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ISSN 1413-4403


Ludmilla M.S. Aguiar
Ricardo B. Machado
Enrico Bernard
Jader Marinho-Filho


December 2006


Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Vol. 12


No 2


M. Oprea, D. Brito, M.A.R. Mello & L.M.S. Aguiar. Ten years of Chiroptera Neotropical: accomplishments and
future directions .................................................................................................................................... 262-267

D.R. Martn. Notes on biogeography of Cuban bats ........................................................................... 268-273

D. Pinto & H. Ortncio Filho. Dieta de quatro espcies de filostomdeos frugvoros (Chiroptera, Mammalia) do
Parque Municipal do Cinturo Verde de Cianorte, Paran, Brasil ...................................................... 274-279

M. Zorta & L.A.G. Tomaz. Dois novos registros de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) para o Cerrado do
Brasil Central ........................................................................................................................................ 280-285



M.R. Nogueira, L.R. Monteiro & A.L. Peracchi. New evidence of bat predation by the woolly false vampire bat
Chrotopterus auritus ............................................................................................................................ 286-288
L.M. Costa, A.F.D. Prata, D. Moraes, C.F.V. Conde, T. Jordo-Nogueira & C.E.L. Esbrard. Deslocamento de
Artibeus fimbriatus sobre o mar ........................................................................................................... 289-290
M. Baptista, A.O. Monteiro, N.R.P. Almosny & H.G. Bergallo. Tcnica para puno venosa em morcegos
(Mammalia, Chiroptera) ....................................................................................................................... 291-292

Cover: Platyrrhinus lineatus - Photo by Marco A.R. Mello - Casa dos Morcegos

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006


Monik Oprea1*, Daniel Brito2, Marco A.R. Mello3 & Ludmila M.S. Aguiar4
1. Laboratrio de Mastozoologia, Departamento de Cincias Biolgicas, Universidade Federal do Esprito
Santo (UFES), Brazil.
2. Conservation International (CI), Center for Applied Biodiversity Science (CABS), USA.
3. Departamento de Botnica, Universidade Federal de So Carlos, Brazil.
4. EMBRAPA Cerrados. BR 020 km 18 Cx. P. 08223 Planaltina, DF, Brazil 73310-970
*Corresponding author. Present address: SHIS, QL 18, Conjunto 05, Casa 10, Braslia, DF 71650-055,
Brasil. Email: monik.bats@gmail.com
Abstract. Despite their great ecological and economical importance, there are only few specialized scientific
publications dedicated to bats. Chiroptera Neotropical is the only one dedicated to the Neotropical bat fauna.
The objective of the present study is to provide a balance of the contribution of Chiroptera Neotropical to bat
research over the last 10 years, by analyzing its accomplishments and suggesting ways for its improvement. We
surveyed all 52 contributions published in Chiroptera Neotropical from 1995 to 2005. The great majority of
articles were written by authors based in South American institutions and most of them in Brazil. Most studies
were species inventories, and most of the fieldwork researches were carried out in the Atlantic Forest. Chiroptera
Neotropical is already an important medium for disseminating scientific knowledge on Neotropical bats. However,
it is time for the journal to grow and to increase its importance in the international scientific community.

The Neotropical region exhibits one of the highest local
species richness observed in bat communities (Findley
1993).Bats are important components of tropical
communities, influencing their structure and dynamics
(Findley 1993). Thus, bats are valuable models for
studying, understanding and managing tropical forests.
Despite the great ecological and economical
importance of bats, only a few scientific publications
are specialized in this taxon. One of those few
publications is Chiroptera Neotropical. It started in
1995 as an IUCN newsletter, and is distributed
worldwide for more than 37 countries. Our objective
here is to provide an overview of the contribution of
Chiroptera Neotropical to the study of bats in this
region over the last 10 years, analyzing its
accomplishments and suggesting ways for its
improvement, in order to consolidate it as a leading
international journal and as a forum for discussion
about Neotropical bats.

We surveyed every article and short communication
published in Chiroptera Neotropical from its start date
until now (1995-2005, volumes 1-11). In order to

summarize the origin of authors, publications were

categorized by country. Since one publication can be
written by authors from different countries, each one
may count as contribution of one or several countries.
In a similar way, each contribution was categorized by
country in which the research has been conducted, so
that we have a geographic picture of where within the
Neotropical region bat research published in the journal
is taking place. For each published contribution we also
determined the ecoregions where research was
conducted (Olson et al. 2001). We also recorded articles
dealing with habitats not under the ecoregion
classification (e.g. anthropogenic habitats, caves and
captive populations). Articles that had no fieldwork
related to any ecoregion / habitat were assigned to not
applicable category. For each published contribution
we also determined which aspect of bat biology was
being investigated (e.g. biogeography, conservation
biology, ecology, genetics, and zoology).

From 1995 to 2005, 52 articles and short
communications were published in Chiroptera
Neotropical (Figure 1) (Appendix 1), with an average
number of 4.7 contributions a year. From 1995 to 1999
Chiroptera Neotropical published two volumes a
year, but from 2000 onwards only one. Even though it

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Figure 1. Number of articles and short communications published yearly in Chiroptera

Neotropical, since its start year (1995) until its latest volume (2005).

Figure 2. Number of authors, by country of affiliation, which contributed with

articles and short communications to Chiroptera Neotropical from 1995 to 2005.

now publishes only one volume a year, we observed a

slight tendency in increasing the number of publications
in later volumes than in earlier ones. Twenty-four
publications were single-species studies and twentyeight multi-species studies.
The great majority of articles published in Chiroptera
Neotropical were written by authors based in Central
or South American institutions (86%), and most of them
in Brazil (72%). Only a few authors were affiliated to
North American (12%) or European institutions (2%)
(Figure 2). Following the trend of authors affiliation,
most of the published articles in the journal came from
research conducted in Brazil (82%) (Figure 3). Only
seven other Neotropical countries figured in
Chiroptera Neotropical, and all of them together
represent a small fraction of all publications (18%)
(Figure 3).
Regarding subjects of published contributions, most
of them were inventories of bat species (20 articles),

followed by ecological studies (14 articles) (Figure 4).

Other scientific aspects of bat biology that appeared in
Chiroptera Neotropical were conservation biology,
biogeography, study techniques, wildlife management
and urban biology. A total of 26 ecoregions were target
of the articles published in Chiroptera Neotropical.
Most of the research dealing with fieldwork published
in Chiroptera Neotropical reflected studies carried
out in the Paran - Parnaba Interior Forests ecoregion
(8 articles), followed by Bahia Coastal Forests
ecoregion (5 articles) (Figure 5). There were 11 articles
dealing with bats in anthropogenic habitats (e.g. urban
and rural areas), 2 studies on captive bats and 1 article
addressing cave habitats. Only three articles were
categorized as not applicable in regard to ecoregion.

Chiroptera Neotropical has been an
important tool for disseminating scientific knowledge
on bats, especially local species inventories. This kind

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Figure 3. Number of articles and/or short communications published between 1995 and 2005 in
Chiroptera Neotropical, representing research conducted in different countries of the region.

Figure 4. Number of articles and/or short communications published between 1995 and
2005 in Chiroptera Neotropical, representing different research areas

of data would otherwise be lost, because there is no

room for local inventories in modern journals.
However, studies on other issues should be published
more frequently, because chiropterologists are doing
research on almost all biological sciences nowadays.
We conclude that the journal can enlarge its scope,
publish more studies per year, be more cited and so
improve its worldwide importance.
Despite being dedicated to the Neotropical
region, most of its publications focus on Brazil and its
ecoregions. Although it is the largest Neotropical
country and comprises a huge biodiversity, and
therefore is expected to hold a large presence in the
journal, Chiroptera Neotropical should benefit by
increasing the number of non-Brazilian authors and
study sites.

Another important issue is the number of

articles published yearly in Chiroptera Neotropical.
Despite being a journal of international scope, it
publishes relatively few articles in a year-basis. The
first step towards improving the journal should be to
make the revision process more rigorous, in order to
improve the quality and scope of the studies it
publishes, what would consequently generate more
citations. Increasing the readership of Chiroptera
Neotropical by divulging it to more institutions
worldwide involved in tropical biology should be the
second step towards attracting more authors and thus
increasing its number of publications. The third step
should be to regularize its publication frequency, and
to make it a fully electronic journal, recorded in all
major search engines and scientific indexes on the

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Internet. Those measures should have a positive

feedback and help Chiroptera Neotropical to increase
its impact factor and maybe be included in the Journal
Citation Report (published by the Institute for Scientific
Information) in the future. Additionally to the submitted
works, Chiroptera Neotropical could also make one
special issue every year, with invited papers dealing
with avant-garde bat research on a particular area (e.g.
ecology, taxonomy, physiology), or dedicated to
specific Neotropical countries or habitats (e.g. bats
from Costa Rica; bats from the Restinga biome).
Chiroptera Neotropical is an important vehicle for
specialized bat research and a valuable forum for
scientists that study tropical fauna worldwide. After
ten years it is time for the journal to achieve a greater
role and to increase its importance in the international
scientific community.

Amori G. & S. Gippoliti. 2000. What do mammalogists
want to save? Ten years of mammalian conservation
biology. Biodiversity and Conservation 9: 785-793.
Fenton M.B., L. Acharya, D. Audet, M.B.C. Hickey,
C. Merriman, M.K. Obrist, & D.M. Syme. 1992.
Phyllostomid bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) as
indicators of habitat disruption in the Neotropics.
Biotropica 24: 440-446.

Fenton M.B. 1997. Science and the conservation of

bats. Journal of Mammalogy 78:1-14.
Findley J.S. 1993. Bats: a community perspective.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 167pp.
Fleming T.H. 1988. The short-tailed fruit bat: a study
in plant-animal interactions. University of Chicago
Press, Chicago. 365pp.
Fleming T.H. & E.R. Heithaus. 1981. Frugivorous bats,
seed shadows, and the structure of tropical forests.
Biotropica 13: 45-53.
IUCN. 2006. IUCN Red List of threatened species.
Gland, Switzerland.
Mickleburgh S.P.; A.M. Hutson & P.A. Racey. 2002. A
review of the global conservation status of bats. Oryx
36: 18-34.
Olson D. M., E. Dinerstein, E.D. Wykramanayake, N.D.
Burgess, G.V.N. Powell, E.C. Underwood, J.A.
DAmico, I. Itoua, H.E. Strand, J.C. Morrison, C.J.
Loucks, T.F. Allnutt, T.H. Ricketts, Y. Kura, J.F.
Lamoreux, W.W. Wettengel, P. Hedao & K.R.
Kassem. 2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world:
a new map of life on Earth. Bioscience 51: 933-938.
Patterson B.D.; M.R. Willig & R.D. Stevens. 2003.
Trophic strategies, niche partitioning and patterns of
ecological organization. Pp. 536-579. In Bat ecology.
T.H. Kunz & M.B. Fenton (eds). University of
Chicago Press, Chicago. 779pp.

Figure 5. Number of articles and/or short communications published between 1995 and 2005 in Chiroptera
Neotropical, representing bat research conducted within different Neotropical ecoregions.

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Appendix 1: List of articles and short communications

published in Chiroptera Neotropical between 1995
and 2005 (volumes 1 to 11).
Aguirre L.F. 1999. Estado de conservacin de los
Murcilagos de Bolivia. Chiroptera Neotropical 5 (12): 108-112.
Alava J.J. & R. Carvajal. 2004. Ocurrencia de Noctilio
leporinus (Chiroptera:Noctilionidae) en la zona urbana y
alrededores de Guayaquil, Ecuador. Chiroptera
Neotropical 10 (1-2): 183-187.
Baptista M. & M.A.R. Mello. 2001. Preliminary inventory
of the bat species of the Poo das Antas Biological
Reserve, RJ. Chiroptera Neotropical 7 (1-2): 133-135.
Barquez R.M., L.V. Carrizo, L.I. Ferro, D.A. Flores, M.I.
Mollerach, M.S. Snchez & A.P. Garca Lpez. 2003.
Primer caso de albinismo total para Sturnira erythromos
(Tschudi, 1844) - (Chiroptera-Phyllostomidae).
Chiroptera Neotropical 9 (1-2): 166-169.
Bernard, E. 1997. Folivory in Artibeus concolor (Chiroptera:
Phyllostomidae): a new evidence. Chiroptera
Neotropical 3 (2): 77-79.
Bordignon M.O. & A.O. Frana. 2002. Fish consumption
by Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Guratuba bay,
Southern Brazil. Chiroptera Neotropical 8 (1-2): 148150.
Bredt, A. & W. Uieda. 1996. Bats from urban and rural
environments of the Distrito Federal, mid-western Brazil.
Chiroptera Neotropical 2(2): 54-57.
Castao, J.H., J.E. Botero, S. Velsquez & J.D. Corrales.
2004. Murcilagos en agroecosistemas cafeteros de
Colombia. Chiroptera Neotropical 10(1-2): 196-199.
Dvalos, L.M. & J.A. Guerrero. 1999. The bat fauna of
Tampico, Colombia. Chiroptera Neotropical 5(1-2): 112115.
Esbrard, C. 2003. Armadilha para retirada de morcegos
abrigados em telhado. Chiroptera Neotropical 9(1-2):
Esbrard, C., A.G. Motta, D.M. Oliveira, A.F. Areas, R.T.V.
Rodrigues & H.G. Bergallo. 2003. Observao de
fidelidade ao abrigo em Molossus rufus no estado do Rio
de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil. Chiroptera Neotropical
9(1-2): 175-178.
Esbrard, C., A.G. Motta & A.C. Gonalves. 2002. Recria
artificial de falso - vampiro (Phyllostomus hastatus ).
Chiroptera Neotropical 8(1-2): 150-152.
Esbrard, C.E.L, M.S. Nunes & A.D. Hammond. 2000.
Round-eared-bat (Tonatia bidens) in captivity (Chiroptera:
Phyllostomidae ). Chiroptera Neotropical 6(1-2): 125126.
Falco, F.C., B. Soares-Santos & S. Dummond. 2005.
Espcies de morcegos do Planalto da Conquista, Bahia,

Brasil. Chiroptera Neotropical 11(1-2): 220-223.

