he/she is going to read or that the reader has sufficient information to interact with the text. > In the first case, authors give a lot of details about what they are writing; > In the second, they can give implicit information because they expect the reader to be well informed about the subject they are writing about. They expect readers to behave (COMPORTAR/PROCEDER) in an active way using the knowledge they have to fill up the gaps in relation to the text. In the research (PESQUISA) entitled (ENTITULADO) Reading for understanding: toward (PARA)a research and development (DESENVOLVER) program in reading comprehension (SNOW-p.13), the author states that, a reader must have a wide range (ALCANCE) of capacities and abilities. These qualities include cognitive capacities (e.g., attention, memory, critical analytic ability), motivation (a purpose (PROPSITO) for reading, an interest (UM INTERESSE) in the content (CONTEDO) being read, self-efficacy as a reader and various types of knowledge vocabulary, domain and topic knowledge, linguistic and discourse knowledge, knowledge of specific comprehension strategies). Of course, the specific cognitive, motivational, and linguistic capacities as well as the knowledge base called on in any act of reading comprehension depend on the texts in use and the specific activity in which one is engaged. In general, readers may have two main purposes to read: reading for entertainment or reading to get some information. Within (DENTRO) these two purposes, it is possible to have more specific ones. What is important for you to perceive is that when you read something, it does not matter what, you build meaning or you obtain some information.

What are the purposes of reading? Look at the symbols below and think about the meanings you produce while you read them: (PROIBIDO ESTACIONAR) (BANHEIRO FEMININO) It happens when you are reading a magazine and you just look at the words of an ad, quickly, without paying close attention to it. Doing so you still have an implicit purpose to read. You can read even when you do not want to. You can read to entertain yourself for some minutes, or as a pastime while you wait for the bus or walk around. Although, you do not have a predetermined intention to read, and the action of reading is not conscious, when you are standing at the bus stop, looking at a billboard, you will still build meaning or get information. At school, the purposes of reading are established (ESTABELECIDO) by teachers. Your purposes will probably be to study for a test, to write an article, to answer questions about a text, to reach (CHEGAR A)conclusions about a specific subject, to find relevant information, to know about the results of a research, to make summaries. You know that you will be evaluated for your ability of building meanings or getting information. This ability will determine if you can be considered a good reader or not. To reach your purposes of reading and be considered good readers, next class, you will study about the most common textual genres. You will also analyze the processing of texts during the reading act and finally what you can and cannot do as readers.
1. When you read texts in a critical way,

1) you can read other texts. 2) you can read the words in the texts. 3) you can read different books. 4) you can read the world. 5) you can read books appointed by your teachers.
2. The cooperative reader

1) is able to understand what is written and what is not written in the text. 2) does not care if he understands what the author wants to say. 3) understands all the words in the text. 4) has a subjective interpretation of the texts. 5) always misunderstands what is written in the texts.
3. For Paulo Freire, the concept that words are representations of reality is

1) not important for reading. 2) misunderstood by readers. 3) clear for everyone. 4) must be avoided by readers. 5) is essential in the act of reading.

Aula 2: Reading: a psycholinguistic process to promote Knowledge and a proficient reader


In the end of lesson, the student should be able to: 1. Recognize the most common textual genres; 2. Study the analysis of text processing; 3. Discuss the behavior of an efficient reader.

What are text genres (GENEROS TEXTUAIS)? It is not an easy task to give a single (NICO) definition for text genres. Whenever we talk about genres, we will be referring to classifications such as: FICTION ALICE NO PAS DAS MARAVILHAS NON-FICTION GRAMTICA FABLES A TARTARUGA E A LEBRE FAIRY TALES BELA ADORMECIDA COMIC TRIPS QUADRINHOS PLAYS - PEA DE TEATRO Whenever we talk about text structure, we will be making references to patterns which are established in the relation between ideas such as (TAL COMO): Temporal order Example: In 2007, Rowling described her religious background in an interview with the Dutch newspaper the Volkskrant I was officially raised in the Church of England, but I was actually more of a freak in my family. We didn't talk about religion in our home. My father didn't believe in anything, neither did my sister. My mother would incidentally visit the church, but mostly during Christmas. And I was immensely curious. From when I was 13, 14 I went to church alone. I found it very interesting what was being said there, and I believed in it. When I went to university, I became more critical. I got more annoyed with the smugness of religious people and I went to church less and less. Now I'm at the point where I started: yes, I believe. And yes, I go to the church. A Protestant church here in Edinburgh. My husband is also raised Protestant, but he comes from a very strict Scottish group. One where they couldn't sing and talk. Chronological order Example: Our initial model has two components: (1) a pairwise classier between events, and (2) a global constraint satisfaction layer that maximizes the condence scores from the classier.

The rst is based on previous work (Mani et al., 2006; Chambers et al., 2007) and the second is a novel contribution to event - classication. Example:

My fellow Americans, the next time you feel a cold coming on, mark your calendar. Unless you start coughing up lots of green sputum or develop unusual symptoms for example, a fever that does not respond to aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol), or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) think twice about calling your doctor before two weeks have passed. What I do instead is, from the moment I feel the infection coming on, I drink lots of hot fluids, take 500 to 1,000 milligrams of vitamin C four times a day, suck on a zinc lozenge every two waking hours, and mix half a teaspoon of tincture of echinacea, an immune-boosting herb, into juice or tea three times a day. Reliable studies show that these approaches reduce the severity and duration of colds. If you develop a persistent cough at the tail end of your cold, keep taking vitamin C and try an over-the-counter cough suppressant containing dextromethorphan. If we hope to preserve antibiotic effectiveness, it's up to us, the public, to convince doctors to prescribe these drugs only when they're necessary. This from-the-bottom-up approach is nothing new. Health consumers have taken the lead in showing doctors the value of fitness, nutrition, and alternative therapies. It's time we get serious about antibiotics. Whenever (SEMPRE QUE) we talk about text types, we will refer to: Narrative texts describe real or imaginary happenings which, to a certain extent, are linked to each other; Argumentative texts texts which develop themselves by means of logical resources; Descriptive texts description of reality or fiction which they are based on; Expository texts texts used to give information about something; Injunctive texts express an order given by the author to the reader. What is text processing? It is very necessary to consider the following models when we want to discuss text processing: A bottom-up reading model is a reading model that: Emphasizes the written or printed text; Points out that reading is driven by a process that results in meaning (or, in other words, reading is driven by text), and proceeds from part to whole. Here are some characteristics of a bottom-up approach to reading: Bottom-up models indicate that the reader needs to: Identify letter features (IDENTIFICAR AS CARACTERSTICAS DAS LETRAS); Link these features to recognize (RECONHECER) letters; Combine letters to recognize spelling patterns; Link spelling patterns to recognize words, and then proceed to sentence, paragraph and text-level processing. What is text processing? Top-down reading models suggest that processing of a text begins in the mind of the readers with: Meaning-driven processes, or an assumption about the meaning of a text; From this perspective, readers identify letters and words only to confirm their assumptions about the meaning of the text.

The proponents generally agree that comprehension is the basis for decoding skills (HABILIDADES DE DECODIFICAO), not a singular result, and meaning is brought to print, not derived from print. Definition A top-down reading model is a reading model that: Emphasizes what the reader brings to the text; Points out reading is driven by meaning, and proceeds from whole to part. An interactive model An interactive reading model is able to combine the valid insights of bottom-up and top-down models. It takes into account the strong points of the bottom-up and top-down models, and tries to avoid the criticisms posed against each, making it one of the most promising approaches to the theory of reading today. Definition An interactive reading model is a reading model that proposes the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes simultaneously throughout the reading process. See further references links in www.sil.org/lingualinks. The behavior of an efficient reader (O COMPORTAMENTO DE UM LEITOR EFICIENTE) We think that an efficient reader should use a think-aloud procedure to identify relations between certain types of reading strategies and successful or unsuccessful second language reading The successful reader, for example, keeps the meaning of the passage in mind while reading, read in broad phrases, skips inconsequential or less important words, and has a positive self-concept as a reader. The unsuccessful reader on the other hand, loses the meaning of the sentences when decoded, read in short phrases, ponders over inconsequential words, seldom skips words as unimportant, and has a negative self-concept. We can conclude that less effective readers often have misconceptions about the reading process, fail to monitor their comprehension, underutilize effective reading strategies, and employ fewer reading strategies when reading. Skilled readers, on the other hand, know and use many different strategies in coming to terms with text. They employ both "bottom-up" and "top-down" reading strategies, use a wider range of strategies and apply them more frequently. Thus they employ metacognitive knowledge and identify when and how comprehension and monitoring processes should be applied. Bibliographical References: SOARES, MAGDA. Letramento: um tema em trs gneros. Autntica, Belo Horizonte, 2000. 2. Ed
1.Poema: O que letramento? De: Kate M. Chong Letramento no um gancho Em que se pendura cada som enunciado, No treinamento repetitivo De uma habilidade, Nem um martelo quebrando blocos de gramtica. Letramento diverso leitura luz de vela ou l fora, luz do sol So notcias sobre o presidente, O tempo, os artistas da TV E mesmo Mnica e Cebolinha

uma receita de biscoito, Uma lista de compras, recados colados na geladeira, Um bilhete de amor, Telegramas de parabns e cartas De velhos amigos. viajar para pases desconhecidos, Sem deixar sua cama, rir e chorar Com personagens, heris e grandes amigos. um atlas do mundo Sinais de trnsito, caas ao tesouro Manuais, instrues, guias, E orientaes em bulas de remdios, Para que voc no fique perdido. Letramento , sobretudo Um mapa do corao do homem Um mapa de quem voc , E de tudo que voc pode ser. After reading the text above, mark the most suitable options: You can be considered a skilful and competent reader when 1) you can read varied texts 2) you can read the words in the texts 3) you can read different books 4) you can read the world, that is, you are able to establish social and cultural interactions while reading X 5) you can read books appointed by your teachers 2. The genre of the text above is:

