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RED BIALEMA - CYTED

COMBUSTION VS GASIFICACION: MICROGENERACIN Y ESCALA INDUSTRIAL

Electo Eduardo Silva Lora NEST/IEM/UNIFEI

UNIVERSIDAD FEDERAL DE ITAJUB UNIFEI BRASIL

Training of power plants operators

Training Qualification courses


Renewables

Power plants diagnostic

Biomass and Solar energy

Systems and process modeling

Gas microturbines
DG equipment

Thermodynamics and heat transfer Environment

Fuel Cells

Cogeneration and trigeneration

Pollutants control and sustainability

Stirling engines

PROCESS INTEGRATION H2 SYNGAS FOR SOFC BIOMASS GASIFICATION

BIOENERGY

ACTIVITIES

BIODIESEL AND SYNGAS IN GMT

BIOMASS STIRLING ENGINES

BIOFUELS LCA AND SUSTAINABILITY

ATIVIDADE NEST I
Combusto de biomassa: estudos experimentais e modelagem matemtica. . Gaseificao de biomassa com diferentes fluidos (ar e misturas oxignio/vapor): estudos experimentais e modelagem matemtica. Modelagem e avaliao termodinmica de sistemas de cogerao com diferentes combustveis e acionadores primrios. Diagnstico de sistemas trmicos.

ATIVIDADES NEST II
Desenvolvimento e teste de sistemas da gerao distribuda: clulas a combustvel e motores Stirling. Modelagem de sistemas avanados para a gerao de eletricidade em pequena escala a partir de biomassa. Modelagem e testes de sistemas trmicos de gerao de eletricidade acionados por energia solar.

ATIVIDADES NEST III


Modelagem e testes de um sistema hbrido solar/biomassa com acumulao de energia e microrede. Recuperao de energia em fornos industriais de produo de carvo vegetal utilizando sistemas EFGT e ORC. Integrao de processos em plantas de produo de biocombustveis. Testes de microturbinas a gs utilizando biocombustveis (biodiesel e etanol).

ATIVIDADES NEST IV
Anlise do ciclo de vida de diferentes rotas de produo de biocombustveis. Modelagem e avaliao de sistemas de refrigerao por absoro. Opes tecnolgicas para a gerao de eletricidade a partir do lixo urbano utilizando como ferramenta a anlise do ciclo de vida. Aspectos ambientais do uso da energia Modelagem de esquemas IGCC.

IN THE BOOKSTORES IN MAY 2011

BIOFUELS 36 authors from 7 countries 1100 pages

Chapter 1 Biofuels: fundamentals Chapter 2 In natura Biomass: combustion Chapter 3 - Biodiesel Chapter 4 Biogas Chapter 5 - Conventional Bioethanol Chapter 6 - Syngas Chapter 7 BTL (biomass to liquid) Chapter 8 Lignocellulosic ethanol Chapter 9 BioH2 and BioFC Chapter 10 Biofuels in IC Engines Chapter 11 - Biofuels in gas microturbines (MTG) Chapter 12 Residues stillage and glicerine Chapter 13 - Cogeneration Chapter 14 Planning and projects management in biofuels Chapter 15 Environmental Integrated Evaluation Chapter 16 The future of biofuels: Biorefinaries, algae and bioeletricity

II CONGRESO NACIONAL DE LA CAA DEAZCAR Y SUS DERIVADOS GUAYAQUIL, ECUADOR

La industria de azcar y alcohol en la era de los biocombustibles y la cogeneracin: un cambio de paradigmas

Electo Eduardo Silva Lora Jos Carlos Escobar Palacio Osvaldo Jos Venturini Mateus Henrique Rocha Maria Luiza Grillo Ren Oscar Almazan del Olmo

NEST/IEM/UNIFEI

The sugar-ethanol industry: yesterday, today and tomorrow

New issues and technologies in future ethanol agro-industry


Sugarcane new varieties & agrotechnics High sugar recovery in the mills Reduction of energy consumption in process Milling system alternatives Steam parameters increasing in the cogeneration plant New biofuels technologies: gasification, hydrolysis and yeast engineering for diesel production Vinasse and trash energy conversion Biodiesel from algae Materials and chemicals Process integration Biorefinery concept Industrial ecology: Integration to terrestrial geochemical cycles

COMBUSTION THE FIRST OF BIOMASS CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES

BIOMASS FURNACES TYPES

(Svanaes e Jungmeier, 2007).