Faria, D. 1997. Reports on the diet and reproduction of the
Ipanema fruit bat, Pygoderma bilabiatum in a Brazilian
forest fragment. Chiroptera Neotropical 3(1): 65-66.
Flix, J.S., N.R. dos Reis, I.P. de Lima, E.F. Costa & A.L.
Peracchi. 2001. Is the area of the Arthur Thomas Park,
with its 82.72 ha, sufficient to maintain viable chiropteran
populations? Chiroptera Neotropical 7(1-2): 129-133.
Fischer, E., W. Fischer, S. Borges, M.R. Pinheiro & A.
Vicentini. 1997. Predation of Carollia perspicilata by
Phyllostomus cf. elongatus in Central Amazonia.
Chiroptera Neotropical 3(1): 67-68.
Gregorin, R. 1998. Extending geographic distribution of
Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 (Phyllostomidae,
Stenodermatinae). Chiroptera Neotropical 4(2): 98-99.
Gregorin, R. 1998. Notes on the geographic distribution of
Neoplatymops mattogrossensis (Vieira, 1942) (Chiroptera,
Molossidae). Chiroptera Neotropical 4(1): 88-90.
Grelle, C.E., M.T. da Fonseca, R.T. de Souza, L.M.S. Aguiar.
1997. Bats from Karstic area on Lagoa Santa, Minas
Gerais: a preliminary survey. Chiroptera Neotropical
3(1): 68-70.
Lim, B.K. & M.D. Engstrom. 2000. Preliminary survey of
bats from the upper Mazaruni of Guyana. Chiroptera
Neotropical 6(1-2): 119-123.
Mancina, C.A. & L. G. Rivera. 2000. Notes on the natural
history of Phyllops falcatus (Gray, 1839) (Phyllostomidae:
Stenodermatinae ) in Cuba. Chiroptera Neotropical 6(12): 123-125.
Marinho-Filho, J. 2003. Notes on the reproduction of six
phyllostomid bat species in southeastern Brazil.
Chiroptera Neotropical 9(1-2): 173-175.
Marinho-Filho, J. 1996. Distribution of bat diversity in the
southern and southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
Chiroptera Neotropical 2(2): 51-54.
Marinho-Filho, J. 1996. The Brazilian Cerrado bat fauna
and its conservation. Chiroptera Neotropical 2(1): 3739.
Mello, M.A. & G.M. Schittini. 2005. Ecological analysis of
three bat assemblages from conservation units in the
Lowland Atlantic Fores of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Chiroptera Neotropical 11(1-2): 206-210.
Miretzki, M. & C.T. Margarido. 1999. Morcegos da Estao
Ecolgica do Caiu, Paran (Sul do Brasil). Chiroptera
Neotropical 5(1-2): 105-108.
Muoz-Romo, M. 2005. Preparacin de una Pasta
Alimenticia para Murcilagos Insectvoros y
Observaciones sobre su uso. Chiroptera Neotropical
11(1-2): 227-228.
Nogueira , M.R. & A.L. Peracchi. 2002. The feeding
specialization in Chiroderma doriae (Phyllostomidae,

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Stenodermatinae) with comments on its conservation

implications. Chiroptera Neotropical 8(1-2): 143-148.
Ortncio Filho, H., N.R. dos Reis, D. Pinto, R. Anderson,
D.A. Testa & M.A. Marques. 2005. Levantamento dos
morcegos (Chiroptera, Mammalia) do Paque Municipal
do Cinturo Verde de Cianorte, Paran, Brasil. Chiroptera
Neotropical 11(1-2): 211-215.
Pedro, W.A., F.C. Passos & B.K. Lim. 2001. Morcegos
(Chiroptera; Mammalia ) da Estao Ecolgica dos
Caetetus, estado de So Paulo. Chiroptera Neotropical
7(1-2): 136-140.
Pedro, W.A. & V.A. Taddei. 1998. Bats from southwestern
Minas Gerais, Brazil (Mammalia: Chiroptera). Chiroptera
Neotropical 4(1): 85-88.
Pedro, W.A, C. Carvalho, M.M. Hayashi, A. Bredt, N.M.S.
Armani, M.M.S. Silva, L. Gomes, C.A. Gonalves & N.F.
Peres.. 1997. Notes on Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843)
in the south of So Paulo state. Chiroptera Neotropical
3(2): 79-80.
Pedro, W.A., M.P. Geraldes, G.G. Lopez & C.J.R. Alho. 1995.
Fragmentao de hbitat e a estrutura de uma taxocenose
de morcegos em So Paulo (Brasil). Chiroptera
Neotropical 1(1): 4-6.
Perini, F.A., V.C. Tavares, C.M.D. Nascimento. 2003. Bats
from the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais,
southeastern Brazil. Chiroptera Neotropical 9(1-2): 169173.

comments on reproduction status, in the Reserva

Particular do Patrimnio Natural Serra das Almas, in the
state of Cear, northwestern of Brazil. Chiroptera
Neotropical 10(1-2): 191-195.
Sodre, M.M., W. Uieda & M. Baldim. 2004. First record of
albinism in the bat Eumops glaucinus (Molossidae) from
southeastern Brazil. Chiroptera Neotropical 10(1-2):
Straube, F.C. & G.V. Bianconi. 2002. Sobre a grandeza e a
unidade utilizada para estimar esforo de captura com
utilizao de redes-de-neblina. Chiroptera Neotropical
8(1-2): 150-152.
Stutz, W.H., M.C. Albuquerque, W. Uieda, E.M. Macedo &
C.B. Frana. 2004. Updated list of Uberlndia Bats (Minas
Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil). Chiroptera
Neotropical 10(1-2): 188-190.
Tejedor, A. 2003. First record of Saccopteryx canescens
(Chiroptera: Emballonuridae) for Southeastern Peru.
Chiroptera Neotropical 9(1-2): 163-164.
Trajano, E. 1995. Protecting caves for the bats or bats for
the caves? Chiroptera Neotropical 1(2): 19-22.
Uieda, W. & M.E. Chaves. 2005. Bats from Botucatu region,
state of So Paulo, Southern Brazil. Chiroptera
Neotropical 11(1-2): 224-226.
Uieda, W. 1995. The commom vampire bat in urban
environments from southeastern Brazil Chiroptera
Neotropical 1(2): 22-24.

Regidor, H., S. Mosa & A. Nez. 2003. Confinamiento de

una colonia de Tadarida brasiliensis, una alternativa de
manejo compatible con la conservacin. Chiroptera
Neotropical 9(1-2):157-162.

Zorta, M. & L.M.S. Aguiar. 2001. Foraging behavior of

the fishing bat, Noctilio Leporinus (Noctilionidae).
Chiroptera Neotropical 7(1-2): 140-142.

Reis, N.R., A.L. Peracchi, I.P. Lima, M.L. Sekiama & V.

J.Rocha. 1998. Updated list of the chiropterians of the
city of Londrina, Paran, Brazil. Chiroptera Neotropical
4(2): 96-98.

Zorta, M., R. Gregorin & A.D. Ditchfield. 1998.

Lichonycteris obscura from Esprito Santo state,
southeastern Brazil. Chiroptera Neotropical 4(2): 9596.

Rodrigues, F.H.G. , M.L. Reis & V.S. Braz. 2004. Food habits
of the frog-eating bat, Trachops cirrhosus, in Atlantic
Forest of Northeastern Brazil. Chiroptera Neotropical
10(1-2): 180-182.

Zorta, M. 1995. Observations on tent-using in the Carolline

Bat Rhinophylla pumilio in southeastern Brasil.
Chiroptera Neotropical 1(1): 2-4.

Rui, E. & M.Fabin. 1997. Quirpteros de la familia

Phyllostomidae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) en selvas del
estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Chiroptera
Neotropical 3(2): 75-77.
Silva, M.M.S., N.M.S. Harmani, E.F.B. Gonalves & W.
Uieda. 1996. Bats from metropolitan region of So Paulo,
southeastern Brazil. Chiroptera Neotropical 2(1): 3941.
Silva, R., F.A. Perini & W.R. de Oliveira. 2005. Bats from
the city of Itabira, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.
Chiroptera Neotropical 11(1-2): 216-219.
Silva, S.S.P., P.G. Guedes, A.R. Camardella & A.L. Peracchi.
2004. Survey of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera), with

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006


Danny Rojas Martn
Departamento de Gestin de la Proteccin de los Recursos Naturales, Jefatura Nacional Cuerpo de
Guardabosques, calle 2 No. 610 entre 25 y 27, Vedado, CP. 10 400, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.
Abstract. Biogeography of Cuban bats have been received a general attention and little particular analyses of
internal events referred to the origins, diversification, and extinction of Cuban bats have been made. On the
basis of recent discoveries of two fossils and one extant species, and other recent publications, we approach to
the historical biogeography of the Cuban microchiropteran fauna in an attempt of reconciling the hypothesis of
dispersal and vicariance, recognizing that in some cases taxon-specific hypotheses are required. Special attention
has been paid to the relationship between the bat fauna of Isla de Cuba and Isla de Pinos.
Keywords: Cuba, historical biogeography, Microchiroptera

The Cuban archipelago has the most diverse
chiropteran fauna in the Antilles. This fauna comprises
35 species, including 27 living species, 6 extinct
species, and 2 extirpated species. One of the living
species (Natalus major) was recently discovered in
western Cuba (Tejedor et al. 2004), and two of the
extinct species are new records, one of them comprising
a new genus (Surez & Daz-Franco 2003, Mancina &
Garca-Rivera 2005). Living populations of the
extirpated species are actually found in Mexico, Central
and South America.
The study of the causes of such Cuban richness of bats
usually has taken place into a wider context (e. g.,
Morgan 2001), with no analysis of the internal events
that occurred in Isla the Cuba and Isla the Pinos, the
two principal islands of the archipelago. Being Cuba
the biggest archipelago of the Antilles, and having a
geological history closely related to that of Bahamas,
the rest of the Greater Antilles, and (Dvalos 2004)
Jamaica, it is important to understand when and where
Cuban bats evolved, what was its origin, what is its
present distribution and how was modelled the Cuban
present-day bat fauna through the Cenozoic.
The present work is an approach to these questions on
the basis of historical biogeography, taking in account
new and valuable explanations from recent studies.
Zoogeographical, Taxonomical and Ecological
The Cuban archipelago is located in the Antillean
Subregion (in the sense of Genoways et al. 1998) within
the Neotropic. It is formed by Isla de Cuba (which is
the major island of all the Antilles), Isla de Pinos, and

more than 4000 islets and keys. Isla de Pinos is placed

on the continental shelf of Cuba, and both islands are
separated by water less than 12 m in depth. In the text,
terms like Antilles or Caribbean must be considered
synonyms of Antillean Subregion. The gentile Cuban
is referred to the whole archipelago.
In taxonomy we follow Koopman (1993) for most of
the taxa, and Morgan & Czaplewski (2003) for
Natalidae. Brachyphylla, Erophylla and Phyllonycteris
have been grouped in the subfamily Brachyphyllinae,
following the early statements of Silva Taboada & Pine
The guild structure, and roost behaviour of living and
extinct bats in the Cuban archipelago have been
established according to Schnitzler & Kalko (2001),
and Silva Taboada (1979), respectively.
Possible origin of Cuban Bats
According to recent paleogeographic investigations and
geological evidences, 35 millions of years ago there
were appropriately conditions in the Antillean
Subregion for potential colonizers to invade (IturraldeVinent & MacPhee 1999). The morphological
differentiation between Antillean bats and its
continental ancestors makes improbable an earlier
period for most of the insular fauna (Silva Taboada
1979). Thus, the fauna of Cuban bats has acquired its
present composition (Table 1) through a series of
processes and phenomena for the last 40 million years.
Analyzing biogeographical hypotheses concerning the
origin, distribution, and diversity of the Caribbean
fauna, a question usually arises. Which hypothesis,
vicariance or aerial dispersal over water, could explain

