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ISSN 1516-3601 #53, MAy/2014

ADVANTAGING BRAZILIAN LEARNERS (ABL AT LAST!)


by Paul Seligson

Nuevas Rutas Nouvelles Routes Interview with


Las siete preguntas Mercivoir Rob Bolitho
sobre un método par Leonardo S. Bandeira by Jack Scholes
por Fernando Marín
y Reyes Morales
APROVEITE OS
CARTOES
SEMPRE MAIS
SEUS PONTOS

VIRAM
PREMIOS

Confira o regulamento
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Sumário

ExCluSivA
PARA CliENtES DiSAl

Editorial .05
Opiniões .06

News .08

Interview .10

Cover Topic .14

How do you say... .19


in English?

Variedades .20

Slang .25

Escola em Destaque .26


Publisher Colaboradores desta edição News
Renato Guazzelli Ariel Gustavo Acosta
Augusta Rodrigues Alves
Rodrigo Galano
Dicas .27
Editor Carlos Gontow Nuevas Rutas
Jack Scholes Daniel Bonatti Sara Tcharkhetian

Conselho Editorial
Fernando Marín
Jack Scholes Nouvelles Routes
Livros .28
Francisco Gomes de Matos Jane Godwin Coury Leonardo S. Bandeira
Graeme Hodgson José Roberto A. Igreja
Heloisa Brito de Albuquerque Costa
Karen Fraser
Leonardo S. Bandeira
Paul Seligson
Eventos
Rodrigo Galano
Bilingual Education .30
José Olavo de Amorim Reyes Morales
Lizika Goldchleger Rod Bolitho Arte: Projeto e Diagramação
Lyle French
Nancy Lake
Roy Lyster
William (Eddie) Edmundson
Myatã Comunicação Articles .34/38
Profª Dra. Gretel Eres Fernández Jornalista Responsável • Learning from our mistakes - part 2
Profª Antonieta Celani PromoMag José Nello Marques / MTP: 14162
Sara Walker Cynthia Silva • Effective communication

Nuevas Rutas .42


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Nouvelles Routes .46


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como os anúncios veiculados são de inteira responsabilidade dos respectivos anunciantes. Atividades .52

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 03


DA D E S
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184 págs. ˘ 14 X 21 cm Denise Santos
ISBN 978-85-7844-147-0 Eduardo Araújo
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Editorial

A PRACTICAL MAGAZINE
Although New Routes® is not an that, if we don’t, they will keep, as it Professional development is also the
academic journal, it does have an were, repeating and actually practising theme of the article in the Bilingual
International Standard Serial Number their own mistakes until these are Education section. In his article -
(ISSN 1516-3601), and is often quoted internalized, and therefore, fossilized.” The role of professional development
in academic theses. It is, however, She discusses the What? When? and in integrating language across the
essentially a language teachers’ How? criteria for correction and offers immersion curriculum - Dr. Roy Lyster,
magazine with original interviews and examples of practical, fun activities explains that “the call for increased
innovative articles that are of direct that can help learners focus on and professional development is urgent
relevance and immediate interest correct their own mistakes. because many immersion teachers
to teachers in the classroom. All the have been trained to teach either
content always has a sound theoretical In the second article - Effective language or a non-language subject
basis, but the main emphasis is on Communication - Jane Godwin Coury area, but not both, even though the
practical methodology, resources and addresses some “hidden aspects” success of immersion is considered
new ideas for the classroom. or less obvious factors involved in contingent on the integration of
communicating effectively, such as language and content.” He shares
In the Cover Topic of this issue - turn taking, the language in turn taking, with New Routes® readers some of
Advantaging Brazilian Learners (ABL active listening, cultural differences, the issues he addressed as a speaker
at last!) - Paul Seligson explains his and dealing with unpredictability. She at the recent Brazil Immersion
groundbreaking work to improve suggests two activities to practise Conference 2014.
the teaching of teens and adults turn taking and active listening, which
specifically in Brazil. He “advocates can be used to help learners speak To end, a quote from Paul Seligson:
‘cognate-friendly’ teaching, with more confidently. “Enjoy your teaching: if you don’t,
lexical selection and a focus on who will?”
suffixes, specifically designed to New Routes® is very privileged and
help Brazilians learn faster by seeing honoured to have an interview with Enjoy!
what’s common to Portuguese and Rod Bolitho in this issue. Rod is
English.” This is a special, two-part Academic Director at NILE, Norwich
article. He ends this first part with Institute for Language Education,
some questions for readers to reflect a specialist Teacher Training and
on, and a promise of more Brazil- Professional Development institute
friendly activities in the next issue. in East Anglia in the UK, and he
shares with New Routes® readers a
In the second part of her two-part little of the extensive expertise and
article - Learning from our Mistakes - vast experience he has gained in
Augusta Rodrigues Alves, states that over 30 years involved in teacher Jack Scholes
“one of the main reasons why we education and trainer training Editor
should address students’ mistakes is around the world. newroutes@disal.com.br

Dans ce numéro on propose des l’arrivée de la Coupe du Monde de


activités variées et une réflexion Football. Profitez-bien ! Leonardo S. Bandeira
au sujet de la francophonie lors de apoioped.frances@disal.com.br

En este artículo los autores nos sobre un método que propone Keith métodos y entre los “estilos de
presentan las características de un Johnston en su libro “Introducción enseñanza”
método con una larga historia en la al aprendizaje y enseñanza de las
enseñanza del español en Brasil: VEN, lenguas modernas”.
NUEVO VEN, VENTE. Johnston resume con claridad y Sara G. Tcharkhetian
Responden a las siete preguntas sencillez las diferencias entre los apoioped.espanhol@disal.com.br

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 05


Opiniões - Disal nas Redes Sociais

COMENTÁRIOS NO TWITTER:
Maria Nilva Pereira @maria_nilva Graeme Hodgson @GrammyLatino Camila Höfling @cahofling
Leio a NR desde quando recebia as #euamoaNR New Routes is one of the #euamoaNR Reading New Routes is
edições impressas em casa e sempre best magazines for language teachers discovering people who think like me.
curto as matérias. Tenho uma coleção in Brazil. Gr8 articles & interviews! It's more than overwhelming.
de números antigos. Amo! #euamoaNR Love the info on releases too!

COMENTÁRIOS NO FACEBOOK:
Siomara de Cássia Miranda Carol Nyerges Marco Massato Koreia
Eu sou fan da DISAL! É mesmo uma A revista é de excelente qualidade Gosto da revista, pois ela é educativa e
empresa que distribui conhecimentos! e contribui muito com a formação e traz muito fundamento aos professores.
Muito sucesso a todos! informação dos leitores assíduos. Essa revista é sensacional.

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POR QUE EU LEIO A NEW ROUTES


New Routes® showed the same level of of conveying a biased train of thought.
professionalism we all wanted to show
our students. I’ve long had my favorite collaborators,
including Jack Scholes, Michael
I recall one of the main reasons that led Jacobs, Ron Martinez and Ulisses
me to read the magazine (in addition Wehby de Carvalho.
to the articles, of course): the calendar
of events for teachers. Disal was a And we can see how NR is evolving
pioneer in providing such important and catching up with the latest
talks and workshops that helped technologies, by going online and
many of us teachers shape the way we including articles on the use of
perform in the classroom. new technologies in the language
I’ve been in the language teaching classroom.
business for as long as I can remember, The articles always sparked my critical
and New Routes® has been my favorite thinking. I occasionally opposed to New Routes® certainly inspired me to
language magazine since those early some points of view, while most of the follow this language-teaching career.
days. When the magazine first came articles taught me important things
out, I remember having a feeling of and also validated some of my theories Daniel Bonatti
accomplishment for having chosen and convictions. Teacher and Conference Interpreter
this profession. Teaching English was And I think that is exactly what a
not just a side job, but a real profession specialized magazine is supposed to do: LivEnglish Immersions
that required very special skills. make us think, provoke thought, instead www.livenglish.com.br

06 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
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Interview with Rod Bolitho by Jack Scholes

Rod Bolitho
NR: After many years as Director and Assistant Dean of • training is an event; development is a process
International Education at the College of St Mark and St • training is a transitive notion; development is intransitive
John in Plymouth, in 2006 you were appointed Academic • training requires a trainer; development requires an inner
Director at NILE, Norwich Institute for Language Education, orientation
a specialist Teacher Training and Professional Development • training implies accountability to those who fund it;
institute in East Anglia in the UK. What, in your view, is the development implies accountability to oneself.
importance of training and professional development for Most trainers will tell you that they sometimes meet
language teachers, and how has this changed over the many resistance on short training courses, and that they seldom
years you have been in the profession? see the results of their work. A training course may or may
not bring about development just as teaching doesn’t always
RB: First of all, let’s not forget that 95% of English Language result in learning.
Teaching around the world takes place in state systems and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is being
is carried out by non-native speaker teachers. They have increasingly recognised as important to both teachers and
their textbooks, their culturally embedded traditions of their institutions. An enlightened view of CPD for teachers
teaching and their attitudes towards English and their chosen recognises the symbiotic relationship between a school as
profession, governed in part by issues of status and salary, a learning community with a vision that embraces change,
both of which vary enormously from country to country. Seen and the development of all those who work in it, whether
against this range of contextual variables, it is impossible to or not they are teachers. This kind of institution may be
generalise about the importance of training and professional characterized by openness in communication, a positive
development. Of course it is desirable for all teachers, not just appraisal policy, a culture of co-operation and consultation,
language teachers, to keep up to date and to have opportunities and the recognition and promotion of good practice at all
to reflect on their practice and to meet and exchange ideas levels. Achieving this is no easy matter, and it usually depends
with their peers, but the reality is that these opportunities are on excellent leadership rather than just management, and a
not always available when they are most needed, and funding CPD policy that everyone has signed up to.
for in-service training is usually the first item to be cut in an What really bugs me is the tendency that some in our field
education budget when times are hard. have to use the terms development and training as though
they were interchangeable.
NR: What are the main differences between training,
development and continuing professional development? NR: How can we change our practice? What are some the
main options open to us, both formal and informal?
RB: Michael Fullan and others have written eloquently about
this. Here are some useful binary distinctions: RB: Your question presupposes that changing our practice

10 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Interview with Rod Bolitho by Jack Scholes

is a must. For many, even most, teachers, it certainly isn’t. ideas. I see reflection on action as a way of retrospecting
One way in which all teachers survive, especially in the after classroom experience, thinking in an organized way
demanding context of large classes, unmotivated learners about what has gone on with a view to making sense of it
and poor resources, is by finding a formula that enables and learning from it. Feedback from learners or from an
them to get through from day to day and sticking to it. Real observer may be a valuable catalyst to this process. Not
changes in practice need to be underpinned by changes in everyone is instinctively given to this kind of reflection, and
thinking and attitude, and of course by a desire to change. in my experience as a trainer it is worth spending time with
Assuming that those conditions are met in a teacher, there teachers or trainees on initiating and scaffolding the process
are several options: of reflection through tasks and questions.
• learn how to investigate your own practice to find out what Reflection in action is much more involuntary. It happens to us
you need to change and how best to manage the process during our teaching and as lessons unfold. It is what leads us
• team up with a like-minded colleague, arrange to observe each to deviate from a lesson plan, to allow a learner to hold forth
other’s classes (on agreed terms) and give each other feedback on a pet topic for a while or to improvise when we are let down
• read about new developments either in teachers’ magazines by technology. For me it often manifests itself in the form of an
or on websites, and select what is useful and manageable for ‘inner voice’ that strikes up to tell me off when I am being too
you in your own classroom lazy to try something new, when I’m talking too much, or when
• attend an in-service training course in an area of your practice I am impatient or inattentive towards my learners.
that you have identified as in need of change Reflection for action is forward looking and implies taking
But don’t expect too much of yourself too soon. Take it easy, time to plan, to look forward to a class we are going to teach
be clear about what is good about your teaching as well as and to make decisions. For me this often involves visualising
what you want to change, and above all, don’t throw out the a forthcoming situation and predicting some of the factors I
baby with the bath water. will need to take account of when it eventually materialises.
I find this technique particularly useful when I am preparing
NR: What are some of the things that govern our behaviour a conference presentation or a seminar with teachers I have
as teachers in the classroom? not met before.

RB: I’ve alluded to this to some extent above, but let me delve NR: Could you please explain the concept of the Experiential
a bit more deeply into some of the issues that I’m aware of. Learning Cycle and its importance for self-development?
One of the most powerful factors in our practice is historical.
We are all influenced by ghosts - our own former teachers, in RB: This cycle comes originally from the work of David
whose lessons we sat for long hours, either suffering under Kolb. In the interpretation of it that Tony Wright and I
them or inspired by them. The extent of their influence is not reached through our shared work and in our book Trainer
easy to identify. Much of it is subconscious, I suspect. Development, the cycle is a tool for planning and teaching
We are also influenced by our desire to be accepted and a training programme, but also for self-development, in
even liked by both our learners and our colleagues. Most a process akin to Action Research. Seen from this latter
teachers would rather conform to prevailing traditions and perspective, a teacher may wish to reflect on a lesson just
expectations rather than risk rejection or even ridicule by taught, with or without the help of a colleague, identify key
attempting to innovate. This factor is part of what makes moments in the lesson (sometimes referred to as ‘critical
teaching such a conservative profession. incidents’) and analyse them in greater detail with a view
There are other factors at play too, of course. The need to understanding them more profoundly. This analysis may
to prepare learners for examinations, the availability of reveal a need for some kind of input to help the teacher open
resources, for example. But also variables such as our own up other options, and this may be achieved through reading,
state of mind, personal issues, preconceptions about the attending a course or listening to a colleague. Once this is
students we are teaching. clearer to the teacher, she is in a stronger position to plan for
All teachers also draw on their own beliefs about teaching her next lesson.
and learning, for example in their treatment of their learners’ So the cycle typically has four stages: Concrete experience
errors; they may be attracted by a particular theory, for (a lesson) > Reflection (including description and analysis
example the principles behind task-based learning or the of events in the lesson) > Making Sense or Abstract
research that has been done into learning styles. Conceptualisation (gaining a clearer understanding of
But I’m pretty sure that the most powerful influence of all, what happened, why it happened, and what alternatives
especially in mid or late career teachers comes from the might be available) > Planning for Action (towards the next
experience they have accumulated through years of practice lesson or lessons). Since not everyone is innately given to
and the often unarticulated personal theories that they reflection, a teacher’s development is often best supported
develop ‘on the job’. by a critical friend.

NR: What is the difference between reflection in action, NR: What are some of the constraints on professional development
reflection on action and reflection for action, and how do and how can these be overcome? Why should schools and
these fit into professional development? directors embrace continuing professional development, and
what can they do to encourage and support this?
RB: Impossible to answer this without referring to Donald
Schön’s seminal writings in this area. My understanding RB: By far the biggest constraint is lack of understanding of
of the first two of these terms is derived directly from his the importance of CPD by school managers and education

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 11


Interview with Rod Bolitho by Jack Scholes

authorities. It takes real leadership in an institution with, excellent wine….. I’ve been there over 30 times and I
to recognise and support the need for professional never tire of it.
development in teachers. Professionals who have a strong
desire to develop professionally are all too often thrown NR: What was your impression of Brazil and the teachers here?
back on their own resources, and this has given rise to the
formation of self-help groups and teachers’ clubs, but also RB: I always enjoyed my visits to Brazil and loved the
to teachers seeking recognition outside their own institution enthusiasm of the teachers I met. One anecdote that I often
by giving talks and workshops at conferences or writing for cite as an example of cultural learning: I remember running a
publication. In an ideal situation, the development needs of workshop at a LAURELS Conference on a very early visit back
individuals and institutions are seen as complementary, and in the nineties and asking the group if we should stop for
a win-win situation arises. coffee. This suggestion - obviously regarded as outrageous
There is also a concern in many contexts round the world despite the national love affair with coffee - was greeted by
that teaching is seen as a low-status activity. This has forty people all frowning and waving their fingers in the air
unfortunate consequences as even excellent teachers map horizontally, which I quickly understood meant dissent as
out a developmental path that is calculated to take them they were so deep into the workshop that they just wanted
out of the school classroom and into either a management to continue. It scared me a bit, though!
position or into academia, both of which confer higher
status and better remuneration. A good CPD policy should NR: Finally, Rod, I know you are very keen on football and
therefore focus on recognizing excellence in the classroom have a lifelong devotion to Liverpool Football Club. Will you
and ensuring that the best teachers are properly rewarded be coming to Brazil soon to see the World Cup Games?
and motivated for continuing to do what they do best.
RB: I wish I could. But I’ll be following as much of it as I can on
NR: Many owners and coordinators of language schools in TV, and of course I’ll be looking forward to seeing some of the
Brazil complain of a lack of interest in teaching as a profession Liverpool stars in action - Steven Gerrard, Luis Suarez, and of
amongst young people. What arguments have you found course your own Lucas Leiva (who is much loved in Liverpool).
effective in convincing young people that teaching EFL is a
gratifying and enriching profession? References:

RB: Far be it from me to advise colleagues in Brazil what Fullan, M. (1991) The New Meaning of Educational Change
is good for them. My advice to school owners would be (2nd edition) London: Cassell
simple: pay your teachers well, offer them development Schön, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner New York:
opportunities and remind them that they are playing an Basic Books
important part in opening a window on the wider world Schön, D. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner
for young Brazilians …. and if you have to do without your San Francisco: Jossey Bass
beachside home, your Mercedes or your yacht for a while Wright, T. & R. Bolitho (2007) Trainer Development
to be able to do this, it will be worth it and your positive available from www.lulu.com
attitude will reap its own reward over time!