1) a poem 2) a fable 3) a novel 4) an ad 5) a manual


3. Texts types involve 1) the order of events 2) the importance of events 3) cause and effect 4) reading strategies 5) the ways texts ate presented, that is to narrate or describe events among others

Aula 3: Description of a Paragraph, its Organization and the Use of the Present Simple to Describe Routine Actions

In the end of lesson, the student should be able to: 1. Organize a paragraph; 2. know how to use the present simple and adverbs to describe his / her routine. How to organize a paragraph?

If you think you do not write well, and that writing compositions or essays is something that only the gifted ones can, let me tell you that you are completely wrong. There are some strategies you can use which will help you to develop your writing skills. Take a look at the paragraph below. (1) Jos is a very busy student. (2) He studies History at State University and he also studies English. (3) During the day, he goes to classes. (4) At night, he works in the bookstore. (5) On the weekends, he volunteers at the childrens hospital. (6) Jos doesnt rest! Sentence (1) is a topic sentence. It covers all the information in the paragraph. Sentences (2), (3), (4), and (5) are supporting sentences. They give facts and descriptions. Supporting sentences are clearly linked to the topic sentence. Sentence (6) is a concluding sentence. This sentence summarizes the paragraph. Paragraphs should contain ideas, thoughts and clear purposes. It is important to ask yourself what the main objective of the paragraph is. Is the paragraph expanding previous ideas? Is this stating something again? Is this describing? Is this comparing? Is this contrasting? You have to clarify what your real purpose is. Present simple There are seven basic uses of the simple present tense. We use it for: 1. Permanent truths: Summer follows spring. 2. The present period (= this is the situation at present): My sister works in a bank. 3. Habitual actions: I get up at 7. 4. Future references (for timetables, etc): The concert begins at 7.30 next Friday evening. 5. Observations and declarations: I love you / It says here that 6. Instructions: First you weigh the ingredients. 7. Commentaries: Becker serves to Lendi. In this lesson, if you take a look at the previous functions, you will able to realize that the one we are using in the organization of the paragraph about Jos is the description of habitual actions. We can notice that in the paragraph, verbs in the present simple vary in form in the third person singular. Example: > He studies History at State University and he also studies English. > During the day he goes to classes. > At night, he works in the bookstore. > On weekends, he volunteers at the childrens hospitals.

See more examples about the Present Simple PRESENT SIMPLE CONCEPT VERBS IN THE PRESENT SIMPLE, IN THE THIRD PERSON SINGULAR (HE, SHE, IT), GENERALLY TAKE AN S: IF THE VERBS END IN S, CH SH, X, AND O, THEY TAKES -ES: IF THE VERBS END IN Y, DROP THE Y, CHANGE THEM TO I AND ADD ES: IF THE SENTENCES ARE IN THE NEGATIVE, YOU WILL HAVE TO USE DO OR DOES: IF YOU WANT TO MAKE QUESTIONS, YOU WILL USE: (HE,SHE, IT) DOES NOT/DOESNT REST? (I, YOU, WE, THEY) DO NOT REST/DONT REST. DO (I, YOU, WE, THEY) GO TO CLASSES AT NIGHT? DOES (HE, SHE, IT) EAT AT NIGHT? AT NIGHT HE STUDIES FRENCH. DURING THE DAY HE GOES TO CLASSES. EXAMPLE AT NIGHT, HE WORKS IN A BOOKSTORE.

Adverbs are also of great help to establish routines. In the paragraph about Jos, adverbial expressions such as during the day, on the weekends or at night come together with verbs in the present simple to highlight the description of habitual actions. Adverbs of time tell us when something happens: Every day, this week, on Mondays, at 5 oclock, in the morning, etc. On Mondays she goes to school by car. Adverbs of frequency can also help you describe routines: always, almost always, generally, usually, normally, frequently, often, sometimes, hardly ever, seldom, ever, never, etc. > The dog seldom sleeps in the house.
1. Read the paragraph and choose the topic sentence ,supporting sentences and the concluding sentence to complete the gaps : The Irish Potato Famine (1) The Irish Potato Famine happened between 1845 and 1849. (2) A disease destroyed the potatoes in Ireland.(3) Potatoes were the main food for people in Ireland. (4) People didnt have enough food to eat.(5)Almost one million people died in the famine.(6) Many Irish didnt want to live in Ireland anymore.(7) Nearly 2 million people immigrated to the United States. (8)They traveled to the United States by ship and landed in the big cities of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.(9) Most of the Irish families stayed in these cities. (10)The 1850 census in Boston showed that more than 23% of the city was made up of Irish immigrants.(11) The Irish Potato Famine had a major impact on Ireland and the United States.

( adapted from Grammar Connection) After reading the paragraph above, choose the best sentences for: The topic sentence

1) The Irish Potato Famine had a major impact on Ireland. 2) Almost one million people died in the famine. 3) The Irish Potato Famine happened between 1845 and 1849. 4) Many Irish didnt want to live in Ireland anymore. 5) A disease destroyed the potatos in Ireland. 2. The sentence in which the first fact is presented in supporting sentences:

1) A disease destroyed the potatoes in Ireland. 2) Nearly 2 million people died in the famine. 3) They traveled to the United States 4) Many Irish didnt want to live in Ireland anymore. 5) Almost one million people died in the famine.
3. The concluding sentence: ( choose the sentence number)

1) 5 2) 10 3) 8 4) 6 5) 11

Aula 4: Estabelecer as relaes entre as estratgias do texto, nveis de leitura e propsitos de leitura
In the end of lesson, the student should be able to: 1. Know about reading strategies; 2. understand that there are different levels of reading; 3. deepen the concept of top-down and bottom-up. How to use some reading strategies In this lesson, we are going to study some reading strategies. These reading strategies will help you to comprehend the text without searching for the meaning of the words all the time. Remember that you should not use the dictionary so often. Use the dictionary only to clarify your doubts. How to use some reading strategies In general, 50% of the words in a text are not crucial for the understanding of the general meaning. Observe the sentence below A Alemanha XXXX exemplo de XXXXXXX pacfica XXXXX diferentes XXXXX e culturas. So which sentence would best explain the sentence above?

a) A Alemanha um pas que no aceita bem os estrangeiros. b) A Alemanha um pas onde pessoas de origens distintas convivem pacificamente. You know the right answer is (b), dont you? Now you are going to read about some reading strategies: Prediction (Predio)