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Table 1. Distribution, endemism, guild structure, and roost behaviour of living (X) and extinct (O) bats in the Cuban
archipelago. Information about other islands of the Antillean Subregion, and about continent is provided for
comparison. Families and subfamilies appear in a systematic order, and species appeared in alphabetical order. Guilds
of extinct species are inferred from living species of the genus or from the superior taxonomic category. (**): living
taxon endemic of (or fossil records of the taxon only found in) the Cuban archipelago, (*): endemic of the Antillean
Subregion. CUB: Cuban archipelago, JAM: Jamaica, ESP: Hispaniola, PR: Puerto Rico, MEX: Mexico. Roost
behaviour: SC: specialized cave-dweller, FC: facultative cave-dweller, Three-dweller, G: generalist. Guild structure: AIUS: aerial insectivore in uncluttered space, AI-BS: aerial insectivore in background-cluttered space, AI-HS: aerial
insectivore in highly cluttered space, GI-HS: gleaning insectivore in highly cluttered space, P-BS: piscivore in
background-cluttered space, F-HS: frugivore in highly cluttered space, PN-HS: polinivore (-nectarivore) in highly
cluttered space, S-HS: sanguivore in highly cluttered space. The symbol in the column of the Cuban archipelago
(CUB) means that the species is shared by both Isla de Cuba and Isla the Pinos, and the symbol means that the species
was once shared by the two islands but that has been extirpated from Isla the Pinos.
Noctilio leporinus
Mormoops blainvillii *
M. magna **
M. megalophylla
Pteronotus macleayi *
P. parnelli
P. pristinus **
P. quadridens *
Macrotus waterhousei
Brachyphyllinae *
Brachyphylla nana *
Erophylla sezekorni *
Phyllonycteris poeyi *
Monophyllus redmani *
Artibeus anthonyi **
A. jamaicensis
Cubanycteris silvai **
Phyllops falcatum *
P. silvai **
P. vetus **
Desmodus rotundus
Chilonatalus micropus *
Natalus major *
Nyctiellus lepidus *
Antrozous pallidus
Eptesicus fuscus
Lasiurus borealis
L. intermedius
Nycticeius humeralis
Eumops glaucinus
E. perotis
Molossus molossus
Mormopterus minutus **
Nyctinomops laticaudatus
N. macrotis
Tadarida brasiliensis

Greater Antilles
Bahamas LesserAntilles



Roost Guild













































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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Figure 1. Caribbean Sea with Great Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola [Haiti and Dominican Republic] and Puerto
Rico, The Bahamas, Lesser Antilles, and the continents (North America, Central America and South America)

the Cuban bat fauna? Three routes of dispersal and a

vicariant model have been proposed. The routes of
dispersal proposed by Rodrguez-Durn & Kunz (2001)
include a northern route from Florida to Cuba directly
or through Bahamas, a western route from Central
America, and a southern route from South America
through the Lesser Antilles. The Gaarlandia vicariant
model of Iturralde-Vinent & MacPhee (1999) could
explain the relationships of brachyphyllines and
stenodermatines with the continent. According to
Dvalos (2004), the routes of dispersal must be clarified
for families as Moormopidae and Natalidae, and other
groups of bats that not fit to the vicariant model require
taxon-specific hypotheses.
Silva Taboada (1979) suggested a South American
origin for Noctilio leporinus. The contribution of
Gaarlandia to the invasion, and the period it took place
remain unclear. Baker & Genoways (1978) did not
exclude for this species colonization from Central
Five of the seven species of mormoopids present in
Cuba are endemic of the Antillean Subregion (Table

1), which becomes an important centre of secondary

differentiation of the family. Mormoopids arrived to
Cuba from Central America (Baker & Genoways 1978,
Silva Taboada 1979, Koopman 1989) in repeated
dispersal events (at least twice in Pteronotus), which
could include other Antillean islands as Jamaica
(Dvalos 2004). Nevertheless, Silva Taboada (1979)
proposed a single dispersal event for Pteronotus
quadridens, P. macleayi and the ancestor of P. pristinus.
Which it is clear is that Mormoops blainvillii and the
ancestors of M. magna, P. pristinus, and P. quadridens
should represent early invasions, probably in Middle
or Superior Pliocene, according to Silva Taboada
(1979). A northern origin is not discarded for the genus
Mormoops (Koopman 1989), and this could be
supported for the presence of fossil records of M.
blainvillii, M. megalophylla, P. macleayi and P. parnelli
in Bahamas (Simmons & Conway 2001). The southern
route could also be possible for some species of the
The Antillean Subregion is also a center of radiation
of the family Phyllostomidae, with nine endemic
species from the twelve present in the Cuban

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

archipelago (Table 1). These endemics probably

represent the earliest invasions to the Antilles. Cuba
should play an important role for differentiation of
Brachyphyllinae and Stenodermatinae, for which a
southern origin have been proposed (Silva Taboada
1979, Koopman 1989). The southern route has been
also suggested for Monophyllus, while Artibeus
anthonyi has been related to A. lituratus, a species with
a South American origin (Silva Taboada 1979, Baker
& Genoways 1978). Macrotus waterhousei, Artibeus
jamaicensis, and Desmodus rotundus probably arrived
from Central America (Baker & Genoways 1978, Silva
Taboada 1979, Koopman 1989). The endemic Antillean
genera Brachyphylla, Erophylla, and Phyllonycteris
seem part of a single radiation, and dispersal events
from Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Jamaica to Cuba
possibly occurred (Dvalos 2004). Also it is probably
that at least two invasions of stenodermatines took
place. A first invasion from the continent gave rise to
Phyllops on Hispaniola, and Cubanycteris (Mancina
& Garca-Rivera 2005) on Cuba. Dispersal of Phyllops,
from Hispaniola to the Cuban archipelago during the
Pleistocene, resulted in the evolution of P. vetus and P.
silvai (Surez & Daz-Franco 2003).
Cuba has the highest diversity of Natalidae in the
Neotropics in what sympatry concerns (Tejedor et al.
2004), being the three extant species endemic from the
Antillean Subregion (Table 1). Genetic studies showed
that Jamaican Natalus major belongs to a lineage basal
to a Central America/Lesser Antilles N. stramineus
clade (Arroyo-Cabrales et al. 1999), and this suggests
events of dispersal within the Antilles. Silva Taboada
(1979) proposed a Central American origin for the
Caribbean species. Nevertheless, the Early Oligocene
natalid from Florida (Morgan & Czaplewski 2003)
points out to a North American origin for the ancestor
of Antillean natalids, which should reach Cuba through
Bahamas, and from there the species dispersed to other
regions of the Antilles and to the north of South
The five species of vespertilionids present in Cuba
(Table 1) show affinities with the temperate region of
North America, though Eptesicus fuscus and Lasiurus
borealis are widespread through Central and South
America. The western route is the most accepted (Baker
& Genoways 1978, Silva Taboada 1979). Koopman
(1989) proposed a Central American origin for
Antrozous, and a North American origin for Nycticeius
and Lasiurus.
Mormopterus minutus is the only endemic species of
Cuban bat. Populations of the other molossids species
have not been well differentiated from populations in
mainland continent. Invasions from Central America
have been proposed for most of the molossids (Silva

Taboada 1979) and the ancestor of Mormopterus

minutus (Koopman 1989). Tadarida brasiliensis
probably arrived from North America while Molossus
molossus possibly arrived through the southern route
(Baker & Genoways 1978, Koopman 1989).
Bats of Isla de Pinos
Isla de Cuba and Isla de Pinos share half of the bat
species that have been found in the Cuban archipelago.
With 17 species exclusively in the former, the rest are
present in the latter (Table 1). Three of the 18 shared
species are extirpated from Isla de Pinos (Pteronotus
parnelli, Phyllops falcatum, and Natalus major), and
Phyllops vetus is the only fossil bat shared by both
Bats should arrive to Isla de Pinos from Isla de Cuba,
especially during low sea level stands in Pleistocene,
when both islands were connected (Iturralde-Vinent
2003). Two of the six families of Cuban bats,
Phyllostomidae and Natalidae, seem to have had a great
success of colonization. In the case of Phyllops vetus,
the species probably evolved in Isla de Cuba from its
Hispaniolan ancestor, according to what Surez &
Daz-Franco (2003) have proposed, and then reached
Isla de Pinos, suffering extinction events in both islands.
The recent geographical segregation of Isla de Pinos
from Isla de Cuba did not allowed any speciation in
the former. Nevertheless, Silva (1974) reported a
subspecies of Eptesicus fuscus (E. f. petersoni), which
is smaller, and has a pelage and colour different from
the subspecies present in Isla de Cuba (E. f. dutertreus).
This could represent an attempt of speciation though
time and conservation efforts should state the last word.
Events of Extinction
Having Cuba the richest chiropteran fauna in the
Caribbean, the archipelago also suffered the largest
number of extinctions (Morgan 2001). Mormoops
megalophylla, and Desmodus rotundus are extirpated
from the Cuban archipelago, and other six species
including mormoopids and stenodermatines are extinct
(Table 1). The extinctions affected particularly
obligatory cave-dwelling species, but also tree-dwelling
and generalist species. Post-Pleistocene climate
changes and variations in cave environments are the
main causes attributed to such extinctions (Morgan
If climate changes were the main cause of extinction
of Cuban microchiropteran, the extinction of treedweller species should reach higher levels than cavedweller bats. But from the eight Cuban bats species no
longer in the archipelago, three roosted in trees, and
other three species roosted in caves, which points to

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

the capability of dispersion of bats as another cause of

extinction. Although a lot of caves were and still are
available in Cuba as roosts for bats, specialized cavedwelling species (like the extinct Cuban mormoopids)
require exclusively humid and warm caves. Probably,
if the dispersal ability of the extinct mormoopids was
limited by physiological features, and long distances
between one hot cave to another, then these species
were affected by the lost of the roost sites due to
stochastic events, more than other species, as have been
proposed for extirpation events of Natalus major in
the Cuban archipelago (see Tejedor et al. 2004). This
could also explain the extirpation events of Pteronotus
parnelli in Isla de Pinos, where caves are scarce.
However, the ecological information available for the
extinct species is still insufficient, and this limits any
speculation about causes of extinctions of Cuban bats.
New evidences from geology, phylogeny, and ecology,
and new fossil records and taphonomic explanations
are required to clarify the origins, diversification, and
extinction events that have shaped the fauna of Cuban

This paper is dedicated to Professor Gilberto Silva
Taboada for all his effort during a half century devoted
to the study of Cuban bats. I express also my gratitude
to Dr. Dania Prieto, from the Faculty of Biology,
University of Havana, for encourage this research and
for her valuable comments on early versions of the
manuscript. I am also grateful to M.Sc. Lainet Garca
Rivero, for her useful comments on the manuscript.

