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Reported Speech – o discurso

indireto em inglês
O que é o reported speech?
No dia a dia, as pessoas deparam com situações em que precisam citar frases ditas por
outros indivíduos. Quando essa citação é feita relatando exatamente o que a pessoa disse,
a chamamos de discurso direto, por exemplo:
Matheus disse: “Eu gosto de maçãs”.
O discurso indireto é utilizado para adaptar a frase, construindo uma estrutura diferente,
como:
Matheus disse que gostava de maçãs.
Perceba que a citação manteve o que Matheus disse, mas mudou a maneira como seu gosto
por maçãs foi dito. No inglês, o discurso indireto é chamado de reported speech, e serve
para o mesmo objetivo.

O discurso indireto é uma das formas de narrar ou relatar informações. A diferença entre
ele e o discurso direto é que, nele, o relato é feito com a voz de quem fala, reproduzindo
frases ou textos de outra(s) pessoa(s). Quando usamos esse tipo de discurso, não
precisamos usar aspas, pois não estamos citando (utilizando exatamente as palavras que
alguém usou), mas, sim, reportando falas com nossas próprias palavras. Veja o exemplo:

Mark said (that) he was thirsty.– Mark disse (que) ele estava com sede.

Neste exemplo, o narrador está reproduzindo a fala de Mark, reportando o que ele disse.

Para construir frases usando o discurso indireto em inglês, precisamos nos atentar aos
tempos verbais, pois estes mudam de acordo com o report (relato) que você for dar.
Preparamos uma tabela com as principais mudanças na construção dessas frases.

Compare as frases:

(eu dizendo para você caro leitor) Pedro disse: compre açúcar.

(eu dizendo para você caro leitor) Pedro disse para você comprar açúcar.
Na primeiro frase eu repliquei o que foi dito por Pedro, a frase que Pedro disse foi
“compre açúcar” e eu a reproduzi. Isso é o que chamamos de direct question.

Já no segundo caso eu narrei o que Pedro disse (indirect speech = reported


speech).

Mas porque chamamos de reported speech?

Report em Inglês significa relatar, narrar, reportar. Ou seja, se alguém faz uso de
reported speech é porque ela está descrevendo o que foi dito por alguém. Seria
diferente se a pessoa reproduzisse o que foi dito de forma fiel, isto é, replicasse a
fala de alguém exatamente do jeito que o sujeito falou, tim-tiim por tim-tim. Quando
usamos reported speech estamos fazendo justamente o contrário, pois como dito
acima, nos limitamos a descrever o que foi dito.

Repare que quando você opta por reproduzir exatamente o que foi dito por
Jack (direct question) é comum usarmos frases que especificam que estamos a
um passo de reproduzir. São justamente frases como:

 [fulano] said = [fulano] disse


 [fulano] asked = [fulano] perguntou
 [fulano] mentioned = [fulano] mencionou

Agora, quando você opta por reported speech (descrever o que foi dito ou
perguntado) há claras alterações necessárias na estrutura contendo a frase. A
coisa é mais embaixo.

Grosso modo, podemos dizer que quando relatamos algo com reported
speech passamos verbos que estão no presente para o passado. Como assim?
Jack te fez a pergunta agora. Como você irá me contar sobre a pergunta no dia
seguinte (que seja no minuto seguinte) verbos sofrem alterações. Isso também
ocorre no Português. Compare:

→ Jack perguntou: da onde você é? x Jack me perguntou da onde eu era

Regras de Formação
Para que o discurso indireto siga as regras de formação corretas, é importante
estar atento aos tempos verbais. Isso porque ele irá mudar dependendo de
qual foi utilizado pelo falante.
Tabela de Formação do Reported Speech

Direct Speech Reported Speech

Simple Present → I like your new car. (Eu Simple Past → He said (that) he liked my new
gosto do seu carro novo.) car (Ele disse que gostou do meu carro novo.)

Present Continuous → I am Past Continuous → She said (that) she was


getting married.(Eu vou me casar.) getting married. (Ela disse que vai se casar.)

Present Perfect → We HAVE bought the Past Perfect → He said (that) they HAD
tickets. (Nós temos comprado os bought the tickets. (Ele disse que eles tinham
ingressos.) comprado os bilhetes.)

Past Perfect → He said (that) he HAD


Past Simple → I missed the train. (Eu
missed the train. (Ele disse que ele tinha
perdi o trem.)
perdido o trem.)