When you use this strategy, you are able to create hypotheses about the themes you are going to read about in the texts. Afterwards, when you read the texts, you can agree or modify your first impressions about them. When you use this strategy, you are mentally preparing yourself for the reading. Try to understand the title of the text, if there is a one, or search for any other visual clues because they generally function as a summary of the text. Previous knowledge (Ativao de Conhecimento Prvio) The process of comprehension of a text also depends on the experiences the reader had had before in life. These experiences will influence the way the reader sees the world and how much of these experiences he is going to use while developing his expectations towards what he is going to read. O processo de compreenso de um texto tambm depende das experincias que um leitor teve em sua vida. Estas experincias influenciaro a maneira como o autor v o mundo e o quanto destas experincias ele ir utilizar enquanto estiver desenvolvendo suas expectativas em relao ao que vai ler. Genre (Gnero) When you identify the genre, your reading becomes easier. For example, if you are reading a sewing machine manual with instructions of how to use it, you do not expect to find words such as onion or tomato. These words are likely to be found in a recipe. Each kind of text presents characteristics and communicative purposes that make them easy to be identified; the reader knows what he is searching for before reading the text. Let's consider some of the most common genres: jokes (funny stories), classified ads, news articles, letters, cards, diaries, e-mails, interviews, forms, cartoons, game instructions, lyrics, lists, menus, maps, manuals, short stories, small dialogues, messages, recipes, reports, labels, reference texts (dictionaries). Quando voc identifica o gnero, sua leitura se torna mais fcil. Por exemplo, se voc estiver lendo a respeito de um manual que indica como usar uma mquina de costura, voc no vai esperar encontrar palavras como cebola ou tomate. Estas palavras aparecero, provavelmente, em uma receita. Cada tipo de texto apresenta caractersticas e propsitos comunicativos que os tornam de fcil identificao; o leitor sabe o que est procurando antes mesmo de ler o texto. Vamos considerar alguns dos gneros mais comuns: anedotas, classificados, artigos de jornal, cartas, cartes, dirios ou agendas, e-mails, entrevistas, formulrios, instrues de jogos, letras de msicas, listas, menus, mapas, manuais, contos, pequenos dilogos, propagandas, recados, receitas, relatrios, rtulos, textos de referncia (dicionrios). Visuals (Inferncia visual) Elements such as titles, dates, subtitles, illustrations, photos, diagrams, charts, bold types, quotation marks, different types of letters, etc. are important to help the reader to make inferences and logical deductions . Visuals (Inferncia visual) Elementos como ttulos, legendas, ilustraes, fotos, diagramas, grficos, negrito, aspas, tipos diferentes de letras, etc. so importantes para ajudar o leitor a fazer inferncias e dedues lgicas.

Guessing (Adivinhar, deduzir, interpretar significados) During the process of a text comprehension written in foreign language, the reader should try to understand all unknown words in the context they are employed. Then, we should consider: The text subject; everything the reader knows about the subject; grammatical relations. Guessing (Adivinhar, deduzir, interpretar significados) Durante o processo de compreenso de um texto em lngua estrangeira, o leitor no dever tentar entender todas as palavras desconhecidas no contexto que esto sendo utilizadas. Ento, devemos considerar: O assunto do texto; tudo que o leitor j sabe sobre o assunto; relaes gramaticais;

Guessing (Adivinhar, deduzir, interpretar significados) partes do texto que o leitor j compreendeu; o que est implcito no texto; as palavras e frases vizinhas. importante lembrar que, para compreender uma palavra, no necessrio saber sua traduo. Repeated words (Palavras repetidas) To recognize the words which are repeated in the text can very often help the reader understand it. Reconhecer as palavras que so repetidas no texto pode, na maioria das vezes, ajudar no entendimento do texto. Key words (Palavras-Chave) These specific words are generally associated to the subject which is being discussed in the text. Estas palavras especficas esto associadas ao assunto que Discourse markers (Marcadores do Discurso) These words are used to connect ideas or to mark the discourse in a text when you want to exemplify, contrast , compare, add or complement ideas, point out consequences and results, give emphasis or show causes, summarize or generalize, establish conditions or hypotheses, set time relations. Estas palavras so usadas para ligar ideias ou demarcar o discurso em um texto quando voc quer dar exemplos, contrastar, comparar, acrescentar ou complementar ideias, apontar consequncias ou resultados, dar nfase ou mostrar causas, resumir ou generalizar, estabelecer condies ou hipteses, estabelecer relaes temporais. How to use some reading strategies NOUNS Nominal groups (Grupos nominais)

Nouns are often used as part of large nominal groups. Nominal groups are groups of words that provide more information about people, places or concepts. The Depression era is an example of a nominal group because it includes more information than just the 'thing' itself: Depression classifies the particular era. Nominal groups (Grupos nominais) Nominal groups are important because they typically provide the content in a text (what something is about); in academic writing this content can be very sophisticated, abstract, and complex. Some examples of nominal groups are the major policy priority, the rate of economic growth. Nominal groups (Grupos nominais) Os substantivos so geralmente usados como parte de grupos nominais maiores. Os grupos nominais so grupos de palavras que fornecem informaes sobre pessoas, lugares e conceitos. A era da Depresso um exemplo de um grupo nominal porque ele inclui mais informao sobre a coisa em si. Depresso classifica uma determinada era. Os grupos nominais so importantes porque eles fornecem de maneira especial o contedo em um texto (do que se trata alguma coisa); na escrita acadmica, este contedo pode ser muito sofisticado, abstrato e complexo. Alguns exemplos de grupos nominais so: a prioridade da diretriz principal, a velocidade do crescimento econmico. Affixes (Afixos)

The knowledge of the process of word formation can help readers to deduce meanings. In general, prefixes have the function to alter the word meanings while suffixes determine grammatical classes. A lot of affixes have either Greek or Latin origin, being this way transparent words. O conhecimento do processo da formao das palavras pode ajudar leitores a deduzir significados. Em geral, prefixos tem a funo de alterar os significados das palavras enquanto os sufixos determinam as classes gramaticais. Muitos afixos tm origem grega ou latina, tornando-se palavras transparentes. Contextual Reference (Referncia contextual) There are words and expressions which are used to link ideas in a given context to promote cohesion and coherence. These words can refer to a word or idea previously mentioned in other parts of the text to avoid repetition. They can be personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, reflexive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, some relative pronouns, etc. I have five English books and these Spanish ones. The boy who spoke is my friend. H palavras e expresses que so usadas para ligar ideias em um dado contexto para promover coeso e coerncia. Estas palavras podem se referir a uma palavra ou a uma ideia previamente mencionada em outras partes do texto para evitar a repetio. Elas podem ser pronomes pessoais, possessivos, reflexivos, demonstrativos ou alguns pronomes relativos. Cognates (Cognatos ou Palavras Transparentes) Researchers who study first and second language acquisition have found that students benefit from cognate awareness. Cognate awareness is the ability to use cognates in a primary language as a tool for understanding a second language. Children can be taught to use cognates as early as preschool.

As students move up the grade levels, they can be introduced to more sophisticated cognates and to cognates that have multiple meanings in both languages, although some of those meanings may not overlap. An example: 1 Making an argument: expressing a point of view and supporting it with facts and evidences. 2 Argument: I'm tired of having arguments with my wife. Pesquisadores que estudam a aquisio de primeira e segunda lnguas descobriram que os alunos se beneficiam quando se tornam conscientes sobre o uso dos cognatos. Esta conscincia a habilidade de usar cognatos na primeira lngua (lngua materna) como uma ferramenta para entender uma segunda lngua (lngua estrangeira). As crianas podem comear a aprender os cognatos j na pr-escola. A medida que os aprendizes alcanam nveis mais avanados, eles podem aprender cognatos mais sofisticados ou cognatos que possuam significados mltiplos em ambas as lnguas, embora alguns destes significados no se cruzem. Um exemplo: 1 Making an argument: expressar um ponto de vista e defend-lo com fatos e evidncias. 2 Argument: brigas Estou cansado das brigas com minha mulher. Dictionary Use (Uso do dicionrio) The dictionary must be used as the last resource, that is, only if the word is a key word, if it does not make part of your previous knowledge, if it is not a cognate, if it cannot be deduced from context or if it has multiple meanings. O dicionrio ser utilizado como ltimo recurso, isto , somente se a palavra for uma palavra-chave, se no fizer parte do conhecimento prvio, se no for cognata, se no puder ser deduzida pelo contexto, ou se tiver mltiplos significados. Different levels of reading We have three levels of reading: pre-reading, reading, and pos-reading. The pre-reading: Activate the previous knowledge of the students in relation to the knowledge of the world: exploit the title, drawings, graphs, figures, author, source, lexical items (Once upon a time), textual organization, the purposes. The reading: It is a phase in which the student has to project his knowledge of the world and textual organization in the systemic elements of the text. It is important for the student to know how to use strategies to link one information to another, to establish cohesive bonds and to employ inference strategies. The pos-reading: It is a level in which the main focus is based on the relationship of the student's world with the author's ideas. The bottom-up and the top-down There are two ways to access a text: The top-down and the bottom-up processes. In the top-down, we direct our attention to the general issues of the text, such as the theme, the main ideas of the text, the purpose of the writer. There are two ways to access a text: The top-down and the bottom-up processes.