Arroyo-Cabrales, J., van den Bussche, R.A., HaidukSigler, K., Chesser, R.K. & Baker, R.J. 1997. Genic
variation in island populations of Natalus stramineus
(Chiroptera: Natalidae). Occasional Papers, Museum
of Texas Tech University, 1771:1-9.
Baker, R.J. & Genoways, H.H. 1978. Zoogeography
of Antillean bats. Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadelphia, Special Publication, 13:57-97.
Dvalos, L.M. 2004. Phylogeny and biogeography of
Caribbean mammals. Biological Journal of the
Linnean Society, 81:373-394.
Genoways, H.H., Phillips, C.J. & Baker, R.J. 1998.
Bats of the Antillean island of Grenada: a new
zoogeographic perspective. Occasional Papers,
Museum of Texas Tech University, 177:1-28.
Iturralde-Vinent, M.A. 2003. A brief account of the
evolution of the Caribbean seaway: Jurassic to

Present. In: From greenhouse to icehouse: the marine

Eocene-Oligocene transition. Prothero, D., Ivany, L.
& Nesbitt, E. (eds). Pp: 386-396. Colombus
University Press, New York.
Iturralde-Vinent, M.A. & MacPhee, R.D.E. 1999.
Paleogeography of the Caribbean region:
implications for Cenozoic biogeography. Bulletin of
the American Museum of Natural History, 238:1-95.
Koopman, K.F. 1989. A review and analysis of the bats
of the West Indies. In: Biogeography of the West
Indies, past, present, and future. Woods, C.A. (ed).
Pp: 635-644, Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville.
Koopman, K.F. 1993. Order Chiroptera. In: Mammal
species of the world. Wilson, D.E. & Reeder, D.M.
(eds). Pp: 137-232, Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington D.C.
Mancina, A.C. & Garca-Rivera, R.L. 2005. New genus
and species of fossil bat (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)
from Cuba. Caribbean Journal of Science, 41(1):2227.
Morgan, G.S. 2001. Patterns of extinction in West
Indian bats. In: Biogeography of the West Indies:
patterns and perspectives, 2nd edn. Woods, C.A. &
Sergile, F.E. (eds). Pp: 369-407. C.R.C. Press, Boca
Morgan, G.S. & Czaplewski, N.J. 2003. A new bat in
the neotropical family Natalidae from the Early
Miocene of Florida. Journal of Mammalogy, 84:729752.
Rodrguez-Durn, A. & Kunz, T.H. 2001.
Biogeography of West Indian bats: and ecological
perspective. In: Biogeography of the West Indies:
patterns and perspectives, 2nd edn. Woods, C.A. &
Sergile, F.E. (eds). Pp: 355-368. C.R.C. Press, Boca
Schnitzler, H.-U. & Kalko, E.K.V. 2001. Echolocation
by insect-eating bats. BioScience, 51(7):557-569.
Silva Taboada, G. 1974. Nueva subespecie de Eptesicus
fuscus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) para Isla de
Pinos. Poeyana 128:1-5.
Silva Taboada, G. 1979. Los murcilagos de Cuba.
Academia, La Habana. 423 p.
Silva Taboada, G. & Pine, R.H. 1979. Morphological
and behavioral evidence for the relationship between
the bat genus Brachyphylla and the Phyllonycterinae.
Biotropica 1(1):10-19.
Simmons, N.B. & Conway. T.M. 2001. Phylogenetic
relationships of mormoopid bats (Chiroptera:

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Mormoopidae) based on morphological data.

Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History
258, 97 p.
Surez, W. & Daz-Franco, S. 2003. A new fossil bat
(Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from a Quaternary
Cave Deposit in Cuba. Caribbean Journal of Science,
Tejedor, A., Silva Taboada, G. & Rodrguez-Hernndez,
D. 2004. Discovery of extant Natalus major
(Chiroptera: Natalidae) in Cuba. Mammalian
Biology, 69(3):153-162.

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006


Danieli Pinto1, Henrique Ortncio Filho2

Curso de Graduao em Cincias Biolgicas, Universidade Paranaense, Campus Cianorte, Av. Brasil, 1123
CEP 87200-000 Cianorte - Paran, Brasil e E-mail: danicnt@hotmail.com
Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas, Mdicas e da Sade, Universidade Paranaense, Campus Cianorte, Av.
Brasil, 1123, Centro, Cianorte - Paran, Brasil, CEP 87200-000

Abstract. This study aimed at analyzing the diet of four species of frugivorous bats (Artibeus lituratus, A.
fimbriatus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata) captured in Cinturo Verde Municipal Park, city of Cianorte,
state of Paran, considering possible variations in the use of fruits along the seasons of the year. Between
October, 2004 and September, 2005, eighty-five samples of feces were obtained which revealed that A. lituratus
and A. fimbriatus consumed, preferentially, fruits from Cecropia pachystachya, C. glaziouii, Ficus enormis, F.
insipida and F. organensis. Sturnira lilium consumed, essentially, fruits from Solanum diflorum and S.
americanum, whereas C. perspicillata fed, mainly, on Piper glabratum and P. hispidum fruits. As for the seasons
of the year, there were diet changes, probably because of the fruits ripening period with the climatic seasonality
apparently influencing the availability and use of feeding resources.
Key Words: Phyllostomidae, frugivory, semi-deciduous forest, Northwest of the state of Paran.

Os morcegos apresentam grande diversidade alimentar,
sendo utilizados como componentes da dieta: insetos
e outros artrpodes, flores, frutos, folhas, sementes,
plen, nctar, pequenos vertebrados e sangue (Peracchi
et al. 2006). Na regio Neotropical, a famlia
Phyllostomidae representada, em sua maioria, por
morcegos herbvoros (Kunz 1982; Nowak 1994), os
quais apresentam diferentes formas de interao com
as plantas, como a predao de sementes, fato que
ocasiona a morte do embrio, o parasitismo, pelo
consumo de folhas, e o mutualismo, situao
relacionada aos processos de polinizao e de disperso
das sementes, sendo que, no ltimo caso, ambas as
espcies podem ser beneficiadas, pois enquanto os
morcegos se alimentam do nctar ou dos frutos das
plantas, as mesmas so polinizadas ou tm suas
sementes dispersas (Mello 2002).
Segundo Garcia et al. (2000), o consumo de frutos e a
conseqente disperso de sementes pelas fezes so
fundamentais para o sucesso reprodutivo de vrias
espcies de plantas, bem como da manuteno de
florestas e recuperao de reas degradadas. Sipinski
& Reis (1995) ressaltam que cerca de, 25% das rvores
de uma floresta podem ser dispersas por esses animais.
As espcies vegetais consumidas pelos quirpteros
podem influenciar na estrutura da vegetao e
contribuir para o estabelecimento de espcies pioneiras

(Mikich 2002). Isso ocorre devido ao processo de

disperso de sementes (Passos et al. 2003), que
proporciona, tambm, a recuperao e o aumento da
diversidade em reas degradadas (Bobrowiec 2003).
A disponibilidade de recursos alimentares influencia
na permanncia de morcegos em uma rea e a falta de
tais fontes pode causar o deslocamento desses animais
para outras regies (Passos et al. 2003). Assim, a baixa
densidade de determinadas plantas pode gerar o
desaparecimento de vrias espcies de morcegos ou
fazer com que outras se tornem generalistas, passando
a consumir as variedades de frutos disponveis no
ambiente (Galetti & Morellato 1994; Passos &
Graciolli 2004).
De acordo com Peracchi et al. (2006) a famlia
Phyllostomidae a mais diversificada da regio
Neotropical, contando atualmente com 160 espcies
e, no Brasil, com 92 espcies, sendo que destas, 83
tm os frutos como componentes de sua dieta. Com o
intuito de conhecer um dos vrios importantes aspectos
ligados biologia das espcies mais freqentes da
regio, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a
dieta de filostomdeos frugvoros, capturados no Parque
Municipal do Cinturo Verde de Cianorte, Paran,
Brasil, por meio da identificao das sementes
defecadas e a variao na utilizao dos recursos
alimentares ao longo do ano.

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Com aproximadamente 312 ha, o Parque
Municipal do Cinturo Verde de Cianorte
localiza-se entre as coordenadas 2340S,
5238W e 530 metros de altitude, e representa,
na regio de Cianorte, um dos ltimos
remanescentes da vegetao tpica de Floresta
Estacional Semidecidual Submontana, com
influncia do Cerrado, apresentando aspecto
de uma floresta madura alterada e, nas reas
limites do parque, encontram-se locais bastante
Dentre as espcies vegetais presentes no
parque, encontram-se as seguintes famlias:
Figura 1. Localizao do Parque Municipal do Cinturo Verde
Apocynaceae (Apidosperma polyneuron - de Cianorte - Paran e pontos de coleta de dados.
peroba-rosa e A. ramiflorum - perobaamarela), Meliaceae (Cedrella sp. - cedro e
(Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro) e
Nectandra sp. - canela), Euphorbiaceae (Actinostemon depositados no Laboratrio de Zoologia da
concolor - laranjeira do mato), Gramineae (Bambusa Universidade Paranaense, campus de Cianorte. Os
guadua - bambu), Bignoniaceae (Tabebuia sp. - Ip e demais morcegos capturados foram libertados aps a
Machaerium sp. - jacarand), Piperaceae (Piper sp. - coleta de dados.
pimenteiras), Fabaceae (Hymenae sp. - jatob),
Phytolaccaceae (Galesia sp. - pau-dalho), Moraceae O material fecal foi coletado no momento da captura,
(Ficus sp. - figueira), Palmaceae (Acromia sp. - ou em sacos de pano, onde os animais foram mantidos.
macaba), Solanaceae (Solanum sp. - jurubeba) entre Sementes aderidas aos plos dos morcegos tambm
outras (Cioffi et al. 1995). Segundo o mesmo autor, o foram coletadas. No laboratrio as fezes foram
clima predominante classificado como subtropical desmanchadas com gua em placas de Petri e as
mido mesotrmico, com veres quentes, geadas pouco sementes encontradas foram observadas em
freqentes, com tendncias de concentrao de chuvas microscpio estereoscpico, sendo identificadas ao
nos meses de vero. As coletas de morcegos foram nvel de espcie, atravs da comparao com material
realizadas nos seguintes pontos: Trilha das Perobas, previamente coletado na rea de estudo durante o
Trilha do Fantasminha I, Trilha do Fantasminha II e perodo de realizao da pesquisa, haja vista a
em uma propriedade rural (Chcara Rose) (Figura 1). inexistncia de trabalhos anteriores.
As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, durante
quatro noites, de outubro de 2004 a setembro de 2005.
Para a captura dos morcegos, foram utilizadas quatro
redes-de-neblina (14 m x 2,5 m), distribudas em
diferentes pontos da rea, como clareiras dentro da
mata, trilhas e cursos dgua e foram revistadas a cada
15 minutos. O perodo de amostragem baseou-se nos
estudos realizados por Laval (1970), iniciando-se aps
o crepsculo vespertino e tendo duraes dirias de
quatro horas, totalizando, ao longo do estudo, um
esforo de captura total de 26.880 m2.h, seguindo
critrios de Straube & Bianconi (2002).
Para a identificao dos morcegos, um casal de cada
espcie foi morto com dose letal de tiopental sdico,
fixado em frasco contendo formol 10% e conservado
em lcool 70%. Posteriormente, os espcimes foram
identificados com o auxlio de microscpio
estereoscpico, conforme Vieira (1942), Husson
(1962), Vizoto & Taddei (1973) e Jones & Carter
(1976), confirmados por Isaac Passos Lima

As amostras que continham uma nica espcie de

semente foram consideradas como uma nica amostra
e aquelas que apresentaram duas ou mais sementes de
espcies diferentes foram consideradas como duas ou
mais amostras. Sendo assim, o nmero para clculo da
dieta foi considerado o total das amostras produzidas
por cada espcie de morcego. Para a verificao da
composio da dieta das quatro espcies dos morcegos
filostomdeos, as estaes do ano foram preconizadas
da seguinte forma: primavera - outubro a dezembro;
vero - janeiro a maro; outono - abril a junho e; inverno
- julho a setembro. Para a anlise dos dados foi efetuado
o clculo da porcentagem de ocorrncia das espcies
de morcegos capturadas, bem como dos itens
alimentares para cada espcie de morcego. Os dados
referentes variao sazonal e dos componentes da
dieta foram submetidos ao teste de qui-quadrado.