NR: You have worked on numerous projects and given talks


in many countries around the world. Which is your favourite
country and why?

RB: This is a tough one, because nearly all the countries I’ve
worked in have charmed me in one way or another. But I do
have an enduring soft spot for Romania, where all the things
I value have usually come together: lovely, hospitable people
who value education, scenic beauty (often described as one
of Europe’s best kept secrets), great professionals to work

The interviewee

Rod Bolitho is Academic Director of Norwich Institute for Language Education (NILE). He started out teaching English
in Germany and has been involved in teacher education and trainer training for over 30 years. He has been consultant
to a number of British Council projects since 1989, and is currently involved in Teacher Education reform work in
Uzbekistan and Ukraine, an EAP materials project in Russia and a curriculum development project in Luxemburg.
He has visited Brazil on a number of occasions. He has authored many articles and a number of books, including
(with Brian Tomlinson) Discover English, (with Tony Wright) Trainer Development, and with Amol Padwad he recently
co-edited a collection on Continuing Professional Development for the British Council, India. His main professional
interests lie in the fields of CPD, Materials Writing and Language Awareness. He enjoys reading, cooking and walking,
and is a lifelong Liverpool FC supporter.

12 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Interview with Rod Bolitho by Jack Scholes

:
 
 
 
 

!
Cover Topic by Paul Seligson

ADVANTAGING BRAZILIAN
LEARNERS (ABL AT LAST!)
In this 2-part article I focus on ways to improve the teaching thinking of ‘international’ words, not really building on
of teens and adults in Brazil. I’ll suggest a more language- similarities and useful comparisons with Portuguese. After
friendly, learner-friendly and teacher-friendly approach, that first burst, we tend to stick to the ‘international route’,
with lots of practical examples. immersing students in English, inducting, eliciting, praying
and largely ignoring the fact that they all speak Portuguese,
Part 1 advocates ‘cognate-friendly’ teaching, with lexical and are highly intelligent in a language similar to English,
selection and a focus on suffixes, specifically designed to which should bring huge advantages.
help Brazilians learn faster by seeing what’s common to
Portuguese and English. A colleague in Rio recently seemed stressed after class:
- What’s wrong? - I asked.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - I was teaching the passive and they just didn’t get it. After
10 long, uncomfortable minutes, I pleaded ‘It’s the same in
In Brazil, learning Chinese is a very different proposition Portuguese!’ and, ‘Bingo’ they finally got it. - she replied.
from learning English. However, sometimes, I feel we teach
English as if it were a completely unfamiliar, unrelated It’s clear to me she should have started the class with:
language, like Chinese. While most teachers begin asking - This is going to be easy for you ‘cos the structure is exactly the
What English words do you already know?, we’re usually same in Portuguese. Imagine if you were Chinese. Congratulations!

14 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
by Paul Seligson Cover Topic

No-one needs to speak a word in Portuguese, there’s no Brazilian Lexical Advantages


verbal translation, just a mental, instant contrast, which all
learners do with new items anyway. It allows much more English is very similar to Portuguese, particularly lexically.
time for practice and personalization, the key elements If you don’t believe me go and teach in Asia! Any Romance
in part-time classes. It seems perverse not to help like language speaker has huge advantages as about 58% of
this when we can, just because somebody somewhere English words are Latin-based. We have so much in common:
suggested presentations had to be: word / sentence formation, suffixes, phrases, expressions,
metaphors. Nearly half the 3000 most common words in
- inductive (i.e. long-winded) spoken English are cognates. They’re easily guessable,
- elicited (feeding off the stronger students while praying especially in written form. The main problems with these
for the weakest), and cognates for learners are pronunciation and spelling
- mother-tongue proof (a myth as they all translate anyway)! differences from the Portuguese equivalents. They aren’t
brand new difficult words, there’s no concept problem:
When teaching grammar, we currently use a blend of on the contrary, they are ‘friends’. We should celebrate
inductive and deductive. What’s obviously missing is how easy they can be and make them comprehensible and
When teaching
contrastive grammar, grammar,
which wewe avoid
currently use a the
because blend of inductive
myth availableandasdeductive. What’s
fast as possible.
obviously
is that missing
it means having is contrastive grammar,It which
to speak Portuguese. we avoid because the myth is that
doesn’t!
it means
Here’s having
an extract to speak
from Portuguese.
a simple lesson onItthe
doesn’t! Here’s
position of an extract
A nice taskfrom
is toagive
simple
each student a letter to go through a
lesson on the position of adjectives:
adjectives: list of the top 1000 or 2000 spoken words and find all the
recognizable cognates. Make a poster, mark the word stress
to help students pronounce them well, and you’ll have
hundreds of easily available words. Below is an example for
‘P’. Imagine how motivating this could be.

From the most frequent 2000 spoken words beginning


with ‘P’:
75 are recognizable cognates!

Source: English ID1 pack packet page pair panel paper pardon park part
particularly partly pass patient pension perfect perfectly
Source:directly
It speaks English ID1
to learners, shows them what to avoid performance period permanent permission person
from L1 transfer and what to say, without a word of personal personally phone physical pizza plan plant plastic
It speaksThey
Portuguese. directly to learners,
immediately getshows them what to avoid from
the message. plateL1 transfer
point policeand what politics
political to pop popular population
position positive possibility possible potato practice
say, without a word of Portuguese. They immediately get the message.
The notion that L1 should only be ‘a last resort’, implicit precisely prefer prepare prepared present presentation
president price primary principle priority prison private
The notion that L1 should only be ‘a last resort’, implicit probably
on teacher training courses and explicit on many teacher
on teacherproblem
trainingprocess
courses produce
and explicit on production
product
observation forms in Brazil, is bizarre. As I’ve shown above
many teacher observation forms in Brazil, is
we don’t have to speak Portuguese at all in order to make
bizarre. As I’ve shown above we don’t have to speak
professional programme progress project promise
goodPortuguese
use of it. at
Ofall in order
course, thetowell-meant
make goodintention
use of it. isOftocourse, the well-meant
property proportionintention
proposalispropose
to keep protect
them protection
keepinthem
English as far as
in English aspossible and prevent
far as possible floods floods
and prevent of Portuguese or ‘translation-itis’! Fine, but No
prove public
Portugueseoris ‘translation-itis’!
of Portuguese a very unsubtle, Fine,
bluntbut
instrument. It’s like trying to cut a watermelon with a hammer!
No Portuguese
is a very unsubtle, blunt instrument. It’s like trying to cut a Only 9 are false cognates!
past parent particular phrase pretend proper properly
L1 is any student’s starting point, their only existing linguistic
watermelon with a hammer! reference and mental ‘hook’. When
pull push
learners meet anything new or complex, their first and most natural instinct is to translate and ask for
L1 is any student’s starting point, their only existing
confirmation. So why deny this? Why continue to run against the wind? Why not cleverly embrace
linguistic reference and mental ‘hook’. When learners meet
it? If anything is a ‘natural approach’ to most
part-time English learning in Brazil, it would be this.
Source: The Longman Communication 3000
anything new or complex, their first and natural
instinct is to translate and ask for confirmation. So why Yet when you mention ‘cognates’, what usually comes to
denyI’m notWhy
this? saying start using
continue to runPortuguese
against theactively
wind? Why yourself
not asteachers’
a teacher, not at
minds all. To
is ‘false me, L1 in
cognates’: theclass is Historically,
enemy!
primarily
cleverly embracea quick
it? If‘whispering’
anything is aactivity,
‘naturalto self, peertoor teacher,
approach’ seeking confirmation,
we’re obsessed about the dangers clarity,
of security
negative transfer, of
beforeEnglish
part-time taking learning
any unnecessary
in Brazil, risks. There’s
it would no need to dwell
be this. studentson misusing
it or startsupport,
overusing it, merely
assist, exit, fabric, library, molest,
accept it, move on and try to stay in English as far as possible. pretendJust
or as we always
actually, whenhave.
in the greater scheme of things
I’m not saying start using Portuguese actively yourself they are but drops in the ocean - actually! Only around 10%
as a teacher, not at all. To me, L1 in class is primarily of the most common cognates are false friends! That makes
Brazilian
a quick Lexical activity,
‘whispering’ Advantages to self, peer or teacher, 90% of them friends; so celebrate and build on them!
seeking confirmation, clarity, security before taking any
English isrisks.
unnecessary very There’s
similar tonoPortuguese,
need to dwell particularly lexically.
on it or start If looking
Start you don’t believe me
at cognates go and
– and teach in general – as
Portuguese
in Asia!it,Any
overusing Romance
merely accept language
it, move on speaker hastohuge
and try stay advantages
in a deepaswell
aboutof 58%
‘gifts’oftoEnglish words
draw from, are resource upon
a rich
Latin-based.
English We haveJust
as far as possible. so much
as wein common:
always have.word / sentencewhichformation,
to build,suffixes,
not an phrases,
occasional happy accident. Ask
expressions, metaphors. Nearly half the 3000 most common words in spoken English are
cognates. They’re easily guessable, especially in written form. The main problems with these
New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 15
cognates for learners are pronunciation and spelling differences from the Portuguese equivalents.
They aren’t brand new difficult words, there’s no concept problem: on the contrary, they are
Source: The Longman Communication 3000

Yet when you mention ‘cognates’, what usually comes to teachers’ minds is ‘false cognates’: the
enemy! Historically, we’re obsessed about the dangers of negative transfer, of students misusing by Paul Seligson
Cover Topic
support, assist, exit, fabric, library, molest, pretend or actually, when in the greater scheme of things
they are but drops in the ocean - actually! Only around 10% of the most common cognates are false
friends! That makes 90% of them friends; so celebrate and build on them!

Start looking at cognates – and Portuguese in general – as a deep well of ‘gifts’ to draw from, a rich
learners
resource to
uponcollect andnotbuild
which to build, posters
an occasional happy of Cool
the Ask
accident. Cognates
learners to collect and build
posters
they seeofaround
the Cool Cognates
them,they seethis.
like around them, like this. I love English. It’s a fantastic language. It has many
international words from other languages: taxi, airport,
hotel, music, etc. About 60% of English comes from Latin.

This is not a pedagogical decision but a commercial one,


disadvantaging our students in order to sell the book in
as many countries as possible. We’ve been systematically
hiding what’s easy for Brazilians for years, simply because
it’s difficult elsewhere. Cognates are perhaps our learner’s
If we help them mark the stress and cross out the silent letters too, as I have here for British biggest advantage and we should make systematic use of
If we help them
pronunciation, it’s an mark the stress
entirely student-built and resource.
motivating cross Imagine
out the silentlearners taking
intermediate
the PET exam,as afterI building
them to accelerate learning.
letters too, have and seeingfor
here this poster in class
British all year. When asked init’s
pronunciation, the interview to
describe a friend, they could easily reply: Well, she’s an elegant, pragmatic artist, but occasionally
an she
entirely student-built motivating resource. Imagine
can be an arrogant masochist! The interviewer would be amazed! CAE-level at least! The minute students realize -mente is -ly, they can
intermediate learners taking the PET exam, after building
learners immediately produce lots of very common words: basically,
andYou may laugh,
seeing thisbut poster
why not? The
in only
classthingall
stopping
year.thisWhen
is us, by asked
refusing toin help
the build
quick easy bridges between English and Portuguese. We choose to follow international ‘sterilized’ normally, really, usually, totally and all the other adverbs
interview to describe
courses where cognates haveabeen friend,
removedthey could
because they areeasily reply:
too difficult Well, language
for non-Romance
speakers. This is actively disadvantaging our students, hindering rather she
than helping in the ‘P’ poster above. It’s a great leap, so, why don’t we
them recognize,
she’s an elegant, pragmatic artist, but occasionally can be
learn and use more words more quickly. spell this out to them sooner? Let’s get really systematic,
an arrogant masochist! The interviewer would be amazed!
like this.
CAE-level at least!

You may laugh, but why not? The only thing stopping this The most common suffix-based cognates in spoken English
is us, by refusing to help learners build quick easy bridges
between English and Portuguese. We choose to follow
international ‘sterilized’ courses where cognates have been
removed because they are too difficult for non-Romance
language speakers. This is actively disadvantaging our
students, hindering rather than helping them recognize,
learn and use more words more quickly.

What do I mean by ‘sterilized’? Imagine you’re a Brazilian


real Beginner. Read these texts from the fifth lesson of
English ID Starter, and underline all the words you can’t
What do I mean by ‘sterilized’? Imagine you’re a Brazilian real Beginner. Read these texts from the
understand from context.
fifth lesson of English ID Starter, and underline all the words you can’t understand from context.