Futuro
Would → He said (that) he would see me
Will → I will see you later. (Eu verei você
later. (Ele disse que ele me veria mais tarde.)
mais tarde.)

Futuro
Was / Were Going to → He said he was
Am / Is / Are Going to → I am going
going to a class. (Ele disse que ele estava
to join the class. (Eu estou indo me juntar
indo se juntar a turma.)
a turma.)
“I like your new car”, he said.
He said that he liked my new car. (Ele disse que gostou do meu carro
novo.)

"I always drink coffee", she said.


She said that she always drank coffee.

“I want a glass of water”, he said.


He said (that) he wanted a glass of water.
Ele disse que queria um copo de água.)

Marcos said: “I like apples”.


Marcos said (that) he liked apples.
(Marcos disse que gostava de maçãs.)

Bob said: “I love Mary”.


Bob said that he loved Mary.
(Bob disse que ele amava a Mary).

John said: "I love this town."


John said that he loved that town.

“I always wake up early", he said.


He said that he always woke up early.

Carol said: “He works in a bank."


She said he worked in a bank.
"Julie doesn't like going out much", she said.
She said Julie didn't like going out much.

"I don't have a computer."


She said that she didn't have a computer.

"They never arrive on time."


She said they never arrived on time.

"We often meet friends in London at the weekend."


She said they often met friends in London at the weekend.

"David doesn't have any children."


She said David didn't have any children.

"I don't go to the gym very often."


She said she didn't go to the gym very often.

"Lucy owns three flats in the city."


She said Lucy owned three flats in the city.

"I never get up early on Sundays."


She said she never got up early on Sundays.

"Jill meets her boyfriend at the cinema every Friday night."


She said Jill met her boyfriend at the cinema every Friday night.
"We don't travel much."
She said they didn't travel much.

"John doesn't live in Japan any more."


She said John didn't live in Japan any more.

"They work in Hong Kong."


She said they worked in Hong Kong.

"I have to work until seven or eight pm every night."


She said she had to work until seven or eight pm every night.

"I don't want to go to the theatre next weekend."


She said she didn't want to go to the theatre next weekend.

"We like working in Paris."


She said they liked working in Paris.

"She doesn't have enough time to do everything."


She said she didn't have enough time to do everything.

"Tony hates mushrooms."


She said Tony hated mushrooms.
Paul said: "We often go on holiday in July."
He said they often went on holiday in July.

Bia said: "I live in New York."


She said she lived in New York.

Ruby said: “I am reading a scientific article”.


Ruby said that she was reading a scientific article. (Ruby disse que estava
lendo um artigo científico.)

I‘m looking for my keys.


She said that she was looking for her keys.

"We're working."
[ He told me they were working.

"She's coming to the party."


[ He told me she was coming to the party.

"She's talking on the telephone."


[ He told me she was talking on the telephone.

"Lucy is reading a book in front of the fire."


[ He told me Lucy was reading a book in front of the fire.

"I'm not going out."


[ He told me he wasn't going out.

"We are not visiting Paris during our trip."


[ He told me they weren't visiting Paris during their trip.

"I'm listening to my new CD."


[ He told me he was listening to his new CD.

"John is working in a bar for the summer."


[ He told me John was working in a bar for the summer.

"I'm not going to go on holiday."


[ He told me he wasn't going to go on holiday.

"He isn't living in Beijing."


[ He told me he wasn't living in Beijing.

"I'm taking the train to Berlin."


[ He told me he was taking the train to Berlin.
"She is never coming back."
[ He told me she was never coming back.

"Jill is studying a lot."


[ He told me Jill was studying a lot.

"I'm not meeting Julie."


[ He told me he wasn't meeting Julie.

"We aren't renting a flat."


[ He told me they weren't renting a flat.

"They are visiting the museum."


[ He told me they were visiting the museum.

"She's eating dinner."


[ He told me she was eating dinner.

"We aren't going to the library."


[ He told me they weren't going to the library.

"I'm coming."
[ He told me he was coming.

"I'm sleeping."
He told me he was sleeping.
Larissa said: “I have lived there”. - Larissa disse: “Eu morei lá”.
Larissa said that she had lived there. - Larissa disse que tinha morado lá.

Direct speech: She has written three letters for her friend.
Reported speech: He said she had written three letters for her friend.

) "She has visited Paris three times."