This kind of descendent processing is a non linear approach which makes intensive use of deduction related to non visual information which goes from a macrostructure to a microstructure and from function to form. No top-down, ns dirigimos nossa ateno para as questes gerais do texto, tais como o tema, as ideias principais do texto, o propsito do escritor. Este tipo de processamento descendente um processo no linear que faz uso intensivo da deduo relacionada s informaes no visuais que partem de uma estrutura macro para uma micro e da funo para a forma. The bottom-up and the top-down In the bottom-up process, we direct our attention to the details we find in the text, that is, we use the structural elements in the text such as vocabulary and syntax to understand what we want. The processing is ascendant (bottom-up ) and makes use of linear and inductive information. This approach builds the meaning through the analysis and synthesis of the meaning of the parts. No processo bottom-up, ns dirigimos nossa inteno para os detalhes que aparecem no texto, isto , ns usamos elementos estruturais do texto tais como vocabulrio e sintaxe para entender o que queremos. O processamento ascendente (bottom-up) e faz uso de informao linear e indutiva. Esta abordagem constri o significado por meio da anlise e da sntese das partes do texto.
1.The top-down process 1) is an inductive and linear process 2) makes us direct our attention to vocabulary 3) builds the meaning through analysis and synthesis 4) makes us use structural elements 5) is a non linear and deductive process

2. In the pre-reading level you:

1) activate the previous knowledge of the student. 2) are based on the relationship of the students world with the authors ideas. 3) Link one information to the other 4) Establish cohesive bonds 5) Employ forms to understand the text
3. Identify the word which does not refer to genre:

1) manual 2) lists 3) menus 4) scanning 5) maps

Aula 5: The differences between text genre and text type

In the end of lesson, the student should be able to: 1. Know the differences between text genres and text types; 2. organize a narrative; 3. integrate connectives and adverbs to narrative writings.

Differences between text genres and text types In this class, you are going to understand some further differences between text genres and text types.
You should know that genres are stable, historical and socially motivated textual forms which can be written or oral. Marcuschi (2002) says that Nowadays, a brand new type of genre makes part of our lives. Bearing in mind the concept of genres as an open listing, we can recognize that besides the most common genres such as sermons, lessons, spontaneous conversations, conferences, we can find a list of new genres connected to digital communication. podemos dizer que o MSN Messenger, o e-mail, o blog, a homepage ,entre outros, seriam, ao mesmo tempo, gneros digitais e suportes ou meios de comunicao digital. O MSN Messenger, por exemplo,alm de ser um programa de comunicao instantnea, que permite que duas ou mais pessoas possam conversar em tempo real na mesma pgina do site, tambm interpreta e reprocessa gneros prvios de tradies orais, como uma conversa face a face, tornando-se, portanto, um diferente gnero.

O mesmo acontece com o e-mail bem como com outros meios assncronos que, embora possamos dizer que se trata de meio digital no qual circulam vrios gneros epistolares (memorando, carta, bilhete, ofcio, propaganda, etc.), tambm pode ser entendido como um gnero especfico associado a esse novo artefato, pois a velocidade na composio e na transmisso do texto, bem como os demais recursos tecnolgicos inerentes ao suporte tornam-se fatores determinantes na caracterizao e na diferenciao do gnero. Isso justifica o frequente intercmbio entre atribuies e nomenclaturas dadas aos gneros digitais, ora tratados como tais, ora como meios ou canais de comunicao digitais Text types are defined by the linguistic nature of its composition. They constitute discursive modes which are organized in the format of systematic structural sequences that make part in the construction of genres. Text types and genres are not opposite concepts but complementary ones. Introduction Narrative sequence character When we narrate, we tell a story. A long time ago, we considered narratives as reports of past, present or future happenings. This way the narrative has a strong bond with temporality. As a means of facilitating comprehension by the reader, cohesive elements and proper verbal tenses are employed to emphasize the logical sequence of the narrated facts. For example, if a narrator starts a story with "Once upon a time", he/she is giving the first step in the direction of what will probably become a progression of happenings which can be told with verbs in the past (past simple, past continuous, past perfect, conditional etc.).

In some cases, such story can also be told with verbs in the present (present simple, present continuous, present perfect, future etc.) Organizing a narrative It is important to observe that a narrative should have a theme, which may be implicit or explicit; there may be a pattern which portrays relevant scenes in a chronological way; lively details which describe places and characters as well as dialogues which bring the characters to life. It might have a established point of view, it is commonly narrated in the first person singular I. Nevertheless, it is also possible that the story is told by another character, but independent of whom is telling the story, it is mandatory that the voice chosen can be kept throughout the whole narrative. For example, if the story is told by a child, we must employ a childish style / vocabulary and keep it all through the narrative. A narrative generally follows the following pattern: There may have a background information which will define the placement of the scene or happening; the narration of the first or previous actions; the narration of the next actions or the consequences of the previous ones; the presentation of final result or results. Lets read an organizing narrative example: Pedro Miranda was born in Campinas on August 13th, 1975. He was educated at Escola das Naes Unidas and later at Unicamp, in Campinas. He left his hometown in 2000 with a degree in architecture. In March of next year, he applied for, and obtained a post as a junior architect in a very important architecture firm. In 2003 he met a fantastic girl called Carolina Borges at a friends party, and six months later they were married. They now live in So Paulo and have a pretty and intelligent daughter. Integrating connectives and adverbs We could see in the narrative example that we first underlined all verbs in the text, paying close attention to the verbal tense; then, we underlined all words and expressions which reveal the chronological order of events. Verbs: was born / was educated / left / applied for / obtained / met / were married. Words and expressions which mark the chronological order of events: on August 13th, 1975 / in 2000 / in March of the next year / In 2003 / six months later. Integrating connectives and adverbs Each written production involves organization as we have seen before. Narratives are no exception. Lets take a look at the following narrative: It was not raining when I left home, but, as soon as I started walking to the subway station, I realized that I should have brought my raincoat and my wellington boots. I stopped under a shelter and waited for ten minutes, and then I decided to run to the station. I knew I was already late to work and on that day I would receive guests from France, and French people are snobs and do not like to be kept waiting. I knew I was already late to work and on that day I would receive guests from France, and French people are snobs and do not like to be kept waiting. In the paragraph we can get the necessary background for the development of the story to be narrated. Lets consider the use of the connectives and adverbial expressions because they contribute to the visualization o f the whole situation:

When = Quando; As soon as = Assim que; Then = Depois; On that day = Naquele dia. Then, lets take a look at the verbal forms: It was raining = past continuous; Started walking = para indicar movimento no passado;

I realized, I stopped, I waited + simple past para mostrar apenas a sequncia de acontecimentos passados; I would receive conditional seria inadequado usar o futuro em tal sentena.

1. Complete the paragraph, choosing the verbal sequences which would fill in the gaps: A thief(1)-into my house yesterday and stole a valuable ring.

1) broke 2) entered 3) stayed 4) reached 5) stopped


2. I did not (2)-the jewel until this morning, so the police was not called until a little before lunch time.

1) lose 2) spend 3) miss 4) find 5) meet

3. I blamed myself for not noticing the theft earlier, and I doubt if the police(3)in arresting the thief and recovering the ring.

1) can 2) will succeed 3) will be able to 4) find 5) bring


1a Questo (Ref.: 200723575189) Pontos: 1,0 / 1,0

Leia o texto com ateno e assinale a razo apontada para o autor como sendo a responsvel por manter a religio viva no corao humano. . World Religions

From the earliest known the evidence of human religion by Homo sapiens neanderthalensis around 100,000 years ago to the present day, religion continues to be a very influential aspect of human lives. Today, there are numerous challenges and problems faced by humans from every possible background, location and social class. Every day people must face issues of health, safety and mortality. It is because of these daily challenges that religion continues to exist. Religion is the universal tool for explaining things which we do not understand through the context the known physical world. Although there are countless religions, each different from the other, they all serve the same purpose. Each answers questions which all humans seem to be programmed to ask: Why are we here? Everyday challenges and problems faced by humans. Violence and stress motivgate people to look for comfort in religion. Fear from eternal damnation make people run to churches. Religion can explain things that cannot be understood by human mind. Different backgrounds are a plausible reason.

