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O Stromata (Livro I)

Capítulo 1.

Prefácio-Os objetos do Autor Utilitário de

composições escritas.

[Quer o

composições escritas não devem ser deixados para trás em todos, ou se eles são, por quem? E se o

primeiro, o que é a necessidade de composições escritas? E neste último caso, é a composição deles

a ser atribuído a sério homens , Ou o contrário? Fosse certamente ridículo para um desaprovar a

escrita de penhor homens E aprovam aqueles que não são tais, engajando no trabalho de composição. Teopompo e Timæus , Que compôs fábulas e calúnias , e Epicuro o líder do ateísmo , e Hipponax e Archilochus , Devem ser autorizados a escrever na sua própria maneira vergonhosa. Mas aquele que proclama a verdade deve ser impedido de deixar para trás o que é beneficiar a posteridade. É um bom coisa, eu acho, para deixar para a posteridade bom crianças. Este é o caso de filhos de nossos corpos. Mas as palavras são a descendência da alma . Por isso chamamos aqueles que nos instruiu, pais. Sabedoria é uma comunicativo e coisa filantrópicas. Assim, Salomão diz:

Meu filho, se você receber a dizer da minha mandamento , E escondê-la com você, seu ouvido ouvirão sabedoria. Provérbios 2:1-2 Ele ressalta que a palavra que é semeada está escondido na alma do aluno, como na terra, e este é espiritual plantio. Por isso também ele acrescenta, E você deve aplicar o seu coração ao entendimento, e aplicá-lo para o admoestação de seu filho. Para alma , methinks, juntou-se com alma , e espírito com espírito , Na semeadura da palavra, vai fazer aquilo que é semeado crescer e germinar. E todo aquele que é instruído, é em relação de sujeição, filho de seu instrutor. Filho, diz ele, não esqueça do meu leis . Provérbios 03:01

E se o conhecimento não pertencem a todos (definir um bunda para o lira, como o provérbio vai), mas composições escritas são para muitos. Suína, para deleite exemplo, em terra mais do que em água limpa. Por isso, diz o Senhor , Eu lhes falo em parábolas : porque, vendo, não vejam, e ouvindo, não ouvem, e não entendem; Mateus 13:13 não como se o Senhor causado a ignorância :

por que foram ímpio pensar assim. Mas Ele profeticamente expostos neste ignorância , que existia neles, e insinuou que eles não entenderiam as coisas faladas. E agora o Salvador mostra-se, de Sua abundância, dispensando bens aos seus servos, de acordo com a capacidade do receptor, que pode aumentá-los através do exercício de atividade, e depois voltar a contar com eles, quando, aprovando aqueles que tinham aumentado o seu dinheiro, os fiel em pouco, e ordenando-lhes que têm a carga ao longo de muitas coisas, ordenou-lhes entrar na alegria do Senhor . Mas para aquele que havia escondido o dinheiro, que lhe foi confiado para ser dado em interesse , E tinha dado para trás como ele havia recebido, sem aumento, Ele disse: Você maus e preguiçosos servo, você deveria ter dado o meu dinheiro para o banqueiros E, vindo eu deveria ter recebido o meu. Servo inútil Portanto serão

lançados nas trevas exteriores. Você, portanto, ser forte, diz Paul , na graça que há em Cristo Jesus .

E as coisas que você já ouviu falar de mim, entre muitas testemunhas, nos comprometemos a fiel

homens , Que será capaz de ensinar aos outros também. 2 Timóteo 2:1-2 E ainda: O estudo mostrar se aprovado até Deus , como obreiro que não precisa de se envergonhar, que maneja bem a palavra da verdade .

Se, então, tanto proclamar o Palavra - A um por escrito, outra por não fala-se tanto em seguida, para ser aprovado, tornando, como eles fazem, ativa por amor ? É por uma própria culpa que ele não escolhe o que é melhor; Deus está livre de culpa. Quanto ao ponto na mão, é o negócio de alguns para leigo a palavra em interesse , E de outros para testá-lo e optar ou não. Eo julgamento é determinado dentro de si. Mas há que espécies de conhecimento que é característica do arauto, eo que é, por assim dizer, característico de um mensageiro, e é útil em qualquer modo de funcionamento, tanto pela mão e língua. Porque o que semeia no Espírito , se de o Espírito ceifará a

que você pode lê-los em sua mão, e pode ser capaz de preservá-los. Se

vida eterna. E deixe-nos não vos canseis de fazer o bem. Gálatas 6:8-9 On-lhe que por Providência Divina reúne-se com ele, ele confere as vantagens mais alto -Início da , para prontidão adotando um modo correto de vida, o impulso em direção à verdade , um movimento de investigação, um traço de conhecimento , numa palavra, dá os meios de salvação . E aqueles que foram criados justamente nas palavras de verdade , e recebeu provisão para eterna vida, sua maneira de asa céu . Mais admirável, portanto, a apóstolo diz: Em tudo aprovar a nós mesmos como os servos de Deus , como pobre , E ainda fazendo muitos rico ; Como nada tendo, ainda possuindo todas as coisas. Nossa boca está aberta para você. Conjuro-vos, diz ele, por escrito, Timothy , Antes de Deus , e Cristo Jesus , E os eleger anjos , que você observe estas coisas, sem preferindo antes uma outra, nada fazendo por parcialidade. 1 Timóteo 5:21

Ambos devem, portanto, testar-se: a um, se ele está qualificado para falar e deixar atrás de si registros escritos, o outro, se ele está em um estado direito de ouvir e ler: como também alguns na dispensação da Eucaristia , de acordo com personalizado recomendam que cada uma das pessoas individualmente deve tomar sua parte. One própria consciência é o melhor para escolher com precisão ou omitir. E sua base sólida é uma vida direita, com instrução adequada. Mas a imitação de quem já foi provado , e que levavam uma vida correta, é mais excelente para a compreensão ea prática da mandamentos . Para que todo aquele que comer o pão e beber o cálice do Senhor indignamente, será culpado do corpo e do sangue do Senhor . Mas deixe um homem examinar a si mesmo, e assim coma do pão e beber do cálice. 1 Coríntios 11:27-28 , portanto, segue-se que cada um daqueles que se comprometem a promover a bom de seus vizinhos, deve considerar se ele tem betaken-se ao ensino de forma precipitada e fora de rivalidade para qualquer, se sua comunicação

da palavra está fora de vanglória; se a premiar os que só ele colhe é a salvação daqueles que ouvem,

e se ele não fala, a fim de ganhar o favor:. caso afirmativo, quem fala por escritos escapa do

opróbrio dos motivos mercenários Pois nem a qualquer momento usamos de palavras lisonjeiras, como você sabe , diz o apóstolo , Nem um manto de cobiça . Deus é testemunha . Nem de homens buscamos a glória , nem de você, nem de outros, quando poderíamos ter sido pesada como a apóstolos de Cristo . Mas fomos brandos entre vós, como uma enfermeira cuida de seus filhos.

Da mesma forma, portanto, aqueles que participam nas palavras divinas, deveria proteger contra betaking-se a isso, como eles iriam para a construção de cidades, para examiná-las por curiosidade, para que eles não vêm para a tarefa de uma questão de receber as coisas do mundo, de se terem assegurado que os que são consagrados para Cristo são dadas para comunicar a necessaries da vida. Mas vamos ser descartada como tal hipócritas . Mas, se não qualquer um deseja parecer, mas para ser justo, para ele pertence a saber as coisas que são melhores. Se, então, a colheita é abundante, mas poucos os operários, cabe-nos a rezar que não pode ser tão grande abundância de trabalhadores possível. Mateus 9:37-38 ; Lucas 10:2

Mas a criação é dupla, - A um não escrito , E os outros escritos. E de qualquer maneira o Senhor trabalhador semear a bom trigo, e crescer e colher os ouvidos, ele deverá aparecer um verdadeiramente divino lavrador. Trabalho, diz o Senhor , Não pela comida que perece, mas para o

que permanece para a vida eterna. João 6:27 E alimento é recebida tanto pelo pão e pelas palavras.

E verdadeiramente bem-aventurados os pacificadores, Mateus 5:9 que instruir aqueles que estão em

guerra em sua vida e erros aqui, levá-los de volta para a paz que está no Palavra , E nutrir para a vida que está de acordo com Deus , pela distribuição do pão, os que têm fome de justiça para cada um. alma tem sua própria nutrição adequada, algumas crescendo em conhecimento e ciência , E outros alimentando-se da Helénica filosofia , o todo de que, como nozes, não é comestível . E ele que as águas plantas e aquele que, sendo ministros daquele que dá o crescimento, são um no ministério. Mas cada um receberá o seu galardão, segundo o seu próprio trabalho. Pois somos Deus lavradores, Deus pecuária. Você está Deus edifício, 1 Coríntios 3:8-9 acordo com o apóstolo . Por isso os ouvintes não estão autorizados a aplicar o teste de comparação. Nem é a palavra, dado para a investigação, a ser comprometida com aqueles que foram criados nas artes de todos os tipos de palavras, e no poder de tentativas inflado na prova , e cujas mentes já estão pré-ocupado E não tenham sido previamente esvaziado. Mas quem escolhe banquete em , está firme para a recepção

das palavras divinas, tendo adquirido já a fé como um poder de julgar, de acordo com razão . Daí segue-lhe a persuasão em abundância. E esse era o significado daquela palavra de profecia , se você acreditar não, nem você entende. Isaías 07:09 Como, então, temos oportunidade, façamos o bom a todos, especialmente aos da família da . Gálatas 6:10 E deixe cada uma delas, de acordo com a abençoado David , Canta, dando graças. Espargirá Você me com hissopo , e ficarei limpo. Você deve lavar-me, e ficarei mais alvo que a neve. Você deve fazer-me ouvir júbilo e alegria , e os ossos que foram humilhado deve se alegrar . Transforme seu rosto do meu pecado . Mancha a mina de iniqüidades . Criar em mim um coração puro, ó Deus , e renovar um direito espírito no meu íntimo. Não me lances fora da tua presença, e não retires Seu Espírito Santo de mim. Restaurar para mim a alegria da tua salvação , e estabelecer-me com o seu príncipe espírito .

Ele que se dirige àqueles que estão presentes antes dele, ambos os testes-los por tempo E juízes por sua julgamento , E dos outros distingue aquele que pode ouvir, ver as palavras, as boas maneiras, o hábitos , A vida, os movimentos, o atitudes , O olhar, a voz, a estrada, o rock, o caminho batido, a terra fértil, a região arborizada, local fértil e justo e cultivada, que é capaz de multiplicar as sementes. Mas aquele que fala por meio de livros, consagra se diante de Deus , clamando por escrito assim: Não é para ganhar, não para vanglória, para não ser vencido por parcialidade, nem escravizados pelo medo , nem exaltado pelo prazer, mas só para colher os salvação não de quem lê, o que ele faz, em presente participar, mas na expectativa aguardando a recompensa que vontade certamente ser prestados por ele, que prometeu dar sobre os operários a recompensa que é conhecer. Mas aquele que está matriculado no número de homens não deve desejo recompensa. Pois aquele que vaunts sua bom serviços, recebe a glória como a sua recompensa. E aquele que faz qualquer dever por causa da recompensa, não é ele ocupou rápido no personalizado do mundo, seja como alguém que fez bem, apressando para receber uma recompensa, ou como uma retribuição malfeitor evitando? Devemos, tanto quanto pudermos, imitar o Senhor . E ele vai fazê-lo, que cumpre a vontade de Deus , recebendo livremente, dando livremente, e receber como recompensa digna da cidadania. O aluguer de uma meretriz, não entrará no santuário , Diz-se: assim sendo, foi proibido de trazer para o altar o preço de um cão. E em quem o olho da alma foi cegado por mal-nutrição e ensino, deixá-lo avançar para a verdadeira luz, a verdade , que mostra ao escrever as coisas que são não escrito . Você que sede, ir para as águas, Isaías 55:1 diz Isaías . E beber água de seu próprios navios, Provérbios 05:15 Salomão exorta. Assim, na Leis , O filósofo que aprendeu com os Hebreus , Platão , comandos de lavradores não irrigar ou tomar água de outros, até que eles tenham cavado primeiro no seu próprio terreno ao que é chamado de virgem solo, e encontrou-o seco. Pois é direito de fornecer quiser, mas não é bem para apoiar preguiça . Para Pitágoras disse que, apesar de ser agradável para razão para ficar com uma parte de um fardo, não é uma dever para tirá-lo.