Ao final do estudo foram capturados 575 filostomdeos

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Tabela 1. Itens alimentares da dieta de quatro espcies de morcegos do Parque Municipal do Cinturo Verde de
Cianorte - Paran, sendo: N= nmero de ocorrncias de cada item e PO = porcentagem de ocorrncia (%)

Artibeus lituratus

Cecropia glaziouii Sneth

Cecropia pachystachya Trec.
Ficus enormis Mart. Ex Miq.
Ficus insipida Willd
Ficus organensis Miq.
Piper glabratum Kenth
Piper hispidum Sw.
Solanum diflorum Vell
Solanum americanum Mill
Polpa sem sementes
Restos de insetos

Artibeus fimbriatus

Sturnira lilium

Carollia perspicillata






































frugvoros, pertencentes a quatro espcies, trs gneros

e a duas subfamlias. Entre os representantes da
subfamlia Stenodermatinae, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers,
1818) foi a espcie mais freqentemente capturada,
com 395 exemplares (68,7%) e 41 amostras de fezes.
Alm disso, foram coletados 44 espcimes de Artibeus
fimbriatus (Gray, 1838) (7,6%) e 90 de Sturnira lilium
(E. Geoffroy, 1810) (15,7%), com 09 e 16 amostras de
fezes, respectivamente. Com 46 indivduos (8,0%),
Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758), foi a nica
espcie representante da subfamlia Carolliinae, com
19 amostras fecais. Do total de 85 amostras de fezes,
80 continham sementes, trs restos de insetos e duas
apresentavam polpa de frutos no identificveis. As
plantas consumidas pelos morcegos representaram
quatro famlias e dez espcies (Tabela 1).
Comparando-se o nmero de amostras fecais para cada
espcie de morcego ao longo das estaes do ano,
notou-se um menor nmero destas durante o outono
(18; 21,2%), seguido de um acrscimo no inverno (19;
22,4%). As estaes mais quentes foram marcadas por
um maior nmero de amostras de fezes, como o caso
da primavera (23; 27,0%), culminando com o vero
(25; 29,4%). O teste do qui-quadrado revelou que no
houve diferena significativa na dieta alimentar para
A. fimbriatus durante as estaes do ano, enquanto para
as demais espcies houve diferena significativa na
composio do alimento (Tabela 2).
Ao longo da primavera, A. lituratus forneceu sete
amostras de fezes (30,5%) do total de material coletado,
tendo preferncia por P. glabratum, C. glaziouii, C.
pachystachya e S. diflorum, alm de polpa sem

sementes. Artibeus fimbriatus, apresentou duas

amostras (8,7%), sendo que C. glaziouii foi o nico
componente da dieta. Sturnira lilium, forneceu cinco
amostras (21,7%), compostas por sementes das
seguintes espcies vegetais: S. diflorum, S. americanum
e P. glabratum, enquanto nove amostras (39,1%) foram
oriundas de C. perspicillata, apresentando um grande
consumo de P. glabratum e de P. hispidum e, em
quantidades menores, restos de insetos e frutos de F.
insipida (Tabela 3).
Na estao do vero, A. lituratus consumiu quase
exclusivamente frutos de C. pachystachya e C.
glaziouii, havendo nas fezes, tambm, sementes de F.
organensis, P. glabratum, F. insipida e restos de insetos
(15; 60,0%). Artibeus fimbriatus apresentou em sua
dieta F. insipida, C. glaziouii e C. pachystachya (trs;
12,0%). As quatro amostras fecais de S. lilium
compreenderam 16,0% do total coletado, abrangendo
frutos de P. glabratum, C. glaziouii e S. diflorum.
Carollia perspicillata teve preferncia por frutos de P.
glabratum e de S. diflorum, com trs amostras (12,0%).
Durante a estao do outono, A. lituratus apresentou
10 amostras fecais (55,6%), compostas,
principalmente, por F. insipida e F. enormis. Frutos de
C. pachystachya, P. glabratum e S. diflorum tambm
foram encontrados. Os espcimes de A. fimbriatus
apresentaram duas amostras (11,2%) compostas de F.
insipida e F. organensis. Sementes de Solanum
diflorum foram identificadas apenas para S. lilium,
totalizando trs amostras (16,6%), enquanto C.
perspicillata, com trs amostras, (16,6%), alimentouse de P. glabratum.

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Tabela 2. Variao sazonal da dieta de quatro espcies de morcegos do Parque Municipal do Cinturo Verde de
Cianorte - Paran, sendo: N= nmero de ocorrncias e PO= freqncia de ocorrncia (%).
A. lituratus

A. fimbriatus

S. lilium

C. perspicillata

Estaes do ano



Valores de p
p < 0,05*

p > 0,05

p < 0,05*

p < 0,05*

* Teste de qui-quadrado

Tabela 3. Itens componentes da dieta de quatro espcies de morcegos do Parque Municipal do Cinturo Verde de
Cianorte - Paran, sendo: N= nmero de ocorrncias e PO= freqncia de ocorrncia (%).

C. perspicillata

A. lituratus

A. fimbriatus

S. lilium

Item alimentar
Ficus insipida Willd
Piper glabratum Kenth
Piper hispidum Sw.
Solanum diflorum Vell
Restos de insetos
Cecropia glaziouii Sneth
Cecropia pachystachya Trec.
Ficus enormis Mart. Ex Miq.
Ficus insipida Willd
Ficus organensis Miq.
Piper glabratum Kenth
Solanum diflorum Vell
Polpa sem sementes
Restos de insetos
Cecropia glaziouii Sneth
Cecropia pachystachya Trec.
Ficus insipida Willd
Cecropia glaziouii Sneth
Ficus organensis Miq.
Piper glabratum Kenth
Solanum diflorum Vell
Solanum americanum Mill



Valores de p

p < 0,05*

p < 0,05*

p < 0,05*

p < 0,05*

* Teste de qui-quadrado

Com relao ao material coletado durante o inverno,

nove amostras (47,5%), compostas por sementes de F.
insipida, F. organensis, P. glabratum e C. glaziouii
pertenciam a A. lituratus, duas (10,5%), contendo
sementes de C. glaziouii foram encontradas nas fezes
de A. fimbriatus, quatro amostras (21,0%), constitudas
de sementes de S. americanum e S. diflorum, foram
obtidas das fezes de S. lilium e quatro (21,0%)
compostas por P. glabratum, F. insipida e restos de

insetos foram oriundas de C. perspicillata.

O teste do qui-quadrado mostrou que houve diferena
significativa com relao aos componentes consumidos
pelas espcies de morcegos, notando-se a preferncia
por determinados itens, bem como o compartilhamento


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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

As quatro espcies de filostomdeos tiveram uma dieta

especializada em determinadas famlias de plantas.
Artibeus lituratus e A. fimbriatus, apresentaram
preferncia por frutos de Cecropiaceae e Moraceae, S.
lilium aos frutos da famlia Solanaceae e Carollia
perspicillata aos frutos de Piperaceae e Cecropiaceae.
Estes resultados corroboram com os obtidos por Faria
(1996), Costa et al. (2000), Mello (2002), Passos et
al. (2003) e Passos & Graciolli (2004).
Artibeus lituratus e A. fimbriatus exibiram uma dieta
mais ampla que as demais espcies analisadas. Segundo
Fogaa (2003), essas espcies tm uma elevada
plasticidade alimentar, sendo, reconhecidamente,
oportunistas. Esses dados confirmam os resultados
obtidos por Muller & Reis (1992), na regio de
Londrina. Quando os alimentos so abundantes, o item
de maior preferncia escolhido e, quando h escassez,
as variedades disponveis so utilizadas, permitindo
que esses animais se adaptem a diferentes situaes de
ofertas de alimento (Passos & Graciolli 2004).
Observou-se que o consumo dos frutos ocorreu de
acordo com a sua abundncia nas estaes do ano,
provavelmente, em funo do seu perodo de
maturao. Sendo assim, durante o outono, A. lituratus
alimentou-se de uma maior quantidade de Ficus e,
durante a primavera, houve um consumo elevado de
Piper e Cecropia. J nos resultados obtidos por Reis
et al. (1999), em estudos na regio do Municpio de
Telmaco Borba, a preferncia foi por frutos do gnero
Solanum, no outono, e por frutos de Ficus, Solanum e
Cecropia, na primavera. Esse fato poderia estar
relacionado disponibilidade de alimento da regio.
Sementes do gnero Solanum tiveram uma
porcentagem elevada nas fezes de Sturnira lilium.
Porm observou-se, tambm, um percentual
significativo de frutos da famlia Piperaceae, indicando
assim, a preferncia por frutos do referido gnero e a
complementao da dieta com outros componentes.
Tais informaes vo ao encontro dos relatos de
Fleming (1986) e de Muller & Reis (1992), que
observaram para estes animais, alm da preferncia por
Solanum, a ingesto de frutos dos gneros Ficus, Piper
e Cecropia.
Em relao espcie C. perspicillata, os componentes
mais consumidos foram os frutos da famlia
Piperaceae. Mikich (2002), Reis et al. (1993) e Reis
et al. (1999) obtiveram dados semelhantes. Segundo
Gardner (1977), as piperceas constituem um
importante recurso alimentar para essa espcie. O
intenso consumo desses itens na primavera e no outono
pode estar relacionado ao perodo de frutificao dos
mesmos (Lima & Reis 2004). Alm disso, foram
encontrados restos de insetos na dieta de A. lituratus e

C. perspicillata. De acordo com Gardner (1977) e

Mikich (2002), embora os morcegos dessas espcies
alimentem-se principalmente de frutos, podem
complementar sua dieta com insetos.
A dieta dos morcegos frugvoros do Parque Municipal
do Cinturo Verde de Cianorte est em conformidade
com os resultados obtidos por outros autores e sugerem
a utilizao de outros mtodos de estudo, tais como
observaes diretas ou em poleiros de alimentao, que
podero gerar informaes mais abrangentes sobre a
ecologia alimentar desses animais. Alm disso, os
dados sugerem que a sazonalidade climtica poderia
influenciar na disponibilidade e no uso dos recursos
alimentares dos morcegos.

Agradecemos Universidade Paranaense, pelo
incentivo e apoio financeiro; a Llian Sato, Kelly Mari
Ohi, Gustavo Barizon Maranho, Slvia Regina Ferreira,
Sandra Mara Milani Nishimura, merson Jamber,
Marcelo Aparecido Marques, Regiane Anderson e
Daniela Aparecida Testa, pela participao e auxlio
nas coletas de campo; ao Ms. Isaac Passos de Lima,
pela confirmao das espcies de morcegos; a Profa.
Dra . Ana Odete Santos Vieira e Profa. Dra. Cssia
Mnica Sakuragui pela identificao das exsicatas e;
aos professores Ms. Patrcia da Costa Zonetti, Ms.
Gledson Vigiano Bianconi, Ms. Flvio Brando Silva
e Esp. Marcos Magalhes pelas sugestes no

Bobrowiec P. E. D. 2003. Padro alimentar de
morcegos frugvoros em reas alteradas na
Amaznia Central. Dissertao (Mestrado),
Instituto de Pesquisas da Amaznia, Manaus, 69p.
Cioffi H., I. V. Praxedes, I. A. T. Varella & W. K.
Mesquita. 1995. Cianorte: sua histria contada pelos
pioneiros. Grfica Ideal, Maring. 440p.
Costa E. F., N. R. Reis, J. S. Flix, & I. P. Lima. 2000.
Preferncia alimentar dos morcegos frugvoros na
regio de Londrina, PR. XXIII Anais do Congresso
Brasileiro de Zoologia, Cuiab, Mato Grosso p. 78.
Faria, D. M. 1996. Uso de recursos alimentares por
morcegos filostomdeos fitfagos na reserva de
Santa Catarina, Campinas, So Paulo. Dissertao
(Mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas,
Campinas, 100p.
Fleming, T. H. 1986. Oportunism vs. specialization:
the evolution of feeding strategies in frugivorous bats.
In: Estrada, A. & T. H. Fleming (Eds.). Frugivores

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

and seed dispersal. Dordrecht: Dr. W. Junk

Publishers, 1986. p. 105-118.
Fogaa F. N. O. 2003. Chiroptera (Mammalia) do
Parque Florestal Rio da Ona (Matinhos, PR).
Dissertao (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal do
Paran, Curitiba. 56p.
Galetti M. & L. P. C. Morellato. 1994. Diet of the large
fruit eating bat Artibeus lituratus in a florest fragment
in Brazil. Mammalia 58(4): 661-665.
Garcia Q. S., J. L. P. Rezende & L. M. S. Aguiar. 2000.
Seed dispersal by bats in a disturbed area of
Southeastern Brazil. Revista de Biologa Tropical
48(1): 125-128.
Gardner A. L. Feeding habits. 1977. In: Biology of bats
of the New World, Family Phyllostomatidae. Part II.
Baker, R. J., J. K. Jones Jr, & D. C. Carter (Eds.).
Special Publication of the Museum, Texas Tech
University, Lubbock 13: 239-350.
Husson A. M. 1962. The bats of Suriname. Zoologische
Verhandelingen. Leiden. 58: 1-282.
Jones J. K. & D. C. Carter. 1976. Annotated checklist,
with keys to subfamilies and genera. In: Biology of
bats of the new world family Phyllostomidae, part I.
Special Publications Museum Texas Tech
University, Lubbock 10: 7-38.
Kunz T. H. Ecology of bats. 1982. Plenum Press, New
Laval R. K. Banding returns and activity periods of
some costa rican bats. 1970. The Southwestern
Naturalist. 15(1): 1-10.
Lima I. P. & N. R. Reis. 2004. The availability of
Piperaceae and the search for this resource by
Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus) (Chiroptera,
Phyllostomidae, Carollinae) in Parque Municipal
Arthur Thomas, Londrina, Paran, Brasil. Revista
Brasileira de Zoologia 21(2): 371-377.
Mello M. A. R. Interaes entre o morcego Carollia
perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera:
Phyllostomidae) e plantas do gnero Piper
(Linnaeus, 1737) (Piperales: Piperaceae) em uma
rea de Mata Atlntica. 2002. Dissertao
(Mestrado), Universidade de Campinas,

Muller M. F. & N. R. dos Reis. 1992. Partio de

recursos alimentares entre quatro espcies de
morcegos frugvoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae).
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 9(3-4): 345-355.
Nowak, R. M. 1994. Walkers Bats of the World.
Introducion por Kunz T. H. & E. D. Pierson (Eds.).
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 287 p.
Passos F. C. & G.Graciolli. 2004. Observaes da dieta
de Artibeus lituratus em duas reas do sul do Brasil.
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 21(3): 487-489.
Passos F. C., W. R. Silva, W. A. Pedro & M. R. Bonin.
2003. Frugivoria em morcegos no Parque Estadual
Intervales, sudeste do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de
Zoologia 20(3):511-517.
Peracchi A. L., I. P. Lima, N. R. dos Reis, M. R.
Nogueira &. H. Ortncio Filho. 2006. Ordem
Chiroptera. In: Reis, N. R., A. L. Peracchi, W. A.
Pedro & I. P. Lima. Mamferos do Brasil. Londrina:
N. R. dos Reis. 153-230.
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Quirpteros de Londrina, Paran, Brasil, (Mammalia,
Chiroptera). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia
Reis N. R., A. L. Peracchi & M. L. Sekiama. 1999.
Morcegos da Fazenda Monte Alegre, Telmaco
Borba, Paran (Mammalia, Chiroptera). Revista
Brasileira de Zoologia 16(2):501-505.
Sipinski E. A. B.& N. R. Reis. 1995. Dados ecolgicos
dos quirpteros da reserva Volta Velha, Itapo, Santa
Catarina, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia
12(3): 519-528.
Straube F. C. & G. V. Bianconi. 2002. Sobre a grandeza
e a unidade utilizada para estimar esforo de captura
com utilizao de redes de neblina. Chiroptera
Neotropical 8 (1-2): 150-152.
Vieira C. O. C. 1942. Ensaio monogrfico sobre os
quirpteros do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia do
Estado de So Paulo, SP 3(8): 471.
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determinao de quirpteros brasileiros. Boletim de
Cincias 1: 1-72.