Source: ID Starter
You probably only underlined about, its, there’s, word, anything, can – all of which are easily
guessable from context anyway. It’s incredibly motivating for learners to see how much they can
You probably
understand only underlined
because of Portuguese about,
– especially for our recycledits, there’s,
beginners, word,
who have spent half their are no Portuguese words here. I’m simply making use of what they
There alread
‘English
anything,lives’ re-learning
can – the allverb be and notare
of towhich much more!
easily guessable from There are no Portuguese words here. I’m simply making use
them to see patterns, feel good about their existing knowledge and be able to hel
context anyway. It’s incredibly motivating for learners to How of what they
These are authentic texts, with an authentic task, practicing the skill of recognizing cognates. themselves.
already know
The systematic to allow
visual word stressthem
systemtoused
seethroughout
patterns,this articl
see do
often how much
you do they
that with can understand
beginners? If the texts were forbecause of Portuguese
an international them
course, I’d have to edit outtogood
feel try to pronounce
about their correctly. Imagine
existing the powerand
knowledge of this
beonable
a classroom
to wa
half the words because fortheyour
aren’t recognizable,beginners,
being far too difficult
whoforhavenon-Romance
spentlanguage
– especially recycled
speakers. You’d end up with something thin and non-authentic, sterilized for students, like this:
welcome
help and it as an
guess adult
forlearner struggling
themselves. with
The English?
systematic visual word
half their ‘English lives’ re-learning the verb to be and not stress system used throughout this article also motivates
Imuch more!
love English. It’s a fantastic language. It has many international words from other languages: Atthem
the agetooftry
10 or
to 11 Brazilians learn
pronounce about Portuguese
correctly. Imagine the suffixes at school.
power of But w
taxi, airport, hotel, music, etc. About 60% of English comes from Latin. mention
this on theaword ‘suffix’ inwall.
classroom our teaching,
Wouldn’t much
youless really focus
welcome on them?
it as an Not u
levels, orlearner
above. Why not? Simply
withbecause they’re difficult for most non-Roman
These
This is notare authentic
a pedagogical texts,
decision but awith an authentic
commercial task, our
one, disadvantaging students in order adult
practicing to struggling English?
sell
thetheskill
book inof
as many countries as possible.
recognizing We’ve been
cognates. How systematically
often do hiding
youwhat’s
doeasy speakers.
for Again, we’re disadvantaging our Brazilian learners for the wrong reas
Brazilians for years, simply because it’s difficult elsewhere. Cognates are perhaps our learner’s
that with beginners? If the texts were for an international At the age of 10 or 11 Brazilians learn about Portuguese
Of course
suffixesthey’ll over-generalize and make mistakes, but so what? At least they’
biggest advantage and we should make systematic use of them to accelerate learning.
course, I’d have to edit out half the words because they at school. But when do we even mention the word
The minute students realize -mente is -ly, they can immediately produce lots of very common being
words: creative. Learners expressing something is nearly always better than sayin
aren’t recognizable, being far too difficult for non-Romance to ‘suffix’ in our teaching, much less really focus on them?
basically, normally, really, usually, totally and all the other adverbs in the ‘P’ poster above. It’s aget them going, comprehensible, confident, then begin to polish on an existing
language
great speakers.
leap, so, why You’d
don’t we spell this outend upsooner?
to them withLet’s
something thin and
get really systematic, Not until
forever
like this. Intermediate
start again. levels,
They’ll often makeor
lotsabove. Why not?
of fun mistakes Simply
too which we can all
non-authentic, sterilized for students, like this: because
from. I’d muchthey’re
prefer difficult
them to tryfor most
to say non-Romance
something language
for themselves than constantl
you say X in English?, wouldn’t you? Besides, which way leads to more Portugu
translation or imaginative creation? Which is more memorable?
16 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Returning to the tiny minority of false friends, if we systematically syllabus them
avoid these traps but also, much more importantly, to notice, appreciate and take
by Paul Seligson Cover Topic

speakers. Again, we’re disadvantaging our Brazilian ✓ In skills terms, as we’ve seen, they can read and
learners for the wrong reasons. comprehend quite a lot in context, short blogs, song lines,
e-mails, etc. Hallelujah! The problems come when they hear
Of course they’ll over-generalize and make mistakes, them spoken.
but so what? At least they’re thinking, trying, being
creative. Learners expressing something is nearly always Which is why what Brazilians most need help with is:
better than saying nothing. We need to get them going,
comprehensible, confident, then begin to polish on an • Learning to tolerate and comprehend fast connected
existing foundation, not forever start again. They’ll often speech.
make lots of fun mistakes too which we can all enjoy and • Pronunciation: breaking the habits which come from
learn from. I’d much prefer them to try to say something Portuguese and learning the few new sounds, word /
for themselves than constantly ask me How do you say X in sentence stress, reduction, intonation and spelling patterns
English?, wouldn’t you? Besides, which way leads to more of English.
Portuguese: direct translation or imaginative creation? • Fluency practice to build self-belief, and much less
Which is more memorable? concern with spoken accuracy. Fear of being wrong or
sounding silly often prevents learners from expressing
Returning to the tiny minority of false friends, if we anything like as much as they could.
systematically syllabus them, we help learners to avoid • Writing and spelling (which also links back to pronunciation).
these traps but also, much more importantly, to notice,
appreciate and take advantage of all the thousands of real Some questions to reflect on:
friends from a very early level.
1 Does your pedagogy embrace this and really focus on
Here are the only 15 false cognates in the top 1000 words each of your students’ main linguistic needs? Or do you still
of spoken English: prioritize accuracy, written forms, grammar?
2 Are you building on your learners’ existing linguistic
knowledge or teaching in spite of Portuguese?
actual actually argument eventually large lunch office 3 Do you try to keep English entirely separate from
parent particular pull push realize stupid tax turn Portuguese or help build associations between the two
languages in order to accelerate learning?
4 Do you follow an international syllabus or do you focus
Why not teach 8 of them in semester 1, the other 7 mainly on giving maximum help with the biggest problems
in semester 2, for example? And so on, drip-feeding listed above?
them sensibly (and sensitively!) across your teaching. 5 How often do you set listening homework? Virtually
every lesson, or do you still set mainly reading and writing
Other Portuguese speaker advantages: homework because it’s ‘in the book’?
What students most need is to spend time in the company
✓ Mainly similar grammar; subject-verb-object, etc. Yes, of spoken English, getting used to trying to decipher and
word order can be different, phrasal verbs are tricky, but make sense of it, noticing and getting real help with all
we do at least have articles, prepositions, etc. If you don’t aspects of the phonology of connected speech.
believe me, go and teach in Arabia or Asia. You’ll quickly
come running back thinking: ‘Thank God my students speak In the next issue, I’ll include more Brazil-friendly activities.
Portuguese!’ So why not teach accordingly? Enjoy your teaching: if you don’t, who will?

✓ Largely the same sounds. 13 of the 16 vowels sounds in


American English are easy for Brazilians, as are 19 of the
24 consonants. That makes 80% friends – so, celebrate!
Contrastive pronunciation is a wonderful tool, and again
doesn’t mean having to use Portuguese, just reflect and
build on it, then speak English. Having celebrated what’s
easy, focus and help learners to practice the 3 hard short
vowels: /ɪ/, /ʊ/ and /æ/ and the 5 tricky consonants: /Ɵ/, /ð/,
/l/, /ŋ/, /r/ and final /l/.

The author

Paul Seligson has been ‘TEFLing’ worldwide for 35 years, mainly in Latin America. His many Richmond publications
include Kids’ Web 1-5 and now English ID, a ground-breaking 4-level course in American English, the first ever
specifically written for (young) adult learners from a Romance language background. He lives in Brazil and Brighton!
Contact: paulseligson@gmail.com

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 17


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by José Roberto A. Igreja How do you say ... in English?

The sign painted on the back of the


school bus read “Do not tailgate”.
A placa pintada na traseira do ônibus
escolar dizia “mantenha distância”.

“A pick-up truck kept on tailgating my


car all the way to Boston”, said Justin
to his friends.
ANDAR COLADO (NA TRASEIRA “Uma picape veio colada na traseira
DE UM CARRO) do meu carro o caminho todo até
TAILGATE Boston”, disse Justin aos amigos.

Alguns motoristas imprudentes frente. O verbo que expressa esta It is dangerous to tailgate another vehicle.
(reckless drivers) insistem em andar ideia em inglês é to tailgate/tailgated/ É perigoso andar colado no veículo
colados na traseira do veículo à sua tailgated. Veja os exemplos abaixo: da frente.

CRECHE AUTODIDATA COLOCAR ALGUÉM A PAR DE


DAY CARE/DAY-CARE CENTER SELF-TAUGHT ALGUMA COISA
Rachel works full-time so she leaves her Doug is a self-taught musician. He FILL SOMEONE IN ON SOMETHING
three-year old at day care [ou at a day- learned how to play the guitar and the Thanks for filling me in on the
care center]. piano by himself. recent events!
Rachel trabalha em período integral Doug é músico autodidata. Ele aprendeu Obrigado por ter-me colocado a par
e, por isso, deixa o filho de três anos sozinho a tocar violão e piano. dos últimos acontecimentos.
na creche.
NASCER EM BERÇO DE OURO BAJULAR
BATER NA MESMA TECLA BE BORN WITH A SILVER SPOON IN BUTTER UP
HARP ON ONE´S MOUTH Shirley knows how to butter people up
I wish you would stop harping on the Dennis is really lucky. He was born with whenever she wants a favor from them.
same subject all the time. Don’t you a silver spoon in his mouth and will Shirley sabe como bajular as pessoas
have anything else to say? never have to worry about money in sempre que quer um favor delas.
Gostaria que você parasse de bater na his life.
mesma tecla o tempo todo. Você não Dennis é mesmo sortudo. Ele nasceu
tem mais nada para dizer? em berço de ouro e nunca vai ter que
se preocupar com dinheiro na vida.

O autor

José Roberto A. Igreja has a BA in English and Literature from PUC/SP. He is the author of Inglês Fluente em 30
Lições; Fale tudo em Inglês nos Negócios!; Como se diz em inglês?; How do you say ... in English?; Say it all in Brazilian
Portuguese!; Fale Tudo em Inglês!; Fale tudo em Inglês em Viagens! and Falsos Cognatos - Looks can be deceiving!. He´s
also the co-author of Fluent Business English; English for Job interviews!; Fale Inglês como um Americano; Phrasal Verbs
and American Idioms!, all published by Disal Editora. You can check out his blog at www.faletudoemingles.com.br

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 19


Variedades

❶ CABINE DE TRANSMISSÃO ▷ BROADCAST BOOTH ❺ CAMAROTE ▷ VIP BOX


❷ BANCO DE RESERVAS E ÁREA TÉCNICA ▷ SUBSTITUTES BENCH AND TECHNICAL AREA ❻ ANEL SUPERIOR ▷ UPPER TIER
❸ CÂMERA DE CAMPO ▷ SIDELINE CAMERAMAN, FIELD CAMERAMAN, ON-FIELD CAMERAMAN ❼ ANEL INFERIOR ▷ LOWER TIER
❹ REPÓRTER DE CAMPO ▷ SIDELINE REPORTER, FIELD REPORTER, ON-FIELD REPORTER ❽ TÚNEL DE ACESSO ÀS ARQUIBANCADAS ▷ STAND ACESS TUNNEL



❼ ❽

Glos sá r i o d e ter m os d e fu teb ol


estacionamento ▷ parking area
guichê ▷ ticket window

O cAMpO DE JOGO
TERMOS DE fUTEBOL
❶ arco de canto; marca de escanteio ▷ corner arc
❷ arco penal; meia‑lua [informal] ▷ penalty arc
❸ área de meta; pequena área ▷ goal area/box; six‑yard area/box [EUA]
❹ área penal; grande área ▷ penalty area/box; 18‑yard area/box [EUA]

O CAMPO DE JOGO O GOL E A BANDEIRA


❺ campo ▷ pitch; field [EUA]
❻ círculo central ▷ centre circle [RU]; center circle [EUA]

1) arco de canto; marca de escanteio > corner arc bandeira


❼ linha da grande área; linha de
da escanteio > corner
área penal ▷ penalty flag
area marking

2) arco penal; meia - lua [informal] > penalty arc pau


❽ linha de fundo da bandeira
▷ by‑line; end line
> flag post
❾ linha do gol; linha de meta ▷ goal line
3) área de meta; pequena área > goal area/box; six -yard area/box [eua] rede > net
❿ linha do meio‑campo ▷ halfway line
4) área penal; grande área > penalty area/box; 18 -yard area/box [eua]⓫ linha lateraltrave > goalpost; post
▷ sideline; touchline

5) campo > pitch; field [eua] travessão


⓬ marca central ▷ centre mark > [RU];
crossbar; bar[EUA]
center mark
6) círculo central > centre circle [ru]; center circle [eua] ⓭ marca do pênalti; marca penal ▷ penalty spot/mark

7) linha da grande área; linha da área penal: > penalty area marking ❺

8) linha de fundo > by - line; end line
❽ ❼ ❿
9) linha do gol; linha de meta > goal line
❾ ❷
10) linha do meio - campo > halfway line ⓭ ⓬
❸ ❻
11) linha lateral > sideline; touchline

13) marca central > centre mark [ru]; center mark [eua]

14) marca do pênalti; marca penal > penalty spot/mark

32

JOGADORES E POSIÇÕES DEfESA

POSIÇÕES BÁSICAS goleiro > goalkeeper; keeper; goalie [informal]


lateral direito avançado; ala direito > right wingback
atacante > forward; striker lateral direito recuado > right back; right fullback [ru]; right outside back [eua]
goleiro > goalkeeper lateral esquerdo avançado; ala esquerdo > left wingback
meio - campista > midfielder lateral esquerdo recuado > left back; left fullback [ru]; left outside back [eua]
zagueiro > defender líbero > sweeper; libero
zagueiro > center back; center fullback; stopper

20 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Variedades

MEIO - CAMPO ATAQUE


Meia atacante > attacking midfielder; offensive midfielder Atacante direito > right forward
Meia central > central midfielder Atacante esquerdo > left forward
Meia de contenção > holding midfielder Centroavante > centre - forward [ru]; center - forward [eua]
Meia direita > right midfielder; right half Primeiro atacante > first striker
Meia direita avançado; ponta direita > right winger; right wing Segundo atacante > second striker; secondary striker;
Meia esquerda > left midfielder; left half supporting striker
Meia esquerda avançado; ponta esquerda > left winger;
left wing
Meio - campo defensivo; volante; cabeça de área >
defensive midfielder

LANCES E JOGADAS
bicicleta > bicycle kick dividida > 50/50
cabeçada > header driblar um jogador > to dribble past a player; to juke a player [eua]
cabecear a bola > to head the ball drible > move; trick
carrinho > tackle fazer falta > to foul
chutar > to shoot; to kick fazer o giro > to turn; to swivel
chutar de bico > to toe the ball finalizar > to finish
chutar de primeira > to strike it first-time finta > feint; fake
chutar de trivela > to kick an out swerve fintar > to feint; to fake
chute > shot lance; jogada > play
corta - luz > dummy marcar um gol > to score
corte (drible) > cut matar a bola > to trap the ball
cruzamento > cross matar a bola no peito > to chest trap the ball
cruzar a bola > to cross the ball passar; dar um passe > to pass
dar carrinho > to tackle passe > pass
defender (bola ao gol) > to save receber falta > to be fouled
defesa (no gol) > save tocar por cima > to chip/flick/lob the ball

REGRAS E INFRAÇÕES
barreira > wall pé alto > high kick; high foot
bola na mão > ball to hand prorrogação; tempo extra > extra time; overtime [eua]
carga > charge regra do gol fora de casa > away goals rule
cobrança; tiro > kick tempo de acréscimo; acréscimo; acréscimos > added time;
cobrança de escanteio > corner kick injury time; stoppage time
cobrança de pênalti > penalty kick toque de mão > handball
cobrança lateral; arremesso lateral > throw - in
tiro de meta > goal kick
conduta/atitude antidesportiva > unsporting behavior/
conduct
falta > foul
impedimento > offside; offsides [eua]
má conduta > misconduct
mão na bola > hand to ball Veja PromoMag Página 02

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 21


HELBLING READERS
Livros com lindas ilustrações especialmente destinados a teenagers e young adults.
Histórias clássicas adaptadas e de ficção originais que dão grande prazer de leitura.
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Free download de um grande número de atividades e testes:
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RED SERIES: Starter, Beginner, Elementary


RED SERIES: Starter, Beginner, Elementary

S OS
TODO SÃO
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contêm atividades detalhadas de pré e pós-leitura.

BLUE SERIES: Pre-intermediate, Intermediate

S OS
TODO SÃO
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LIVRO HADOS
M PA N Série de 8 títulos divididos em 2 categorias: Classics, série de histórias clássicas de autores
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DE Á famosos escolhidas e adaptadas para agradar leitores adolescentes e jovens adultos; Fiction, livros
especialmente encomendados a autores premiados com histórias de interesse dos adolescentes.
Todos os livros da Blue Series contêm seções de reflexão no decorrer das histórias.