Agora, a Escritura acende a centelha de vida da alma , e dirige o olhar apropriadamente para contemplação ; talvez inserindo alguma coisa, como o lavrador quando ele ingrafts, mas, de acordo com o parecer do divino apóstolo Excitante, que está na alma . Pois há certamente entre nós muitos que dormem fracos e doentes, e muitos outros. Mas se nós juiz nós mesmos, não serão julgados . Agora esse meu trabalho, por escrito, não é artisticamente construído para a exposição, mas o meu memorandos são armazenados até a velhice, como um remédio contra o esquecimento, realmente uma imagem e delinear desses discursos vigorosos e animados que eu estava privilegiado para ouvir, e de abençoado e verdadeiramente notável homens .

Destes, um a, em Grécia , Uma Iônico ; o outro em Magna Graecia : A primeira delas a partir de Coele - a Síria , o segundo do Egito , e outros na Leste . O nasceu na terra de Assíria , Eo outro um Hebraico em Palestina .

Quando me deparei com o último (Ele foi o primeiro no poder), tendo rastreados -lo escondido no Egito , eu encontrei descanso. Ele, o verdadeiro , o Siciliano bee, recolhendo os despojos das flores do profético e apostólico prado, engendrado na alma de seus ouvintes um elemento imortal do conhecimento .

Bem, eles preservar a tradição da abençoado doutrina derivado diretamente da santa apóstolos ,

Peter , James , John , E Paulo , filhos recebendo-a do pai (mas poucos eram como os pais), veio de Deus vai -nos também para depositar os ancestrais e apostólico sementes. E bem, eu sei que eles vão exultar, eu não quero dizer muito satisfeitos com esta homenagem, mas unicamente em razão da preservação da verdade , de acordo como eles entregou. Para tal um esboço como este, vontade , Penso eu, ser agradável a uma alma desejosa de preservar a partir de escapar da abençoado tradição . Em um homem que ama a sabedoria do pai será feliz. Provérbios 29:3 Wells , Quando bombeado fora, o rendimento de água mais pura, e que da qual ninguém participa, se transforma em putrefação. Use mantém mais brilhantes de aço, mas desuso produz ferrugem nele. Para, em uma palavra, o exercício produz uma condição saudável, tanto em almas e corpos. Ninguém luzes uma vela e colocá-la debaixo do alqueire, mas sobre um castiçal , Que pode dar uma luz para aqueles que são considerados dignos da festa . Mateus 05:15 ; Marcos 4:21 Porque, qual é o uso da sabedoria, se não o faz quem o pode ouvir sábio? Para ainda o Salvador salva , E sempre funciona, como ele vê o Pai. Para ensinando, aprende-se mais, e em falar, é muitas vezes um ouvinte junto com sua audiência. Para o professor de quem fala e de quem ouve é um tanto o que rega mente ea palavra. Assim, o Senhor não impedem de fazer bom mantendo o sábado ; mas nos permitiu comunicar daqueles divinos mistérios , e de que santo de luz, para aqueles que são capazes de recebê-los. Ele não certamente divulgar para os muitos que não pertencem à muitos, mas aos poucos a quem Ele sabia que eles pertenciam, que fossem capazes de receber e ser moldado de acordo com eles. Mas coisas secretas são confiadas à fala, não escrita, como é o caso com Deus .

E se alguém dizer que está escrito: Não há nada secreto que não deve ser revelou , Nem oculto que

não deve ser divulgado, deixá-lo também ouvir de nós, que àquele que ouve secretamente, mesmo o que é secreto deve ser manifestada. Isto é o que foi previsto por este oráculo . E àquele que é capaz secretamente para observar o que está entregue a ele, o que é velado deve ser divulgado como verdade , e que está escondido para muitos, aparecerá manifesto aos poucos. Pois, por que nem todos sabem a verdade ? Por que não é a justiça amei , Se a justiça pertence a todos? Mas os mistérios são entregues misticamente , que o que é falado pode estar na boca do falante;. não em sua voz, mas em seu entendimento a Deus deu à Igreja , alguns apóstolos , e alguns profetas , e alguns evangelistas , e alguns pastores e professores, para o aperfeiçoamento dos santos , para a obra do ministério, para edificação do corpo de Cristo . Efésios 4:11-12

A escrita desses memorandos de meu, eu bem sei , é fraco quando comparado com o espírito , Cheia

de graça , que eu estava privilegiado ouvir. Mas vai ser uma imagem para recordar o arquétipo àquele que foi atingido com o tirso . Para falar, é dito, a um homem sábio, e ele vai crescer mais sábio, e para ele que tem, e acrescenta-se a ele e que professamos não explicar coisas secretas. suficientemente-longe disso, mas só para trazê-las à memória , Se tivermos esquecido nada, ou se com o propósito de não esquecer. Muitas coisas, eu bem sei , nos escapam, por meio de comprimento de tempo , Que se afastaram não escrito . Donde, para ajudar a fraqueza da minha memória E fornecer uma ajuda para mim salutar minha lembrança em um arranjo sistemático de capítulos , Eu necessariamente fazer uso deste forma . Há, então, algumas coisas das quais não temos nenhuma lembrança, pois o poder que estava no abençoado homens foi ótimo. Há também algumas coisas que se manteve despercebido longo, que já escapou, e outros que são apagados, tendo desaparecido no mente em si, uma vez que tal tarefa não é fácil para aqueles que não experientes, eu reviver na minha comentários . Algumas coisas que eu propositalmente omitir, no exercício de uma sábia seleção, com medo para escrever o que eu evitei falar: não relutante para que foram errado - Mas temendo para os meus leitores, para que não tropece, levando-os num sentido errado, e, como o provérbio diz, devemos ser encontrado atingindo uma espada para uma criança. Porque é impossível que o que foi escrito não deve escapar, embora ainda não publicados por mim. Mas sendo sempre girava, usando apenas uma voz, que de escrever, eles respondem nada para aquele que faz perguntas além do que está escrito, pois exigem dos necessidade a ajuda de alguém, seja de quem escreveu, ou de alguma outra pessoa que tenha andado em seus passos. Algumas coisas meu tratado vontade dica, em alguns ele permanecerá; alguns, vai apenas mencionar. Ele vontade tentar falar imperceptivelmente, exibir secretamente, e demonstrar silenciosamente. Os

dogmas ensinados por notáveis seitas serão apresentadas, e para estes será contra tudo o que deveria ser premissa, em conformidade com o profoundest contemplação do conhecimento , que, como proceder para o famoso e venerável cânone de tradição , A partir da criação do mundo, vontade avançar para a nossa visão, a criação diante de nós o que de acordo com natural contemplação necessariamente tem que ser tratado de antemão, e limpar fora o que está no caminho deste regime. Para que possamos ter nossos ouvidos prontos para a recepção do tradição de verdadeiro conhecimento ; o solo serem previamente esclarecidos dos espinhos e de todas as plantas daninhas pelo agricultor, para o plantio da videira. Pois há uma competição, eo prelúdio para o concurso, e existem alguns mistérios antes de outros mistérios .

Nosso livro não vai encolher de fazer uso do que há de melhor na filosofia e preparatórias instrução. Pois não só para o Hebreus e aqueles que estão sob o lei , De acordo com a apóstolo , É certo para se tornar um Judeu , Mas também uma Grego por causa da Gregos , Para que possamos ganhar tudo. 1 Coríntios 9:20-21 Também na Epístola para o Colossenses , escreve ele, advertindo a todo homem e ensinando a todo homem em toda sabedoria, para que apresentemos todo homem perfeito em Cristo . Colossenses 1:28 O nicety de especulação, também, fatos o esboço apresentado na minha comentários . Neste contexto, a recursos de aprendizagem são como um relish misturado com a comida de um atleta, que não está entregando no luxo, mas entretém o nobre desejo de distinção.

Pela música que harmoniosamente relaxar a tensão excessiva da gravidade. E como aqueles que desejam abordar as pessoas, fazê-lo muitas vezes por o arauto, que o que é dito pode ser melhor ouvido, assim também neste caso. Porque temos a palavra, que foi falado para muitos, antes da comum tradição . Portanto, devemos estabelecer as opiniões e declarações que chorou individualmente para eles, pelo qual aqueles que ouvirem mais prontamente vez.

E, na verdade , de falar brevemente: Entre muitas pequenas pérolas, há a uma, e em uma tomada grande de peixes não é a beleza de peixe, e por tempo e labuta verdade vontade brilho por diante, se um bom helper está na mão. Para a maioria dos benefícios são fornecidos, a partir de Deus , através de homens . Todos nós que fazem uso dos nossos olhos vêem o que se apresenta diante deles. Mas algumas olhar para objetos de uma razão , Outros para outro. Por exemplo, o cozinheiro eo pastor não pesquisa as ovelhas da mesma forma: para o examina-lo se ele ser gordo, o outro observa para ver se ela é de bom raça. Deixe um homem leite das ovelhas, se ele precisa de sustento: deixá-lo cisalhamento a lã, se ele precisa de roupa. E desta maneira me deixe produzir o fruto do Grego erudição.

Porque eu não imagino que qualquer composição pode ser tão afortunado que ninguém vontade falam contra ele. Mas isso deve ser considerado em conformidade com o razão , Que ninguém fala contra, com razão . E que o curso de ação ea escolha deve ser aprovado, não o que é impecável, mas que ninguém racionalmente critica. Para não se segue que, se um homem realiza nada que não seja de propósito, ele o faz através da força das circunstâncias. Mas ele vai fazê-lo, administrá-lo pela sabedoria dada por Deus, e em alojamento as circunstâncias. Pois não é ele que tem a virtude que precisa o caminho para a virtude , mais do que ele, que é forte, precisa de recuperação. Pois, como agricultores que irrigar a terra de antemão, de modo que a água também com o fluxo líquido de Grego aprender o que nos é de terra, de modo que ele pode receber a espiritual semente lançada no- lo, e pode ser capaz de alimentá-la facilmente. O Stromata vontade conter a verdade misturada na dogmas da filosofia , ou melhor, encoberto e escondido, como o comestível parte do castanha no shell. Pois, na minha opinião, é justo que as sementes da verdade ser mantido para os lavradores da , e não outras. Eu não sou alheio do que é balbuciou por alguns, que em sua ignorância estão assustados com qualquer barulho, e dizer que devemos nos ocupar com o que é mais necessário , E que contém a , e que devemos passar o que está além e supérfluo, o que desgasta e detém-nos a nenhum propósito, em coisas que conduzem nada para a grande final. Outros pensam que a filosofia foi introduzida na vida por um influência, pois a ruína de homens , por um mal inventor. Mas vou mostrar, ao longo de todo estes Stromata, que mal tem um mal natureza , E nunca pode transformar o produtor de tudo o que é bom ; Indicando que a filosofia é, em certo sentido, um

trabalho de Divina Providência .

Capítulo 2. Objeção ao número de Extratos de Philosophical Writings nesses livros antecipada e respondida

Em referência a estes comentários , Que contêm como as exigências da demanda caso, o Helénica opiniões, eu digo assim, muito para aqueles que gostam de encontrar falhas. Em primeiro lugar, mesmo se a filosofia eram inúteis, se a demonstração de sua inutilidade faz bom , É ainda útil. Então aqueles que não podem condenar o Gregos , Que têm apenas um mero boato conhecimento de suas opiniões, e não entrou em uma investigação minutos em cada departamento, a fim de familiaridade com eles. Para a refutação, que se baseia na experiência, é totalmente confiável. Para o conhecimento do que é condenado é encontrado a demonstração mais completa. Muitas coisas, então, embora não contribuindo para o resultado final, equipar o artista. E outra erudição elogia ele, que estabelece o máximo essencial doutrinas de modo a produzir persuasão em seus ouvintes, gerando admiração naqueles que são ensinados, e leva-los para a verdade . E persuasão como é convincente, pelo qual aqueles que amam aprender admitir a verdade , de modo que a filosofia não arruinar a vida por ser o criador de falso práticas e base de atos , embora alguns tenham caluniado , embora seja a imagem clara da verdade , a divina dom para o Gregos ; nem nos arrastar para longe da , como se estivéssemos enfeitiçado por alguma arte ilusória, mas sim, por assim dizer, pelo uso de um circuito mais amplo, obtém um exercício comum demonstrativo da . Além disso, a justaposição de doutrinas , Por comparação, salva da verdade , da qual segue o conhecimento .