Mikich S. B. 2002. A dieta dos morcegos frugvoros

(Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) de um
pequeno remanescente de Floresta Estacional
Semidecidual do Sul do Brasil. Revista Brasileira
de Zoologia 19(1): 239-249.

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006



Marlon Zorta1 & Leonardo Aparecido Guimares Tomaz2

1. Universidade Federal de Gois, Campus Jata - Br 364 km 192, Jata Gois 75801-615. e-mail:
2. Programa de Ps-Graduao em Ecologia e Evoluo - Universidade Federal de Gois -ICB I - Campus
Samambaia, Goinia Gois 74001-970

Abstract. New records of Bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) from Cerrado for the Central Brazil. Herein we
report two new occurrences of phyllostomids bats (Mesophylla macconnelli and Artibeus concolor) in the
savanna habit (cerrado) in west-central Brazil. Mesophylla macconnelli was collected in the protected area of a
private natural heritage reserve (Reserva Particular do Patrimnio Natural Pousada das Araras), in Serranpolis
municipality, Gois state. Artibeus concolor was trapped near Serra da Mesa reservoir, in Niquelndia
municipality, Gois state. These records enlarge considerably the south distribution of the two species.
Keywords: Bats; diversity; geographical range; savanna.

O Cerrado o segundo maior bioma brasileiro com

204.506.483 ha distribudo por vrios estados. Alm
de sua grande rea contnua, no planalto central do
Brasil, enclaves de Cerrado so observados nos estados
da regio norte (Amap, Amazonas, Par e Roraima),
na regio nordeste (Cear) e na regio sul (em pequenas
ilhas no Paran).
Sua heterogeneidade espacial, com vrias
fitofisionomias que vo desde campos abertos at
formaes florestais, propicia uma grande diversidade
de espcies, com estimativas de ocorrncia de 160 mil
espcies de plantas, animais e fungos (Oliveira &
Marquis 2002, Aguiar & Zorta 2006). Cento e noventa
e quatro espcies de mamferos habitam as diferentes
fisionomias do Cerrado brasileiro, sendo 42%
compostos de espcies de morcegos (Marinho-Filho
et al. 2002). Uma recente compilao de dados de
distribuio de morcegos no Cerrado relaciona 105
espcies para o bioma, o que equivale a 80% da fauna
total de morcegos do Brasil (Aguiar & Zorta 2006).
Apesar desta grande diversidade, vale ressaltar que os
trabalhos realizados sobre a composio taxonmica
no bioma so escassos e muitas reas ainda no foram
amostradas (Gonalves & Gregorin 2004; Aguiar &
Zorta 2006).
Este trabalho relata duas novas ocorrncias de
morcegos para o Cerrado do planalto Central,

aumentando significativamente a distribuio ao sul

das duas espcies. Os dados apresentados so
resultados de dois inventrios realizados em reas
distintas no estado de Gois.
Mesophylla macconnelli Thomas, 1901
A sistemtica de Mesophylla tema de discusso em
curso, podendo constituir um grupo parafiltico com
Vampyressa ou ser um sinnimo jnior de Ectophylla
ou at mesmo de Vampyressa (ver Wetterer et al. 2000;
Tavares et al. no prelo). O nome genrico Mesophylla
foi mantido neste estudo, seguindo a recente
compilao de Simmons (2005).
Este gnero monotpico e sua distribuio inclui a
Amrica Central da Nicargua at Trinidad, Peru,
Bolvia e Amaznia Brasileira (Simmons 2005).
Estudos prvios tm indicado a presena desta espcie
no Brasil apenas na regio norte, nos estados do Par
(Handley 1967; Marques-Aguiar & Aguiar 2002;
Bernard & Fenton 2002), Amazonas (Reis & Peracchi
1987; Bernard 2001), Amap (Peracchi et al. 1984),
Roraima (Robinson 1998), Acre (Nogueira et al. 1999)
e centro-oeste do Mato Grosso (Pine et al. 1970)
(Figura 1). Embora tenha distribuio geogrfica
ampla, esta espcie localmente incomum. uma
espcie de pequeno porte, com peso entre 7 9 g; e
medida de antebrao entre 29 33 mm (Emmons &
Feer 1997). considerada uma espcie de hbito

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Tabela 1. Medidas externas e craniais (em mm) de Mesophylla macconnelli e

Artibeus concolor do Cerrado de Gois, Brasil.
Mesophylla macconnelli

Artibeus concolor






3 Metacarpo
1 falange 3 dedo
2 falange 3 dedo
3 falange 3 dedo



4 Metacarpo
1 falange 3 dedo
2 falange 3 dedo
5 Metacarpo



1 falange 3 dedo
2 falange 3 dedo
Comprimento total





Comprimento basal
Largura posorbitria
Largura da caixa craniana
Largura mastidea



Largura zigomtica
Largura externa molares
Comprimento da mandbula
Comp. srie de dentes superiores



Comp. srie de dentes inferiores



frugvoro, podendo formar pequenos grupos abrigados

em tendas (Foster 1992).
Em abril de 2001 foi coletada em mata de galeria da
Reserva Particular do Patrimnio Natural Pousada das
Araras (18o 25 S e 52o 00 W - 600 m), localizada no
municpio de Serranpolis, sudoeste do estado de
Gois, uma nica fmea adulta, sem atividade
reprodutiva aparente. As caractersticas do exemplar
esto de acordo com o descrito para a espcie com
destaque para a colorao amarelada brilhante das
orelhas e folha nasal. As dimenses do exemplar so
apresentadas na Tabela 1 e esto dentro da amplitude
registrada para a espcie, de acordo com os trabalhos
de Swanepoel & Genoways (1979), Willig (1983) e
Charles-Dominique (1990).
Este o primeiro registro de M. macconnelli para o
Brasil central, aumentando significativamente sua
distribuio ao sul (Figura 1). A espcie j havia sido
citada para o Cerrado, em enclaves na Amaznia,
prximo ao rio Tapajs, em Alter do Cho (Bernard &
Fenton 2002, Aguiar & Zorta no prelo).

Artibeus concolor Peters, 1865

Esta pequena espcie de Artibeus foi classificada em
um novo gnero (Koopmania) por Owen (1991).
Porm, o nome tem sido mais bem aplicado para a
designao de um subgnero de Artibeus (ver Simmons
Aparentemente endmica a Amrica do Sul, sua
distribuio inclui Guiana, Suriname, Guiana Francesa,
Venezuela, Colmbia, Brasil e Peru (Genoways &
Williams 1979; Eisenberg & Redford 1999; Simmons
2005). No Brasil, esta espcie bem documentada para
a Amaznia (Tavares et al. 2006), incluindo enclaves
de Cerrado prximo ao rio Tapajs (Bernard & Fenton
2002). Willig (1983) registrou esta espcie em enclave
de Cerrado da Caatinga na Chapada do Araripe, em
Crato no Cear.
O presente trabalho vem registrar a primeira ocorrncia
de A. concolor para o Brasil Central. Um nico macho
foi coletado com rede de neblina em um ambiente
fragmentado de cerrado sensu stricto na rea da

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Figura 1. Mapa com registros de Mesophylla macconnelli no territrio brasileiro, incluindo a

nova ocorrncia para o Cerrado em Serranpolis, Gois.

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Figura 2. Mapa com registros de Artibeus concolor no Cerrado Brasileiro: Alter do Cho (Bernard &
Fenton 2002), Chapada do Araripe (Willig, 1983) e o novo registro do Cerrado de Serra da Mesa em
Niquelndia, Gois. Em destaque as siglas dos estados com registro de ocorrncia da espcie.

Page 283

Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

mineradora Anglo American, no entorno do

reservatrio de Serra da Mesa, regio de Niquelndia,
Gois (14 07 S 48 21 W 470 m). A rea de coleta
bastante antropizada com acesso de muitos animais
exticos e domsticos, cortada por estradas de acesso
a fazendas e reas da mineradora. O local de registro
dista, em linha reta, 1250 km da Chapada do Araripe
(a distribuio mais ao sul conhecida at ento) e 1500
km de Alter do Cho, a outra rea de Cerrado com
distribuio da espcie (Figura 2).
As medidas do exemplar de Niquelndia no
apresentaram diferenas significativas das registradas
por Swanepoel & Genoways (1979), Brosset &
Charles-Dominique (1990), Willig (1983), Simmons
& Voss (1998) e Eisenberg & Redford (1999) para
espcimes da poro mais a norte de sua rea de

A Anglo American pelo apoio logstico e financeiro de
parte deste estudo. A Capes pela bolsa de estudo
concedido a L.A.G. Tomaz. Fabiano R. Melo pela
confeco dos mapas. A E. Bernard e R. Gregorin pela
reviso do manuscrito.

Aguiar, L.M.S. & M. Zorta. 2006. A composio de
espcies de morcegos nas reas do bioma Cerrado.
In: S.M. Pacheco; R.V. Marques & C.E.L. Esbrard
(Eds.). Morcegos do Brasil: Biologia, Sistemtica,
Ecologia e Conservao. USEB Unio SulAmericana de Estudos da Biodiversidade, Pelotas
(no prelo).
Bernard, E. 2001. Vertical stratification of bat
communities in primary forests of Central Amazon,
Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology, Cambridge,
17: 115- 126.
Bernard, E. & B. Fenton. 2002. Species diversity of
bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in forest fragments,
primary forests and savannas in Central Amazonia,
Brazil. Canadian Journal of Zoology, Ottawa, 80:
Eisenberg, J.F. & K.H. Redford. 1999. Mammals of
the Neotropics. The Central Neotropics. Chicago
and London, Univ. Chicago Press, v. 3, 609p.
Eiten, G. 1993. Vegetao do Cerrado, p. 17-74. In:
M.N. P INTO (Ed.). Cerrado - caracterizao,
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Universidade de Braslia, Braslia.
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of Chicago Press. 307p.

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Caldas; D.A. Gonalves; N.S. Santos; K. Tabor &
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2002. The Cerrado mammals: Diversity, Ecology, and
Natural History, p. 266-284. In: P.S. Oliveira & R.J.
Marquis (Eds.). The Cerrados of Brazil. Ecology
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Brazil. Ecology and Natural History of a
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History, New York, 206: 18-25.
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2.142 p.