NÍVEIS
Os Helbling Readers estão cuidadosamente divididos em 5 níveis, seguindo critérios rígidos de estrutura, léxico e conteúdo:
Starter, Beginner, Elementary, Pre-Intermediate e Intermediate. Novas estruturas são apresentadas em cada nível e
o vocabulário é selecionado de acordo com o contexto em que aparecerão. O assunto de cada livro foi especialmente escolhido
para agradar a idade alvo. A classificação por níveis segue padrões internacionalmente reconhecidos.
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o intuito de promover a fluência desde a infância.
YOUNG READERS

S OS
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PA N
ACOM UDIO CD
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Cada nível tem seu próprio mascote, que cresce Atividades divertidas estimulam a comunicação e
em tamanho conforme o leitor se desenvolve. estão vinculadas a outras matérias curriculares.
Downloads Gratuitos:
DICIONÁRIO VISUAL LINGUAGEM WORKSHEETS:
Abas com dicionário visual, estruturas, A linguagem é apresentada tanto como grupos worksheets para cada livro
vocabulário e carta ao leitor. lexicais quanto como funções linguísticas. As
atividades geralmente estão vinculadas a outras TEACHER’S GUIDE:
INTEGRAÇÃO
matérias e permitem que os leitores interajam instruções de como usar os readers
Os livros da Disal Helbling Young Readers estão
relacionados a outros tópicos curriculares com a história. ANSWER KEYS:
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• jogos linguísticos interativos todos os livros em MP3
ESTRUTURAS • músicas de karaokê
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específico está assinalada como nova ou reciclada • ditados
de um nível anterior. • dicionário com atividades interativas de áudio

HELBLING READERS – uma exclusividade Disal Editora


Televendas: (11) 3226-3111 – E-mail: comercialdisal@disal.com.br
Para mais informações entre em contato com:
jorgecapelo@disaleditora.com.br / (11) 3226 3100
RECOMENDADA PARA PREPARAR SUS ALUMNOS
PARA EL VESTIBULAR
Por fin una gramática de referencia para aprender y practicar en 3. Los usos: explicaciones pragmáticas.
contexto que tiene en cuenta las variedades del español y que recoge 4. Ejercicios.
las dificultades de nuestros estudiantes. Combina en un solo volumen
teoría, práctica y ejercicios. La presentación de los contenidos se realiza a través de 250 muestras
Elaborada por un equipo de autores que trabajan desde hace años en de lengua auténticas, con una gran diversidad de géneros textuales
Brasil, presenta 60 temas de gramática de referencia y 2 apéndices (literarios, periodísticos, blogs, letras de canciones, anuncios, etc.).
de fonética y ortografía que siguen las normas y la terminología de la Dado que la comprensión de los textos no garantiza el aprendizaje
Nueva gramática de la RAE (2009) y del Diccionario panhispánico de de las estructuras lingüísticas y que una mala interpretación puede
dudas (2005). crear falsos amigos, tras la lectura, se proponen actividades de
Está destinada tanto al trabajo de aula como al autoaprendizaje. identificación y reflexión. Recoge ejemplos de las distintas variedades
Se dirige a estudiantes de español desde el nivel inicial (A1) hasta el del español.
avanzado (B2+). Ofrece una exposición clara de los contenidos mediante cuadros,
Los capítulos están organizados siguiendo la progresión general de esquemas y aclaraciones adicionales que facilitan la comprensión de
los cursos de español y tienen en cuenta los distintos estadios de los temas.
aprendizaje.
Proporciona 465 ejercicios graduados, variados y desafiadores en los
Cada uno de los 60 capítulos se organiza en cuatro pasos: que se siguen tres pasos:

1. En contexto: reconocimiento de las estructuras gramaticales a 1. Identifica: reconocimiento de las estructuras.


2. Practica: ejercicios controlados sobre las formas y los usos.
partir de textos auténticos.
3. Aplica: producción significativa utilizando en contexto los
2. Las formas: presentación esquemática de las estructuras.
contenidos aprendidos.

Para más información entreinformación


Para más en contactoentre
con:en contacto con:
Sara Ganimian Tcharkhetian
Sara Ganimian| Tcharkhetian
Apoio Pedagógico Espanhol Espanhol
| Apoio Pedagógico
apoioped.espanhol@disal.com.br | Fone: 11 3226-3102
apoioped.espanhol@disal.com.br | Fone: 11 3226-3102
by Jack Scholes Slang

ABBREVIATIONS
REF
JUIZ, ÁRBITRO (ESPORTIVO)

The ref was really bad and didn’t even


see the foul.
O juiz era muito ruim e nem sequer viu
a falta.

Ref é uma forma abreviada de referee LEGIT TO DISS/DIS (US)


(juiz, árbitro esportivo), muito usada LEGÍTIMO, LEGAL, HONESTO; NOS DESRESPEITAR; DESACATAR
quando se fala especialmente de futebol. CONFORMES
Don’t diss me, man!
MAYO I checked out his company and it’s legit. Não me desrespeite, cara!
MAIONESE Verifiquei a empresa dele, e ela é legítima.
To diss/dis significa falar ou se
Do you want mayo with your hot dog? Legit é a forma abreviada de legitimate, comportar de forma insolente, sem
Você quer maionese no cachorro-quente? legítimo. respeito, e é a forma abreviada do
verbo to disrespect, desrespeitar.
Mayo é uma abreviação informal de PEN (US)
mayonnaise. PENITENCIÁRIA, PRISÃO Outro termo relacionado: sassy (US)

TELLY (UK) He spent five years in the state pen. SARNIE (UK)
TELEVISÃO Ele passou cinco anos na penitenciária SANDUÍCHE; SANDUBA
estadual.
I’m going to watch a film on telly tonight. I’ve made a load of sarnies for the party.
Eu vou assistir um filme na telinha hoje Pen é a forma abreviada de penitentiary. Eu fiz um monte de sandubas para a festa.
à noite.
SARKY (UK) Outro termo relacionado: sub (US)
Telly é uma forma abreviada de television. SARCÁSTICO
DELI
UNDIES She was just being sarky. DELICATESSEN
ROUPA ÍNTIMA Ela estava apenas sendo sarcástica.
He went to the deli to buy some ham
I’ve got to wash my undies. Sarky é a forma abreviada de sarcastic. and cheese.
Eu preciso lavar a minha roupa íntima. Ele foi à delicatessen para comprar
TO DIVVY UP (US) presunto e queijo.
Undies é forma abreviada da palavra DIVIDIR, PARTILHAR; RACHAR
underwear, roupa de baixo, roupa íntima. Deli é justamente a forma abreviada
How are we going to divvy up the profits? de delicatessen, uma loja que vende
BICKIE (UK) Como é que vamos rachar os lucros? queijos, frios e outras iguarias, muitas
BISCOITO, BOLACHA vezes de outros países.
To divvy up é corruptela de to divide up.
Do you like choccy (chocolate) bickies?
Você gosta de biscoito de chocolate? Outro termo relacionado: to go halves

The author

Jack Scholes is the author of many books, including Slang – Gírias Atuais do Inglês, Modern Slang and Slang Activity
Book. He is also co-author with Jane Revell of Sucesso nos Exames. His most recent publications are Inglês Rápido and
Quick Brazilian Portuguese. All published by Disal Editora.
Email: jack@jackscholes.com

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 25


Escola em Destaque

Bem-vindo a Chapel SChool


Em 1947, a Chapel foi fundada por padres da Ordem dos escalada, uma quadra de esporte multiuso, quadra de tênis,
Oblatos de Maria Imaculada, com o objetivo de educar um auditório, também multiuso, com capacidade para
crianças de famílias católicas de língua inglesa. É uma escola 500 pessoas, uma sala de conferências, uma capela onde
internacional com cursos de Educação Infantil, Ensino são celebradas missas matinais, duas bibliotecas, uma
Fundamental e Ensino Médio. enfermaria, dois laboratórios de ciências, duas salas de
Aos alunos, apresenta-se a possibilidade da aquisição de três artes e uma de música e três playgrounds para diferentes
diplomas por meio da realização dos currículos americano, faixas etárias.
brasileiro e o Baccalaureate Internacional. A educação de A Chapel visa à formação do ser humano em sua
excelência, alinhada a valores cristãos, propicia a formação potencialidade. Além das necessidades acadêmicas, físicas,
integral dos educadores, capacitando-os a tomar decisões sociais e psicológicas, tem-se como objetivo nutrir a vida
conscientes, a arcar com responsabilidade por suas ações espiritual do corpo discente e docente. O ensino religioso é
e pelo bem-estar da comunidade. oferecido em todas as séries, tendo um currículo abrangente
O programa acadêmico é baseado em padrões internacionais que incorpora o estudo bíblico, valores, princípios morais e
de educação, o qual é constantemente monitorado e temas contemporâneos, éticos, sociais e ambientais.
avaliado, garantindo práticas educacionais desafiadoras,
atualizadas e reflexivas.
O uso de tecnologia faz parte do cotidiano de alunos e
professores. A escola contempla 44 salas de aulas com
lousas digitais, dois estúdios de artes, sendo um integrado Chapel School
ao meio ambiente, três laboratórios de informática e Rua Vigário João de Pontes, 537
multimídia, mais de 280 computadores e cerca de 60 iPads. Chácara Flora - CEP 04748-000
O campus tem conexões de rede sem fio de alta velocidade. São Paulo, SP - Brasil
Com uma infraestrutura moderna, a escola funciona num Tel: 55 (11) 2101-7400
campus espaçoso e esverdejante, com mais de 39.000 Fax: 55 (11) 5521-7763
m², e uma área construída superior a 13.000 m². Há um www.chapelschool.com
campo de futebol oficial, dois ginásios esportivos, muro de

26 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
by Carlos Gontow Dicas

MUDE SUA POSTURA


E APRENDA MAIS

NÃO DEIXE
PARA AMANHÃ
Nós temos a mania de adiar as coisas e deixar tudo
para amanhã. Eu também faço isso às vezes! Um artigo
que saiu na Folha de S. Paulo me fez pensar novamente
sobre isso.
Na matéria intitulada “Hoje, só amanhã”, Iara Biderman fala
Uma matéria que li na Folha de S. Paulo dizia que basta uma sobre a procrastinação, uma coisa “tão ruim que até o nome é
pessoa adotar uma atitude física expansiva para alterar o feio”. Segundo ela, procrastinar, ou deixar as coisas para depois,
próprio perfil hormonal e se tornar mais autoconfiante. é uma “ofensa que a pessoa faz a si mesma, mesmo sabendo que
Faça o teste. Coloque as mãos para alto. Estique-se bem. isso só a deixará mais vulnerável” e até mesmo angustiada.
Fique nessa posição por dois minutos. Ou fique em pé, Numa pesquisa feita, descobriu-se que 33% dos
com as pernas esticadas e as mãos na cintura. Estufe o profissionais brasileiros gastam duas horas da jornada sem
peito. Fique assim também por dois minutos. Segundo fazer nada de efetivo e 52% deixam atividades necessárias
a pesquisadora americana Amy Cuddy, professora da para a última hora.
Universidade Harvard, fazendo isso você pode ganhar mais Você é um procrastinador? Se você sabe que precisa
confiança e começar a se comportar como uma pessoa estudar, se tem vontade de aprender alguma coisa,
mais poderosa. Isso vai fazer com que você consiga se mas fica constantemente adiando, no fundo você está
impor mais. Essas poses comunicam poder aos outros, mas sempre angustiado por não estar estudando e por saber
tornam você mais poderoso de verdade, mudando os seus que ainda não sabe aquilo. O problema só cresce no seu
níveis hormonais, seu comportamento e até a sua maneira pensamento. Por que você faz isso com você mesmo?
de pensar. Interessante, não? Se você começar a estudar agora, mesmo que esteja bem no
Eu costumo dizer que você nunca deve dizer que algo não início, já vai aprendendo um pouco e vai começar a se sentir
funciona sem tentar antes. Quem sabe isso dê certo para melhor. E a cada pequeno passo para a frente a sensação de
você? Segundo a reportagem, foram feitos testes com sucesso vai aumentando. Você só tem a ganhar.
voluntários nos Estados Unidos e os resultados foram O artigo - muito bom - discute as razões de fazermos isso.
muito positivos. Citando Freud, ele fala em “autoboicote”. O medo do
Segundo Amy Cuddy, “Mudando sua postura, você prepara fracasso e o medo de não ser perfeito paralisa a ação. Ela
seus sistemas mentais e psicológicos para enfrentar desafios diz que a pessoa, “por motivos inconscientes, recua sempre
e situações estressantes e pode aumentar sua confiança e que está perto de uma situação de sucesso.”
melhorar seu desempenho”. Qual a solução? Parar de empurrar as coisas com a barriga
Isso pode melhorar o seu desempenho no aprendizado de e partir para a ação. Isso só depende de você.
qualquer coisa. Sentindo-se mais confiante e seguro, você Mãos à obra. Você chega lá, mas precisa começar. É um
consegue aprender muito mais. Sentindo-se mais poderoso, pequeno passo, mas sem ele você não vai a lugar nenhum.
você consegue enfrentar melhor os desafios e dificuldades
que aparecem pelo seu caminho.
Experimente fazer isso diariamente. Antes de começar a
estudar, faça uma dessas poses. Veja o que acontece depois.
Tente fazer isso vários dias seguidos e observe o resultado.
Começou a se sentir mais autoconfiante? Seu desempenho
melhorou? Você pode se surpreender.
Eu acho que não custa nada tentar! No mínimo é um bom
exercício de alongamento, tão importante de se fazer todos
os dias. E se ajudar no seu aprendizado, melhor ainda!

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 27


Livros

Book Review

JACK SCHOLES QUICK


Portuguese is a beautiful language! It is also the
fifth most spoken language in the world, with almost
200 million native speakers in Brazil alone. With QUICK 00
Over 1,0 yday
ever
BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE you will be able to understand common d 3,000
an
phrases words.

BRAZILIAN
and speak Portuguese very quickly and effectively. nt ial
esse
JACK SCHOLES

JACK SCHOLES
b b�
b b bPortuguese
ese is a beautiful language! It isThis practical, easy-to-use book covers all your basic . is a beautiful language! It is also the
audio CD
also the

QUICK
spoken language in the world,communication
with almost needs. Key features include: Withfifth most spoken language in the world, with almost
native speakers in Brazil alone. With QUICK 00 200 million native speakers in Brazil alone. With QUICK 00
Over 1,0 ay Over 1,0 ay

PORTUGUESE you will be able to understand commo
n everyd
over 1,000 common, everyday phrases and 3,000 BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE you will be able to understand commo
n everyd

BRAZILIAN
QUICK BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

00 00
and 3,0 and 3,0
Portuguese very quickly and effectively. phrases words. and speak Portuguese very quickly and effectively. phrases words.

PORTUGUESE
essential words; essential b b� essential b b�
ctical, easy-to-use book covers all your basic bbb . This practical, easy-to-use book covers all your basic bbb .
• io CD io CD

QUICK QUICK
useful words and phrases for specific everyday
With aud With aud

PORTUGUESE
tion needs. Key features include: communication needs. Key features include:
situations;
00 common, everyday phrases and 3,000 • over 1,000 common, everyday phrases and 3,000

BRAZILIAN BRAZILIAN
QUICK BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

QUICK BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE


words; • helpful tips about the Portuguese language and also essential words;
words and phrases for specificinformation
everyday about the Brazilian culture and way of life; • useful words and phrases for specific everyday
s;

ps about the Portuguese language and also
ion about the Brazilian culture and alphabet,
PORTUGUESE
appendices for quick reference: the Portuguese
way of life; numbers, days of the week, months, seasons

situations;
helpful tips about the Portuguese language and also
information about the Brazilian culture and way of life;
PORTUGUESE
of the year, countries and nationalities, and verbs in
es for quick reference: the Portuguese • appendices for quick reference: the Portuguese
, numbers, days of the week, months, seasons alphabet, numbers, days of the week, months, seasons
Portuguese;

Jack Scholes,,
ear, countries and nationalities, and verbs in of the year, countries and nationalities, and verbs in
se; • a mini dictionary – English-Portuguese and Portuguese- Portuguese;
English;
tionary – English-Portuguese and Portuguese- • a mini dictionary – English-Portuguese and Portuguese-

• an audio CD for you to listen to, repeat, practice and


CD for you to listen to, repeat, practice and •
English;
an audio CD for you to listen to, repeat, practice and
Disal Editora, 2014
perfect your Portuguese.
248 pages
our Portuguese. perfect your Portuguese.

JACK SCHOLES JACK SCHOLES


JACK SCHOLES

Quick Brazilian Portuguese is an excellent and timely aid of communicating (for example, the rules on hugging and
for those wishing to acquire at least a working knowledge kissing when people meet each other in Brazil); to how to
of this important but often overlooked language. Brazil fill in the spaces when you can’t think of a particular word;
welcomes increasing numbers of visitors for its sports, and information on popular festivities in the country.
its cultural events, for business, and of course for its
beaches and natural beauty. This is the book for the short- There is so much more that I like about the book, such
term visitor or for someone who wants to embark longer as the encouragement given to the language learner in
term on learning the fifth most widely spoken language in the Introduction, and the accompanying audio CD for key
the world. practice in pronunciation.

Materials for successful foreign language learning must There are appendices at the end that include two mini-
reflect the facts that language is used for communication, dictionaries (English-Portuguese and Portuguese-
that it is used in situations, and that it has a cultural English); information on the alphabet and numbers in
backbone. The author recognizes this in the two main Portuguese; and a practical review of key elements of the
sections of the book. There are the language functions of verb in Portuguese. This is not a superficial phrase book;
‘Useful everyday phrases’ (such as asking for directions/ there are, overall, over 1,000 common everyday phrases
giving personal information/ confirming and negating). and 3,000 essential words included in the book.