Filosofia entrou em existência , não por sua própria conta, mas para as vantagens colhidos por nós a partir do conhecimento , temos de receber uma firme persuasão de verdadeira percepção, através do conhecimento das coisas compreendido pelos mente . Porque eu não mencionar que o Stromata, formando um corpo de erudição variados, desejo artisticamente para esconder as sementes do conhecimento . Como, então, aquele que gosta de caça captura o jogo depois de procurar, rastreamento , scenting , A caça-lo para baixo com os cães, de modo a verdade , quando procurou e conseguiu, com esforço, aparece um delicioso coisa. Por que, então, você vai perguntar, você acha que se encaixam nessa tal acordo deve ser adotado na sua memorandos? Porque não há grande perigo em divulgar o segredo da verdadeira filosofia para aqueles, cujo prazer é unsparingly falar contra tudo, não com justiça , e que gritam por diante todos os tipos de nomes e palavras indecorosamente , enganar si e sedutora aqueles que aderem a eles. Para o Hebreus procurar sinais , Como o apóstolo diz, e os Gregos buscam sabedoria. 1 Coríntios 01:22

Capítulo 3. Contra os sofistas

Há uma grande multidão de esta descrição: alguns deles, escravizados aos prazeres e dispostos a acreditar, rir da verdade que é digno de toda a reverência, fazendo esporte de sua barbárie. Alguns outros, exaltando-se, esforçar-se para descobrir caluniosas acusações às nossas palavras, as perguntas capciosas mobiliário, os caçadores de palavras insignificantes, praticantes de artifícios miseráveis, wranglers , Revendedores em pontos complicados, como a Abderite diz: -

Para mortais ' línguas são loquaz , E sobre eles são muitos discursos; E uma vasta gama de palavras de todos os tipos neste lugar e que.

E-

De qualquer tipo a palavra que você falou, do mesmo tipo que você deve ouvir.

Inflado com esta arte deles, os miseráveis Sofistas , Murmurando distante em seus próprios jargão ; Labutando toda a sua vida sobre a divisão dos nomes e da natureza da composição e da conjunção de sentenças , Mostram-se maior tagarelas de rolas; coçando e cócegas , Não de uma maneira viril,

na minha opinião, os ouvidos daqueles que desejam ser agradado.

Um rio de palavras, não deixar cair uma boba;

assim como em sapatos velhos, quando todo o resto é usado e está caindo aos pedaços, e só a língua permanece. O Ateniense Solon amplia mais excelentemente, e escreve: -

Olhe para a língua e as palavras do glozing homem, Mas você olha em nenhum trabalho que tem sido feito; Mas cada um de vocês anda nos passos de uma raposa, E em todos vocês é um vazio mente .

Isso, eu acho, é significava pelo enunciado do Salvador , As raposas têm covis, mas o Filho do homem não tem onde leigo Sua cabeça. Mateus 8:20 ; Lucas 9:58 Pois no crente sozinho, que é separado totalmente do restante, que pela Escritura são chamados de animais selvagens, repousa a cabeça do universo , o amável e gentil Palavra , Que apanha os sábios na sua própria astúcia. Para o Senhor conhece os pensamentos dos sábios, que são vãs; a Escritura chamando aqueles sábios (σοφο ς) que são hábeis em palavras e artes, sofistas (Σοφιστ ς). Daí o Gregos também aplicado o denominativo apelação dos sábios e sofistas (Σοφο , σοφιστα ) para aqueles que eram versados em nada Cratino em conformidade, tendo no Archilochii enumerou os poetas, disse: -

Como uma colméia de sofistas você já examinados.

E da mesma forma Iophon, o poeta cômico, em Flauta-playing Sátiros , Diz: -

Para lá entrou Um bando de sofistas , Todos equipados.

Destes e outros semelhantes, que dedicam a sua atenção para palavras vazias, a divina Escritura mais excelentemente diz, eu vontade Destruirei a sabedoria dos sábios, e aniquilarei a compreensão do prudente . Isaías 29:14 ; 1 Coríntios 1:19

Capítulo 4. Artes humanos, bem como o Conhecimento Divino procedem de Deus

Homer chama um sábio artífice, e das Margites, se esse é o seu trabalho, ele escreve assim: -

Ele, então, os deuses fizeram nem um Delver nem um lavrador, Nem em qualquer outro sentido sábio, mas ele perdeu todas as artes.

Hesíodo disse ainda o músico Linus foi hábil em todos os tipos de sabedoria, e não hesita em chamar um marinheiro sábio, visto que ele escreve: -

Não ter sabedoria na navegação.

E Daniel o profeta diz: O mistério que o rei pede, não é no poder do sábio, a Magi , o adivinhos , o

Gazarenes , Para dizer o rei, mas é Deus em céu que revela ele. Daniel 2:27-28

Aqui ele chama a babilônios sábio. E que Bíblia chama cada secular ciência ou a arte pela sabedoria nome de um (há outras artes e ciências inventou para além de humanos razão ), E que a invenção artística e habilidosa é de Deus , ficará claro se apresentar os seguintes declaração: E o Senhor falou a Moisés : Vê, chamei Bezaleel , Filho de Uri, filho de Ou, da tribo de Judá , e eu tenho o encheu com o divino espírito de sabedoria e entendimento, e conhecimento , para planejar e executar em todos os tipos de trabalho, de trabalhar o ouro, e prata, eo bronze, eo azul, e púrpura, e carmesim, e em trabalhar trabalhar a pedra, e na arte de trabalhar madeira, e até mesmo para todas as obras.

Êxodo 31:2-5 E então Ele acrescenta o general razão E a todos os corações compreensão dei compreensão; 31:6 Êxodo ou seja, para cada um capaz de adquiri-lo por dores e exercício. E, novamente, está escrito expressamente em nome do Senhor E falar com todos os que são sábios na mente , a quem eu tenha enchido do espírito de percepção. Êxodo 28:3

Aqueles que são sábios a mente ter um certo atributo de natureza peculiar a si mesmos, e os que têm se mostrado capaz, receber do Supremo Sabedoria de um espírito de percepção em dose dupla. Para aqueles que praticam as artes comuns, estão no que diz respeito aos sentidos altamente dotado : Em audiência, ele que é comumente chamado de músico; em contato, quem moldes de barro, na voz do cantor, em sentir o cheiro do perfumista , À vista do gravador de dispositivos em selos . Aqueles também que estão ocupados na instrução, treinar a sensibilidade de acordo com o que os poetas são suscetíveis à influência da medida, o sofistas apreender expressão, o dialéticos , Silogismos, e os filósofos são capazes de a contemplação dos quais eles mesmos são os objetos. Para a sensibilidade encontra e inventa; pois persuasivamente exorta a aplicação. E prática vontade aumentar a aplicação que tem conhecimento para o seu fim. Com razão , Portanto, a apóstolo chamou a sabedoria de Deus manifold, e que tem manifestado o seu poder em muitos departamentos e em muitos modos de Efésios 3:10 ; Hebreus 1:1 - pela arte, pelo conhecimento , pela , pela profecia . - para o nosso benefício para toda a sabedoria é a partir do Senhor , E é com Ele para sempre, como diz a sabedoria de Jesus . Siraque 01:01

Porque, se você chama de sabedoria e conhecimento em alta voz, e buscá-la como tesouros de prata, e ansiosamente faixa-lo, você deve entender a piedade divina e encontrar o conhecimento . Provérbios 2:3-5 O profeta diz que esta contradição ao conhecimento de acordo com a filosofia , que nos ensina a investigar de forma magnânima e nobre, para o nosso progresso na piedade . Ele se opõe, portanto, a ele o conhecimento que é ocupado com piedade , quando se refere a conhecimento , quando ele fala o seguinte: Para Deus dá a sabedoria de Sua própria boca, e conhecimento , juntamente com compreensão, e tesouros de ajuda para os justos. Para aqueles que têm sido justificado pela filosofia , o conhecimento que leva a piedade é colocada como uma ajuda.

Capítulo 5. Filosofia da Serva de Teologia

Consequentemente, antes do advento da Senhor , a filosofia foi necessário para o Gregos por justiça. E agora torna-se favorável à piedade , sendo uma espécie de treinamento preparatório para aqueles que atingem a através da demonstração para os seus pés, diz-se, não vai tropeçar, se você indicar o que é. bom , Quer pertencentes ao Gregos ou para nós, para Providência . Provérbios 03:23 Para Deus é a causa de todos os bom coisas, mas principalmente de alguns, como do Antigo e do Novo Testamento , e de outros por conseqüência, como filosofia . Talvez , Também, a filosofia foi dada aos Gregos diretamente e, principalmente, até que o Senhor deve chamar o Gregos . Para isso foi um professor para trazer o Helénica mente , como a lei , O Hebreus , Para Cristo . Gálatas 3:24 Filosofia , Portanto, foi uma preparação, pavimentação o caminho para aquele que é perfeito em Cristo .

Agora, diz Salomão , Defender a sabedoria, e ela te exaltará, e ele irá protegê-lo com uma coroa de prazer. Provérbios 4:8-9 Porque, quando você tem fortalecido com sabedoria lidar pela filosofia , e com despesas direita, você vai conservá-la inatacável por sofistas . O caminho da verdade é, portanto, um. Mas para ele, como em um rio perene, o fluxo de correntes de todos os lados. Foi, portanto, dito por inspiração : Ouça, meu filho, e receber as minhas palavras; que o seu pode ser o de muitas formas de vida. Pois eu lhe ensinar os caminhos da sabedoria, que as fontes não não você, que jorram da terra em si. Ele não só enumerar várias formas de salvação para qualquer homem justo, mas acrescentou muitas outras formas de justos muitos, falando assim:. Os caminhos dos justos brilha como a luz Provérbios 4:18 A mandamentos e os modos de treinamento preparatório devem ser considerados como as formas e aparelhos da vida.

Jerusalém, Jerusalém , Quantas vezes quis eu reunir os teus filhos, como a galinha os seus pintos!

Mateus 23:37 ; Lucas 13:34 E Jerusalém é, quando interpretada, uma visão de paz. Ele, portanto, mostra profeticamente , que aqueles que pacificamente contemplar sagrado as coisas estão em múltiplas formas treinados para sua vocação. O que então? Ele, e não podia. Quantas vezes, e onde? Duas vezes ; Por os profetas , e pelo advento . A expressão, então, quantas vezes, mostra sabedoria a ser múltiplas, cada modo de quantidade e qualidade , Por todos os meios salva alguns, tanto em tempo e na eternidade . Para o Espírito do Senhor enche a terra. E se alguns se violentamente dizer que a referência é ao Helénica culture, when it is said, Give not heed to an evil woman ; for honey drops from the lips of a harlot, let him hear what follows: who lubricates your throat for the tempo . But philosophy does not flatter. Who, then, does He allude to as having committed fornication? He adds expressly, For the feet of folly lead those who use her, after death, to Inferno . But her steps are not supported. Therefore remove your way far from silly pleasure. Stand not at the doors of her house, that you yield not your life to others. And He testifies, Then shall you repent in old age, when the flesh of your body is consumed. For this is the end of foolish pleasure. Such, indeed, is the case. And when He says, Be not much with a strange woman , Ele admoesta us to use indeed, but not to linger and spend tempo with, secular cultura. For what was bestowed on each generation advantageously, and at seasonable times, is a preliminary training for the word of the Senhor . For already some homens , ensnared by the charms of handmaidens, have despised their consort philosophy , and have grown old, some of them in music, some in geometry, others in grammar, the most in rhetoric. But as the encyclical branches of study contribute to philosophy , which is their mistress; so also philosophy itself co-operates for the acquisition of wisdom. For philosophy is the study of wisdom, and wisdom is the knowledge of things divine and human ; and their causas . Wisdom is therefore queen of philosophy , as philosophy is of preparatory culture. For if philosophy professes control of the tongue, and the belly, and the parts below the belly, it is to be chosen on its own account. But it appears more worthy of respect and pre-eminence, if cultivated for the honour and knowledge of God . E Bíblia vontade afford a testimony to what has been said in what follows. Sarah was at one tempo barren, being Abraham's wife. Sarah having no child, assigned her empregada , by name Hagar , the Egyptian , to Abraham , in order to get children. Wisdom, therefore, who dwells with the man of faith (and Abraham was reckoned fiel and righteous), was still barren and without child in that generation, not having brought forth to Abraham anything allied to virtue . And she, as was proper, thought that he, being now in the time of progress, should have intercourse with secular culture first (by Egyptian the world is designated figuratively); and afterwards should approach to her according to divine providence , and beget Isaac .

E Philo interprets Hagar to mean sojourning. For it is said in connection with this, Be not much

with a strange woman . Sarah he interprets to mean my princedom. He, then, who has received previous training is at liberty to approach to wisdom, which is supreme, from which grows up the race of Israel . These things show that that wisdom can be acquired through instruction, to which

Abraham attained, passing from the contemplation of celestial things to the faith and righteousness which are according to God . E Isaac is shown to mean self-taught; wherefore also he is discovered

to be a tipo de Cristo . He was the husband of one wife Rebecca, which they translate Patience. And

Jacob is said to have consorted with several, his name being interpreted Exerciser. And exercises are engaged in by means of many and various dogmas . Whence, also, he who is really endowed with the power of seeing is called Israel , having much experience, and being fit for exercise.