Check
Show
[ She said she had visited Paris three times. ]
2) "He has read War and Peace."
Check
Show
[ She said he had read War and Peace. ]
3) "I haven't seen Julie for ages."
Check
Show
[ She said she hadn't seen Julie for ages. ]
4) "He hasn't been to school this week."
Check
Show
[ She said he hadn't been to school this week. ]
5) "We haven't seen The Lord of the Rings."
Check
Show
[ She said they hadn't seen The Lord of the Rings. ]
6) "They've eaten in a lot of different restaurants."
Check
Show
[ She said they had eaten in a lot of different restaurants. ]
7) "I've never tried skateboarding."
Check
Show
[ She said she had never tried skateboarding. ]
8) "Lucy has drunk six cups of coffee today."
Check
Show
[ She said Lucy had drunk six cups of coffee today. ]
9) "Mr Black has written three books."
Check
Show
[ She said Mr Black had written three books. ]
10) "It hasn't rained much this year."
Check
Show
[ She said it hadn't rained much this year. ]
11) "She has never swum in the sea."
Check
Show
[ She said she had never swum in the sea. ]
12) "He has studied Latin."
Check
Show
[ She said he had studied Latin. ]
13) "I've been sick all week."
Check
Show
[ She said she had been sick all week. ]
14) "Robert has been to China five times." Check
Show
[ She said Robert had been to China five times. ]
15) "I haven't met Richard before."
Check
Show
[ She said she hadn't met Richard before. ]
16) "Julie has never studied music."
Check
Show
[ She said Julie had never studied music. ]
17) "He has eaten too much chocolate."
Check
Show
[ She said he had eaten too much chocolate. ]
18) "We haven't seen the new play."
Check
Show
[ She said they hadn't seen the new play. ]
19) "I haven't tried the new restaurant yet."
Check
Show
[ She said she hadn't tried the new restaurant yet. ]
20) "I've never been to Brazil."

[ She said she had never been to Brazil. ]


John said: “I finished the book last weekend”.
John said he HAD finished the book the week before. (John disse que
tinha terminado o livro no fim de semana anterior.)

“My friend gave me a bar of chocolate.”


He said that his friend HAD given him a bar of chocolate.

“I was with him last week."


Jill admitted that she HAD been with him the previous week.

Bob said: “I killed a man”.


Bob said he HAD killed a man.

"Jane left the party early."


He told me Jane HAD left the party early.

"I didn't go out at the weekend."


He told me he hadn't gone out at the weekend.

"He didn't like chocolate as a child."


He told me he hadn't liked chocolate as a child.

"They visited Japan."


He told me they HAD visited Japan.

"She didn't buy the dress."


He told me she hadn't bought the dress.
"I travelled through India and Pakistan."
He told me he HAD travelled through India and Pakistan.

"He met his girlfriend in a café."


He told me he HAD met his girlfriend in a café.

"David didn't arrive until 10 o'clock."


He told me David hadn't arrived until 10 o'clock.

"We went to the park to have a picnic."


He told me they HAD gone to the park to have a picnic.

"We ate Chinese food, then we walked home."


He told me they HAD eaten Chinese food, then they walked home.

"She forgot to bring the CDs."


He told me she HAD forgotten to bring the CDs.

"I didn't like the food in the restaurant."


He told me he hadn't liked the food in the restaurant.

"He didn't take a shower."


He told me he hadn't taken a shower.

"I worked until six."


He told me he HAD worked until six.

"We went to Paris for the weekend."


He told me they HAD gone to Paris for the weekend.

"The plane left at seven."


He told me the plane HAD left at seven.

"I came to London in 2004."


He told me he HAD come to London in 2004.

"Lucy didn't go to university."


He told me Lucy hadn't gone to university.

"John never studied German."


He told me John HAD never studied German.

"I went to the cinema yesterday."


He told me he HAD been to the cinema yesterday. ]

Can → Could
Juliana said: “I can go with you”. - Juliana disse: “Eu posso ir com você”.
Juliana said that she could go with me. - Juliana disse que poderia ir
comigo.

Will → Would
She said: “I will travel next month”. - Ela disse: “Vou viajar mês que vem”.
She said she would travel the month after. - Ela disse que viajaria no mês
seguinte.
É importante você ficar atento às mudanças de artigos, pronomes e outros
elementos da frase que podem ocorrer na construção do reported speech.
Veja:
Ana said: “I will take this”. - Ana disse: “Vou pegar isto”.
Ana said that she would take that. - Ana disse que iria pegar aquilo.