The second main part deals with ‘Common everyday This is a book that can be worked through linearly or
situations’ (such as hiring a car/ dealing with emergencies/ dipped into as the occasion arises, such as when you
at a snack bar) with ‘useful phrases’ and the corresponding are about to take a taxi or order a meal at a restaurant.
‘useful words’ arranged alphabetically. The key cultural Jack Scholes draws on 40 years in a career of language
dimension is also not neglected. Appearing throughout teaching and training, and materials writing, as well as a
the book there is a feature which I really like: the inserts background of more than 30 years’ living and working in
that are labeled ‘tips’. These tips provide sensible Brazil. How I wish that this book had been available when
guidance on everything from the paralinguistic elements I first arrived in Brazil!

The reviewer

William (Eddie) Edmundson. Teacher, trainer, manager with 40 years’ experience of English language teaching working
for the British Council in 5 countries in Latin America, including Brazil. He is a consultant and writer living in João
Pessoa, and co-author of A história da caça de baleias no Brasil [Disal Editora: forthcoming].

28 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Livros

Eu Recomendo

"Código ELE é um excelente curso de espanhol planejado para jovens de ensino


fundamental. Sou professor do Colégio Cecilia Meireles e procuro que as aulas de
espanhol sejam dinâmicas e permitam que a língua flua naturalmente. O material
Código ELE apresenta um suporte completo tanto para o professor quanto para
o aluno.

A aprendizagem que propõe o material é muito atrativo, e permite que o aluno


adquira o espanhol de maneira motivada e completa em todos os aspectos
linguísticos. Outro fator que o material leva em conta são os avanços tecnológicos
atuais posto que além de apresentar uma versão em papel apresenta outra
versão digital facilitando o processo de aprendizagem.

Cada nível esta dividido em seis unidades, com duas lições cada uma, além de
trabalhar em cada unidade os aspectos éticos que são precisos para a formação
de cada aluno, aprendendo os valores mais importantes para atuar em sociedade.

Trabalho com a editora Edelsa faz


um bom tempo e mais uma vez
Ariel Gustavo Acosta demonstra que os produtos são
de excelente qualidade por isso
Professor de Espanhol Ensino Fundamental II
Colégio Cecília Meireles que eu recomendo Código ELE
Rua Francisco Maricondi, 140 | São Carlos - SP como material fundamental para
www.ceciliameireles.com.br
cada professor.”

Sugestões da Disal

OFFICIAL TOEFL IBT TESTS PREPARACION AL DIPLOMA - REUSSIR LE DELF SCOLAIRE ET


DELE A2 - LIVRO + CD JUNIOR A1 - LIVRE + CD AUDIO
Editora: MC Graw Hill
Páginas: 500 Editora: Edelsa Editora: Didier
Autor: Monica Garcia-Vino Sanchez Autor: Marjotaine Dupay
Páginas: 164 Páginas: 128

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 29


Bilingual Education b y D r. R o y L y s t e r

THE ROLE OF PROFESSIONAL


DEVELOPMENT IN INTEGRATING
LANGUAGE ACROSS THE
IMMERSION CURRICULUM
Dr. Roy Lyster was an invited speaker at the BIC - Brazilian Immersion Conference for Educators from
1-2 May 2014, organized by Mr Lyle French at Escola Beit Yaacov in São Paulo.

Language immersion programs as we know them today equal exposure (50/50) across the curriculum. French
began in 1965 in the city I now call home - Montreal immersion programs spread quickly in the Montreal
- specifically in the suburb of St. Lambert. This was area, then across Canada and were modified in some
an “early immersion” program, which involved contexts to include alternative entry points and
English-speaking children taught exclusively through variable proportions of first and second language
the medium of French in kindergarten and Grade 1 instruction. Immersion programs have since been
and then mainly in French (except for two half-hour developed to teach various languages in a wide range
daily periods of English language arts) in Grades 2, of contexts around the world, including English
3, and 4, after which French and English were given immersion in Brazil.

30 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
b y D r. R o y L y s t e r Bilingual Education

Immersion is now defined as a form of bilingual education scholarly research and professional experience confirms
that aims for additive bilingualism by providing students that students connect more to a language through the
with a sheltered classroom environment in which they use of meaningful academic content than through more
receive at least half of their subject-matter instruction traditional methods of language study, the literature also
through the medium of a language that they are learning confirms that teachers who teach content through an
as a second or foreign - such as English in Brazil - or as additional language require considerable professional
a heritage, regional, or indigenous language. In addition, development to effectively do so.
immersion students receive some instruction through
the medium of a shared primary language, which This is why the Brazil Immersion Conference 2014 was
normally has majority status in the community, such as so vital - it provided timely professional development to
Portuguese in the context of Brazil. immersion teachers who face instructional challenges
on a daily basis. I was joined at the conference by two
Results of immersion program evaluations have shown U.S. colleagues - Dr. Myriam Met and Dr. Diane Tedick
that students develop subject-matter knowledge to - to address issues that include planning for language
the same extent as students studying the same subject development, cross-lingual pedagogy, oral interaction,
matter in their first language. This research has also corrective feedback, vocabulary development, and
repeatedly shown that immersion students develop first writing skills for biliteracy development. In my own talks,
language skills that are similar to or even better than I drew on the classroom-based research I have conducted
those of non-immersion students. Moreover, as would in Montreal over the past 20 years to investigate the
be expected, their skills in the immersion language far dual role that immersion teachers play as they juggle
exceed those of students who instead study the language both language and content. Three specific ways of
like other subjects during only one class period per day. counterbalancing language and content across the
immersion curriculum were elaborated: (a) integration
Specifically, immersion students are known to develop of a language focus in content areas, (b) teacher
high levels of comprehension and also confidence in collaboration across languages, and (c) scaffolding
using the immersion language. In terms of production techniques that support oral interaction.
abilities, immersion students have been shown to have
strong communicative abilities, but often with some With respect to content-and-language integration, I
shortcomings in terms of grammatical accuracy, lexical presented the instructional treatment and results of
variety, and sociolinguistic appropriateness. a study I conducted with Grade 5 French immersion
students (Lyster, 2004) to help them to learn how to
These shortcomings have been attributed to initial assign grammatical gender in French. Form-focused
conceptualizations of immersion pedagogy that instructional activities were embedded in their regular
underestimated the extent to which the immersion curriculum materials, which integrated language arts,
language needed to be attended to. That is, learning history, and science. A student workbook contained
an additional language through immersion was initially versions of texts found in the regular curriculum materials
thought to be primarily input driven, meaning that that had been enhanced to draw students’ attention to
exposure to the immersion language through subject- noun endings as predictors of grammatical gender. For
matter instruction was considered the main ingredient example, in the context of learning about the founding of
for language development. There is now a growing Quebec City in 17th-century New France, endings of target
consensus that, that while language and content may nouns were highlighted in bold and students were asked
be two sides of the same coin, they both require a great to fill in the missing definite or indefinite article before
deal of attention. Exactly how to effectively integrate each noun. The ensuing awareness activities required
language and content continues to be a challenge for students to detect the patterns by classifying the target
immersion teachers but also an exciting one that calls for nouns according to their endings and indicating whether
innovative instructional practices. Views on exactly what nouns with these endings were masculine or feminine.
immersion pedagogy is, therefore, continue to evolve.
Then for guided oral practice in attributing the right
Consequently, a common thread running through the gender marker to target nouns, a set of riddles was used
literature on immersion education is the important role to review the history content while eliciting target nouns
that professional development plays in its continued from students. For example, the riddle (provided in
success. The call for increased professional development French), “Samuel de Champlain established the first one
is urgent because many immersion teachers have been in New France in 1608,” was intended to elicit the noun
trained to teach either language or a non-language phrase une colonie but, to stay in the game, students
subject area, but not both, even though the success of needed to include the right gender-specific determiner.
immersion is considered contingent on the integration
of language and content. Thus, while a vast amount of With respect to the effectiveness of cross-lingual

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 31


Bilingual Education b y D r. R o y L y s t e r

pedagogy and teacher collaboration, I presented the in determining the quality of classroom interaction and
design and results of a recent classroom study by Lyster, its effects on student outcomes. Teacher talk includes
Quiroga, and Ballinger (2013). Conducted at the Grade 2 various questioning techniques and follow-up moves
level, this study entailed collaboration between partner that include corrective feedback. It is considered integral
teachers (i.e., French and English teachers of the same to the scaffolding that is so necessary in immersion
students) who used children’s literature as a means to because it provides learners with assistance to use the
enhance their students’ morphological awareness across immersion language in ways that they would be unable
languages (i.e., awareness of word formation involving to on their own. My workshop explored a range of oral
prefixes and suffixes). The teachers co-designed and scaffolding techniques, zeroing in on the different types
implemented biliteracy tasks associated with the of oral feedback identified by Lyster and Ranta (1997).
French and English editions of illustrated storybooks The goal was to highlight the practical implications for
that they read aloud in their respective French and teachers who still face the timeless questions of when,
English classes. At the conference, I reported on how what, and how to correct.
the storybooks were employed to highlight cross-lingual
connections between languages as well as on the effects References
of the biliteracy instruction on students’ awareness
of derivational morphology. Also highlighted were Lyster, R. (2004). Differential effects of prompts and
innovative ways to make use of children’s literature as recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in Second
a rich source of content that stimulates both student Language Acquisition, 26, 399-432.
motivation and language growth.
Lyster, R., Quiroga, J., & Ballinger, S. (2013). The effects
Finally, my research on classroom interaction and of biliteracy instruction on morphological awareness.
corrective feedback was covered in a workshop that I Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language
presented on this topic. I asked teachers to reflect on Education, 1 (2), 169-197.
their own language use in the classroom, and specifically
on what we call “teacher talk.” Teacher talk is vulnerable Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner
to criticism – simply because its quantity generally uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms.
exceeds student talk – yet continues to play a pivotal role Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 37-66.

The author

Roy Lyster is Professor of Second Language Education in the Department of Integrated Studies Education at McGill
University in Canada. He has a PhD in Applied Linguistics as well as a B.Ed. and M.Ed. from the University of Toronto,
and an MA from the Université de Paris VII. His research examines content-based second language instruction and the
effects of instructional interventions - such as teacher scaffolding and corrective feedback - designed to counterbalance
form-focused and content-based approaches. His research interests also include professional development and teacher
collaboration among language teachers for integrated language learning and biliteracy development. He is author
of Learning and Teaching Languages Through Content: A Counterbalanced Approach, published by Benjamins in 2007.

32 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
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Article by Augusta Rodrigues Alves

LEARNING FROM OUR


MISTAKES - PART 2
One of the lessons we can take from the different theories reviewing their work. They are, therefore, done after, and
of language learning and language acquisition is that, in not during, the task in which the mistakes were made.
order to correct their own mistakes, learners need to (a)
be focused on accuracy and (b) have time to analyze their Correcting mistakes should not be random, though. Which
own production and revise their work. This applies to all mistakes should we correct? What are our aims when we
aspects of the language, from spelling and punctuation to correct students’ mistakes? Before tackling mistakes we
grammar, lexis and discourse organization. need to ask ourselves a few questions.

One of the main reasons why we should address students’ 1. Have the students been exposed to that structure?
mistakes is that, if we don’t, they will keep, as it were, Correction only works if the learner has been previously
repeating and actually practising their own mistakes until exposed to that particular structure. For example, correcting
these are internalized, and therefore, fossilized. So it is a student’s incorrect use of an Advanced structure like
essential to organize tasks that focus on accuracy and allow inversion (e.g. ‘Never have I seen…) at Intermediate level is
time for students to review and process language. not likely to lead to learning and proper use of the structure
in future.
Difficult decisions: What and When
Correction is effective only if the learners realize they 2. Is the student ready to learn that particular aspect of the
have made a mistake. The activities discussed here aim language? The issues here are order of learning, readiness
at directing students’ attention to their mistakes and and state of interlanguage.

34 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
by Augusta Rodrigues Alves Article

3. How serious is the mistake? This may be difficult to provide the means and opportunities for them to do so.
establish, and the criteria may vary from teacher to teacher. As we have argued, noticing that a mistake has been made
Generally, we want to correct the following: is not enough. Students should be aware first of what
exactly is wrong, and then be able to correct the mistake.
• mistakes that impede communication; For example, if a learner misspells a word when using
• mistakes that reflect incorrect understanding of a the computer and the spell-check automatically corrects
grammar point we wish students to learn; it, the correct spelling has not been learned. If the spell-
• frequent and repeated mistakes; check underlines the word and the learner selects a correct
• mistakes that may lead to stigmatization of the speaker spelling from a list of alternatives, the chances are that the
or writer (e.g. pronunciation, very basic structures, L1 correct spelling will not be learned either. Learners should
interference). have enough time to notice the mistake, consider possible
alternatives and make an informed choice about the correct
4. Is the student under pressure to perform a task? If so, it form they should use.
may be useful to check if the same mistake occurs when the
student is not under pressure. Selective correction
Just as we want students to be focused, we too need to
5. To what level of accuracy does the student actually need focus on what types of mistakes we want our students
to speak or write? Do we want total accuracy? Do students to work on. For whole class activities we should work on
want total accuracy? This depends on how and when the mistakes that appear in many students’ work, and then give
student is going to use the language: to sit an international individual feedback on mistakes made by specific students.
exam, to present a paper in a conference, to go shopping in There are different ways we can tackle error correction in
New York, to chat on Facebook, to read technical manuals, class. Here are a few suggestions:
to participate in a business meeting, to make a professional
presentation, etc. 1. Make error correction an explicit task, ensuring that
students know what they are doing, why they are doing it,
6. Do students realize the effect their mistakes have on their and the benefit they will get from it.
audience? Is this a problem? Maybe not, for some of them,
but it might be worth discussing this issue in class. 2. The famous ‘marking codes’. There has been some
debate about the usefulness of marking codes. I have often
7. How are students going to react to correction? This is a seen students change an incorrect verb tense for another
sensitive issue that we should also bear in mind. incorrect verb tense, which shows that they clearly didn’t
know how to correct the mistake. If we use the codes
with some extra guidance, the results could be better.
How?
For example:
There are different ways to tackle error correction. Here are
some of the most commonly used methods.
Student writes: I really enjoy my holiday in the farm, it was
the first time I go horse-riding.
No correction - there is a place for this. Ignoring students’ Teacher marks: I really enjoyVT my holiday in the farm, it was
mistakes should be a conscious decision, based on careful the first time I goVT horse-riding.
assessment of the situation. Student re-writes: I really enjoying my holiday in the farm, it
was the first time I going horse-riding.
Peer-correction - In my opinion, peer correction is more Teacher tries again: I really enjoyingVT my holiday in the
useful to the learner who is correcting the errors than to the farm, it was the first time I goingVT horse-riding.
learner who has made the mistakes. It should be done on If the student does re-write the essay, they may still choose
specific areas where the learner who is doing the correction an incorrect verb form, because they don’t seem to realize
will be able to identify the mistakes, and it should be very well what is wrong with the verb tense. It might be more useful to
guided, using a form or grid to lead the peer-marker to notice add a comment to help them focus on what exactly is wrong:
what we expect them to look for. It’s unrealistic to expect a I really enjoyVT my holiday in the farm, it was the first time
learner to notice the same things that we teachers would. I goVT horse-riding.

Self-correction - When this happens, either prompted by When did you go?
the teacher or not, it implies that noticing and processing Was it in the past?
have taken place. Learners should therefore be allowed the
opportunity and time to self-correct when speaking and writing. If students submit their work by email, I like to use
the ‘Review’ function of Word to make comments and
Teacher correction - Students need help to identify and suggestions. It is time-consuming, but this enables students
correct their mistakes, and it is our job as teachers to really to improve their writing.

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 35


Article by Augusta Rodrigues Alves

3. Personalized feedback usually works better than 6. Specific activities that require students to focus on
generic marking, which just indicates the types of form and reflect on it in order to accomplish the task
mistakes. Make a brief comment on the content of (NOT mechanical exercises). An example of this type
the essay, or write an encouraging note on exercises of task is a ‘dictogloss’. There is another example of an
students submit. activity focusing on word families in Appendix 2.