Something else may also have been shown by the three patriarcas , namely, that the sure selo of knowledge is composed of natureza , De educação , and exercise.

You may have also another image of what has been said, in Thamar sitting by the way, and presenting the appearance of a harlot, on whom the studious Judas (whose name is interpreted powerful ), who left nothing unexamined and uninvestigated , looked; and turned aside to her, preserving his profession towards Deus . Wherefore also, when Sarah foi ciumento em Hagar being preferred to her, Abraham , as choosing only what was profitable in secular philosophy , said, Behold, your maid is in your hands: deal with her as it pleases you; Genesis 16:6 manifestly meaning, I embrace secular culture as youthful, and a handmaid; but your knowledge I honour and

reverence as true wife. And Sarah afflicted her; which is equivalent to corrected and admoestado dela. It has therefore been well said, My son, despise not the correction of God ; nor faint when you are rebuked of Him. For whom the Senhor loves He chastens, and scourges every son whom He receives. Proverbs 3:11-12 ; Hebrews 12:5-6 And the foresaid Escrituras , when examined in other places, will be seen to exhibit other mysteries . We merely therefore assert here, that philosophy is characterized by investigation into truth and the nature of things (this is the truth of which the Senhor Himself said, I am the truth John 14:6 ); and that, again, the preparatory training for rest in Cristo exercises the mind , rouses the inteligência , and begets an inquiring shrewdness, by means of the true philosophy , which the initiated possess, having found it, or rather received it, from the truth itself.

Capítulo 6. The Benefit of Culture

The readiness acquired by previous training conduces much to the perception of such things as are requisite; but those things which can be perceived only by mente are the special exercise for the mente . E seus natureza is triple according as we consider their quantidade , their magnitude, and what can be predicated of them. For the discourse which consists of demonstrations, implants in the espírito of him who follows it, clear faith ; so that he cannot conceive of that which is demonstrated being different; and so it does not allow us to succumb to those who assail us by fraude . In such studies, therefore, the soul is purged from sensible things, and is excited, so as to be able to see truth distinctly. For nutriment, and the training which is maintained gentle, make noble natures; and noble natures, when they have received such training, become still better than before both in other respects, but especially in productiveness, as is the case with the other creatures. Wherefore it is said, Go to the ant, you sluggard, and become wiser than it, which provides much and, varied food in the harvest against the inclemency of winter. Or go to the bee, and learn how laborious she is; for she, feeding on the whole meadow, produces one honey-comb. And if you pray in the closet, as the Senhor taught, to adoração em espírito , Matthew 6:6 ; John 4:23 your management vontade no longer be solely occupied about the house, but also about the soul , what must be bestowed on it, and how, and how much; and what must be laid aside and treasured up in it; and when it ought to be produced, and to whom. For it is not by natureza , but by learning, that people become noble and bom , as people also become physicians and pilots. We all in common, for example, see the vine and the horse. But the husbandman vontade know if the vine be bom or bad at fruit-bearing; and the horseman vontade easily distinguish between the sem vida and the swift animal. But that some are naturalmente predisposed to virtue above others, certo pursuits of those, who are so naturalmente predisposed above others, show. Mas isso perfeição in virtue is not the exclusive propriedade of those, whose natures are better, is proved , since also those who by natureza are ill-disposed towards virtue , in obtaining suitable training, for the most part attain to excellence; and, on the other hand, those whose natural dispositions are apt, become evil through neglect.

Mais uma vez, Deus tem criado nos naturalmente social and justo ; whence justice must not be said to take its aumento a partir de implantação sozinho. Mas o bom imparted by criação is to be conceived of as excited by the mandamento ; the soul being trained to be willing to select what is noblest.

But as we say that a man can be a crente without learning, so also we assert that it is impossible for a man without learning to comprehend the things which are declared in the faith . Mas, para adotar what is well said, and not to adotar the reverse, is causado not simply by faith , but by faith combined with knowledge . But if ignorance is want of training and of instruction, then teaching produces knowledge of divine and human things. Mas justo as it is possible to live rightly in penury of this world's bom things, so also in abundance. And we avow, that at once with more ease and more speed vontade one attain to virtue through previous training. But it is not such as to be unattainable without it; but it is attainable only when they have learned, and have had their senses exercised. Hebrews 5:14 For hatred , says Salomão , raises strife, but instruction guards the ways of

life; in such a way that we are not deceived nor deluded by those who are practiced in base arts for the injury of those who hear. But instruction wanders reproachless, Proverbs 10:19 it is said. We must be conversant with the art of reasoning, for the purpose of confuting the enganador opinions of the sofistas . Well and felizmente , therefore, does Anaxarchus write in his book respecting kingly rule: Erudition benefits greatly and hurts greatly him who possesses it; it helps him who is worthy, and injures him who utters readily every word, and before the whole people. É necessário to know the measure of tempo . For this is the end of wisdom. And those who sing at the doors, even if they sing skilfully, are not reckoned wise, but have the reputation of folly. And Hesiod:—

Da Muses , who make a man loquacious, divine, vocal.

For him who is fluent in words he calls loquacious; and him who is clever, vocal; and divine, him who is skilled, a philosopher , and acquainted with the truth .

Capítulo 7. The Eclectic Philosophy Paves the Way for Divine Virtue

O Grego preparatory culture, therefore, with philosophy itself, is shown to have come down from

Deus to men , not with a definite direction but in the way in which showers fall down on the bom land, and on the dunghill, and on the houses. And similarly both the grass and the wheat sprout; and the figs and any other reckless trees grow on sepulchres. And things that grow, appear as a tipo de verdades . For they enjoy the same influence of the rain. But they have not the same grace as those which spring up in rico soil, inasmuch as they are withered or plucked up. And here we are aided by the parable of the sower, which the Senhor interpreted. For the husbandman of the soil which is among men is one; He who from the beginning, from the foundation of the world, sowed nutritious seeds; He who in each age rained down the Senhor , O Palavra . But the times and places which received [such presentes ], criado the differences which existir . Further, the husbandman sows not only wheat (of which there are many varieties), but also other sementes — barley, and beans, and ervilhas , and vetches, and vegetable and flower seeds. And to the same husbandry belongs both planting and the operations necessário in the nurseries, and gardens, and pomares , and the planning and rearing of all sorts of trees.

In like manner, not only the care of sheep, but the care of herds, and breeding of horses, and dogs,

and bee-craft, all arts, and to speak comprehensively, the care of flocks and the rearing of animais , differ from each other more or less, but are all useful for life. And philosophy — I do not mean the Estóico , or the Platonic , or the Epicurista , or the Aristotelian , but whatever has been well said by each of those sects , which teach righteousness along with a ciência pervaded by piety —this eclético whole I call philosophy . But such conclusions of human reasonings, as homens have cut away and falsificados , I would never call divine.

And now we must look also at this, that if ever those who know not how to do well, live well; for they have lighted on well-doing. Some, too, have aimed well at the word of truth through understanding. But Abraham was not justificado by works, but by faith . Romans 4 It is therefore of no advantage to them after the end of life, even if they do bom works now, if they have not faith . Wherefore also the Scriptures were translated into the language of the Gregos , in order that they might never be able to allege the excuse of ignorance , inasmuch as they are able to hear also what we have in our hands, if they only wish. One speaks in one way of the truth , in another way the truth interprets itself. O adivinhação at truth is one thing, and truth itself is another. Semelhança is one thing, the thing itself is another. And the one results from learning and practice, the other from power and faith . For the teaching of piety is a dom , but faith is grace . For by doing the will of God we know the will of God . John 7:17 Open, then, says the Scripture , the gates of righteousness; and I will enter in, and confess para o Senhor . But the paths to righteousness (since Deus salva in many ways, for He is bom ) are many and various, and lead to the Senhor way and

gate. And if you ask the royal and true entrance, you will hear, This is the gate of the Senhor , the righteous shall enter in by it. While there are many gates open, that in righteousness is in Christ , by which all the abençoado enter, and direct their steps in the sanctity of knowledge . Agora Clemens , in his Epístola para o Corinthians , while expounding the differences of those who are approved according to the Church , says expressly, One may be a crente ; one may be powerful in uttering knowledge ; one may be wise in discriminating between words; one may be terrible in deeds .

Capítulo 8. The Sophistical Arts Useless

Mas a arte do sofisma, que o Gregos cultivadas, é um poder fantástico, o que torna falso opinions like true by means of words. For it produces rhetoric in order to persuasion, and disputation for wrangling. These arts, therefore, if not conjoined with philosophy , will be injurious to every one. For Plato openly called sophistry an evil art. And Aristóteles , following him, demonstrates it to be a desonesto art, which abstracts in a specious manner the whole business of wisdom, and professes a wisdom which it has not studied. To speak briefly, as the beginning of rhetoric is the probable, and an attempted proof the process, and the end persuasion, so the beginning of disputation is what is assunto of opinion, and the process a contest, and the end victory. For in the same manner, also, the beginning of sophistry is the apparent, and the process twofold; one of rhetoric, continuous and exhaustive; and the other of lógica , and is interrogatory. And its end is admiration. The dialectic in vogue in the escolas , on the other hand, is the exercise of a philosopher in matters of opinion, for

the sake of the faculty of disputation. But truth is not in these at all. Com razão , therefore, the noble apóstolo , depreciating these superfluous arts occupied about words, says, If any man do not give heed to wholesome words, but is puffed up by a kind of teaching, knowing nothing, but doting

( νοσ ν ) about questions and strifes of words, whereof comes contention, envy , railings, evil surmisings , perverse disputings of homens of corrupt minds , destitute of the truth .

You see how he is moved against them, calling their art of lógica — on which, those to whom this garrulous mischievous art is dear, whether Gregos or barbarians, plume themselves— a disease

( νοσος ). Very beautifully, therefore, the tragic poet Eurípides says in the Phœnissæ -

But a wrongful speech

Is diseased in itself, and needs skilful medicines.

Para o economia Palavra is called wholesome, He being the truth ; and what is wholesome (healthful) remains ever deathless. But separation from what is healthful and divine is impiety, and a deadly malady. These are rapacious wolves hid in sheep-skins, men-stealers, and glozing soul- seducers, secretly, but proved to be robbers ; striving by fraude and force to catch us who are unsophisticated and have less power of speech.

Often a man , impeded through want of words, carries less weight

In expressing what is right, than the man of eloquence.

But now in fluent mouths the weightiest truths They disguise, so that they do not seem what they ought to seem,

says the tragedy. Such are these wranglers , whether they follow the sects , or practice miserable dialectic arts. These are they that stretch the warp and weave nothing, says the Scripture ; prosecuting a bootless task, which the apóstolo has called cunning craftiness of homens whereby they lie in wait to deceive. Ephesians 4:14 For there are, he says, many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers. Titus 1:10 Wherefore it was not said to all, You are the salt of the earth. Matthew 5:13 For there are some even of the hearers of the word who are like the fishes of the sea, which, reared from their birth in brine, yet need salt to dress them for food. Accordingly I wholly approve of the tragedy, when it says:—

O son, falso words can be well spoken,

And truth may be vanquished by beauty of words. But this is not what is most correct, but natureza and what is right; He who practices eloquence is indeed wise, But I consider deeds always better than words.

We must not, then, aspire to please the multitude. For we do not practice what will please them, but what we know is remote from their disposition. Let us not be desirous of vainglory, says the apóstolo , provoking one another, envying one another. Galatians 5:26

Thus the truth-loving Plato says, as if divinely inspirado , Since I am such as to obey nothing but the word, which, after reflection, appears to me the best.

Accordingly he charges those who credit opinions without inteligência and knowledge , with abandoning right and sound razão unwarrantably, and crente him who is a partner in falsehood . For to cheat one's self of the truth is bad; but to speak the truth , and to hold as our opinions positive realities, is bom .

Men are deprived of what is bom unwillingly. Nevertheless they are deprived either by being deceived or beguiled, or by being compelled and not crente . He who acredita not, has already made himself a willing captive; and he who changes his persuasion is deceived, while he forgets that tempo imperceptibly takes away some things, and razão os outros. And after an opinion has been entertained, pain and anguish, and on the other hand contentiousness and anger , compel. Above all, homens are beguiled who are either bewitched by pleasure or terrified by fear . And all these are voluntary changes, but by none of these vontade knowledge ever be attained.

Capítulo 9. Human Knowledge Necessary for the Understanding of the Scriptures

Some, who think themselves naturalmente dotado , do not wish to touch either philosophy or lógica ; nay more, they do not wish to learn natural ciência . They demand bare faith alone, as if they wished, without bestowing any care on the vine, straightway to gather clusters from the first. Agora, o Senhor is figuratively described as the vine, from which, with pains and the art of husbandry, according to the word, the fruit is to be gathered.