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006


Marcelo Rodrigues Nogueira1, Leandro Rabello Monteiro1 & Adriano Lcio Peracchi2
1 - Laboratrio de Cincias Ambientais - CBB, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, 28013-600,
Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brasil. nogueiramr@gmail.com; lrmont@uenf.br
2 - Laboratrio de Mastozoologia - IB, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, 23890-000,
Seropdica, RJ, Brasil. aperacchi@webdigital.com.br

Abstract: We report on an additional evidence of bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus. Our record was obtained
during a single net session, when a female C. auritus was captured with a partially eaten Carollia perspicillata.
Preliminary data suggest that this latter species is very abundant in the region (a lowland Atlantic Forest area in
northern Rio de Janeiro state), corroborating the view of C. auritus as an opportunistic feeder.
Keywords: Atlantic forest, carnivory, Carollia perspicillata, Phyllostominae, southeastern Brazil

In the Neotropical region, bats with carnivorous feeding

habits (excluding fish-eaters) appear to have evolved
only in the speciose family Phyllostomidae, and, within
this, only among phyllostomines (sensu Wetterer et al.
2000). In this latter group, the incidence of carnivory
has been shown to be strongly related with bats body
size, with the larger species relying predominantly
(Chrotopterus auritus) or almost integrally (Vampyrum
spectrum) on vertebrate prey (Giannini & Kalko 2005).
These large bats are easily kept in captivity, where they
promptly accept, and efficiently manage, other bats as
prey (Greenhall 1968, Peracchi & Albuquerque 1976,
McCarthy 1987, Medelln 1988). In the wild, however,
available evidence suggests that C. auritus prey mainly
on rodents and V. spectrum on birds (Bonato et al.
2004), with only a few records reporting bat
consumption (e.g., Acosta Y Lara 1951, Arita & Vargas
1995, Bonato et al. 2004, Bordignon 2005). While this
may reflect an actual minor (if so) participation of bats
in their diet (e.g., Medelln 1988, Vehrencamp et al.
1977), it must be considered that our knowledge on
the feeding habits of these species is far from
satisfactory, which can be attributed, at least in part, to
the rareness in which both species occur in local
assemblages (e.g., Kalko et al. 1996).
On the night of 21 July 2006, we were collecting bats
for educational purposes at the Reserva Biolgica
Unio, municipality of Rio das Ostras, state of Rio de
Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, when we find a female C.
auritus entangled in one of our nets and at her side a
partially eaten female Carollia perspicillata (head,
chest and most part of the wings were missing; Fig. 1).
Although we did not directly observe the bat hitting

the net with its prey, we are not considering the

possibility of predation on the net, as recently attributed
to the omnivorous bat Phyllostomus hastatus (Oprea
et al., 2006). Not only was the time available for
predation insufficient (we were almost constantly
inspecting the nets and quickly noticed when the C.
auritus was captured), but the bat was too entangled
(and exhibiting little mobility on its arms) to be able to
produce the extensive damage we saw in the predated
bat. Additionally, non eatable bat parts, such as the
forearms (lacking in the predated Carollia), were not
found under the net. Our evidence, therefore, points
toward a natural predation event, not related to our
procedures in the area.
Our net session at Rebio Unio involved an effort of
90 net-meters-hours (three 6m nets exposed for five
hours) and was performed in a dirty road (trilha da
Jaqueira, 222610"S, 420301"W) surrounded by
mature secondary lowland Atlantic Forest (see
Rodrigues (2004) for a description of the diversified
mosaic of natural habitats found at Rebio Unio). The
female was considered adult based on phalangeal
epiphyses ossification, but showed no sign of
reproductive activity. It was captured at 20:30 PM and
its forearm measured 88.8 mm. This specimen
represented only 2% of our whole sample (N=44),
which also included the following taxa: C. perspicillata
(N=32), Sturnira lilium (N=5), Platyrrhinus lineatus
(N=3), Desmodus rotundus (N=1), Phyllostomus
hastatus (N=1), and Pygoderma bilabiatum (N=1). All
specimens were released after examination, since our
license did not include permission to collect vouchers.

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Figure 1. The carnivorous bat C. auritus and a partially eaten C. perspicillata, captured in a lowland Atlantic Forest area
in Reserva Biolgica Unio, southeastern Brazil.

Some authors have referred to C. auritus as an

opportunistic feeder (e.g., Sazima 1978, Bonato et al.
2004), which may also be the case at the Rebio Unio,
where C. perspicillata seems to be, by far, the most
abundant bat. Mello & Schittini (2005) also sampled
bats at this locality and found a similar strong
dominance of C. perspicillata (84% of the 206
individuals they captured). According to Fleming
(1988), predation may play a significant role in the
population dynamics of C. perspicillata, and may be
evocated to explain why this bat seems to be lunar
phobic (Mello, 2006). Our record, however, was
obtained during the darker phase of the moon, showing
that even under more favorable conditions the risk of
predation may be present. The only previous records
of bat predation on Carollia in the wild (and under
natural conditions) seems to be those from Fischer et
al. (1997) and Bordignon (2005), both inside roosts,
where most evidence of bat predation by bats seems to
come from (e.g., Acosta & Lara 1951, Arita & Vargas
1995, Arias et al. 1999, Bonato & Facure 2000). In the
instance reported here, however, cohabitation was
probably not the case, since our observations suggest
that C. auritus was transporting its prey while flying, a
situation that is typical of bats returning to their roost.
Predation on the wing, either around preys roost or
foraging/commuting areas (Fleming 1988), is a possible
but hard to observe alternative (Tuttle & Stevenson
1982). Complementary research planned to be carried

out at Rebio Unio may help to clarify if we

documented a rare event, or if bats (in this case, the
superabundant C. perspicillata) are a more regular prey
of C. auritus in this region.

We are thankful to Marcelo T. Nascimento for the
invitation to participate in the field course of the
Programa de Ps-graduao em Ecologia e Recursos
Naturais (Laboratrio de Cincias Ambientais Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense), to
Whitson J. C. Junior for granting permission to our
activities at Rebio Unio, and to Marco A. R. Mello
for comments on an early draft of the manuscript. All
authors receive financial support form FAPERJ. LRM
and ALP are also supported by CNPq.

Acosta Y Lara E. F. 1951. Notas ecolgicas sobre
algunos quirpteros del Brasil. Comunicaciones
Zoologicas del Museo de Montevideo Montevideo
3: 1-2.
Arias V., F. Villalobos & J. M. MORA. 1999. Cra de
murcilago en la dieta de Trachops cirrhosus

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

(Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en Costa Rica. Revista

de Biologia Tropical 47: 1137-1138.
Arita H. T. & J. A. Vargas. 1995. Natural history,
interspecific association, and incidence of the cave
bats of Yucatan, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist
40: 2937.
Bonato V. & K. G. Facure. 2000. Bat predation by the
fringelipped bat Trachops cirrhosus (Chiroptera:
Phyllostomidae). Mammalia 64: 241243.
Bonato V., K. G. Facure & W. Uieda. 2004. Food habits
of bats of subfamily Vampyrinae in Brazil. Journal
of Mammalogy 85: 708-713.
Bordignon M. O. 2005. Predao de morcegos por
Chrotopterus auritus (Peters) (Mammalia,
Chiroptera) no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul,
Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 22: 12071208.
Fischer E., W. Fischer, S. Borges, M. R. Pinheiro & A.
Vicentini. 1997. Predation of Carollia perspicillata
by Phyllostomus cf. elongatus in Central Amazonia.
Chiroptera Neotropical 3: 67-68.
Fleming T. H. (1988). The short-tailed fruit bat: a
study in plant-animal interactions. University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
Giannini N.P. & E. K. V. Kalko 2005. The guild
structure of animalivorous leaf-nosed bats of Barro
Colorado Island, Panama, revisited. Acta
Chiropterologica 7: 131-146.
Kalko E. K. V., C. O. Handley Jr. & D. Handley. 1996.
Organization, diversity, and long-term dynamics of
a Neotropical bat community. Pp: 503553. In Longterm studies of vertebrate communities. M.L.
Cody & J.A. Smallwood (eds.). Academic Press,
Boston, Massachusetts.
McCarthy T. J. 1987. Additional mammalian prey of
the carnivorous bats, Chrotopterus auritus and
Vampyrum spectrum. Bat Research News 28: 13.
Medelln R. A. 1988. Prey of Chrotopterus auritus,
with notes on feeding behavior. Journal of

Mammalogy 69: 841844.

Mello M. A. R. 2006. Interaes entre o morcego
Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) e
plantas da famlia Solanaceae. PhD Dissertation.
Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 144
Mello M. A. R. & G. M. Schittini. 2005. Ecological
analysis of three bat assemblages from conservation
units in the Lowland Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. Chiroptera Neotropical 11: 206-210.
Oprea M., T. B. Vieira, V. T. Pimenta, P. Mendes, D.
Brito, A. D. Ditchfield, L. V. Knegt & C. E. L.
Esbrard. Bat predation by Phyllostomus hastatus.
Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(1): 255-258.
Peracchi A. L. & S. T. Albuquerque. 1976. Sobre os
hbitos alimentares de Chrotopterus auritus australis
Thomas, 1905 (Mammalia, Chiroptera,
Phyllostomidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 36:
Rodrigues, P. J. F. P. 2004. A vegetao da Reserva
Biolgica Unio e os efeitos de borda na Mata
Atlntica fragmentada. PhD Dissertation.
Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense,
Campos dos Goytacazes, 53 p.
Sazima I. 1978. Vertebrates as food items of the woolly
false vampire, Chrotopterus auritus. Journal of
Mammalogy 59: 617-618.
Tuttle M. D. & D.E. Stevenson. 1982. Growth and
survival of bats. Pp: 105-150. In Ecology of Bats.
T.H. Kunz (ed.). Plenum Press, New York.
Vehrencamp S. L., F. G. Stiles & J. W. Bradbury. 1977.
Observations on the foraging behavior and avian prey
of the neotropical carnivorous bat, Vampyrum
spectrum. Journal of Mammalogy 58: 469478.
Wetterer A. L., M. V. Rockman, N. B. Simmons. 2000.
Phylogeny of phyllostomid bats (Mammalia,
Chiroptera): data from diverse morphological
systems, sex chromosomes, and restriction sites.
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural
History 248: 1-200.

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006


Luciana M. Costa, gata F. D. Prata, Dbora Moraes, Carla F. V. Conde, Tssia Jordo-Nogueira &
Carlos E. L. Esbrard

Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua So Francisco Xavier 524, sala
220, 20559-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, lucianamcosta@yahoo.com.br

Abstract: Movement of Artibeus fimbriatus over the sea. In Brazil, even though the use of permanent marking
methods in bats are rare, frugivorous bats are known to move, great distances both in the Amazonian savannas
and in urban areas. In this study, the use of permanent marking enabled to observe that Artibeus fimbriatus flew
across 21.7 km of sea demonstrating a possible genic flow between islands and the continent. It is also suggested
that these bats can move among more than 400 islands. Such observation reinforces the need to use definitive
marking of captured animals to improve movement and dispersal data.
Keywords: Chiroptera, Rio de Janeiro, islands and continent, permanent marking

Raros foram os pesquisadores que adotaram marcaes

permanentes em morcegos durante seus trabalhos de
campo, seja pelo desconhecimento dos mtodos de
marcao empregados em morcegos ou para reduzir
os custos em seus procedimentos de coleta. Com isso,
poucas pesquisas com marcao individualizada dos
morcegos capturados j foram realizadas por diferentes
pesquisadores no mesmo local por longos perodos,
ou em locais prximos que pudessem resultar na
determinao de longas sobrevidas ou de movimentos
entre reas. Apesar disto, grandes deslocamentos so
conhecidos entre os morcegos frugvoros sobre as
savanas na regio amaznica (Bernard, 2003) e sobre
reas urbanas (Esbrard, 2003).
No sul do estado do Rio de Janeiro trs locais esto
sendo rotineiramente amostrados para estudos
ecolgicos com morcegos pelos autores (Figura 1). A
maior parte dos animais capturados tm sido marcado
por mtodos de identificao permanente, com coleiras
constitudas de braadeiras plsticas providas de
cilindros coloridos (Esbrard & Daemon, 1999) ou por
linha de nylon 0,30 mm com miangas coloridas. A
marcao restringe-se s espcies mais comumente
capturadas e os exemplares de Desmodus rotundus tem
sido sacrificados.
O primeiro local, localizado na Reserva Ecolgica Rio
das Pedras, Municpio de Mangaratiba (22o 59 16,8"S
44o 06 40,5"W), amostrado desde 1993 a intervalos
irregulares para anlise da abundncia relativa de
morcegos, j tendo sido realizadas 40 noites e

analisadas mais de 1500 capturas e recapturas. O

segundo local, localizado na Ilha Grande, Municpio
de Angra dos Reis (23o 08 58,2"S 44o 13 58,5"W),
teve suas coletas iniciadas em 1997 (mais de 3500
capturas, mais de 250 noites de coletas) e hoje tem
restrito seu esforo de coleta a Trilha da Jararaca (240
m de altitude). O terceiro local, localizado na Ilha da
Gipia, Municpio de Angra dos Reis (22o 02 45,6"S
44o 21 48,1"W), destina-se principalmente ao controle
de morcegos hematfagos (Desmodus rotundus)
atacando animais e seres humanos, teve incio em 2004
e j foram realizadas 17 noites de coleta, obtendo-se
970 capturas e recapturas. O sul do estado do Rio de
Janeiro tem sido ainda amostrado por coletas isoladas
(2 a 9 noites), principalmente para controle de
morcegos hematfagos.
Em 16/07/2006 s 22h30min um exemplar macho
adulto de Artibeus fimbriatus (comprimento do
antebrao 69,76 mm e peso 78,6 gramas), com
testculos escrotados (3 x 3 mm), foi capturado na
Reserva Ecolgica Rio das Pedras em rede armada
junto a represa artificial, 20 dias aps ter sido capturado
e marcado na Trilha da Jararaca, Ilha Grande (peso =
81 g), quando ainda apresentava testculos abdominais.
Tal deslocamento (mais de 21,7 km) demonstra que
esta espcie e, provavelmente as demais do mesmo
gnero, mantm fluxo gnico entre as ilhas desta
enseada e o continente. Este deslocamento sugere ainda
que os morcegos podem voar entre as mais de 400 ilhas
observadas nas Enseadas de Sepetiba e Angra dos Reis
(Ururahy et al., 1983), muitas das quais possuem ainda

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

vegetao nativa. Tal observao refora a necessidade

dos pesquisadores brasileiros adotarem como praxe a
marcao definitiva dos animais capturados,
principalmente se os procedimentos de captura esto
sendo realizados prximos a outros pesquisadores.