4. Students can work in pairs on each other’s texts 7. Tasks, as in task-based learning (TBL). The main aim of
after the teacher has marked them - both students these tasks is communicative, but there is a stage when
work together on both texts. This is personalized, the focus is on form and on getting the meaning right.
because they’ll be working on their own texts, and it’s The emphasis on repetition of the task and on public
collaborative. It increases the chances that the mistakes performance makes students make an extra effort to get
will be properly identified and corrected, and, besides, not only the meaning, but also the form right.
it’s a real opportunity for them to see the effect their
writing has on others, and not just on the teacher. Appendix 1
Right or Wrong?
5. Personalize the tasks - use students’ own sentences
slightly changed (so no-one will identify themselves, Work with 2 partners. Some of the sentences below are
but they will realize it’s the type of mistake they all right, others are wrong. With your partners, decide which
make) and make it a competitive game. You can do sentences are right and which ones are not.
noughts and crosses, a competition to see who finds all
the mistakes in a text and correct them (you should tell You have to give 5, 10 or 15 points for each sentence:
them how many mistakes there are), etc. See appendix 1 • If you are 100% sure about your answer, give it 15 points
for another example. If you are going to leave more than
• If you are 75% sure about your answer, give it 10 points
one mistake in a sentence, let the students know. Give
• If you are not sure if it is right or wrong, give it 5 points
them M’n’Ms!

Check your answers with the teacher, correct the wrong sentences
and add your points. The group with the highest mark gets the MnMs!

36 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
by Augusta Rodrigues Alves Article

Appendix 2 Real
Word Families 1. This food is delicious, Ann is a ______________ good cook!
2. Is that a _____________ diamond??? You must be very rich!
As you know, words need to fit grammatically in a sentence. 3. The boy lives in a world of his own, he has no sense of
Choose the word category (adjective, verb, noun, adverb) _________________.
of the word happy to complete the sentences, and say why. 4. We need to be _______________ about the situation and
see what can be done.
1. The little boy was very ______________ because he had
a new toy. Friend
Word category: __________________ 1. Everyone likes him, he is very _________________.
Why? _______________________________________________ 2. I don’t want to talk to the new manager, he looks very
__________________.
2. What is the secret of _________________? Is it money,
3. One of the most important things in life is the true
power, or love?
___________________ we have.
Word category: __________________
4. I know I can trust him, he is a really good _______________.
Why? _______________________________________________
3. It was a lovely day and we were walking _______________
Live
along the road. 1. Bob has lived in many different places, he has a very
Word category: __________________ interesting ______________.
Why? _______________________________________________ 2. She is a lovely girl, very energetic and _______________ .
4. She is a _______________ girl, she’s always smiling. 3. The little bird looks so quiet, do you think it’s still
Word category: __________________ ________________?
Why? _______________________________________________ 4. The show was recorded ______________, not in a studio.
5. You look very _________________. Why are you crying?
Word category: __________________ Crime
Why? _______________________________________________ 1. The police have arrested a well-known __________________.
2. It is a _________________ offense to destroy public property.
Now complete the sentences with a word from the 3. The _________________ rate has increased a lot in big cities.
“family” of the given word. Sentences with an arrow 4. The level of ___________________ has increased recently.
( ) are more difficult!
Dead
Danger 1. The police wants to catch him ______________ or alive!
1. That part of town is very _________________, don’t go 2. Some countries still have _______________ penalty for
there at night. violent crimes.
2. She drives too fast. Actually, I think she drives 3. If a weapon can kill someone we say it’s a ______________
_____________________. weapon.
3. There is great _________________ that some animals will 4. There is no way out from this street, it’s a ____________-end.
become extinct. 5. We need to finish the report soon, the _________________
4. These animals are considered_________________species. is this Friday.

Easy Strong
1. This exercise is very ___________________. 1. I ________________ believe that all students should
2. Actually, it’s_______________ than the one we did last class. 2. I like my coffee really dark and ______________.
3. I can ________________ finish my homework before lunch. 3. Jack won because he is ________________ than all the
4. “Do you want to eat at home or go out?” “It doesn’t matter other competitors
to me, I’m ___________.” 4. He was very ill, but now he is recovering his
_______________.
Care 5. They are doing some work to _______________ the old
1. She drives very slowly and ___________________. bridge, it is too weak.
2. You need to be very _________________ if you are using a
sharp knife. Compare your answers with a partner and discuss why you
3. Take _______________! chose the words that you used.
4. Jim is so _____________________! He’s broken another glass!

The author

Augusta Rodrigues Alves (COTE, DELTA, MEd ELT) is an experienced EFL teacher. She has worked in Brazil, Scotland
and Macau, and now teaches privately in São Paulo. Her main interests are teacher training and materials development.

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 37


Article by Jane Godwin Coury

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Introduction on the situation, students may find this tricky. In some
Most students would like to achieve oral proficiency in cultures, interrupting someone at the wrong time could be
English to be able to communicate effectively in a wide considered disrespectful. In other cultures, silences may be
range of situations such as in the workplace, at conferences, seen as awkward and not golden. McCarthy (1991)1 states
when visiting a country or living abroad. Speaking and that ‘features of how turns are given and gained in English
consequently transmitting exactly what a learner wants to may prompt specific awareness training where necessary:
say is challenging in many respects. The obvious stumbling these include body language such as inhalation and head
blocks a student faces would be a lack of vocabulary for movement as a turn-seeking signal, eye contact, gesticulation,
specific situations, difficulties in pronunciation, stress and as well as linguistic phenomena such as a drop in pitch or use
intonation, speaking inaccurately and hesitantly, translating of grammatical tags’. Rarely do coursebooks address such
literally and responding inappropriately to what was matters and communicative activities practised in English
understood in a dialogue. However, have you ever thought in the classroom sometimes lose out on these all important
about other factors involved in communicating effectively features. If students have the opportunity to talk to people
such as turn taking, active listening and dealing with from other nationalities in real life situations, they may
unpredictability? In the following article, I will address these pick up on these subtleties and learn so-to-speak “on the
perhaps hidden aspects and suggest two activities that can job” by observing and adapting to the situation. Watching
be used to help learners speak more confidently. films, soap operas and TV programmes from different
countries and analysing these features can be useful to
Turn taking teach students that there is more to conversation than
In order for effective communication to take place, the meets the eye. For example, in the British film “Secrets and
process of turn taking is essential whereby the people Lies” (1996) directed by Mike Leigh, the last scene shows a
in a conversation decide who is to speak next. Cultural mother and her 2 daughters in a garden. Very little is said
factors and subtle cues such as body language and and silence prevails, but the characters feel comfortable in
certain expressions often come into play and depending each other´s company sipping their tea in the sun. These

38 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
by Jane Godwin Coury Article

silences in a conversation may be considered unusual for about Active Listening, have a look at the following link:
some cultures and giving the students the opportunity to www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/ActiveListening.htm
watch and discuss these kinds of scenes may be an eye
opener for them. Dealing with unpredictability

Language in turn taking Another hidden aspect that is part of real life and not often
tackled in coursebooks is coping with unpredictability.
What can be taught perhaps more transparently in the Language functions such as requests, apologies, complaints
classroom are certain expressions that can be used to show and offers are often taught in terms of chunks of language,
someone is listening to the speaker or showing interest for example “Could you give me some information, please?”,
by asking questions. For example, by saying “Really!”, “I am sorry about that” or “I would like to complain about...”.
“Wow! That´s amazing” or “What happened next?” will Bygate (1987)2 calls this kind of functional language
almost surely guarantee the conversation does not dry ‘information routines’ which are ‘viewed as commonly
up. Other strategies of indicating when someone is about recurring ways of presenting information’. An example of an
to start or finish speaking are telltale signs of turntaking information routine would be:
such as announcing “Did I tell you about the time...?” or
ending by saying “Finally,.....”. Moreover, learning certain Customer: Good morning
phrases and semantic precision in English (rather than Shop assistant: Good morning
literal translations) to talk about a topic such as work or Customer: Could I have a loaf of bread, please?
education can make the speaker more confident when Shop assistant: Of course. That will be £2.05, please.
talking to a native English speaker. Appropriate vocabulary Customer: Here you are (gives the money)
such as “I had to do a lot of interviews and I was shortlisted Shop assistant: Thank you
to 6 candidates” or “I did work experience at a company” Customer: Goodbye.
can act as a springboard to develop the conversation with
the listener. The two people engaged in the conversation However, if the shop assistant suddenly says “Have you got
know that “shortlisted” and “work experience” are the the 5p?”, this could potentially throw the customer and he/
correct words in English so the speaker has most probably she would have to deal with the situation. Students need to
gained immediate respect from the listener giving him/her be able to have the tools to cope with unknown situations
confidence to continue. In the case of a Portuguese speaker, such as this one and not simply rote learn useful phrases
if he/she had said “pre-selected” for shortlisted (translating and expect conversations like the above to take place in
pré-seleccionado) or “stage” for work experience (translating shops. Therefore, challenging them in the classroom with
estágio), communication would almost certainly be hindered unexpected phrases in a ‘ready made’ role play from a
and the listener may misunderstand or turn off early on in coursebook may prepare them better for real life effective
the conversation. communication. In fact, I remember myself being caught
out in a supermarket in the USA once. I was at the cashdesk
Active listening unloading my food and drink on the conveyor belt and the
cashier said to me “paper or plastic?” For a moment I was
In order for two or more people to be able to hold a flummoxed and unable to respond. I thought she was asking
conversation, speaking and listening must take place, if I wanted to pay by cash (paper) or credit card (plastic). In
otherwise it would be a monologue. Active listening is fact, she was asking me if I wanted a paper or plastic bag! I
a communication technique that requires the listener to might add I am British!
pay attention to what the speaker is saying and feed back
what they hear to the speaker by re-stating or paraphrasing Conclusion
what they have heard in their own words. This is not only
excellent for students to learn so that better communication In this article, my aim was to make English teachers aware
can take place, but it also teaches them the skill of of what some hidden features involved in communication
paraphrasing using synonyms and thereby increasing their are: turn taking; cultural differences; active listening; coping
repertoire of vocabulary. Active listening requires paying with unpredictability and teaching students useful phrases.
attention to what the speaker is really saying and putting There are also many other aspects to consider (apart from
your thoughts on hold, showing the person you are really the obvious ones mentioned in the introduction) such as:
listening to them by engaging eye contact, nodding, smiling respecting the students´ strongest multiple intelligences -
and asking questions. It also requires not interrupting and i.e. interpersonal or intrapersonal; students´ anxiety and
defering judgement until the end of what the speaker has inhibitions, and learner styles, among many others.
said. In my opinion, this is an extremely important aspect
of effective communication which should be taught in the
1
McCarthy, Michael. (1991) Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
classroom. By doing problem solving tasks such as those 2
Bygate, M. (1987) Speaking, Oxford: Oxford University Press
found in the Cambridge mainsuite oral examinations,
students can practise turn taking and also the language that Below are two activities which practise turn taking and
is inevitably suitable, such as “What is your opinion on this active listening. These activities and others can be found in
matter?”, “So, what you really mean is...” and “In my point Exercícios para falar melhor em Inglês by Jane Godwin
of view, I would say...”. If you are interested in learning more Coury published by Disal Editora.

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 39


Article by Jane Godwin Coury
Threshold

B1

⑧ MILESTONES IN MY
• LIFE CYCLE • MILESTONES IN MY EDUCATION/CAREER
EDUCATION/CAREER
• AIM: to encourage students to talk about their lives. • AIM: To make
A PARTIR DE students
B1 feel confident when talking about
To teach students how to respond appropriately to what their education and career using appropriate collocations
their partner is saying. and vocabulary.
D     e escreva algumas datas
marcantes na sua educação e carreira. Peça aos alunos para
Give a copy of the lifecycle and the useful vocabulary (below) Draw alheline on perguntas
fazerem the board and
sobre write
o que somenesses
aconteceu datesanos.(below),
to each student. Explain that the numbers around the which Por
were milestones
exemplo: in your
What happened education
in 1992? Resposta:and career. Get
I graduated
lifecycle correspond to each individual student’s ages. Ask students
fromto ask youI got
university. questions
a degree inabout
Languageswhat
andhappened in these
then I got a job.
students to get into pairs. Student A (teller) should tell his/ years. Os
Ask students
alunos desenham,to então,
draw uma a similar line and datas
linha e adicionam add dates
her experiences of particular ages to student B (listener) relevant to their
relevantes lives.
de suas Give
vidas. Emeach
pares, student the Milestones
tendo em mãos o Miles- in
using the vocabulary from the box while the listener my Education and
tones in my Career
Education worksheet.
and In pairs,
Career worksheet, they should
eles devem fazer ask
responds appropriately. E.g. Teller: Did I tell you about the each other questions
perguntas e usar as and
frasesuse therespostas.
em suas phrases in their answers.
time when I was 5 years old? I remember learning how to ride
a bike. Listener: No, tell me about it. Afterwards students
switch roles giving the chance to student B to tell his/her
experiences to student A.
⑦ LIFE CYCLE
1991 1992 1993
Afterwards
Threshold students form other pairs and tell their new
LIFECYCLE
partner what they remember about their previous partner.
B1 I graduated
LIFECYCLE from university.
⑦ LIFE CYCLE I got a degree in
A PARTIR DE B1
0 Languages and
5
D     e dê a cada aluno uma có- then I got a job.
pia de useful vocabulary. Explique que os números em volta
10

do lifecycle correspondem a diferentes idades. Os alunos se


dividem em pares. Um será o teller e o outro, o listener (veja
MILESTONES
Outros paresIN MYser
devem EDUCATION
formados e IN
⑧ MILESTONES cadaANDaluno CAREER
deve re-
MY EDUCATION/CAREER
tabela a seguir). O teller deverá, então, escolher uma idade em
WORKSHEET
15

contar o que lembra sobre o parceiro inicial.


particular e falar sobre suas experiências nessa época para
o listener. Ambos devem usar o vocabulário dado na tabela 30 MILESTONES IN MY EDUCATION/CAREER
trocando de papéis ao terminarem. Por exemplo: Teller — My earliest memory of school was...
20

did I tell you about the time when I was 5 years old and I fell off When I was at elementary school I remember + ing…
my bicycle. Listener — No, tell me about it. 25 When I went to high school, I felt…
35
30 I first started getting interested in … when I was … years old.
I spent … years studying for my university entrance exam.
Outros pares devem ser formados e cada aluno deve
I studied all kinds of subjects including…
recontar o que lembra sobre o parceiro inicial.
I got into university when I was … years old
I got/I am studying for a degree in (subject)…
USEFUL VOCABULARY
I did/I am doing work experience at (place)…
Teller Listener Our graduation ball was amazing/a disaster/interesting
because…
Did I tell you about the time No, tell me about it
when...? Really? My happiest memory of university was…
You’ll never guess what! I can’t believe it! You did 29 Afterwards, I did a Master’s/PhD in…
The funniest experience I’ve what? I got a job at (the place) in (the year).
ever had was… Wow! That’s amazing! I had to do a lot of interviews and I was short listed to
Then/After that.... It sounds really great/bad 6 candidates.
The best/worst part was… Yeah, then what happened? Luckily, I got a job as a (profession)
It was such a good laugh It must have been hilarious! Looking back, I think…
It was awful! God! What a nightmare!
What was really strange/ So, what did you do?
weird was… What happened in the end?
Finally....

28
The author

Jane Godwin Coury is from the UK and has been living and working as an English teacher and teacher trainer in Brazil
since 1994. She has also worked in the UK, France and the USA as an English teacher. She is a Cambridge examiner
and holds an M.A. in Applied Linguistics and TESOL from the University of Leicester. Jane is co-owner of THE FOUR
in São Carlos. 31

40 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Conjugar Verbos de
España y de América
Sustituye al “Conjugar es Fácil”
Existen muchos libros de verbos españoles,
pero ninguno ofrece estas particularidades:
1. Adaptado a la Nueva Gramática de la Lengua Española de la
Real Academia;
2. Adaptado a la Nueva Ortografía propuesta por la Asociación
de Academias de la Lengua Española;
3. Grabación audio de todas las tablas de verbos con sus
tiempos y modos;
4. Presenta también la conjugación con vos.

Todo un referente, indispensable en la biblioteca del


hispanohablante.