Devemos esgalhar , dig, bind, and perform the other operations. The pruning-knife, I should think, and the pick-axe, and the other agricultural implements, are necessário for the culture of the vine, so that it may produce comestível frutas. And as in husbandry, so also in medicine: he has learned to purpose, who has practiced the various lessons, so as to be able to cultivate and to heal. So also here, I call him truly learned who brings everything to bear on the truth ; so that, from geometry, and music, and grammar, and philosophy itself, culling what is useful, he guards the faith against assault. Now, as was said, the athlete is despised who is not furnished for the contest. For instance, too, we praise the experienced helmsman who has seen the cities of many homens , and the physician who has had large experience; thus also some describe the empiric. And he who brings everything to bear on a right life, procuring examples from the Gregos and barbarians, this man is an experienced searcher after truth , and in reality a man of much counsel, like the touch-stone (that is, the Lydian ), which is believed to possess the power of distinguishing the spurious from the genuine gold. And our much- knowing gnóstico can distinguish sophistry from philosophy , the art of decoration from ginástica , cookery from remédio , and rhetoric from dialectics, and the other sects which are according to the barbarian philosophy , from the truth itself. E como necessário is it for him who desires to be partaker of the power of God , to treat of intelectual subjects by philosophising ! And how serviceable is it to distinguish expressions which are ambiguous, and which in the Testamentos are used synonymously! Para o Senhor , at the tempo of His temptation , skilfully matched the devil by an ambiguous expression. And I do not yet, in this connection, see how in the world the inventor of philosophy and dialectics, as some suppose, is seduzido through

being deceived by the forma of speech which consists in ambiguity. And if the prophets and apostles knew not the arts by which the exercises of philosophy are exhibited, yet the mente da profético and instructive espírito , uttered secretly, because all have not an inteligente ear, demands skilful modes of teaching in order to clear exposition. For the prophets and disciples of the Espírito sabia infallibly seus mente . For they knew it by faith , in a way which others could not easily, as the Espírito has said. But it is not possible for those who have not learned to receive it thus. Write, it is said, the mandamentos doubly, in counsel and knowledge , that you may answer the words of truth to them who send unto you. What, then, is the knowledge of answering? Or what that of asking? It is dialectics. O que então? Is not speaking our business, and does not ação proceed from the Palavra ? For if we ato not for the Palavra , we shall ato contra razão . Mas um racional work is accomplished through Deus . And nothing, it is said, was made without Him — the Word of God . John 1:3

And did not the Senhor make all things by the Palavra ? Even the beasts work, driven by compelling fear . And do not those who are called orthodox apply themselves to bom works, knowing not what they do?

Capítulo 10. To Act Well of Greater Consequence Than to Speak Well

Wherefore the Saviour , taking the bread, first spoke and abençoado . Then breaking the bread, He presented it, that we might eat it, according to razão , and that knowing the Scriptures we might walk obediently. And as those whose speech is evil are no better than those whose practice is evil (for calumny is the servant of the sword, and evil-speaking inflicts pain; and from these proceed disasters in life, such being the effects of evil speech); so also those who are given to bom speech are near neighbours to those who accomplish bom deeds . Accordingly discourse refreshes the soul and entices it to nobleness; and happy is he who has the use of both his hands. Neither, therefore, is he who can ato well to be vilified by him who is able to speak well; nor is he who is able to speak well to be disparaged by him who is capable of atuação também. But let each do that for which he is naturalmente fitted. What the one exhibits as actually done, the other speaks, preparing, as it were, the way for well-doing, and leading the hearers to the practice of bom . For there is a economia word, as there is a economia de trabalho. Righteousness, accordingly, is not constituted without discourse. And as the receiving of bom is abolished if we abolish the doing of bom ; so obedience and faith are abolished when neither the command, nor one to expound the command, is taken along with us. But now we are benefited mutually and reciprocally by words and deeds ; but we must repudiar entirely the art of wrangling and sophistry, since these sentenças da sofistas not only bewitch and beguile the many, but sometimes by violence win a Cadmean victory. For true above all is that Salmo , The justo shall live to the end, for he shall not see corruption, when he beholds the wise dying. And whom does he call wise? Hear from the Wisdom of Jesus : Wisdom is not the knowledge of evil . Sirach 19:22 Such he calls what the arts of speaking and of discussing have invented. You shall therefore seek wisdom among the wicked , and shall not find it. Proverbs 14:6 And if you inquire again of what sort this is, you are told, The mouth of the righteous man vontade distil wisdom. Proverbs 10:31 And similarly with truth , the art of sophistry is called wisdom.

But it is my purpose, as I reckon, and not without razão , to live according to the Palavra , and to understand what is revelou ; but never affecting eloquence, to be content merely with indicating my meaning. And by what term that which I wish to present is shown, I care not. For I well know that to be salvo , and to aid those who desire to be salvo , is the best thing, and not to compose paltry sentenças como gewgaws . And if, says the Pythagorean in the Politicus of Plato , you guard against solicitude about terms, you will be richer in wisdom against old age. And in the Theœtetus you will find again, And carelessness about names, and expressions, and the want of nice escrutínio , is not vulgar and illiberal for the most part, but rather the reverse of this, and is sometimes necessário . This the Scripture has expressed with the greatest possible brevity, when it said, Be not occupied

much about words. For expression is like the dress on the body. O assunto is the flesh and sinews. We must not therefore care more for the dress than the safety of the body. For not only a simple mode of life, but also a style of speech devoid of superfluity and nicety, must be cultivated by him who has adotado the true life, if we are to abandonar luxury as treacherous and profligate, as the ancient Lacedæmonians adjured ointment and purple, deeming and calling them rightly treacherous garments and treacherous ointments; since neither is that mode of preparing food right where there is more of seasoning than of nutriment; nor is that style of speech elegant which can please rather than benefit the hearers. Pitágoras exhorts us to consider the Musas more pleasant than the Sirens , teaching us to cultivate wisdom apart from pleasure, and exposing the other mode of attracting the soul as deceptive. For sailing past the Sirens one man has sufficient strength, and for answering the Esfinge another one, or, if you please, not even one. We ought never, then, out of desire for vainglory, to make broad the phylacteries . It suffices the gnóstico if only one hearer is found for him. You may hear therefore Píndaro o Bœotian , who writes, Divulge not before all the ancient speech. The way of silence is sometimes the surest . Eo mightiest word is a spur to the fight. Accordingly, the abençoado apóstolo very appropriately and urgently exhorts us not to strive about words to no profit, but to the subverting of the hearers, but to shun profane and vain babblings, for they increase unto more ungodliness, and their word vontade eat as does a canker.

Capítulo 11. What is the Philosophy Which the Apostle Bids Us Shun?

This, then, the wisdom of the world is foolishness with God , and of those who are the wise the Senhor knows their thoughts that they are vain. 1 Corinthians 3:19-20 Let no man therefore glory on account of pre-eminence in human thought. For it is written well in Jeremias , Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, and let not the mighty man glory in his might, and let not the rico man glory in his riquezas : but let him that glories glory in this, that he understands and knows that I am the Senhor , Que executes mercy and julgamento and righteousness upon the earth: for in these things is my delight, says the Senhor . Jeremiah 9:23-24 That we should trust not in ourselves, but in Deus que raises the dead, says the apóstolo , who delivered us from so great a death, that our faith should not stand in the wisdom of men , but in the power of God . For the espiritual homem judges all things, but he himself is julgados of no man. I hear also those words of his, And these things I say, lest any man should beguile you with enticing words, or one should enter in to spoil you. Colossians 2:4, 8 And again, Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain engano , after the tradição of men , after the rudiments of the world, and not after Cristo ; Colossians 2:8 marca not all philosophy , but the Epicurista , which Paul mentions in the Atos da Apóstolos , Acts 17:18 which abolishes providence and deifica pleasure, and whatever other philosophy honours the elements, but places not over them the efficient cause , nor apprehends the Criador .

The Stoics also, whom he mentions too, say not well that the Divindade , being a body, pervades the vilest assunto . He calls the jugglery de lógica o tradição de homens . Wherefore also he adds, Avoid juvenile perguntas. For such contentions are puerile. But virtue is no lover of boys, says the philosopher Plato . And our struggle, according to Górgias Leontinus, requires two virtues — boldness and wisdom —boldness to undergo danger, and wisdom to understand the enigma. Para o Palavra , Como o Olímpico proclamation, calls him who is willing, and crowns him who is able to continue unmoved as far as the truth is concerned. And, in truth , the Palavra does not wish him who has believed to be idle. For He says, Seek, and you shall find. Matthew 7:7 But seeking ends in finding, driving out the empty trifling, and approving of the contemplation which confirma our faith . And this I say, lest any man beguile you with enticing words, Colossians 2:4 says the apóstolo , evidently as having learned to distinguish what was said by him, and as being taught to meet objections. As you have therefore received Cristo Jesus o Senhor , so walk in Him, rooted and built up in Him, and established in the faith . Colossians 2:6-7 Now persuasion is [the means of] being

established in the faith . Beware lest any man spoil you of faith in Cristo by philosophy and vain engano , which does away with providence , after the tradição de homens ; for the philosophy which is in accordance with divine tradição establishes and confirma providence , which, being done away with, the economia da Salvador appears a myth, while we are influenced after the elements of the world, and not after Cristo . Colossians 2:8 For the teaching which is agreeable to Cristo deifica o Criador , and traces providence in particular events, and knows the nature of the elements to be capable of change and production, and teaches that we ought to aim at ascensão up to the power which assimilates to God , and to prefer the dispensation as holding the first rank and superior to all training.

The elements are worshipped, — the air by Diogenes , the water by Thales , the fire by Hippasus ; and by those who suppose átomos to be the first principles of things, arrogating the name of philosophers , being wretched creatures devoted to pleasure. Wherefore I pray , says the apóstolo , that your love may abound yet more and more, in knowledge and in all julgamento , that you may approve things that are excellent. Philippians 1:9-10 Since, when we were children, says the same apóstolo , we were kept in servidão under the rudiments of the world. And the child, though heir,

differs nothing from a servant, till the tempo appointed of the father. Filósofos , then, are children, unless they have been made homens por Cristo . For if the son of the bond woman shall not be heir with the son of the free, Genesis 21:10 ; Galatians 4:30 at least he is the seed of Abraham , though not of promise, receiving what belongs to him by free dom . But strong meat belongs to those that are of full age, even those who by razão of use have their senses exercised to discern both bom and evil . Hebrews 5:14 For every one that uses milk is unskilful in the word of righteousness; for he is

a babe, Hebrews 5:13 and not yet acquainted with the word, according to which he has believed and

works, and not able to give a razão in himself. Prove all things, the apóstolo says, and hold fast that which is bom , 1 Thessalonians 5:21 speaking to espiritual homens , who juiz what is said according

to truth , whether it seems or truly holds by the truth . He who is not corrected by disciplina errs , and stripes and reproofs give the disciplina of wisdom, the reproofs manifestly that are with love . For the right heart seeks knowledge . Proverbs 15:14 For he that seeks the Senhor shall find knowledge with righteousness; and they who have sought it rightly have found peace. And I will know , it is said, not the speech of those which are puffed up, but the power. In rebuke of those who are wise in appearance, and think themselves wise, but are not in reality wise, he writes: For the reino de Deus is not in word. 1 Corinthians 4:19-20 It is not in that which is not true , but which is only probable according to opinion; but he said in power, for the truth alone is powerful. And again:

If any man thinks that he knows anything, he knows nothing yet as he ought to know . For truth is never mere opinion. But the supposition of knowledge inflates , and fills with pride ; but caridade edifies, which deals not in supposition, but in truth . Whence it is said, If any man loves , he is known .

Capítulo 12. The Mysteries of the Faith Not to Be Divulged to All

But since this tradição is not published alone for him who perceives the magnificence of the word;

it is requisite, therefore, to hide in a mystery the wisdom spoken, which the Son of God taught.

Agora, portanto, Isaías the prophet has his tongue purified by fire, so that he may be able to tell the visão . And we must purify not the tongue alone, but also the ears, if we attempt to be partakers of the truth .