BIOMASS POWER PLANT UCLA.

UCLA MAIN TECHNICAL PARAMETERS

NEW ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES BASED ON BIOMASS COMBUSTION

1) Organic Rankine Cycle(ORC)

2) Externally fired gas turbines (EFGT)


3) Steam engines

4)Radial Micro Steam turbines


5)Stirling Engines 6) Thermoelectric generators(TEGs)

COMMERCIAL PRICE 15000 dollars

TURBEC 100 BIOMASS PLANTS

Biomass power plant with steam engines

Piston steam engines

ALMOST THE SAME THING

Green steam engine

Screw engines

The male rotor, the female rotor, and a carcass form the operation camera, whose volume only depends on the angle of rotation of the rotors. The steam enters through the inlet door in the passage formed among the extremities of the rotor teeth. During the rotation the camera volume increase that allows the expansion of the steam reducing it internal energy. The steam leaves the motor through the exhaust door.

Power Generating System with 100kW Radial Steam Turbine

Esquema do acoplamento de uma fornalha a biomassa e de um motor Stirling.

AMAZON ENGINE NEST/UNIFEI

COMBUSTION + PRIME MOVER

GASIFICATION FOR FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

ELECTRICITY

BIOMASS

GASIFICATION

BIOFUELS

CH 1.44 O0.66 wH 2 O mO 2 3.76 mN 2 x1 H 2 x2 CO x3CO2 x4 H 2 O x5 CH 4 3.76 mN 2

Biomassa

CLEANING SYSTEM

PRIME MOVER
Calor

Gs sem tratamento Gaseificador Lavadores

Caldeira

Craqueamento Cataltico Craqueamento em leito cataltico Termo craqueamento Gs limpo

Turbina a gs MCI Motor Stirling Clula combustvel

Eletricidade

Cogerao lcool Metanol Gasolina Amnia Metano

Converso Reforma Sintese "Shift"

SINTESE

Gaseificadores alotrmicos Planta de Gussing, ustria

Gasification research at NEST/UNIFEI

Bubbling bed gasifier scheme

Bubbling bed gasifier


START-UP BURNER

SCREW FEEDER

Double stage downdraft gasifier at NEST/UNIFEI

Continous analyzers for carbon monoxyde CO, methane CH4 (BINOS 100) and hydrogen H2 (HYDROS 100) content measurement.

Tested engine Nominal power 10 Kwe. Achieved power during the tests with poor gas 6 kWe

Present activities of NEST/IEM/UNIFEI in the field of biomass gasification


Implementation of gasification procedures for synthesis gas production (O2 + Steam). Development of a small gasification unit for kinetic studies RDF gasification demonstration plant LCA and exergoeconomics of BTL biofuels (Biochemical and thermochemical routes).

Conversion efficiencies comparative for the four evaluated technologies


Conversion efficiency (%)
25 20 15 10 5 0 Steam Rankine Cycle Backpressure Turbine Steam Rankine Cycle Condensation Turbine ORC BG/ICE
Figure 4. Conversion efficiencies of evaluated conversion technologies.

Conversion technologies

Economic environment indicators.


Indicator
Electricity Price Biomass price Planning horizon Interest Rate time

Value
67-233 0-33 20 12 15

Unit
USD$/MWh USD$/t years % %

Minimum atractivity rate TMA

Plant operation per year

7425

Electricity generation cost for the different evaluated alternatives for an assai kernel cost of 5,5 USD$/t
Electricity generation cost (USD$/MW)
140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Steam Rankine Cycle Condensation Turbine Steam Rankine Cycle Backpressure Turbine ORC BG/ICE Electricity generation cost (USD$/MW)

CASOS DE ESTUDIO

MSW combustion and gasification

Genon et al., 2010

MUCHAS GRACIAS electo@unifei.edu.br

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