Secciones:

1. Gramática del verbo español: 29 páginas de presentación y


explicaciones de la conjugación: regular, irregular, participios, verbos
defectivos y cuadro sinóptico de formación y terminaciones verbales.
2. 82 tablas de verbos modelos de conjugación.
3. Una lista de más de 4.400 verbos por orden alfabético y acompañados
del nombre y del número de la tabla modelo que le corresponde.
4. Verbos hispanoamericanos con indicación de la zona de uso y la
explicación de su significado.
5. Más de 1500 verbos con su régimen preposicional y con ejemplos.
6. Verbos del lenguaje informático: una recopilación de más de 200 verbos
con un espacio para poder traducirlos en el idioma del usuario.
7. Andando por la calle: frases hechas y expresiones figuradas
corrientes de España y de Hispanoamérica.

Para más información entre en contacto con:


Para más información entre en contacto con:
Sara Ganimian Tcharkhetian | Apoio Pedagógico Espanhol
Sara Ganimian Tcharkhetian | Apoio Pedagógico Espanhol
apoioped.espanhol@disal.com.br | Fone: 11 3226-3102
apoioped.espanhol@disal.com.br | Fone: 11 3226-3102
Nuevas Rutas por Fernando Marín y Reyes Morales

LAS SIETE PREGUNTAS SOBRE UN MÉTODO


En su libro Introducción al aprendizaje y enseñanza de las acciones de comunicación, y para ello tiene que desarrollar
lenguas modernas, Keith Johnston propone siete preguntas tareas comunicativas realistas en las que aprende mediante
que conviene plantearse sobre cualquier método con el la acción, lo que a su vez requiere el aprendizaje de los
que uno se pueda topar. Con una refrescante claridad de exponentes de diversas funciones comunicativas, pero
ideas y sencillez en la expresión, Johnston resume en siete también el aprendizaje de elementos formales de gramática,
preguntas las diferencias entre los métodos, entre los estilos vocabulario, ortografía y pronunciación.
de enseñanza. En el presente artículo nos proponemos
contestar estas siete preguntas con referencia a la serie 2. «¿Cuáles son los fundamentos teóricos del método? En
VENTE de español como lengua extranjera. un mundo ideal, este se basaría tanto en una teoría de la
lengua como en una sobre el aprendizaje de las lenguas.
1. «¿Cuáles son la grandes ideas del método? Muchas Esto sucede raramente…».
están basadas en una pequeña cantidad de intuiciones
fundamentales, que sirven de guía e inspiración…». Resulta difícil hablar de una teoría de la lengua, una visión
de qué es la lengua, sin referirnos a la explicación que ofrece
Quizá la gran idea de VENTE es que es un método el Marco común europeo de referencia para las lenguas:
pensado para ayudar al profesor y al alumno, y no para aprendizaje, enseñanza, evaluación en su capítulo 2:
apoyar uno u otro enfoque metodológico. De ahí su «El uso de la lengua —que incluye el aprendizaje—
aparente eclecticismo. Evidentemente, el alumno necesita comprende las acciones que realizan las personas que,
desarrollar las competencias necesarias para llevar a cabo como individuos y como agentes sociales, desarrollan una

4 2 | Nu eva s Ru tas ® D is a l
por Fernando Marín y Reyes Morales Nuevas Rutas

serie de competencias, tanto generales como competencias Por otro lado, sería un error negar que es necesario
comunicativas, en particular...». desarrollar hábitos lingüísticos en un proceso de
Partiendo de esta descripción del uso de la lengua, los aprendizaje de una lengua. La repetición, el abordar los
autores de VENTE aportamos las reflexiones siguientes: mismos contenidos desde diferentes puntos de vista y la
práctica contribuyen a formar los hábitos necesarios, pero
• Un método debe aportar al alumno todo o casi todo lo siempre desde una actitud consciente y activa del usuario
que le hace falta, y nada o casi nada de lo que ya tiene el del método.
alumno. El conocimiento del mundo, muchas estrategias
de aprendizaje, la intuición para percibir patrones o 4. «¿El método tiene un enfoque deductivo o inductivo?
estructuras ya suelen estar en el bagaje de un alumno El aprendizaje deductivo es aquel en el que primero se le
adulto cuando aborda el aprendizaje del español, aunque da al alumno una regla. A continuación, se le ofrece una
sea principiante. demostración de las reglas con la práctica… En la secuencia
contraria, se dan primero los ejemplos y el alumno saca
• La lengua no existe aislada de sus hablantes, sino que conclusiones sobre las reglas por sí mismo. A menudo las
es un elemento de la cultura de las comunidades que reglas se proporcionan en una etapa posterior. A veces no
la hablan. En el caso del español, tenemos una lengua se proporcionan nunca… Esto es el aprendizaje inductivo».
con muchas variantes y diversas culturas. Por lo tanto,
pretendemos que el alumno de VENTE adquiera un perfil Según lo expuesto en el punto anterior, creemos en la
pluricultural suficientemente desarrollado. La cultura no se participación consciente del alumno. Creemos que si
limita a ser un trasfondo o un contexto para el aprendizaje se le pide a este que reflexione sobre unas muestras de
de contenidos formales. Es un objetivo formativo más. lengua auténtica y forme en su mente los rudimentos de
Al abordar la explicación del proceso de aprendizaje de una las reglas que explican el funcionamiento de la lengua,
lengua, los autores del Marco en el punto 6.2.2. tienen que el alumno recordará mucho mejor ese funcionamiento.
admitir que lo que ocurre dentro de la mente de la persona ¿Significa esto que no hay que proporcionar reglas formales
que aprende una lengua es el gran desconocido. Es la teoría al alumno? En absoluto. El usuario de VENTE se enfrenta
de la caja negra. primero a muestras de lengua en contexto y con el apoyo
Para algunos teóricos, la adquisición de una lengua se basa necesario (visual, de contenidos asimilados anteriormente,
en las competencias innatas en el ser humano. Este, al estar situacional, etc.) para facilitarle la comprensión. Se anima al
expuesto a una lengua, la adquiere de manera intuitiva, usuario a sacar conclusiones sobre el modelo, la estructura,
y no hay forma de comprender o explicar este proceso el paradigma, a partir de las muestras de lengua. Pero se le
desde fuera. Otros preconizan no la adquisición, sino el ofrece inmediatamente un brevísimo esbozo de las reglas en
aprendizaje, que es resultado de un estudio consciente y unos recuadros (titulados Para ayudarte). Este esbozo debe
organizado. Los autores de VENTE creemos en la necesidad confirmar lo que el usuario ha intuido, y esto le permite
de aportar una exposición a textos, tanto escritos como entrar en la fase de producción y práctica de inmediato y
orales, y una serie de actividades que faciliten el aprendizaje empezar a crear los hábitos lingüísticos que sustentan el
de contenidos formales. Pero también creemos que estas aprendizaje. Posteriormente, en la sección de Gramática se
actividades y textos deben estar enfocados al desarrollo ofrece información más detallada y práctica sistematizada
de destrezas y competencias, y la selección y organización para consolidar la competencia desarrollada.
de textos y actividades van encaminados a conseguir este
objetivo. Cierto es, por otra parte, que tras el alumno, el 5. «¿El método permite el uso de la lengua materna del
segundo protagonista en importancia del proceso de alumno en el aula?».
aprendizaje no es el autor del método, sino el profesor, que
es quien decide, en definitiva, cómo va a desarrollarse el No es el método, sino más bien el profesor quien debe decidir
proceso de enseñanza. sobre el uso de la lengua materna del alumno en el aula,
aunque solo sea por el hecho de que el profesor es quien
3. «¿Hasta qué punto se espera que intervenga la mente? conoce las circunstancias concretas del grupo de alumnos
En un extremo se halla el conductismo, en el que la mente de su clase. En un grupo con lenguas maternas distintas el
no juega ningún papel, y cualquier aprendizaje se entiende uso de la lengua materna es muy poco recomendable y a
como la formación de un hábito. Según el mentalismo, esto veces imposible porque el profesor no conoce esas lenguas.
no es así en absoluto...». En general, hay dos cosas que parecen innegables:

El aprendizaje no se basa enteramente en procesos mentales, 1. Como se ha dicho antes, conviene exponer al alumno a la
pero estos acortan considerablemente el proceso de lengua objeto de estudio, por lo que la lengua materna debe
aprendizaje. VENTE está dirigido a jóvenes adultos, que ya utilizarse lo mínimo posible.
tienen un bagaje de aprendizaje muy desarrollado, y sería 2. En el nivel principiante hay ocasiones en las que el uso
una pena desperdiciarlo. Creemos en la participación activa limitado de la lengua materna puede ahorrar mucho tiempo y
del alumno en su aprendizaje, y una actitud marcadamente esfuerzos al profesor. Naturalmente, la necesidad de utilizar
conductista restringe esa participación. Creemos que el alumno la lengua materna del alumno debe ir desapareciendo con
joven adulto prefiere comprender el porqué de las cosas. los sucesivos niveles.

Nuevas Rut as® Dis a l | 43


Nuevas Rutas por Fernando Marín y Reyes Morales

6. «¿A cuál de las cuatro destrezas se le da más relevancia actividad hace falta un exponente corto y sencillo en un
en el método?». nivel elemental, es perfectamente admisible la creación de
un texto adecuado por parte del autor.
VENTE es un método general que pretende ofrecer un
equilibrio entre las cuatro destrezas. El perfil de nuestro Podemos distinguir una escala de autenticidad en los textos
usuario es el de alguien que necesita aprender español empleados, de menos a más:
por muy diversos motivos, no es un método, por ejemplo
para turistas ni para trabajadores, lo que justificaría un a) Texto inventado y descontextualizado, mero exponente
tratamiento prioritario de las destrezas orales sobre las o ejemplo de un contenido. Ejemplo, el paradigma de la
escritas, o viceversa. conjugación de un tiempo verbal, una frase, un ejercicio
gramatical, etc.
7. «¿Cuánta importancia da el método a la autenticidad de
la lengua?… En algunos métodos se procura por todos los b) Texto breve, totalmente inventado, usado para ilustrar
medios que la lengua a la que se expone al alumno sea lo una función comunicativa o una estructura formal: un
más realista posible. En otros no se hace ningún esfuerzo breve intercambio oral, un cartel, un correo electrónico
en este sentido». breve, etc.

Este es un tema controvertido. ¿Qué hace que la lengua sea c) Texto semiauténtico: basándose en un texto auténtico
auténtica y realista? En principio, el hecho de que se haya que recoge un acto de comunicación que el autor
utilizado en un acto real de comunicación, y no se haya pretende utilizar, este lo adapta para que cumpla los
creado artificialmente con el único propósito de servir de requisitos necesarios: extensión, nivel de dificultad de
ejemplo a un contenido lingüístico o para realizar una tarea vocabulario, etc.
determinada. En este sentido, parece que la lengua real y
auténtica será más variada y más adecuada para exponer d) Texto totalmente auténtico, que el autor encuentra en
al alumno. Por el contrario, la lengua creada ad hoc corre un medio, en una publicación, en Internet, etc., y lo utiliza y
el riesgo de sonar artificial o falsa. Esta es la teoría, pero explota sin cambiarlo.
conviene ahondar más y recordar lo que ocurre en el
mundo real. Podemos decir con carácter general que los textos (a) no
deben constituir el grueso del input de un método en ningún
En realidad, el autor de un método rara vez parte de textos nivel, pero es inevitable que aparezcan en actividades, en el
reales para ver qué se puede hacer con ellos. Más bien metalenguaje, de forma auxiliar, y siempre en mayor medida
parte de un objetivo de aprendizaje y sabe qué clase de en los niveles A.
lengua es la que desea exponer a sus alumnos. Si quiere Por otra parte, los textos (b) serán frecuentes en los niveles
que esta sea lengua auténtica, tendrá que hacer el camino A como input, siendo mucho menos necesarios en los
a la inversa, es decir, buscar un texto en el que aparezcan niveles B. Los textos tipo (c) son muy frecuentes a partir de
los exponentes, las estructuras lingüísticas, los elementos final de A2 y B1, e incluso en B2. Los textos tipo (d) pueden
que desea utilizar. Esta tarea tiene mucho sentido si se trata empezar a encontrarse a partir de los niveles B, y suelen ser
de textos largos y completos, en los que el contexto queda la norma en los niveles C.
claro y se comprende cuál es el acto de comunicación y la
intención de los interlocutores. No obstante, si para una Madrid, 2014

Los autores del artículo son:

Fernando Marín
Catedrático de inglés de Escuelas Oficiales de Idiomas. Experiencia docente: desde 1979.
Traductor jurado de inglés (Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores) desde 1984. Experiencia en la docencia de la traducción
inglés-español desde 1986.
Coautor de series Ven, Nuevo Ven y Vente (ELE adultos), Los Trotamundos (ELE infantil) desde 1990, y otras
publicaciones en inglés.

Reyes Morales
Catedrática de inglés de Escuelas Oficiales de Idiomas. Experiencia docente: desde 1982. En la actualidad Jefe de
Departamento.
Experiencia en la docencia de español en USA y Gran Bretaña.
Coautora de los métodos de adultos de ELE: Ven (niveles 1 y 2), Nuevo Ven (niveles 1, 2 y 3), Vente (niveles 1, 2 y 3)
y del método infantil Los Trotamundos (niveles 1, 2 y 3). Colaboración en guías didácticas de libros de inglés.

4 4 | Nu eva s Ru t a s ® D is a l
Libro del alumno y Libro de ejercicios

VENTE pretende ser una herramienta cómoda y eficaz para


enseñar, aprender y disfrutar del español en el aula y on-line.

PUNTOS FUERTES Trabajo sistemático de la gramática con cuadros y ejercicios.

• Calidad de la secuencia didáctica para conseguir un CRITERIOS FUNDAMENTALES


aprendizaje real siguiendo “las tres P “: Presentación -
Práctica - Producción Está estructurado en 14 unidades para facilitarles la tarea a
• Facilidad de utilización y claridad en la organización de los los usuarios que necesiten trabajar el libro en dos semestres.
contenidos.
• Trabajo equilibrado de las competencias comunicativas. El nivel 1 cubre los contenidos de A1 y A2 definidos
• Muestras de lengua reales, variadas y asequibles. en los Niveles de referencia para el español y sigue las
• Progresión realista, contrastada en el aula. El ritmo no es ni recomendaciones del Marco común de referencia para las
muy lento ni muy rápido. lenguas: aprendizaje, enseñanza, evaluación.
• Equilibrio entre contenido y práctica.
• Consignas claras y sencillas.

Para másentre
Para más información información entre en
en contacto contacto con:
con:
Sara GanimianSara Ganimian Tcharkhetian
Tcharkhetian | Apoio Pedagógico
| Apoio Pedagógico Espanhol
Espanhol
apoioped.espanhol@disal.com.br
apoioped.espanhol@disal.com.br | Fone: 11| Fone: 11 3226-3102
3226-3102
Nouvelles Routes par Leonardo S. Bandeira

ÉteNdRe vos Routes


Savez-vous combien de pays de langue française seront Les pays représentés sont:
présents au Brésil pendant le mois de Juin?
- France
La Coupe du Monde de Football offre sans aucun doute des - Cameroun
différentes possibilités à toutes les sphères de la société - Côte-d›Ivoire
– soit-il aux grands entrepreneurs, aux fonctionnaires - Suisse
publics, aux petites entreprises ou même axu bars du coin.
Les villes-hôtes seront pleines, occupées et vibrantes. Nous pouvons également compter sur des visites de
touristes d›autres pays comme le Canada, la Belgique,
Un autre type de professionnel très demandé durant cette l’Haïti, le Mali, le Rwanda, le Sénégal, le Maroc, l›Algérie et
période est le professeur de langue. La capacité de bavarder 30 autres pays où le Français est une langue officielle et 56
avec des locuteurs natifs d’une manière informelle est un pays avec les communautés francophones.
grand encouragement pour les élèves de toutes les langues,
surtout ces qui n’ont pas souvent la possibilité de voyager Dans ce numéro, nous vous proposons de faire des
à l’étranger. activités sur les pays francophones qui seront à la Coupe
du Monde
Dans le cas de la langue française, une autre plage qui
s›ouvre est la perception de la francophonie. Nous verrons, Pour le niveau A1-A2.
en plus de la France, la Suisse, deux pays africains qui
seront sur le terrain avec vos sélections. Le grand public Effectuez une recherche sur les pays participants avec des
peut s’appercevoir que la langue française ne se limite pas informations trouvées dans les encyclopédies virtuelles.
à la France et l›Europe Utilisez des photographies et d’autres symboles culturels.