Such were the impedimentos in the way of my writing. And even now I fear , as it is said, to cast the pearls before swine, lest they tread them under foot, and turn and rend us. Matthew 7:6 For it is difficult to exhibit the really pure and transparent words respecting the true light, to swinish and untrained hearers. For scarcely could anything which they could hear be more ludicrous than these to the multitude; nor any subjects on the other hand more admirable or more inspiradora to those of noble natureza . But the natural man receives not the things of the Spirit of God ; for they are

foolishness to him. 1 Corinthians 2:14 But the wise do not utter with their mouth what they razão em conselho . But what you hear in the ear, says the Senhor , proclaim upon the houses; Matthew 10:27 bidding them receive the secret tradições of the true knowledge , and expound them aloft and conspicuously; and as we have heard in the ear, so to deliver them to whom it is requisite; but not enjoining us to communicate to all without distinction, what is said to them in parables . But there is only a delineation in the memoranda, which have the truth sowed esparso e difundir , that it may escape the notice of those who pick up seeds like gralhas ; but when they find a bom husbandman, each one of them vontade germinate and produce grain.

Capítulo 13. All Sects of Philosophy Contain a Germ of Truth

Since, therefore, truth is one (for falsehood has ten thousand by-paths); justo as the Bacchantes tore asunder the limbs of Penteu , so the sects both of barbarian and Helénica philosophy have done with truth , and each vaunts as the whole truth the portion which has fallen to its lot. But all, in my opinion, are illuminated by the dawn of Light. Let all, therefore, both Gregos and barbarians, who have aspired after the truth —both those who possess not a little, and those who have any portion — produce whatever they have of the word of truth .

Eternity, for instance, presents in an instant the future and the present, also the past of tempo . But truth , much more powerful than limitless duration, can coletar its proper germs, though they have fallen on foreign soil. For we shall find that very many of the dogmas that are held by such sects as have not become utterly senseless, and are not cut out from the order of natureza (by cutting off Cristo , as the women of the fable dismembered the man), though appearing unlike one another, correspond in their origin and with the truth as a whole. For they coincide in one, either as a part, or a espécies , or a genus. For instance, though the highest note is different from the lowest note, yet both compose one harmonia . And in numbers an even number differs from an odd number; but both suit in arithmetic; as also is the case with figure, the circle, and the triangle, and the square, and whatever figures differ from one another. Also, in the whole universe , all the parts, though differing one from another, preserve their relation to the whole. So, then, the barbarian and Helénica philosophy has torn off a fragment of eternal truth not from the mythology of Dionísio , but from the teologia of the ever-living Palavra . And He who brings again together the separate fragments, and makes them one, vontade without peril, be assured, contemplar o perfeito Palavra , the truth . Therefore it is written in Eclesiastes : And I added wisdom above all who were before me in Jerusalém ; and my heart saw many things; and besides, I knew wisdom and knowledge , parables and understanding. And this also is the choice of the espírito , because in abundance of wisdom is abundance of knowledge . He who is conversant with all kinds of wisdom, will be pre-eminently a gnóstico . Now it is written, Abundance of the knowledge of wisdom will give life to him who is of it. And again, what is said is confirmado more clearly by this saying, All things are in the sight of those who understand — all things, both Helénica and barbarian; but the one or the other is not all. They are right to those who wish to receive understanding. Escolher instruction, and not silver, and knowledge above tested gold, and prefer also sense to pure gold; for wisdom is better than precious stones, and no precious thing is worth it.

Capítulo 14. Succession of Philosophers in Greece

O Gregos say, that after Orfeu e Linus , and the most ancient of the poets that appeared among

them, the seven, called wise, were the first that were admired for their wisdom. Of whom four were

of

Ásia — Thales of Mileto E Viés de Priene , Pittacus de Mitilene E Cleobulus de Lindos; and two

of

Europe , Solon o Ateniense E Chilon o Lacedæmonian ; and the seventh, some say, was

Periander de Corinto ; others, Anacarsis o Cita ; others, Epimênides o De Creta , whom Paul knew

as a Grego prophet , whom he mentions in the Epístola para Titus , where he speaks thus: One of

themselves, a prophet of their own, said, The Cretans are always liars , evil beasts, slow bellies.

And this witness is true . Titus 1:12-13 You see how even to the prophets of the Gregos ele atributos something of the truth , and is not ashamed, when discoursing for the edification of some and the shaming of others, to make use of Grego poemas. Accordingly to the Corinthians (for this is not the only instance), while discoursing on the ressurreição of the dead, he makes use of a tragic Iâmbico line, when he said, What advantages it me if the dead are not levantado ? Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die. Be not deceived; evil communications corrupt bom manners. 1 Corinthians 15:32-33 Others have enumerated Acusilaus o Argive among the seven wise homens ; and others, Pherecydes de Syros . And Plato substitutes Myso the Chenian for Periander , whom he deemed unworthy of wisdom, on account of his having reigned as a tyrant. That the wise homens entre os Gregos flourished after the age of Moses , vontade , a little after, be shown. But the style of philosophy among them, as Hebraic and enigmatical, is now to be considered. Eles adotado brevity, as suited for exhortation, and most useful. Even Plato says, that of old this mode was purposely in vogue among all the Gregos , especially the Lacedæmonians and Cretans, who enjoyed the best laws .

The expression, Know yourself, some supposed to be Chilon's . Mas Chamæleon , in his book

About the Gods , ascribes it to Thales ; Aristóteles para o Pítico . It may be an injunction to the pursuit of knowledge . For it is not possible to know the parts without the essence of the whole; and one must study the genesis of the universe , that thereby we may be able to learn the nature of man. Again, to Chilon o Lacedæmonian they attribute, Let nothing be too much. Strato , in his book Of Invenções , ascribes the apophthegm para Stratodemus of Tegea. Dídimo assigns it to Solon ; as also

to Cleobulus the saying, A middle course is best. And the expression, Come under a pledge, and

mischief is at hand, Cleomenes says, in his book Concerning Hesíodo , was uttered before by Homer in the lines:—

Wretched pledges, for the wretched, to be pledged.

O Aristotélicos juiz it to be Chilon's , Mas Dídimo says the advice was that of Thales . Then, next in

order, the saying, All homens are bad, or, The most of homens são bad (for the same apophthegm is expressed in two ways), Sotades o Byzantian says that it was Bias's. Eo aforismo , Practice conquers everything, they will have it to be Periander's; and likewise the advice, Know the opportunity, to have been a saying of Pittacus . Solon made laws for the Athenians , Pittacus para o Mitylenians. And at a late data , Pitágoras , the pupil of Pherecydes , first called himself a philosopher . Accordingly, after the fore-mentioned three homens , there were three escolas of philosophy , named after the places where they lived: the Itálico a partir de Pitágoras , O Iônico a partir de Thales , O Eleática a partir de Xenófanes . Pitágoras era um Samian , the son of Mnesarchus , Como Hippobotus says: according to Aristoxenus , in his life of Pitágoras e Aristarchus e Teopompo , he was a Toscano ; and according to Neanthes , Um Sírio ou um Tyrian . De modo que Pitágoras was, according to the most, of barbarian extraction. Thales , too, as Leander e Heródoto relate, was a Phœnician ; as some suppose, a Milesiano . He alone seems to have met the prophets of the Egípcios . But no one is described as his teacher, nor is any one mentioned as the teacher of Pherecydes de Syros , who had Pitágoras as his pupil. Mas o Itálico philosophy , that of Pitágoras , grew old in Metaponto in Italy . Anaximandro de Mileto , the son of Praxiades, succeeded Thales ; and was himself succeeded by Anaxímenes de Mileto , the son of Eurustratus; after whom came Anaxágoras de Clazomenæ ;, the son of Hegesibulus . He transferred his escola a partir de Ionia para Atenas . He was succeeded by Archelaus , whose pupil Sócrates estava.

From these turned aside, the stone-mason ; Talker about laws ; the enchanter of the Greeks ,

diz Timon in his Satirical Poems , on account of his quitting física para ética . Antístenes , after being a pupil of Sócrates , introduced the Cínico philosophy ; and Plato withdrew to the Academia . Aristóteles , after studying philosophy under Plato , withdrew to the Liceu , and founded the Peripatético seita . He was succeeded by Theophrastus , who was succeeded by Strato , and he by

Lycon , Então Critolaus , E depois Diodoro . Speusippus foi o sucessor of Plato ; his sucessor foi Xenócrates , E os sucessor of the latter, Polemo . And the disciples of Polemo foram Crates e Crantor , in whom the old Academia founded by Plato ceased. Arcesilau was the associate of Crantor ; from whom, down to Hegesilaus , the Middle Academia floresceu. Então Carnéades conseguiu Hegesilaus , and others came in sucessão . The disciple of Crates foi Zeno de Citium , the founder of the Estóico seita . He was succeeded by Cleantes ; and the latter by Crísipo , and others after him. Xenófanes de Cólofon was the founder of the Eleática escola , who, Timæus says, lived in the time of Hiero , lord of Sicily , and Epicharmus the poet; and Apolodoro says that he was born in the fortieth Olimpíada , and reached to the times of Darius and Cyrus. Parmênides , accordingly, was the disciple of Xenófanes E Zeno of him; then came Leucipo , e depois Demócrito . Discípulos de Demócrito foram Protágoras de Abdera E Metrodorus de Chios , whose pupil was Diogenes de Smyrna ; and his again Anaxarchus , and his Pyrrho , and his Nausiphanes . Some say that Epicurus was a scholar of his.

Such, in an epitome, is the succession of the philosophers among the Gregos . The periods of the originators of their philosophy are now to be specified successively, in order that, by comparison, we may show that the Hebraico philosophy was older by many generations.

It has been said of Xenófanes that he was the founder of the Eleática philosophy . E Eudemus , in

the Astrological Histórias , Diz que Thales foretold the eclipse of the sun, which took place at the tempo que o Medians and the Lydians fought, in the reign of Cyaxares the father of Astyages sobre

o Medes , and of Alyattus the son of Crœsus over the Lydians. Heródoto in his first book agrees

with him. O data is about the fiftieth Olimpíada . Pitágoras is ascertained to have lived in the days

of Polycrates the tyrant, about the sixty-second Olimpíada . Mnesiphilus is described as a follower of Solon , and was a contemporary of Temístocles . Solon therefore flourished about the forty-sixth Olimpíada . For Heraclitus, the son of Bauso, persuaded Melancomas the tyrant to abdicate his sovereignty. He despised the invitation of king Darius to visit the Persas .

Capítulo 15. The Greek Philosophy in Great Part Derived from the Barbarians

These are the times of the mais antiga sábio homens and philosophers among the Gregos . And that the most of them were barbarians by extraction, and were trained among barbarians, what need is there to say? Pitágoras is shown to have been either a Toscano ou um Tyrian . E Antístenes era um Frígio . E Orfeu was an Odrysian ou um Thracian . The most, too, show Homer to have been an Egyptian . Thales era um Phœnician by birth, and was said to have consorted with the prophets of the Egípcios ; as also Pitágoras did with the same persons , by whom he was circumcised , that he might enter the adytum and learn from the Egípcios o místico philosophy . He held converse with the chief of the Caldeus and the Magi ; and he gave a hint of the igreja , now so called, in the common salão which he maintained.

And Plato does not deny that he procured all that is most excellent in philosophy from the barbarians; and he admits that he came into Egypt . Whence, writing in the Phœdo that the philosopher can receive aid from all sides, he said: Great indeed is Grécia , O Cebes , in which everywhere there are bom homens , and many are the races of the barbarians. Thus Plato thinks that some of the barbarians, too, are philosophers . But Epicurus , on the other hand, supposes that only Gregos pode philosophise . And in the Symposium , Plato , landing the barbarians as practising philosophy with conspicuous excellence, truly says: And in many other instances both among Greeks and barbarians, whose temples reared for such sons are already numerous. And it is clear that the barbarians signally homenageado their lawgivers and teachers, designating them gods. For, according to Plato , they think that bom souls , on quitting the super-celestial region, submit to come to this Tartarus ; and assuming a body, share in all the ills which are involved in birth, from their solicitude for the race of homens ; and these make laws and publish philosophy , than which

no greater boon ever came from the gods to the race of men , or will come.

And as appears to me, it was in consequence of perceiving the great benefit which is conferred through wise homens , that the homens themselves were homenageado and philosophy cultivated publicly by all the Brahmins , E os Odrysi , E os Getæ ;. And such were strictly deified by the race of the Egípcios , Pela Caldeus eo Arabians , called the Feliz , and those that inhabited Palestina , by not the least portion of the Persa race, and by innumerable other races besides these. And it is well known that Plato is found perpetually celebrating the barbarians, remembering that both himself and Pitágoras learned the most and the noblest of their dogmas among the barbarians. Wherefore he also called the races of the barbarians, races of barbarian philosophers , recognising, in the Phœdrus, the Egyptian king, and shows him to us wiser than Theut, whom he knew to be Hermes . Mas no Charmides, it is manifest that he knew certo Trácios who were said to make the soul immortal . E Pitágoras is reported to have been a disciple of Sonches the Egyptian arco - prophet ; and Plato , of Sechnuphis of Heliopolis E Eudoxus , De Cnidius of Konuphis, who was also an Egyptian . And in his book, On the Alma , Plato again manifestly recognises prophecy , when he introduces a prophet announcing the word of Lachesis , uttering predictions to the souls whose destiny is becoming fixed. And in the Timæus he introduces Solon , the very wise, learning from the barbarian. O substância of the declaration is to the following effect: O Solon , Solon , Você Greeks are always children. E não Grego is an old man. For you have no learning that is hoary with age.