2a Questo (Ref.: 200723575709)

Pontos: 0,0 / 1,0

Leia as expresses abaixo e classifique-as quanto ao uso formal ou informal em cartas e e-mails:. 1 - Madam (________________________) 2 - My sweet Clara (___________________________) 3 - See you soon (___________________________) 4 - Yours sincerely (___________________________) 5- How are things with you? (___________________________) Assinale a alternativa correta:
Formal - Formal - Informal - Formal Formal Formal - Formal - Informal - Informal Informal Informal - Informal - Formal - Formal Formal Formal - Informal - Informal - Formal - Informal Formal - Informal - Informal - Formal Formal

3a Questo (Ref.: 200723575185)

Pontos: 0,0 / 1,0

Leia o texto com ateno e assinale a alternativa em que a resposta no combina com a pergunta. Considere o contedo do texto para fazer a sua opo: FOR THE LOVE OF CHILDREN Camille and Mike Geraldi live in London and they love their children. Its a good thing they do because they have 22.Mike and Camille met when they were working at the same hospital. Mike was a pediatrician and Camille was a nurse. After dating for two years, they got married. Soon they had two healthy daughters so they moved to a bigger house. Two months later, a baby-girl was abandoned at the hospital where they worked. They decided to adopt the abandoned child. They soon realized that they needed to do something to help the children in need. So they started to adopt babies and toddlers who are mentally and physically challenged. Now they have twenty-two children and twenty of them were adopted. Their eldest children help Camille with the younger ones. Also, three adults come to their house to help them every day. Camille and Mike are tired but happy. They are proud to take care of such a number of kids. They say they truly enjoy their lives and the choice they once made of adopting their children. How many children of their own do they have? They have two daughters of their own What do Camille and Mike do? Camille is a nurse and Mike is a pediatrician. Why can we say that Camille and Mike love children? //Because besides the two daughters they had they adopted 20 challenged children. How can they cope with such a large family? They manage to take care of the children and the house without any help. Why did they decide to adopt children? A baby-girl was abandoned at the hospital where they worked. They soon realized that they needed to do something to help the children in need.

4a Questo (Ref.: 200723575172)

Pontos: 0,0 / 1,0

Leia o texto com ateno o anncio e assinale a alternativa incorreta em relao ao que foi lido: (The New York Times) SECRETARY Leading architectural, engineering, and planning firm is seeking an entry-level secretary/receptionist for immediate replacement. Responsibilities include report preparation, correspondence, travel arrangements, and answering phones. The ideal candidate must have excellent client contact and organizational skills, as well as Microsoft Word and Excel. Bilingual (English/Spanish) a plus. Position offers a complete benefit package and salary is commensurate with experience. Please send/fax resume by November 11th to: STV/SILVER & ZISKIND 233 Park Avenue South New York, NY 10003 FAX: 212-473-2780 Attn: V. Hall For more information on STV, visit our Web site:http://www.stvinc.com/ Mark the incorrect statement: The advertisement was published in the newspaper by a big firm. The firm promisses a fair salary and other advantages. The candidates should have various language skills. The candidates should apply by e-mailing their resume. The selected candidate will be hired immediately.

5a Questo (Ref.: 200723575216)

Pontos: 0,0 / 1,0

Leia o texto abaixo e assinale a alternativa que explica por que "The legacy of environmental catastrophes is, instead, a hybrid of amnesia and habituation": HOW QUICKLY WE FORGET OUR ADDICTION TO CHEAP ENERGY HAS A WAY OF CLOUDING MEMORIES OF EVEN THE MOST VIVID DISASTERS By Sharon Begley | NEWSWEEK Published May 7, 2010 The legacy of environmental catastrophes is, instead, a hybrid of amnesia and habituation. That is, the public forgets more quickly now than in the past, and understands that no source of energy is risk-free. Coal kills miners, including the 25 in West Virginia last month. Natural-gas pipelines sometimes explode and occasionally kill, as in a 2000 accident that left 12 people dead in New Mexico. Nuclear reactors, despite industry assurances, will never be risk-free; no technology is. The "risks" of renewable such as wind and solar are higher energy prices, which too many people are less acceptable than the environmental and human costs of fossil fuel. "There has been a generational change in risk tolerance," says engineering professor Henry Petroski of Duke University, author of the 2010 book The Essential Engineer. "The public has become more familiar with the concept of risk, and the fact that it is ubiquitous. The bumper sticker S-T HAPPENS used to be a fringe phenomenon, but now it's mainstream: people have become resigned to risk."
Governments and society are planning new ways of obtaining cheap energy. These diseases are caused by long hours of work in coal mines. These diseases are caused by long hours of work in natural-gas pipelines. People are very concerned about the risks of energy production. Our addiction to cheap energy made us too tolerant to the risks of energy production.

6a Questo (Ref.: 200723575229)

Pontos: 1,0 / 1,0

Leia o texto com ateno e assinale a alternativa que explica o por que, de acordo com o mesmo texto, uma pessoa acima do peso se sente inferior perante a sociedade: Fat Kids, Cruel World By Lesley Kinzel | Newsweek Web Exclusive Apr 20, 2010 After a decade of dieting, false hopes, and dead ends, I was out of options. I was an obese child, now assured of a life as an obese adult. The path I ultimately chose was self-acceptance. I chose to shed self-hatred and to respect myself, something I'd never done before. It was a long time coming; it didn't happen in a week or even a year. But I came to realize that it wasn't my fatness that made me hate exercise; it was the social expectations associated with being fat that did so. It wasn't my fatness that made me feel inferior to and isolated from people I met; it was the cultural

ideology which dictated that fat people are lonely, miserable, and unloved.

The cultural ideology which dictates that fat people are different and full of negative problems Feeling hungry all the time and never being satisfied, as they are always looking for more food. Going to the gym and facing skinny and healthy fellows who never seems to be lonely or upset. Eating more food than regular weight people and spending much more money on this heavy diet. Having to shop for clothes in specialized stores and feeling that fashion is not suitable for fat people.

7a Questo (Ref.: 200723575941)

Pontos: 0,0 / 1,0

a-

Relacione as estratgias de leitura com as definies apresentadas e marque a alternativa correta: Estratgias 1- Previso 2- Skimming 3- Scanning 4- Predio 5- Inferncia Definies A- Encontrar a idia geral do texto aps uma olhada ligeira. B- Identificar idias que no esto expressas no texto. C- Ler o texto rapidamente para achar o tpico, a idia principal e a organizao do texto. D- Ler o texto rapidamente para achar uma informao especfica. E- Antecipar o que vai ser dito no texto

que exprime a relao

1-a; 2-b; 3-c; 4-d; 5-e 1-d; 2-a; 3-e; 4-c; 5-b 1-d; 2-e; 3-b; 4-c; 5-a 1-b; 2-c; 3-e; 4-a; 5-d 1-c; 2-a; 3-d; 4-e; 5-b

8a Questo (Ref.: 200723575947)

Pontos: 0,0 / 1,0

Leia a afirmao abaixo e assinale a alternativa que est de acordo com o seu contedo: Only a few Brazilian artists are as internationally successful as Rodrigo Santoro. Only a few brazilianartists have succeeded abroad Many brazilina artists are known around the world. All Brazilian artists are internationally famous. Rodrigo Santoro is a Brazilian artist famous abroad. Rodrigo Santoro is the only internationally successful artist.

9a Questo (Ref.: 200723379105)

Analise a frase que segue. Destaque a "noun phrase" e conceitue: "Whichever dress you choose will be fine for the banquet."

Sua Resposta:

Compare com a sua resposta: Conceituar "noun phrase"

10a Questo (Ref.: 200723414635)

What kind of paragraph is the one below? Explain you point of view. My Most Embarrassing Moment The most embarrassing moment of my sophomore year was how I earned my nick name, Crash. It all started right after school when I turned on to the busiest street by the school. First I pulled up right behind this truck at a stop sign. After a second, a fellow older student told me that I was really close and that I was going to hit the truck in front of me. At the

moment I was trying to tell the kid that I was giving a ride to to get back in the car because he was hanging out the window. Since I was distracted, I thought the long line of traffic had started to move, but it hadnt. In the blink of an eye I hit the back of the truck in front of me. The devastation sunk in. I was so worried that I damaged the truck, but all that I did was scratch his bumper. Lucky for him! Then it came time to look at my car. My car was ruined. The hood was buckled, the front end was pushed back, and my headlights were broken. Humiliated and scared, I still had to drive my totaled care home. During School that year, I never did hear the end of what had happened that day. ~ Tiffany Haggerty~

Sua Resposta:

Compare com a sua resposta: Paragrafo narrativo

1a Questo (Ref.: 200719326072)

Pontos: 0,0 / 1,0

Leia o texto com ateno o anncio e assinale a alternativa incorreta em relao ao que foi lido: (The New York Times) SECRETARY Leading architectural, engineering, and planning firm is seeking an entry-level secretary/receptionist for immediate replacement. Responsibilities include report preparation, correspondence, travel arrangements, and answering phones. The ideal candidate must have excellent client contact and organizational skills, as well as Microsoft Word and Excel. Bilingual (English/Spanish) a plus. Position offers a complete benefit package and salary is commensurate with experience. Please send/fax resume by November 11th to: STV/SILVER & ZISKIND 233 Park Avenue South New York, NY 10003 FAX: 212-473-2780 Attn: V. Hall For more information on STV, visit our Web site:http://www.stvinc.com/ Mark the incorrect statement: The advertisement was published in the newspaper by a big firm. The candidates should have various language skills. The selected candidate will be hired immediately. The candidates should apply by e-mailing their resume. The firm promisses a fair salary and other advantages.