Esbrard, C.E.L. 2003. Marcao e Deslocamentos em

Morcegos. Divulgaes do Museu de Cincias e
Tecnologia 2: 23-24.

necessrio o agradecimento a Reserva Rio das

Pedras, a Sogim/Fazenda da Gipia e ao CEADS/UERJ
pela permisso para coletas e apoio concedidos. As
coletas foram realizadas sob licena especial para
coletas concedida pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Meio
Ambiente (Processos 1755/89-SUPES/RJ/IBAMA e
4156/95-46 AC-SUPES/DF/IBAMA). C. E.L.Esbrard
recebeu uma bolsa do CNPq (processo 152910/20040).

Bernard, E. 2003. Bat mobility and roosts in a

fragmented landscape in central Amazonia, Brazil.
Biotropica 35(2): 262-277.

Esbrard, C.E.L. & C. Daemon. 1999. Novo mtodo

para marcao de morcegos. Chiroptera
Neotropical 5(1-2): 116-117.
Ururahy, J.C.C.; J.E.R. Collares; M.M. Santos &
R.A.A. Barretos. 1983. Folhas 23/24 Rio de
Janeiro/Vitria; geomorfologia, pedologia,
vegetao e uso potencial da terra. In: As regies
fitoecolgicas, sua natureza e seus recursos
econmicos. Estudo fitogeogrfico. Rio de Janeiro:
Projeto RadamBrasil, V. 4 (vegetao), 780 pp.

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006


Mrcia Baptista1, Anderson de Oliveira Monteiro2, Ndia Regina Pereira Almosny2, Helena de Godoy
Projeto Vida de Morcego Caixa Postal 70614 cep 22741-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Universidade Federal Fluminense, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinria, Laboratrio de Patologia Clnica.
aomont@ig.com.br e mcvalny@vm.uff.br

Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Ecologia, Rua So Francisco Xavier 524,
20559-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil RJ, bergallo@uerj.br

Atualmente existe uma grande preocupao mundial

no que concerne ao meio ambiente, sade pblica e
controle de pragas. O estudo dos morcegos est
relacionado a estas trs grandes preocupaes
mundiais, quando consideramos a disseminao de
sementes, a transmisso da raiva e o controle de insetos
vetores. Assim, os morcegos possuem grande
importncia para o equilbrio do planeta e isto justifica
um estudo detalhado de sua fisiologia visando a
preservao das espcies relacionadas.

Faz-se uma leve compresso digital sobre a veia

propatagial ou ceflica, imediatamente proximal ao
local de puno, funcionando como garrote. Aps antisepsia do local, perfura-se a veia propatagial pela face
ventral da asa com o auxlio de uma agulha hipodrmica
(13x3.8, 27.5G), tomando-se o cuidado para no
transfix-la. A perfurao pela face dorsal da asa ou a
transfixao da veia permitir que o sangue se espalhe
pela rea com mais plos, dificultando assim o
aproveitamento da amostra.

Cada vez mais, as anlises laboratoriais vm ganhando

espao na avaliao do estado fisiolgico de animais
selvagens, tanto em condies de cativeiro quanto em
populaes de vida livre. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos
descrevem valores laboratoriais nas espcies brasileiras
e alguns trabalhos consultados (Baptista & Esbrard,
1997; Caire et al., 1981) realizavam puno cardaca
seguida de eutansia dos animais para obteno de
amostras sangneas. Tal mtodo torna-se pouco
satisfatrio pois, alm de no permitir a utilizao dos
dados na avaliao clnica dos animais, esta tcnica
vai de encontro crescente preocupao com bem-estar

Uma vez ocorrendo o sangramento pelo local

perfurado, utilizam-se tubos capilares de vidro rinsado
com anticoagulante para colher as gotculas de sangue
que se formarem (a escolha do anticoagulante deve ser
feita de acordo com as dosagens a serem realizadas).
Para facilitar essa colheita das gotculas de sangue,
pode-se usar uma pipeta para tubos capilares
(Refloton). Aps a obteno da quantidade desejada
de amostra, transfere-se o contedo dos capilares para
tubos eppendorff e acondiciona-se o material
adequadamente em isopor contendo gelo para o
transporte at o laboratrio. Aps a venipuno, o local
de puno deve sofrer compresso digital a fim de
ajudar a coibir o sangramento.

O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever uma

tcnica de coleta de sangue venoso em
microquirpteros que no debilite os animais, visando
fornecer subsdios para estudos futuros sobre aspectos
hematolgicos e bioqumicos dos representantes deste
No presente estudo efetuou-se a colheita de sangue a
partir da veia propatagial e, para tanto, o animal deve
ser contido fisicamente e mantido em decbito dorsal
durante o procedimento. Para facilitar a visualizao
da veia propatagial, pode-se posicionar a asa sobre um
foco de luz (p.ex., uma lanterna) para transiluminao.

A quantidade de sangue colhida dever sempre ser

compatvel ao tamanho corporal do animal para no
debilit-lo a ponto de prejudicar sua capacidade de vo.
Morcegos tm um volume sangneo variando de 7 a
10 ml/100g de peso corporal (Neuweiller, 2000) e, de
uma maneira geral, mamferos saudveis podem perder
at 10% do volume total sem alterar sua rotina normal
(Jain, 1993).
Este mtodo tem se mostrado satisfatrio, visto que
no predispe a formao de hematomas. Alm disso,
os animais apresentam uma boa capacidade de vo
imediatamente aps a coleta permitindo o estudo de

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Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

parmetros hematolgicos diversos em animais de vida

livre sem provocar danos populao local. Por
conseguinte, o mtodo proposto pode ser utilizado em
estudos ecolgicos onde a avaliao clnica dos animais
possa fornecer dados relevantes aos planos de manejo
e conservao das espcies locais. Algumas recapturas
realizadas na mesma noite, horas mais tarde, e at
alguns meses depois veio a corroborar a idia de que o
mtodo proposto no debilita os animais ao ponto de
virem a bito.

Baptista, M. & Esbrard, c.. 1997. Valores

Hematolgicos de Artibeus sp e Desmodus rotundus
(Mammalia, Chiroptera). Revista Cientfica do
Instituto de Pesquisas Gonzaga da Gama Filho, 3
(2): 11-22.


Jain, N.C. 1993. Essentials of Veterinary

Hematology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Gostaramos de prestar nossos sinceros agradecimentos

s bilogas Viviane M. Lins e Shirley S. P. Silva pelas
sugestes e crticas e Alexandre M. Carneiro e Rodolfo
B Pinheiro pelo auxlio nos trabalhos de campo.

Caire, W.; Cox, B.L. & Levescy, B. 1981. Some blood

values of Myotis velifer (Chiroptera,
Vespertilionidae). Journal of Mammalogy, 62 (2):

Neuweiler, G. 2000. The biology of bats. New York:

Oxford University Press. 310p.


Page 292

Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Chiroptera Neotropical (ISSN 1413-4403) is a publication that deals with
aspects of Neotropical bats biology, ecology, biogeography and conservation.
The publication appeared in 1995, as a IUCN Newsletter, and since then it has
published articles of bat researchers interest in English, Spanish and Portuguese.
Its impression is of 1,000 units, and it is published two times per year (semester).
Manuscripts are now published as Articles or Short Communication and are
still revised by two anonymous referees. Chiroptera Neotropical is distributed
free of charge for all continents, to more than 400 people and institutions in 37
countries. Chiroptera Neotropical is indexed on Zoological Records (http://
scientific.thomson.com/support/products/zr) and Latindex (http://
Chiroptera Neotropical has being supported by the University of Brasilia,
Embrapa Cerrados, IUCN-SSC-Chiroptera Specialist Group. Since its first
number Conservation International - Brazil finances the costs of postage and
printing. This volume is sponsored by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

Please send contributions to:

Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar
Editor - BR 020 km 18 P.O. Box 08223
Laboratrio de Ecologia de Vertebrados - EMBRAPA Cerrados
73310-970 - Planaltina - DF - Brazil
Ricardo B. Machado
SAUS quadra 3 lote C - Ed. Business Point sala 722 - 70070-934 Braslia-DF, Brazil.
Enrico Bernard
Av. Governador Jos Maucher 652 - Edificio CAPEMI 2o andar Bairro Nazar
CEP: 66035-100, Belm, Para, Brazil.
Jader Marinho-Filho
Departamento de Zoologia - ICC Asa Sul - Campus Asa Norte Universidade de Braslia
CEP 70910-900, Braslia, DF, Brazil.

Chiroptera Neotropical home page

Design and Composition:
Ricardo B. Machado & Ludmilla Aguiar.

Page 293

Chiroptera Neotropical, 12(2), December 2006

Instructions for authors

Manuscripts should be sent to the editors by email
(chiroptera@uol.com.br) in MS-Word or RTF files. All
figures, maps or photos should be sent as separate files
and not inserted in text files. In this case, the files should
be in BMP or TIF formats and compacted (using
preferentially zip format). Manuscript must be typed
double-spaced and left justified only, with wide
margins, on consecutively numbered pages. The front
page must include: (1) the title of the article (2) the
name(s) of the author(s) with their complete addresses,
numbered in Arabic numerals; (3) an abstract in
English, including the title of the article if this is in
another language; (4) up to five key words in English,
in alphabetical order and different from the words used
in the title. Manuscripts submitted to Chiroptera
Neotropical will be sent to two anonymous referees.
The manuscript with the referees comments will be
returned to the corresponding author for evaluation.
Author's corrected version must be returned to the
Editor in three weeks.
The References cited in the text should be listed at the
end of the manuscript, according to the examples below.
The title of each periodical must be complete, without
abbreviations. Please, double check the consistency
between text cited references and references list.
Citations in article:

de extino da fauna de Minas Gerais.

A.B.Machado, G.A.B.Fonseca, R.B.Machado,
L.M.S.Aguiar & L.V. Lins (eds). Fundao
Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, Brasil. 608 p.
Illustrations and Tables Photographs, line drawings,
graphs and maps should be termed figures. Drawings
should be prepared with dense black ink. Photos must
be clear and have good contrast. Do not combine photos
and drawings in the same figure. Each figure must be
numbered in Arabic numerals. Tables, graphs and maps
may be submitted in a separate electronic file.
Acknowledgements, sources of financial support and
mention of institutional affiliations should precede the
For each article, 30 reprints will be sent to the
corresponding author.
Voucher Specimens
The manuscript should mention the museum or
institution where the specimens are deposited, when
appropriate, as proof of the validity of the taxonomic

Kunz (1978)
(Kunz 1978, LaVal 1990, 1991, Arita 1993)
(Hayssen & Kunz 1996)
(Machado et al. 1998)

The author or authors are fully responsible for the

scientific content and grammar of the article, whatever
the language in which it is written.

Arlettaz R. 1996. Foraging behaviour of the gleaning
bat Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae)
in the Swiss Alps. Mammalia 60: 181-186.
Hayssen V. & T. H. Kunz. 1996. Allometry of litter
mass in bats - maternal size, wing morphology, and
phylogeny. Journal of Mammalogy 77:476-490.
Brass D.A. 1994. Rabies in Bats: natural history and
public health implications. Livia Press, P.O. Box
983, Ridgefield, Connecticut 06877.352pp.
Aguiar L. M. S & W. A. Pedro. 1998. Lonchopylla
bokermanni (Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978). Pp:
64-65. In Livro Vermelho das espcies ameaadas

Page 294

Chiroptera Neotropical
Ludmilla Aguiar - Editor
BR 020 - km 18 - P.O. Box 08223
EMBRAPA Cerrados
73310-970 - Planaltina DF
chiroptera@conservation.org.br [new email]

Universidade de Braslia