46 | No u ve lle s R o u te s ® D is a l
par Leonardo S. Bandeira Nouvelles Routes

Pour le niveau B1-B2. dresser un profil des auteurs certaine « neutralité ». Par ailleurs, si les anglophones se
francophones d’origine africaine ou coloniale. Quelles sont sentent parfois discriminés, officiellement au moins, le
les questions sur lesquelles ces auteurs écrivent ? Quelle bilinguisme est vivement encouragé et le Cameroun fait
est leur relation avec la langue française ? partie à la fois de la Francophonie et du Commonwealth.
Dans les villes, la jeunesse a également créé une forme
Parmi les auteurs francophones les plus connus au Brésil d›argot complexe appelé camfranglais (mélange
sont JMG Le Clézio, Marjane Satrapi, Romain Gary, Frantz de français, d’anglais, de locutions dialectales
Fanon, Aimé Césaire, Albert Camus... camerounaises et de verlan).
Nombre de locuteurs du français: On estime qu’environ
Vous pouvez utiliser le document complémentaire: 60 % de la population parle et comprend le français
www.mondesenvf.fr/ressources/ChezMoi/Fiche_synthese_ (donc environ 12 000 000 de personnes). À Douala, la
litterature_migrante_France.pdf capitale économique du pays, 99 % de la population parle
le français.
Activité A1-A2 Devise nationale: «Paix, travail, patrie»

LE CAMEROUN

Source: www.mondesenvf.fr/atelier_ecritures_Kidi_Bebey_
Cameroun.html

Activité B1-B2

KIDI BEBEY
BIOGRAPHIE
Capitale: Yaoundé
(Plus grande ville : Douala) Kidi Bebey est née à Paris, une ville qu’elle adore et dans
Nombre d’habitants: un peu plus de 20 000 000 laquelle elle se sent vraiment chez elle. Son père était
Langues: Plus de 200 langues sont parlées au Cameroun. On artiste, guitariste concertiste, compositeur et écrivain
peut citer l’ewondo, le douala, le bassa, le bakweri, le peul et sa et elle a grandi dans un milieu dominé par la musique et
variante le fulfulde, les langues bamiléké, le bulu ou le bamoun. l’ouverture aux cultures de tous horizons. Très attachée à
Cette situation d›éclatement linguistique extrême rend ses racines africaines, elle revendique volontiers sa culture
parfois la communication entre les différents groupes métisse qu’elle vit comme une chance et un enrichissement.
difficile, d›où le recours au pidgin English (proche de celui
du Nigeria), notamment pour les relations commerciales, Le français et le douala, ses deux langues maternelles, lui
mais surtout au français et à l›anglais, les deux langues semblent parfaitement complémentaires. Et les grandes
officielles, héritées d›une double colonisation. À la différence villes d’Afrique subsaharienne, Douala, Dakar, Cotonou ou
d›autres pays d›Afrique subsaharienne, il n›existe pas de Bamako, lui sont aussi familières que la capitale française.
langue régionale dominante et le recours au français (dans Un peu comme si elle était reliée par le nombril à son
une moindre mesure à l›anglais) permet de maintenir une continent d’origine…

No uvel l es Ro ut es® Dis a l | 47


Nouvelles Routes par Leonardo S. Bandeira

Pour Kidi Bebey, écrire est un besoin, une nécessité vitale. Amssétou qui fait un joli jeu de mots et de rythmes du Mali ;
Tout comme lire. En effet, elle a toujours eu un rapport
passionnel à la littérature. De même que l’écoute de Au Mali j’ai retrouvé
musiques du monde entier et de genres variés, la fiction Oh ma li, ma liberté
lui a appris la grandeur et la diversité des cultures, lui a Au Mali j’ai retrouvé
permis d’appréhender la complexité du monde… mais Oh ma li, ma liberté
aussi d’adoucir les bords coupants de la vie. [...] Aah Amssétou
L’âme, c’est tout
Elle a publié plusieurs ouvrages à destination des enfants, {Amssétou}
aussi bien des livres pour les plus petits (Un bébé, et moi {Amssétou}
alors ?) que des romans pour adolescents (la série policière
des Saï Saï) ou des albums documentaires (Modibo Keita, Cette année, entre 17 et 25 mars, le Brésil a célébré la
le premier président du Mali, Kwame Nkrumah, Il rêvait semaine de la Francophonie avec des films, des colloques
d’unir les Africains). Ses textes témoignent souvent de ses et des concerts par artistes de la langue française venant
engagements, aussi bien dans la lutte contre le sida, pour de l’Haïti, la France etc. Films acclamés comme Les
l’égalité entre les sexes ou la tolérance. Invasions Barbares ont été affichés. Les villes qui ont fait
la célébration étaient Brasilia, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro,
Source: www.mondesenvf.fr/atelier_ecritures_Kidi_Bebey.html Fortaleza, etc.

Mais pourquoi étudier la Francophonie? Étudier la Francophonie est de comprendre le rôle de la


langue française dans le monde et l’intégrer. Ce n’est pas de
La francophonie est l’ensemble des Etats utilisant le français diminuer le rôle de la France dans l’étude de la langue, mais
et se reconnaissant membres de cette communauté de de reconnaître sa valeur culturelle et sa mondialisation.
culture et d’histoire. Le terme «francophonie» a été inventé
en 1880 par un géographe français du nom de Onésime Des événements comme La Coupe Du Monde et la Semaine
Reclus, mais la definition la plus utilisée aujourd’hui de La Francophonie approchent étudiants d›interlocuteurs
est culturelle. possibles, donnent un sens à l›étude des langues. Nous
devons saisir!
Connaitre cet univers est d’élargir la prise de conscience
de l’élève à une sphère mondiale, multiculturelle et A coleção Mondes em VF publica livros de autores
multiraciale. La langue française ne doit pas être considéré de diferentes origens em língua francesa. São livros
comme snob, frou-frou, limité à l’univers parisien. originais, em sua versão integral, nivelados de
acordo com o nível de aprendizado e com diferentes
Que penser que la plupart des grands noms de la culture atividades propostas em seu site de apoio; o material
française ont des origines différentes? C’est le cas de Céline desta edição faz parte do romance ENFIN CHEZ MOI!
Dion, Albert Camus, Jacques Brel, Frantz Fanon (auteur de Disponível no site www.disal.com.br
Peau noire masques blancs, 1952).

Des nombreux artistes à succès en France affichent des


caractéristiques de la culture francophone dans leurs
chansons, c’est le cas de Mathieu Chedid, d’origine
libanaise, chanteur français et lauréat de nombreux prix
Victoires de la Musique. Voici un extrait de sa chanson

L'auteur:

Leonardo S. Bandeira

Libraire par vocation. Il est dans le marché du livre depuis 2006 ayant traversé plusieurs librairies. Diplômé en
Lettres / Français par l'Université Fédérale de Sergipe en 2010. À São Paulo, s'est spécialisé dans le domaine
administratif, avec un MBA chez Uninove. Depuis octobre 2013, il est Délégué Pédagogique FLE chez Disal. Il écrit
de temps en temps sur un blog; leonardobandeira.wordpress.com

48 | No u ve lle s R o u te s ® D is a l
Votre NouVelle méthode SaiSon 1 A1 A2
Grands adolescents et adultes SaiSon 2 A2 B1
SaiSon 3 B1
SaiSon 4 B2

Il est temps de communiquer !

Présentation de la méthode Saison lors du


XVe colloque pédagogique de l’Alliance Française
de São Paulo du 12 au 14 mars 2014.
www.didierfle.com/saison

à feuilleter sur le stand


/SaisonFLE
Actualités, astuces, compléments, partages !
Conte com a
Revista New Routes®:
Oportunidades Profissionais.

Um espaço dedicado para as escolas divulgarem suas


vagas para profissionais do mercado de idiomas.

Anuncie na próxima edição, entre em contato:


Departamento de Marketing DISAL
Fone (11) 3226-3100 / marketingdisal@disal.com.br
Eventos

São Paulo - Inglês


Data Horário Eventos Palestrantes
16/05 14h00 às 15h30 Cultura Inglesa - Teaching Unplugged Marcela Cintra
(in a technological era)
16/05 15h45 às 17h15 Cultura Inglesa - Videos in the Classroom: Rubens Heredia
Going beyond the Ordinary
23/05 14h00 às 15h30 Cambridge University Press - Reading in Luiz Rose
the Digital Age
23/05 15h45 às 17h15 Highlights - The Editorial Philosophy Peter-Michael Fäustle
Behind ”Highlights Magazine” 3 to 6 years
“High Five Magazine” 6 – 12 years
30/05 14h00 às 15h30 Disal Editora - Using videos and songs to Carlos Gontow
teach English - Part 1
30/05 15h45 às 17h15 Disal Editora - Using videos and songs to Carlos Gontow
teach English - Part 2
18/07 14h00 às 15h30 Caltabiano Idiomas - Teaching one-to-one: Bruna Caltabiano
advantages, expectations and challenges
18/07 15h45 às 17h15 Caltabiano Idiomas - Variety and fun in Higor Cavalcante
one-to-one lessons

Local: Disal Matriz - São Paulo - Av. Marginal Direita do Tietê, 800 - Jaguara

These events are part of Disal Reading Seminar


Good readers make good learners! Campaign 2014 and are free of charge.
22/07 09h00 às 10h00 Helbling - Boost your brain with readers! Jack Scholes
22/07 10h30 às 11h30 Helbling - The Magic of Reading! Nancy Lake
22/07 11h30 às 12h30 Disal / Helbling - Introducing E-Zone, Bruno Lancellotti
Helbling’s powerful - and free - LMS
(Learning Management System)

Local: Senac Consolação - Auditório Nobre - Térreo Address: Rua Dr. Vila Nova, 228
Centro - São Paulo - CEP: 01222-903

Inscrições: www.disal.com.br/eventos - eventos@disal.com.br - fone: 11 3226-3100

Apoio:

Eventos em outras localidades


Data Local Evento Informações e inscrições
01/05 a 02/05 São Paulo - SP BIC - Effective Pedagogy for www.beityaacov.com.br/bic
Our Immersion Students
16/05 Gôiania - GO Braz-TESOL Goiânia 2014 braztesol@braztesol.org.br
16/05 a 18/05 Campos do Jordão - SP Bain Linguistique: Les régions www.apfesp.org.br/_Site_Apfesp/
de France bain_linguistique.html
21/05 a 24/05 São Paulo - SP BETT 2014 - The learning www.brasil.bettshow.com
technology event
11/07 Londrina - PR Braz-TESOL Londrina braztesol@braztesol.org.br
Chapter 2014
18/07 a 19/07 Santiago - Chile IATEFL CHILE iateflchile@gmail.com
01/08 e 02/08 Porto Alegre - RS APIRS 25th Anniversary apirs@apirs.com.br
Conference & 20th Conference:
English Teaching Then & Now
22/08 a 31/08 São Paulo - SP Bienal Internacional do Livro www.bienaldolivrosp.com.br
de São Paulo

Para mais informações e atualizações dos eventos, acesse o site: www.disal.com.br/eventos


Para incluir seu evento nesta página, escreva para eventos@disal.com.br
New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 51
Activité

SitueR deS lieux


liSez et obSeRvez
1. J’aime beaucoup Madrid. 9. – Mulhouse, c’est au nord-ouest ?
2. La Provence, c’est la région que je préfère. – Non, au nord-est.
3. Le Maroc, c’est très beau au printemps. 10. En France, il y a des départements et des régions.
4. Au Maroc, il y a des choses très belles à voir. 11. En Iran, il peut faire très froid.
5. Le Jura ? C’est à l’est de la France. 12. Je vais en vacances en Champagne, j’ai une maison près
6. Cet été, je vais en Chine. de Reims.
7. J’habite à Besançon, dans le Doubs. 13. Je ne suis jamais allé à Cuba
8. Je suis allé à Marseille voir un match de football, super !

découvRez le foNctioNNemeNt de la laNgue Vrai Faux


1. Les noms de ville s’emploient sans article
2. Devant ouest et est on emploie à l’ parce qu’ils commencent par une voyelle
3. Devant sud et nord, on utilise au.
4. On met en devant tous les noms de pays.
5. On met en devant les noms de pays et de régions qui commencent par une
voyelle ou qui sont féminins.
6. On met en devant les noms de pays masculins.
7. Pour les départements et les régions au masculin, on peut utiliser dans le.
8. Pour certaines îles qui sont des pays, on utilise à.

exeRcez-vouS
1.Choisissez l’élément qui convient pour compléter ces 3. Complétez avec au – en – à – dans le – à l’
phrases.
1. C’est une histoire qui se passe ............... grand nord,
1. Je ne suis jamais allé au (Irlande / Japon) ........................ . ............... canada.
2. Je pars dimanche en (Hongrie / Vénézuela) ....................... . 2. ............... Corse, beaucoup de gens parlent corse.
3. Je l’ai rencontré en (Portugal / Espagne) .................... . 3. ............... Jura, il y a des stations de ski.
4. Porto, c’est au (Portugal / Algérie) ........................ . 4. ............... Québec, les gens parlent français.
5. Vous partez quando au (Chili / Anglaterre) 5. ............... est de la France il y a l’Allemagne, ...............
........................... ? sud-est, L’Italie.
6. J’ai vu une exposit merveilleuse ............... Florece.
2. Complétez ces phrases avec à – au – en .

1. Je pars ............... Allemagne.


2. Tu vas ...............Berlin ? Non, ............... Stuttgart.
3. Vous allez ............... Japon pour affaires ou pour visiter ?
4. C’est où Quito ? ............... Équateur ou ............... Bolivie ?
............... Équateur, bien sûr !
5. Tu connais le Vietnam ? Oui, je vais souvent ...............
Vietnam, ............... Hanoï.

52 | New Ro u t e s ® D is a l
Activities

SUPERLATIVE AND COMPARATIVE

OBJETIVO Uso do comparativo e superlativo


MATERIAL NECESSÁRIO Tabuleiro 6: Superlative and comparative, um peão por aluno,
um tabuleiro e um dado por grupo
NÚMERO DE PARTICIPANTES Grupos de 5 alunos
NÍVEL Básico e intermediário

INSTRUÇÕES:

• Divida a classe em grupos de 5 alunos.


• Dê um tabuleiro para cada grupo.
• O objetivo do jogo é usar os adjetivos do tabuleiro na forma comparativa ou superlativa.
• Os alunos deverão jogar o dado e andar o número de espaços indicados no dado.
• Ao chegar no espaço, deverão formar uma sentença ou fazer uma pergunta usando o adjetivo escrito no espaço e a forma
indicada pela cor do espaço (vermelho - comparativo, verde - superlativo).
• Se o aluno errar, perde o direito de jogar a vez seguinte.
• Ganha quem chegar ao FINISH primeiro.

OLD PRETTY SMALL


YOUNG HEAVY
SMART FAR

CHEAP NEAR
HEAVY SMART
COLD SAFE
FAR
HEAVY
INTELLIGENT PATIENT SPICY
FAR EXPENSIVE
NEAR DIFFICULT OLD
EASY DANGEROUS
FE TALL LIGHT
CHEAP DELICIOUS
NEAR PATIENT SPICY
CRAZY
TALL
SPICY OLD

CIOUS LONG LIGHT LONG FINISH CRAZY DARK


DANGEROUS
SAFE
LIGHT TALL CROWDED
SWEET
CRAZY SWEETDARK SAFE HOT
TALL DIRTY
CROWDED DARK
DARK HOT HAPPY
HOT
NEAR
DIRTY
HEALTHY COLD
DED
RK BIG
HOT CLOUDY
COLD BIG
CLEAN COMFORTABLE
CLOUDY DIRTY BORING
COLD
OMFORTABLE
START
SUPERLATIVE

SUPERLATIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE AND COMPARATIVE Veja PromoMag Página 06
DISAL EDITORA JOGOS PARA O ENSINO DE INGLÊS LOUISE EMMA POTTER E LIGIA LEDERMAN
COMPARATIVE
EDERMAN

New Ro ut es® Dis a l | 53


Para quem vai viajar para o exterior

Guias de
conversaç
ão
quem viaja para
para o
exterior e
quer se
comunicar
na
língua loca
l.

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