2a Questo (Ref.: 200719326609)

Pontos: 0,0 / 1,0

Leia as expresses abaixo e classifique-as quanto ao uso formal ou informal em cartas e e-mails:. 1 - Madam (________________________) 2 - My sweet Clara (___________________________) 3 - See you soon (___________________________) 4 - Yours sincerely (___________________________) 5- How are things with you? (___________________________) Assinale a alternativa correta:
Formal - Formal - Informal - Formal Formal Formal - Formal - Informal - Informal Informal Informal - Informal - Formal - Formal Formal Formal - Informal - Informal - Formal Formal Formal - Informal - Informal - Formal - Informal

3a Questo (Ref.: 200719326085)

Pontos: 1,0 / 1,0

Leia o texto com ateno e assinale a alternativa em que a resposta no combina com a pergunta. Considere o contedo do texto para fazer a sua opo:

FOR THE LOVE OF CHILDREN Camille and Mike Geraldi live in London and they love their children. Its a good thing they do because they have 22.Mike and Camille met when they were working at the same hospital. Mike was a pediatrician and Camille was a nurse. After dating for two years, they got married. Soon they had two healthy daughters so they moved to a bigger house. Two months later, a baby-girl was abandoned at the hospital where they worked. They decided to adopt the abandoned child. They soon realized that they needed to do something to help the children in need. So they started to adopt babies and toddlers who are mentally and physically challenged. Now they have twenty-two children and twenty of them were adopted. Their eldest children help Camille with the younger ones. Also, three adults come to their house to help them every day. Camille and Mike are tired but happy. They are proud to take care of such a number of kids. They say they truly enjoy their lives and the choice they once made of adopting their children. How can they cope with such a large family? They manage to take care of the children and the house without any help. Why can we say that Camille and Mike love children? //Because besides the two daughters they had they adopted 20 challenged children. How many children of their own do they have? They have two daughters of their own What do Camille and Mike do? Camille is a nurse and Mike is a pediatrician. Why did they decide to adopt children? A baby-girl was abandoned at the hospital where they worked. They soon realized that they needed to do something to help the children in need.

4a Questo (Ref.: 200719326853)

Pontos: 1,0 / 1,0

Assinale a alternativa INCORRETA: A construo de sentido sofre influncia de um maior ou menor conhecimento do cdigo lingstico do texto. A leitura proporciona a quem l um texto a capacidade de questionar, mas tambm de ser questionado, de rever seus conceitos. A recepo de sentido de um texto vai depender das experincias de vida e do conhecimento de mundo do leitor. O processo de leitura tambm um ato de criao, j que o leitor participa ativamente da constituio dos sentidos do texto. Um leitor proficiente precisa, apenas, saber decodificar os cdigos lingsticos para que possa atribuir significados escrita.

5a Questo (Ref.: 200719326116)

Pontos: 0,0 / 1,0

Leia o texto abaixo e assinale a alternativa que explica por que "The legacy of environmental catastrophes is, instead, a hybrid of amnesia and habituation": HOW QUICKLY WE FORGET OUR ADDICTION TO CHEAP ENERGY HAS A WAY OF CLOUDING MEMORIES OF EVEN THE MOST VIVID DISASTERS By Sharon Begley | NEWSWEEK Published May 7, 2010 The legacy of environmental catastrophes is, instead, a hybrid of amnesia and habituation. That is, the public forgets more quickly now than in the past, and understands that no source of energy is risk-free. Coal kills miners, including the 25 in West Virginia last month. Natural-gas pipelines sometimes explode and occasionally kill, as in a 2000 accident that left 12 people dead in New Mexico. Nuclear reactors, despite industry assurances, will never be risk-free; no technology is. The "risks" of renewable such as wind and solar are higher energy prices, which too many people are less acceptable than the environmental and human costs of fossil fuel. "There has been a generational change in risk tolerance," says engineering professor Henry Petroski of Duke University, author of the 2010 book The Essential Engineer. "The public has become more familiar with the concept of risk, and the fact that it is ubiquitous. The bumper sticker S-T HAPPENS used to be a fringe phenomenon, but now it's mainstream: people have become resigned to risk."
These diseases are caused by long hours of work in natural-gas pipelines. Governments and society are planning new ways of obtaining cheap energy. These diseases are caused by long hours of work in coal mines. People are very concerned about the risks of energy production. Our addiction to cheap energy made us too tolerant to the risks of energy

production.
6a Questo (Ref.: 200719326129) Pontos: 1,0 / 1,0

Leia o texto com ateno e assinale a alternativa que explica o por que, de acordo com o mesmo texto, uma pessoa acima do peso se sente inferior perante a sociedade: Fat Kids, Cruel World By Lesley Kinzel | Newsweek Web Exclusive Apr 20, 2010 After a decade of dieting, false hopes, and dead ends, I was out of options. I was an obese child, now assured of a life as an obese adult. The path I ultimately chose was self-acceptance. I chose to shed self-hatred and to respect myself, something I'd never done before. It was a long time coming; it didn't happen in a week or even a year. But I came to realize that it wasn't my fatness that made me hate exercise; it was the social expectations associated with being fat that did so. It wasn't my fatness that made me feel inferior to and isolated from people I met; it was the cultural ideology which dictated that fat people are lonely, miserable, and unloved.

Having to shop for clothes in specialized stores and feeling that fashion is not suitable for fat people. Going to the gym and facing skinny and healthy fellows who never seems to be lonely or upset. Feeling hungry all the time and never being satisfied, as they are always looking for more food. Eating more food than regular weight people and spending much more money on this heavy diet. The cultural ideology which dictates that fat people are different and full of negative problems

7a Questo (Ref.: 200719326841)

Pontos: 0,0 / 1,0

a-

Relacione as estratgias de leitura com as definies apresentadas e marque a alternativa correta: Estratgias 1- Previso 2- Skimming 3- Scanning 4- Predio 5- Inferncia Definies A- Encontrar a idia geral do texto aps uma olhada ligeira. B- Identificar idias que no esto expressas no texto. C- Ler o texto rapidamente para achar o tpico, a idia principal e a organizao do texto. D- Ler o texto rapidamente para achar uma informao especfica. E- Antecipar o que vai ser dito no texto

que exprime a relao

1-d; 2-a; 3-e; 4-c; 5-b 1-c; 2-a; 3-d; 4-e; 5-b 1-a; 2-b; 3-c; 4-d; 5-e 1-b; 2-c; 3-e; 4-a; 5-d 1-d; 2-e; 3-b; 4-c; 5-a

8a Questo (Ref.: 200719326847)

Pontos: 0,0 / 1,0

Leia a afirmao abaixo e assinale a alternativa que est de acordo com o seu contedo: Only a few Brazilian artists are as internationally successful as Rodrigo Santoro. All Brazilian artists are internationally famous. Rodrigo Santoro is the only internationally successful artist. Only a few brazilianartists have succeeded abroad Many brazilina artists are known around the world. Rodrigo Santoro is a Brazilian artist famous abroad.

9a Questo (Ref.: 200719130005)

Analise a frase que segue. Destaque a "noun phrase" e conceitue:

"Whichever dress you choose will be fine for the banquet."

Sua Resposta:

Compare com a sua resposta: Conceituar "noun phrase"

10a Questo (Ref.: 200719165535)

What kind of paragraph is the one below? Explain you point of view. My Most Embarrassing Moment The most embarrassing moment of my sophomore year was how I earned my nick name, Crash. It all started right after school when I turned on to the busiest street by the school. First I pulled up right behind this truck at a stop sign. After a second, a fellow older student told me that I was really close and that I was going to hit the truck in front of me. At the moment I was trying to tell the kid that I was giving a ride to to get back in the car because he was hanging out the window. Since I was distracted, I thought the long line of traffic had started to move, but it hadnt. In the blink of an eye I hit the back of the truck in front of me. The devastation sunk in. I was so worried that I damaged the truck, but all that I did was scratch his bumper. Lucky for him! Then it came time to look at my car. My car was ruined. The hood was buckled, the front end was pushed back, and my headlights were broken. Humiliated and scared, I still had to drive my totaled care home. During School that year, I never did hear the end of what had happened that day. ~ Tiffany Haggerty~

Sua Resposta:

Compare com a sua resposta: Paragrafo narrativo

Aula 6: Strategies to deal with vocabulary


In the end of lesson, the student should be able to: 1. Know the differences between productive and receptive vocabulary; 2. recognize the difficulties in the use of idiomatic expressions, words with multiple meanings, metaphor, meaning transfer, irony.