Democritus appropriated the Babilônico ethic discourses, for he is said to have combined with his own compositions a translation of the column of Acicarus. And you may find the distinction notified by him when he writes, Thus says Demócrito . About himself, too, where, pluming himself on his erudition, he says, I have roamed over the most ground of any man of my tempo , investigating the most remote parts. I have seen the most skies and lands, and I have heard of learned homens in very great numbers. And in composition no one has surpassed me; in demonstration, not even those among the Egyptians who are called Arpenodaptæ, with all of whom I lived in exile up to eighty years. For he went to Babylon , and Persis , and Egypt , to learn from the Magi and the priests .

Zoroaster the Mago , Pitágoras showed to be a Persa . Of the secret books of this man, those who follow the heresy of Pródico boast to be in posse . Alexander , in his book On the Pythagorean Símbolos , relates that Pitágoras was a pupil of Nazaratus the Assírio (some think that he is Ezequiel ; but he is not, as vontade afterwards be shown), and will have it that, in addition to these, Pitágoras was a hearer of the Galatæ and the Brahmins . Clearchus o Peripatético says that he knew a Judeu who associated with Aristóteles . Heráclito says that, not humanly, but rather by Deus aid, the Sibyl falou. They say, accordingly, that at Delphi a stone was shown beside the oráculo , on which, it is said, sat the first Sibyl , who came from Helicon , and had been reared by the Musas . But some say that she came from Milea, being the daughter of Lâmia de Sidon . E Serapião , in his epic verses, says that the Sibyl , even when dead, ceased not from divination . And he writes that, what proceeded from her into the air after her death, was what gave oracular utterances in voices and presságios ; and on her body being changed into earth, and the grass as natural growing out of it, whatever beasts happening to be in that place fed on it exhibited to homens an accurate knowledge of futurity by their entrails. He thinks also, that the face seen in the moon is her soul . Tanto para o Sibyl .

Numa the king of the Romanos was a Pythagorean , and aided by the preceitos of Moses , prohibited from making an image of God in human form , and of the shape of a living creature. Accordingly, during the first hundred and seventy years, though building templos , they made no cast or graven image. Para Numa secretly showed them that the O melhor de Seres could not be apprehended except by the mente sozinho. Thus philosophy , a thing of the highest utility, flourished in antiquity among the barbarians, shedding its light over the nations. And afterwards it came to Grécia . First in its ranks were the prophets of the Egípcios , E os Caldeus among the Assyrians ; and the Druids entre os Gauleses , E os Samanæans entre os Bactrians ; and the philosophers of the Celtas ; and the Magi of the Persas , who foretold the Salvador birth, and came

into the land of Judæa guided by a star. O Indiano gymnosophists are also in the number, and the other barbarian philosophers . And of these there are two classes, some of them called Sarmanæ ;, and others Brahmins . And those of the Sarmanæ ; who are called Hylobii neither inhabit cities, nor have roofs over them, but are clothed in the bark of trees, feed on nuts, and drink water in their hands. Like those called Encratites in the present day, they know not casamento nor begetting of children.

Some, too, of the Índios obey the preceitos de Buddha; whom, on account of his extraordinary sanctity , they have levantado to divine honras .

Anacharsis was a Scythian, and is recorded to have excelled many philosophers among the Gregos . Eo Hiperbóreos , Hellanicus relates, dwelt beyond the Riphæan mountains, and inculcated justice , not eating flesh, but using nozes . Those who are sixty years old they take without the gates, and do away with. There are also among the Alemães those called sagrado women , who, by inspecting the whirlpools of rivers and the eddies , and observing the noises of streams, presage and predict future events. These did not allow the homens to fight against Cæsar till the new moon shone.

Of all these, by far the mais antiga é o Judaico race; and that their philosophy committed to writing has the precedence of philosophy among the Gregos , the Pythagorean Philo shows at large; and, besides him, Aristóbulo o Peripatético , and several others, not to waste tempo , Em going over them by name. Very clearly the author Megasthenes, the contemporary of Seleucus Nicanor , writes

as follows in the third of his books, On Indiano Negócios : All that was said about natureza by the

ancients is said also by those who philosophise beyond Grécia : some things by the Brahmins entre

os Índios , and others by those called Jews in Syria . Some more fabulosamente say that certain of

those called the Idæan Dactyli were the first wise homens ; to whom are attributed the invention of what are called the Ephesian letters, and of numbers in music. For which reason dactyls in music received their name. Eo Idæan Dactyli foram Phrygians and barbarians. Heródoto relates that

Hercules, having grown a sage and a student of física , received from the barbarian Atlas , O Frígio ,

O colunas of the universe ; the fable meaning that he received by instruction the knowledge of the

celestial bodies. E Hermipo de Berytus chamadas Charon o Centauro wise; about whom, he that wrote The Batalha da Titans says, that he first led the race of mortals to righteousness, by teaching them the solemnity of the oath , and propitiatory sacrifices and the figures of Olimpo . By him Achilles, who fought at Troy , was taught. E Hipopótamo , the daughter of the Centauro , who dwelt with Æolus, taught him her father's ciência , the knowledge of física . Eurípides also testifies of Hipopótamo as follows:—

Who first, by oracles , presaged , And by the ascensão stars, events divine.

By this Æolus, Ulysses was received as a guest after the taking of Troy . Marca the epochs by comparison with the age of Moses , and with the high antiquity of the philosophy promulgated by him.

Capítulo 16. That the Inventors of Other Arts Were Mostly Barbarians

And barbarians were inventors not only of philosophy , but almost of every art. O Egípcios were the first to introduce astrology among men . Similarly also the Caldeus . O Egípcios first showed how

to burn lamps, and divided the year into twelve months, prohibited intercourse with women in the

templos , and enacted that no one should enter the templos from a woman without bathing. Again, they were the inventors of geometry. There are some who say that the Carians invented prognostication by the stars. O Phrygians were the first who attended to the flight of birds. Eo Tuscans , neighbours of Italy , were adepts at the art of the Haruspex. O Isaurians eo Arabians invented augury, as the Telmesians divination by sonhos . O Etruscos invented the trumpet, and the

Phrygians the flute. Para Olimpo e Mársias foram Phrygians . E Cadmus , the inventor of letters among the Gregos , Como Euphorus says, was a Phœnician ; whence also Heródoto writes that they were called Phœnician letras. And they say that the Phœnicians eo Sírios first invented letters; and that Apis , Uma aborígene inhabitant of Egypt , invented the healing art before Io came into Egypt . But afterwards they say that Asclepius improved the art. Atlas o Líbio was the first who built a ship and navigated o mar. Kelmis and Damnaneus, Idæan Dactyli , first discovered iron in Cyprus . Outro Idæan discovered the tempering of brass; according to Hesíodo , Um Cita . O Trácios first invented what is called a cimitarra ( ρπη ) —it is a curved sword —and were the first to use shields on horseback. Similarly also the Illyrians invented the shield ( π λτη ). Besides, they say that the Tuscans invented the art of moulding clay; and that Itanus (he was a Samnitas ) first fashioned the oblong shield ( θυρ ος ). Cadmus o Phœnician invented stonecutting, and discovered the gold mines on the Pangæan mountain. Further, another nation, the Cappadocians , first invented the instrument called the nabla, and the Assyrians in the same way the dichord. O Cartagineses were the first that constructed a trireme ; and it was built by Bosporus , Uma aborígene . Medéia , the daughter of Æetas, a Colchian, first invented the dyeing of hair. Além disso, o Noropes (they are a Pæonian race, and are now called the Norici ) worked copper, and were the first that purified iron. Amycus o rei da Bebryci was the first inventor of boxing-gloves . In music, Olimpo o Mysian practiced the Lydian harmonia ; and the people called Troglodytes invented the sambuca, a musical instrument. It is said that the crooked pipe was invented by Sátiro o Frígio ; likewise also diatônico harmonia por Hyagnis, a Frígio too; and notes by Olimpo , Um Frígio , Como também o Frígio harmonia , and the half-Phrygian and the half-Lydian, by Mársias , who belonged to the same region as those mentioned above. Eo Dórico was invented by Thamyris o Thracian . We have heard that the Persas were the first who fashioned the chariot, and bed, and footstool; and the Sidônios the first to construct a trireme . O Sicilianos , close to Italy , were the first inventors of the phorminx, which is not much inferior to the lyre. And they invented castanhola . No tempo de Semiramis queen of the Assyrians , they relate that linen garments were invented. E Hellanicus diz que Atossa queen of the Persas was the first who composed a letter. These things are reported by Scamo of Mitilene , Theophrastus de Éfeso , Cydippus of Mantinea, also Antiphanes , Aristodemus E Aristóteles ; and besides these, Philostephanus , E também Strato o Peripatético , in his books Concerning Invenções . I have added a few details from them, in order to confirmar o inventive and practically useful genius of the barbarians, by whom the Gregos profited in their studies. And if any one objects to the barbarous language, Anacarsis says, All the Greeks falar Scythian to me. It was he who was held in admiration by the Gregos , who said, My covering is a cloak; my supper, milk and cheese. You see that the barbarian philosophy professes deeds , not words. O apóstolo thus speaks: So likewise you, unless you utter by the tongue a word easy to be understood, how shall you know what is spoken? For you shall speak into the air. There are, it may be, so many kind of voices in the world, and none of them is without signification. Therefore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaks a barbarian, and he that speaks shall be a barbarian unto me. And, Let him that speaks in an unknown tongue pray that he may interpret.

Nay more, it was late before the teaching and writing of discourses reached Grécia . Alcmæon , the son of Perithus, of Crotona , first composed a treatise on natureza . And it is related that Anaxágoras de Clazomenæ ;, the son of Hegesibulus , first published a book in writing. The first to adapt music to poetical compositions was Terpander de Antissa; and he set the laws of the Lacedæmonians to music. Lasus of Hermione invented the dithyramb; Stesichorus de Himera , O hino ; Alcman o Espartano , O coral canção; Anacreon de Teos , love songs; Píndaro o Theban , O dança accompanied with song. Timóteo de Mileto was the first to execute those musical compositions called νμοι on the lyre, with dancing. Além disso, o iambus was invented by Archilochus de Paros , E os choliambus by Hipponax de Éfeso . Tragédia owed its origin to Thespis o Ateniense , and comedy to Susarion de Icaria. Their dates are handed down by the grammarians. But it were tedious to specify them accurately: presently, however, Dionísio , on whose account the Dionisíaco spectacles are celebrated, will be shown to be later than Moses . They say that Antífona de Rhamnusium, the son of Sophilus , first invented scholastic discourses and rhetorical figures, and

was the first who pled causas for a fee, and wrote a forensic speech for delivery, como Diodoro diz. E Apolodoro de Cuma first assumido the name of critic, and was called a grammarian. Some say it was Eratóstenes de Cirene who was first so called, since he published two books which he entitled Grammatica. The first who was called a grammarian, as we now use the term, was Praxiphanes, the son of Disnysophenes of Mitilene . Zeleucus the Lócria was reported to have been the first to have framed laws (in writing). Others say that it was Menos the son of Zeus, in the time of Linceu . He comes after Danaus , in the eleventh generation from Inachus and Moses ; as we shall show a little further on. E Licurgo , who lived many years after the taking of Troy , legislated for the Lacedæmonians a hundred and fifty years before the Olimpíadas . We have spoken before of the age of Solon . Dragão (he was a legislator too) is discovered to have lived about the three hundred and ninth Olimpíada . Antilochus, again, who wrote of the learned homens from the age of Pitágoras to the death of Epicurus , which took place in the tenth day of the month Gamelion, makes up altogether three hundred and twelve years. Moreover, some say that Phanothea, the wife of Icarius , invented the heroic hexâmetro ; others Têmis , Um dos Titanides . Dídimo , however, in his work On the Pythagorean Filosofia , relates that Theano de Crotona was the first woman who cultivated philosophy and composed poems. O Helénica philosophy then, according to some, apprehended the truth acidentalmente , dimly, partially; as others will have it, was set a-going by the devil . Several suppose that certo powers, descending from céu , inspirado the whole of philosophy . Mas, se o Helénica philosophy comprehends not the whole extent of the truth , and besides is destitute of strength to perform the mandamentos da Senhor , yet it prepares the way for the truly royal teaching; training in some way or other, and moulding the caráter , and fitting him who acredita em Providência for the reception of the truth .