The concepts of receptive and productive vocabulary In this class, it is very important to understand the differences between receptive and productive vocabulary. One of the broadest definitions we can apply to the knowledge of vocabulary is that you learn a word when you know its meaning. This definition, however, is too broad and too general. We feel we need more details, more specific definitions about vocabulary learning. You need to know, for example, when we speak about vocabulary, we refer either to the oral form (the one we use to speak and listen) and the written form (the one we use to write and read). Within these two forms the vocabulary can be receptive (in the listening and reading) and productive (in speaking and writing). Another important information about vocabulary knowledge is that, in general terms, the receptive vocabulary is larger than the productive one in any language. The concepts of receptive and productive vocabulary In Portuguese... O vocabulrio receptivo aquele que voc utiliza enquanto ouve ou l e o vocabulrio produtivo aquele que voc utiliza enquanto fala ou escreve. O vocabulrio receptivo geralmente maior do que o produtivo, em qualquer lngua. The concepts of receptive and productive vocabulary

In the text below, written by Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra, you will have a brief summary of concepts linked to receptive and productive vocabulary that although meant to Portuguese classes are very valuable to any Language classes: Textual production requires, among another items, a vocabulary selection which is adequate to the explored subject, to the typology of the text, and to its degree of formality. For the proficient writer, this may not cause any difficulty. However to the learner it might become a great problem, mainly because of the treatment that is usually given to the text on Portuguese classes of basic teaching. Ignoring the psycho sociolinguistic nature of the text interferes in the student learning. In this way, the student begins to write based on oral language patterns (which belongs to the students background). The problems in the diversified uses of lexical units seem to reveal a non-construction of cognitive patterns related to textual forms and linguistic uses, associated to the non-use of learning strategies, helping the progress of the receptive vocabulary to the productive vocabulary. A produo textual requer, entre outros itens, uma seleo lexical adequada ao assunto abordado, ao gnero de texto e a seu grau de formalidade. Para o escritor proficiente, essa adequao pode no causar dificuldades, no entanto para o aprendiz ela pode se apresentar como desafiadora, sobretudo devido ao tratamento que, em geral, dado ao texto nas aulas de portugus do ensino bsico. A desconsiderao da natureza psicossociolingustica do texto interfere na aprendizagem do aluno, que termina por escrever textos quase sempre com base nos moldes do oral coloquial (que conhece bem). As dificuldades no uso diversificado de unidades lexicais parecem demonstrar uma no construo de esquemas cognitivos relacionados a tipos e gneros textuais e registros lingusticos, alm do no uso de estratgias de aprendizagem, favorecendo a passagem de vocabulrio receptivo para o produtivo. The concepts of receptive and productive vocabulary INFERENCE You have to agree that knowing a word goes beyond the idea of only knowing the word and its meanings. Lets go back to the issue of what knowing a word means. It is important to know how to recognize a word while we are reading a text. Difficult or unknown vocabulary When we think of vocabulary which it is difficult, we should also think that in our native language we do not have a precise knowledge of a 100% of the vocabulary we find in an academic text. Every text has lexical items which represent a certain number of unknown words which can be difficult or not. Difficult or unknown vocabulary Here are some lexical items which generally bring some difficulty to the readers: Idiomatic Expressions They are lexical items composed by many words which have a specific meaning when kept together.

Example: When my sister tells her stories she drives me crazy!

(Quando minha irm conta suas histrias ela me deixa maluca!)

Idiomatic Expressions Se tentarmos traduzir a frase com sentido usual das palavras, ela perder todo o sentido e teramos uma traduo como esta: Quando minha irm conta suas histrias ela dirige meu louco!. Words with multiple meanings Words with multiple meanings also poses a problem for readers. They demand that readers be conscious that there are many possibilities of meanings and choose the write meaning for a certain context. These words are area, random, face, comfort, among others. H palavras com sentidos mltiplos e isto torna-se um problema para o leitor. Ele deve escolher o significado correto para um determinado contexto. Estas palavras so area, random, face, comfort, entre outras. Meaning transfer Meaning transfer happens when we use a word that originally does not belong to a specific area. When I use the expression galloping inflation, it means that inflation is increasing. This is an example of a metaphor. Lets read about Metaphor Cognitive Theory: Nos ltimos anos, porm, com o advento da Lingustica Cognitiva, a investigao desses dois processos figurativos (metfora e metonmia) sofreu uma verdadeira revoluo. Essa revoluo foi inaugurada com a publicao da obra Metaphors We Live By (1980) de George Lakoff e Michael Johnson. Nessa obra, os autores propem uma inovadora teoria sobre a metfora que, nos ltimos anos, vem ganhando espao no cenrio da Lingustica Cognitiva. A teoria proposta por Lakoff & Johnson ficou conhecida como a TEORIA COGNITIVA DA METFORA, que postula que metforas e metonmias no so apenas figuras de linguagem, como afirmavam os estudos tradicionais sobre os fenmenos lingusticos; ao contrrio, esto alm da linguagem e da literatura. Essa teoria concebe a metfora e a metonmia como autnticos mecanismos cognitivos. Nesse sentido, elas pertencem ao pensamento, ou melhor, pertencem cognio humana. Essa nova abordagem sobre os processos metafrico e metonmico permitiu Lingustica Cognitiva postular que o pensamento humano corporificado, metafrico e majoritariamente inconsciente. O nosso pensamento corporificado, pois estruturamos o nosso conhecimento sobre as coisas do mundo partindo de nossa prpria experincia corporal. Nosso pensamento metafrico, uma vez que organizamos o nosso conhecimento sobre domnios mais abstratos atravs de nosso entendimento sobre domnios mais concretos. O nosso pensamento inconsciente, porque no nos damos conta de todas as operaes cognitivas acionadas para processar a construo de um dado sentido em um determinado contexto. As projees metafricas, as projees metonmicas e as analogias empregadas na construo de sentidos so realizadas inconscientemente pela mente humana, determinando o carter inconsciente de nosso pensamento. (Fernandes & Guedes) Bibliography

BEZERRA, M. A. Dificuldades no uso adequado de vocabulrio em textos escolares escritos. in Revista de Letras, n 21 - Vol 1 / 2 jan. / dez. 1999, UFPB.

FERNANDES, G & GUEDES, L. Metfora: um instrumento de compreenso para o ensino da leitura. Instrumento: R. Est. Pesq. Educ. Juiz de Fora, v. 13, n. 1, jan. / jun. 2001.

1. Everyone had a good time at the ball.

1) Todos jogaram bola. 2) Todos gastaram seu tempo no jogo de bola. 3) Todos se divertiram no baile. 4) Jogar bola bom para todos. 5) O jogo de bola levou um bom tempo.
2. Policemen in Japan do not carry any arms.

1) A polcia no Japo carregada de armas. 2) Os policiais do Japo carregam as pessoas nos braos. 3) A polcia do Japo no carrega os bandidos feridos. 4) Os policiais no Japo no tatuam seus braos. 5) Os policiais no Japo no portam armas.
3. I have to replace these batteries or my m.p.5 wont work.

1) Eu tenho que recolocar a bateria do meu carro. 2) Eu tenho que trocar a bateria do meu Formula 5. 3) Eu tenho que colocar pilhas no meu m.p.5. 4) Eu tenho que trocar as pilhas do meu m.p.5 ou ele no vai tocar. 5) Eu tenho que trazer pilhas novas pro meu carro.

Aula 7: Aspects of formality and informality in writing


In the end of lesson, the student should be able to: 1. Know how to write letters and e-mails using formal and informal language; 2. recognize the most common expressions employed in different letters and e-mails;

3. establish the degrees of formality and informality in writing.

1. Which of the endings is not proper for an informal letter:

1) Cheers 2) Faithfully 3) Love


2. Which sentence is likely to be found in the letter above:

1) You had a great time, mate! 2) I could notice that you enjoyed yourself! 3) It was a pleasure to read about your nice holidays!
3. Which of the greetings suits an informal letter?

1) Sirs 2) Mrs.Silva 3) Dear Rachel

Aula 8: Identification and use of morphological and syntactical cues to recognize words
In the end of lesson, the student should be able to: 1. Identify what root, prefix and suffix are; 2. recognize false cognates; 3. use syntax as a resource to find meanings.

From the example words in the previous table, it is easy to see how roots combine with prefixes to form new words. For example, the root -tract-, meaning to pull, can combine with a number of prefixes, including de- and re-. Detract means literally to pull away (de-, away, off) and retract means literally to pull back (re-, again, back). The following table gives a list of Latin prefixes and their basic meanings.

Here is a list of false cognates. Take a look at them! Actually (adv) - na verdade ..., o fato que ... Adept (n) - especialista, profundo conhecedor Agenda (n) - pauta do dia, pauta para discusses Amass (v) - acumular, juntar Anticipate (v) - prever; aguardar, ficar na expectativa

Aplication (n) - inscrio, registro, uso Appointment (n) - hora marcada, compromisso profissional Appreciation (n) - gratido, reconhecimento Argument (n) - discusso, bate boca Assist (v) - ajudar, dar suporte Assume (v) - presumir, aceitar como verdadeiro Attend (v) - assistir, participar de Audience (n) - platia, pblico Balcony (n) - sacada Baton (n) - batuta (msica), cassetete Beef (n) - carne de gado Cafeteria (n) - refeitrio tipo universitrio ou industrial Camera (n) - mquina fotogrfica Carton (n) - caixa de papelo, pacote de cigarros (200) Casualty (n) - baixa (morte fruto de acidente ou guerra), fatalidade Cigar (n) - charuto Collar (n) - gola, colarinho, coleira College (n) - faculdade, ensino de 3 grau Commodity (n) - artigo, mercadoria Competition (n) - concorrncia Comprehensive (adj) - abrangente, amplo, extenso Compromise (v) - entrar em acordo, fazer concesso Contest (n) - competio, concurso Convenient (adj) - prtico Costume (n) - fantasia (roupa) Data (n) - dados (nmeros, informaes) Deception (n) - logro, fraude, o ato de enganar Defendant (n) - ru, acusado Design (v, n) - projetar, criar; projeto, estilo Now you are going to check some grammatical tips that help you find meanings of the words more easily

1- Adjective order in English may be a little fuzzy. But, in general, adjectives come after nouns: A beautiful blond and intelligent girl. Transitive and intransitive verbs often cause confusion.

Let's begin with a simple definition: Transitive Verb Notice that transitive verbs always take objects. You will always be able to ask a question beginning with 'What' or 'Whom'. Examples:

I took my books to class. We played chess last night. Transitive verbs take direct objects. The vast majority of verbs in English are transitive. Examples:

I paid the bill last week. What did you pay? She studies Russian. What does she study? Intransitive Verb Intransitive verbs do not take direct objects. Examples:

Peter's situation improved. They slept peacefully. You can recognize that a verb is intransitive because it does not have a passive form. Examples:

Jack sits in the corner when he reads. NOT The corner is sat when Jack reads.

Peter arrived early. NOT Early was arrived Peter. Transitive AND Intransitive Some verbs with multiple meanings are transitive or intransitive depending on their usage.

The verb 'run' is a good example. When used in the sense of physical exercise, 'run' is intransitive.

Helen ran every weekend when she was at college. BUT

'Run' used in the sense of managing a company is transitive.

Jennifer runs TMX Inc. Phrasal Verbs A phrasal verb consists of two or three words that when used together have a different meaning from the individual words which form them.

Take a look at the chart below: VERB = PREPOSITION/PARTICLE = MEANING

Come

back

returned

( He came back home yesterday!)

Catch

on

become popular

( Easter medicine catches on with western doctors.)

1. Extremely large industrial areas can be translated as:

1) Indstrias em areas extremas 2) Grandes e extremas reas 3) reas industriais extremamente grandes 4) Indstrias em areas muito grandes 5) Extremamente grandes areas de indstria
2. Her paintings consisted of mainly

1) garden red pictures roses 2) garden red pictures roses 3) roses red garden pictures 4) pictures red garden roses 5) red rose garden pictures

3. The plane took off at 3:15

1) took off means arrived 2) took off means returned 3) took off means left the ground 4) took off means touch the ground 5) took off means caught the people

Aula 9: Cohesion and coherence in reading


n the end of lesson, the student should be able to: 1. Recognize grammatical elements which help in the comprehension of texts; 2. study cohesion and coherence.

In this lesson, you will learn that being aware of the structure of the sentence in English can help you recognize the grammatical class an unknown word belongs to. If you find a sentence which is difficult to be understood, try to identify the types of words. Nesta aula, voc aprender que estar consciente sobre a estrutura da frase em ingls. Pode ajud-lo a reconhecer as classes gramaticais de palavras desconhecidas. Lets read the example below The extraordinary jewelers carved extremely beautiful ornaments from jade. To understand the sentence above, you need to identify the following elements: 1. Where is the verb? 2. What is the subject of this verb?

3. Does this verb ask for a complement? Yes? No? Which one? 4. What is the function of the other words in the sentence? Para entender a sentena acima, precisamos primeiramente identificar os elementos que a compem: 1. Onde est o verbo? 2. Qual o sujeito desse verbo? 3. Este verbo pede complemento? Sim? No? Qual ele? 4. Qual a funo das outras palavras na sentena? Some possible answers for these questions would be: Where is the verb? Words which end in ed can be very commonly classified as verbs. We can assume that carved is the verb of the sentence. As you know, the natural order of sentences in English is SVO (subject-verb-object), so the subject must be The extraordinary jewelers. What is the subject of this verb? Does this verb ask for a complement? Yes? No? Which one? Some possible answers for these questions would be: Where is the verb? Words which end in ed can be very commonly classified as verbs. We can assume that carved is the verb of the sentence. As you know, the natural order of sentences in English is SVO (subject-verb-object), so the subject must be The extraordinary jewelers. What is the subject of this verb? Does this verb ask for a complement? Yes? No? Which one? To answer question number 3, you should know the meaning of the verb. Check the word in the dictionary and find out that carved means entalhar ou esculpir. Well, if someone carved, he/she carved something. This thing is the complement of the verb, So what comes after the verb is the object.

Techniques to achieve cohesion o achieve cohesion, the link of one sentence to the next, consider the following techniques: Repetition. In sentence B (the second of any two sentences), repeat a word from sentence A.

Synonym. If direct repetition is too obvious, use a synonym of the word you wish to repeat. This strategy is called 'elegant variation.'

Antonym. Using the 'opposite' word, an antonym, can also create sentence cohesion, since in language antonyms actually share more elements of meaning than you might imagine. Pro-forms. Use a pronoun, pro-verb, or another pro-form to make explicit reference back to a form mentioned earlier.

Collocation. Use a commonly paired or expected or highly probable word to connect one sentence to another. Enumeration. Use overt markers of sequence to highlight the connection between ideas. This system has many advantages: (a) it can link ideas that are otherwise completely unconnected, (b) it looks formal and distinctive, and (c) it promotes a second method of sentence cohesion, discussed in (7) below.

Parallelism. Repeat a sentence structure. This technique is the oldest, most overlooked, but probably the most elegant method of creating cohesion.

Transitions. Use a conjunction or conjunctive adverb to link sentences with particular logical relationships.

Techniques to achieve cohesion Identity. Indicates sameness.

that is, that is to say, in other words, ... Opposition. Indicates a contrast.

but, yet, however, nevertheless, still, though, although, whereas, in contrast, rather, ... Addition. Indicates continuation.

and, too, also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, besides, in the same way, again, another, similarly, a similar, the same, ... Cause and effect.

therefore, so, consequently, as a consequence, thus, as a result, hence, it follows that, because, since, for, ... Indefinites

Indicates a logical connection of an unspecified type. in fact, indeed, now, ... Concession

Indicates a willingness to consider the other side. admittedly, I admit, true, I grant, of course, naturally, some believe, some people believe, it has been claimed that, once it was believed, there are those who would say, ... Exemplification

Indicates a shift from a more general or abstract idea to a more specific or concrete idea. for example, for instance, after all, an illustration of, even, indeed, in fact, it is true, of course, specifically, to be specific, that is, to illustrate, truly, ...
1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wzGQh2PyNh0&feature=related Watch the vdeo Palavra puxa palavra-Coeso and choose the best answers: A quebra de unidade lgica pode ser intencional para provocar uma situao de

1) confuso 2) tristeza 3) humor 4) calor 5) incerteza

2. No exemplo do pintor Salvador Dali, h um elemento utilizado para surpreender, para demonstrar uma incoerncia intencional. Os relgios que so desconstrudos mostram a passagem rpida do tempo. Esta incoerncia demonstrada atravs de

1) uma metfora 2) um contraste 3) uma coeso 4) uma estrutura 5) um predicado


3. No bilhete a palavra porque utilizada para

1) estabelecer um contraste 2) estabelecer uma diferena 3) estabelecer uma causa 4) estabelecer um acrscimo 5) estabelecer um cdigo

Aula 10: The Writing of Argumentative Paragraphs


In the end of lesson, the student should be able to: 1. Know how to write argumentative paragraphs; 2. know how to keep a logical coherence of thought, employing the main connectors.

1. Choose the idea that does not relate to the main idea. Homework

1) books 2) pen 3) pencil 4) paper 5) glasses


2. Rainbow

) yellow 2) black 3) orange 4) green 5) blue


3. Teaching English

1) dictionary 2) videos

3) internet 4) workbook 5) cookies