Capítulo 17. On the Saying of the Saviour, All that Came Before Me Were Thieves and Robbers.

But, say they, it is written, All who were before the Senhor advent são ladrões and robbers . All, then, who are in the Palavra (for it is these that were previous to the incarnation of the Palavra ) are understood generally. Mas o prophets , being sent and inspirado pelo Senhor , were not ladrões , but servants. O Bíblia accordingly says, Wisdom sent her servants, inviting with loud proclamation to a goblet of vinho . Proverbs 9:3

But philosophy , it is said, was not sent by the Senhor , but came roubado , or given by a ladrão . It was then some power or angel that had learned something of the truth , but abode not in it, that inspirado and taught these things, not without the Senhor knowledge , who knew before the constitution of each essence the issues of futurity, but without His prohibition.

Para o roubo which reached homens then, had some advantage; not that he who perpetrated the roubo had utility in his eye, but Providência directed the issue of the audacious ação to utility. I know that many are perpetually assailing us with the allegation, that not to prevent a thing happening, is to be the cause of it happening. For they say, that the man who does not take precaution against a roubo , or does not prevent it, is the cause of it: as he is the cause of the conflagration who has not quenched it at the beginning; and the master of the vessel who does not recife the sail, is the cause of the shipwreck. Certainly those who are the causas of such events are punished by the lei . For to him who had power to prevent, attaches the blame of what happens. We say to them, that causation is seen in doing, working, atuação ; but the not preventing is in this respect inoperative. Além disso, causation attaches to activity; as in the case of the construtor de navios in relation to the origin of the vessel, and the builder in relation to the construction of the house. But that which does not prevent is separated from what takes place. Wherefore the effect will be accomplished; because that which could have prevented neither atos nor prevents. For what activity does that which prevents not exert? Now their assertion is reduced to absurdity, if they shall say that the cause of the wound is not the dart, but the shield, which did not prevent the dart from passing through; and if they blame not the ladrão , but the man who did not prevent the roubo . Let

them then say, that it was not Ameaçar that burned the ships of the Gregos , Mas Aquiles ; because, having the power to prevent Hector, he did not prevent him; but out of anger (and it depended on himself to be angry or not) did not keep back the fire, and was a concurring cause . Now the devil , being possessed of free-will , was able both to arrepender-se e roubar ; and it was he who was the author of the roubo , Não o Senhor , who did not prevent him. But neither was the dom hurtful, so as to require that prevention should intervene.

But if strict accuracy must be employed in dealing with them, let them know , that that which does not prevent what we assert to have taken place in the roubo , is not a cause at all; but that what prevents is involved in the accusation of being a cause . For he that protects with a shield is the cause of him whom he protects not being wounded; preventing him, as he does, from being wounded. For the demon of Sócrates was a cause , not by not preventing, but by exhorting, even if ( estritamente speaking) he did not exhort. And neither praises nor censuras , neither rewards nor punishments, are right, when the soul has not the power of inclination and disinclination, but evil is involuntary. Whence he who prevents is a cause ; while he who prevents not juízes justly the soul's choice. So in no respect is Deus the author of evil . But since free choice and inclination originate sins , and a mistaken julgamento sometimes prevails, from which, since it is ignorance and stupidity, we do not take pains to recede, punishments are rightly inflicted. For to take fever is involuntary; but when one takes fever through his own fault, from excess, we blame him. Inasmuch, then, as evil is involuntary —for no one prefers evil as evil ; but induced by the pleasure that is in it, and imaginando ele bom , considers it desirable —such being the case, to free ourselves from ignorance , and from evil and voluptuous choice, and above all, to withhold our assent from those delusive phantasies , depends on ourselves. The devil is called thief and robber ; having mixed false prophets with the prophets , as tares with the wheat. All, then, that came before the Senhor , were ladrões and robbers ; not absolutely all men , but all the false prophets , and all who were not properly sent by Him. For the false prophets possessed the profético name dishonestly, being prophets , but prophets of the mentiroso . Para o Senhor says, You are of your father the devil ; and the lusts of your father you will do. Ele era um assassino from the beginning, and abode not in the truth , because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie , he speaks of his own; for he is a mentiroso , and the father of it. John 8:44

But among the mentiras , the false prophets also told some true things. And in reality they profetizou in an ecstasy , as the servants of the apostate . Eo Pastor , the angel of arrependimento , says to Hermas , of the false prophet : For he speaks some truths . For the devil fills him with his own espírito , if perchance he may be able to cast down any one from what is right. All things, therefore, are dispensed from céu para bom , that by the Church may be made known the manifold wisdom of God , according to the eternal foreknowledge, which He purposed in Christ . Ephesians 3:10-11 Nothing withstands Deus : nothing opposes Him: seeing He is Senhor and omnipotent . Further, the counsels and activities of those who have rebelled, being partial, proceed from a bad disposition, as bodily diseases from a bad constitution, but are guided by universal Providência to a salutary issue, even though the cause be productive of disease. It is accordingly the greatest achievement of divine Providence , not to allow the evil , which has sprung from voluntary apostasy , to remain useless, and for no bom , and not to become in all respects injurious. For it is the work of the divine wisdom, and excellence, and power, not alone to do bom (for this is, so to speak, the nature of God , as it is of fire to warm and of light to illumine), but especially to ensure that what happens through the evils hatched by any, may come to a bom and useful issue, and to use to advantage those things which appear to be evils , as also the testimony which accrues from temptation .

There is then in philosophy , though roubado as the fire by Prometeu , a slender spark, capable of being fanned into flame, a trace of wisdom and an impulse from God . Well, be it so that the ladrões and robbers are the philosophers among the Gregos , who from the Hebraico prophets before the coming of the Senhor received fragments of the truth , not with full knowledge , and claimed these as their own teachings, disguising some points, treating others sophistically by their ingenuity, and

discovering other things, for perchance they had the espírito of perception. Exodus 28:3 Aristóteles , too, assented to Bíblia , and declared sophistry to have roubado wisdom, as we intimated before. Eo apóstolo says, Which things we speak, not in the words which homem wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Ghost teaches. 1 Corinthians 2:13 For of the prophets it is said, We have all received of His fullness, John 1:16 that is, of Christ's . So that the prophets are not ladrões . And my doctrine is not Mine, says the Senhor , but the Father's which sent me. And of those who roubar He says: But he that speaks of himself, seeks his own glory . Tais são os Gregos , lovers of their own selves, and boasters. 2 Timothy 3:2 Bíblia , when it speaks of these as wise, does not brand those who are really wise, but those who are wise in appearance.

Capítulo 18. He Illustrates the Apostle's Saying, I Will Destroy the Wisdom of the Wise.

And of such it is said, I vontade destroy the wisdom of the wise: I will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent . The apóstolo accordingly adds, Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this world? setting in contradistinction to the scribes , the disputers of this world, the philosophers of the Gentiles . Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of the world? 1 Corinthians 1:19-20 which is equivalent to, showed it to be foolish, and not true , as they thought. And if you ask the cause of their seeming wisdom, he will say, because of the blindness of their heart; since in the wisdom of God , that is, as proclaimed by the prophets , the world knew not, in the wisdom which spoke by the prophets , Him, that is, God — it pleased Deus by the foolishness of preaching — what seemed to the Gregos loucura — to salvar them that believe . For the Jews require sinais , in order to faith ; and the Greeks seek after wisdom, plainly those reasonings styled irresistible, and those others, namely, syllogisms. But we preach Jesus Christ crucified; to the Jews a stumbling-block , because, though knowing prophecy , they did not believe the event: to the Greeks , foolishness; for those who in their own estimation are wise, consider it fabulous that the Son of God should speak by man and that God should have a Son, and especially that that Son should have suffered. Whence their preconceived idéia inclines them to disbelieve. Para o advento da Salvador did not make people foolish, and hard of heart, and unbelieving, but made them understanding, amenable to persuasion, and crente . But those that would not believe , by separating themselves from the voluntary adherence of those who obeyed , were proved to be without understanding, unbelievers and fools. But to them who are called, both Jews and Greeks , Cristo is the power of God , and the wisdom of God . Should we not understand (as is better) the words rendered, Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of the world? negatively: God has not made foolish the wisdom of the world? — so that the cause of their hardness of heart may not appear to have proceeded from God , making foolish the wisdom of the world. For on all accounts, being wise, they incur greater blame in not crente the proclamation. For the preference and choice of truth is voluntary . But that declaration, I vontade destroy the wisdom of the wise, declares Him to have sent forth light, by bringing forth in opposition the despised and contemned barbarian philosophy ; as the lamp, when shone upon by the sun, is said to be extinguished, on account of its not then exerting the same power. All having been therefore called, those who are willing to obey have been nomeado called. For there is no unrighteousness with God . Those of either race who have believed , are a peculiar people. Titus 2:14 And in the Atos da Apóstolos you will find this, word for word, Those then who received his word were baptized ; Acts 2:41 but those who would not obey kept themselves aloof. To these prophecy says, If you be willing and hear me, you shall eat the bom things of the land; Isaiah 1:19 provando that choice or refusal depends on ourselves. O apóstolo designates the doutrina which is according to the Senhor , the wisdom of God , in order to show that the true philosophy has been communicated by the Son. Further, he, who has a show of wisdom, has certo exhortations enjoined on him by the apóstolo : That you put on the new man, which after Deus is renewed in righteousness and true holiness . Wherefore, putting away lying , speak every man truth . Neither give place to the devil . Let him that estola , roubar no more; but rather let him labour, working that which is bom (and to work is to labour in seeking the truth ; for it is

accompanied with racional well-doing), that you may have to give to him that has need, both of worldly wealth and of divine wisdom. For he wishes both that the word be taught, and that the money be put into the bank, accurately tested, to accumulate interesse . Whence he adds, Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth, — that is corrupt comunicação which proceeds out of conceit — but that which is bom for the use of edifying, that it may ministro grace to the hearers. And the word of the bom Deus must needs be bom . And how is it possible that he who salva shall not be bom ?

Capítulo 19. That the Philosophers Have Attained to Some Portion of Truth

Since, then, the Gregos are testified to have laid down some true opinions, we may from this point take a glance at the testimonies. Paul , in the Atos da Apóstolos , is recorded to have said to the Areopagites , I perceive that you are more than ordinarily religioso . For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions , I found an altar com o inscrição , To The Desconhecido Deus . Whom therefore you ignorantly adoração , Him declare I unto you. God , that made the world and all things therein, seeing that He is Senhor de céu and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands; neither is adorado com men's hands, as though He needed anything, seeing He gives to all life, and breath, and all things; and has made of one blood all nations of homens to dwell on all the face of the earth, and has determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation; that they should seek God , if haply they might feel after Him, and find Him; though He be not far from every one of us: for in Him we live, and move, and have our being; as certo also of your own poets have said, For we also are His offspring. Acts 17:22-28 Whence it is evident that the apóstolo , by availing himself of poetical examples from the Phenomena of Aratus , approves of what had been well spoken by the Gregos ; and intimates that, by the unknown God , Deus o Criador was in a carrossel maneira adorado pelo Gregos ; but that it was necessário by positive knowledge to apprehend and learn Him by the Son. Wherefore, then, I send you to the Gentiles , it is said, to open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God ; that they may receive forgiveness of sins , and inheritance among them that are sanctified by faith which is in Me. Acts 26:17-18 Such, then, are the eyes of the blind which are opened. The knowledge of the Father by the Son is the comprehension of the Greek circumlocution; and to turn from the power of Satan is to change from sin , through which servidão was produced. We do not, indeed, receive absolutely all philosophy , but that of which Sócrates speaks in Plato . For there are (as they say) in the mysteries many bearers of the thyrsus , but few bacchanals ; meaning, that many are called, but few chosen. He accordingly plainly adds: These, in my opinion, are none else than those who have philosophized right; to belong to whose number, I myself have left nothing undone in life, as far as I could, but have endeavoured in every way. Whether we have endeavoured rightly and achieved anything, we shall know when we have gone there, if Deus vontade , a little afterwards. Does he not then seem to declare from the Hebraico Escrituras os justos homem esperança , through faith , after death? And in Demodocus (if that is really the work of Plato ): And do not imagine that I call it philosophizing to spend life pottering about the arts, or learning many things, but something different; since I, at least, would consider this a disgrace. For he knew , I reckon, that the knowledge of many things does not educate the mind , conforme Heráclito . And in the fifth book of the Republic , he says, 'Shall we then call all these, and the others which study such things, and those who apply themselves to the meaner arts, philosophers ?' 'By no means,' I said, 'but like philosophers .' 'And whom,' said he, 'do you call